WorldWideScience

Sample records for sao francisco craton

  1. Thermal modeling and geomorphology of the south border of the Sao Francisco Craton: thermochronology by fission tracks in apatites;Modelagem termica e geomorfologia da borda sul do Craton do Sao Francisco: termocronologia por tracos de fissao em apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackspacher, Peter Christian [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de; Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geologia Regional; Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini [NUCLEARGEO, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2007-12-15

    Recent developments in Fission Track thermochronology associated to mesozoic-cenozoic erosion and tectonic presented trough thematic maps (isotemperature), permit to model the landscape evolution in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton, southeastern Brazil. Paleotemperature, obtained by fission track analysis in apatite, is closely related to geomorphologic interpretations. The area suffered a complex imprint of endogenous and exogenous processes resulting diversified and differentiated relieves. The landscape is strongly controlled by exhumation between Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, uplift with tectonic denudation related to crustal heating at the Upper Cretaceous and reactivation of faults until the Miocene. This scenario is a result of reactivations of different brittle structures that accommodate the deformation in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton. The landscape reflects denudations of up to 3 km with preserved remains of erosive surfaces in the topographical tops and chronocorrelates deposits in the basins of the region. (author)

  2. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on new SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 1: central-eastern border of Sao Francisco Craton in Bahia state, Brazil; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 1: limite centro-oriental do Craton Sao Francisco na Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio; Jost, Hardy [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luizcarlos@aneel.gov.br; Delgado, Inacio Medeiros; Arcanjo, Joao Batista; Melo, Roberto Campello de; Teixeira, Leo R.; Cardoso Filho, Joao Moraes; Pereira, Luiz Henrique Monteiro [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2002-12-15

    This paper discusses new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data for 12 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton. The samples represent mostly Archean basement units within the Paleoproterozoic Eastern Bahia Belt (Orogen). Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects trying to more accurately assess the areal distribution of the Archean polycyclic basement of the Sao Francisco Craton and to identify the limits of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic overprint resulting from the development of the Eastern Bahia Orogen. Owing to the polycyclic evolution and/or high grade metamorphic conditions which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. Except for one unit (sample LH 44), which present crystallization age of ca 3000 Ma - interpreted, therefore, as the eastern extension of the Serrinha Craton - the others are ascribed to two major age groups at ca. 2870-2500 Ma and ca. 2200?-2030 Ma. The former group includes ortho gneisses with crystallization ages between ca. 2870-2500 Ma, which have been mapped and interpreted, in its major extension, as juvenile Paleoproterozoic arc (Itabuna and Salvador-Curaca belts/domains). The new data presented in this study, however, indicate that these ortho gneisses represent a multi-episodic collage of primitive Archean orogenic arcs, which gave rise to the Archean basement of that part of the Sao Francisco Craton. All the investigated zircon populations were extensively recrystallized at ca. 2080-2050 Ma as a result of

  3. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 2: mineiro and Aracuai orogens and Southern Sao Francisco craton; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 2: orogeno Aracuai, cinturao mineiro e craton Sao Francisco Meridional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luizcarlos@aneel.gov.br; Leite, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Valter Salino; Silva, Marcio Antonio da; Paes, Vinicius Jose de Castro; Cardoso Filho, Joao Moraes [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Noce, Carlos Mauricio; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Manuel Teixeira da Costa; Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2002-12-15

    This paper discusses new zircon SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) U-Pb geochronological data for 19 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Southern Sao Francisco Craton and at the adjacent Proterozoic Mineiro and Aracuai orogens. Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects, aiming at tracing the precise limit of the Sao Francisco Craton Archean basement, as well as assessing the extension of the successive proterozoic orogenic collages. Due to the complex geologic history and/or high grade metamorphism which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high-grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. In the southeastern border of the craton 5 units yielded Archean crystallization ages ranging from ca. 3000-2700 Ma, with poorly constrained metamorphic ages ranging from ca. 2850 to 550 Ma. The TTG gneissic complex exposed to the east and south of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, formerly ascribed to the Archean basement, have crystallization ages from ca. 2210 Ma to 2050 Ma, and can now be interpreted as representing pre- to syn-collisional magmatic phases of the Mineiro Belt. Metamorphic ages of ca. 2100 Ma and 560 Ma are also well constrained in zircon populations from these gneisses. The crystallization age of ca 1740 Ma observed for an alkaline granite of the Borrachudos Suite (intrusive into the Archean basement east of the Southern Espinhaco Range) confirmed previous conventional U-Pb data for this Paleoproterozoic rift-related magmatism. One of the major basement inliers within the

  4. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail: silveira.carlosjose@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@propesq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br, E-mail: sig_duda@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vinimpeixoto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: waldemirqueiroz@hotmail.com [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  5. Behaviour of the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systems of the mafic-ultramafic layered sequence from Ribeirao dos Motas (Archaean), meridional craton Sao Francisco: evidences of mantle source enrichment and isotopic fractionation; Comportamento dos sistemas Sm-Nd e Rb-Sr da sequencia acamadada mafico-ultramafico Ribeirao dos Motas (Arqueano), craton Sao Francisco Meridional: evidencias de enriquecimento mantelico e fracionamento isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio; Carvalho Junior, Irneu Mendes de; Oliveira, Arildo Henrique de [Ouro Preto Univ., (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: mauricio@degeo.ufop.br; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia

    2004-10-15

    The Ribeirao dos Motas layered sequence (SARM) crops out in the southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil. This sequence comprises phaneritic meta ultramafic and metamafic rocks, which, although slightly deformed and metamorphosed, retain primary igneous layers. Porphyritic rocks with idiomorphic pyroxene crystals and heteradcumulate and adcumulate textures are also present. Eighteen isotopic analyses were performed in the SARM, comprising rocks with primary (relict) textures, as well as rocks in amphibolite facies and retro-metamorphosed to green-schist facies. Seven samples yield a Sm/Nd isochron age of 2.79 +- 0.30 Ga (MSWD=1.2 e epsilon {sub Ndt}=+0.48), constraining the accretion time of the SARM rocks. The positive epsilon {sub Ndt} value coupled with the Rb/Sr evidence is consistent with mantle source relatively enriched in Nd and Sr isotopes. Nevertheless, some SARM samples display isotopic fractionation and disturbance, which can be ascribed to the following processes or their combinations: a) mobilization of the incompatible elements due to regional high grade metamorphism; b) isotopic changes during upper amphibolite facies overprint; c) isotopic resetting by low-grade fluids associated to the Claudio Shear zone, which is located nearby the SARM. (author)

  6. Nd-Sr isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of the Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: implications for paleoproterozoic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern Sao Francisco craton, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail: wteixeir@usp.br; Avila, Ciro Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia]. E-mail: avila@mn.ufrj.br; Nunes, Luciana Cabral [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luciana@igc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked to Paleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton, central-eastern Brazil. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, and pyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks of the Forro peridotite - pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenoliths from the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fe granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite. It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K{sub 2}O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline tendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantly peraluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fe granitic gneiss is 2191 {+-} 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 {+-} 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fe and Lajedo plutons are consistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type), DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonic arc setting, while the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also in accordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortes greenstone belts. The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to those of nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 +- 2 Ma), Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 {+-} 2 Ma), Brumado

  7. U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar geochronology of granite-greenstone terrains of Gaviao Block: implications for the Proterozoic and Archean evolution of Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil; Geocronologia U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar dos terrenos granito-greenstone do Bloco do Gaviao: implicacoes para a evolucao arqueana e proterozoica do craton do Sao Francisco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos

    1998-07-01

    The Gaviao Block (GB) in the northern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton-Northeast of Brazil, constitutes one of the oldest Archean fragments of the South American Platform Archean crust. GB underwent several events of juvenile accretion and reworking of continental crust along its evolutionary history, notably between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic. {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotopic analyses were carried out in two zircons populations from strongly migmatized TTG terranes found in the proximity of Brumado: the first population (7 crystals) is taken as representative of the crystallization period of the TTG terranes at 3300 {+-} 45 Ma; the second (2 crystals) represents the age of the first even of metamorphism/migmatization at 2910 {+-} 10 Ma. {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb analyses in zircons from an outcrop of non-migmatized TTG in the area yielded a 3202 {+-} 15 Ma age (4 crystals), interpreted to be the crystallization period of the gneiss protolith. Sm/Nd analyses on the TTG rocks of the Brumado region yielded T{sub DM} model ages varying between 3.26 and 3.36 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup (t)} between -3.5 and +0.7. These data suggest the occurrence of juvenile accretions to the continental crust during the Archean, with differential involvement of crustal materials. The geochemical data of rare earth elements corresponding to the TTG terranes revealed moderate LRRE contents (La{sub N}=83,5), low HREE contents (La{sub N}=2,5) and a fairly fractionated pattern (La/Yb){sub N}=34, besides lack of negative Eu anomaly, showing that these rocks have similar compositions to those TTG terranes of cratonic continents, as well as some Archean rocks from CSF (e.g. Sete Voltas, Boa Vista). Finally, the youngest ages present in GB rocks (ca. 1.2-0.45 Ga) represent the role played by tectono thermal events, which produced partial or total rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr and K/Ar isotopic systems during the Espinhaco and Brasiliano cycles. In particular, K/Ar ages illustrate the

  8. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  9. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; Silva, Maria da Glória da; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Sá, José Haroldo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    p. 71 - 83 This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesiteetalc, ironetitaniumevanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the P...

  10. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  11. Application of INAA to provenance study of ceramics from Baixo Sao Francisco River, Sergipe, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.O. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Sergipe (CEFET-SE/UNED Lagarto), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)]. E-mail: josantos@ipen.br; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: camunita@ipen.br; rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Vergne, C. [Museu de Arqueologia de Xingo (MAX), SE (Brazil)]. E-mail: Max@ufs.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of the physical and chemical characteristics of crafts, in association with historical and archaeological research, has allowed for the reconstruction of ancient community habits. Archaeological studies include several techniques to reconstruct ancient cultures. Since ceramics represent a sophisticated merging of previously separate domains of human knowledge and experience, these objects are studied by means of archaeometric methods. In recent years an interdisciplinary research program was started between Museu Arqueologico de Xingo (MAX) and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to study the ancient ceramist cultures from Xingo region, located in Sergipe, Brazilian Northeast. Recent studies conducted in the area have showed the existence of an independent ceramist group without relation to the ceramist group well established in the Brazilian Northeast, Tupiguarani and Aratu. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, is a suitable technique for provenance studies. In this work the chemical composition of 103 samples: 30 clays and 73 ceramics from Barracao archaeological site, from Baixo Sao Francisco, were analyzed. This analysis allowed for the definition of compositional groups of ceramics according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste, which reveals the raw material composition used in the manufacturing process by prehistoric man. The outliers were identified by means robust Mahalanobis distance. The results were interpreted by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. The results obtained in this work, in association with archaeological information, allowed for the identification of the ceramic groups in relation to the ceramist occupations of the Xingo area. This work contributes for the reconstruction of the Baixo Sao Francisco region communities and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population. (author)

  12. Chronological study archaeological sites from Caninde do Sao Francisco, Sergipe state, Brazil, by thermo thermoluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Osman dos; Munita, Casimiro S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: josantos@ipen.br; Valerio, Mario E. Giroldo [Sergipe Univ., Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: mvalerio@fisica.ufs.br; Vergne, Maria C. de Souza [Sergipe Univ., Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologico de Xingo]. E-mail: cvergne@programa-xingo.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    The ceramic vestiges rescued in the archaeological excavations have been considered important sources of chronological information because they constitute direct fossil of certain cultural periods. The Thermoluminescence Method for dating of inorganic materials has made the determination of ancient ceramics ages possible with adequate precision and accuracy. The intensity of the thermoluminescence emission is proportional to the energy deposited in the crystals, present in the pottery, by means of natural radioisotope material irradiation (U, Th, K and Rb) and cosmic rays. With the objective of determining the chronological profile of archaeological sites from 'Xingo', situated in the Caninde do Sao Francisco city, Sergipe State, Brazilian Northeast, the ages of 4 pottery samples from Justino, Sao Jose, Saco da Onca and Curituba sites were determined in this work. The ceramic collection has great expression because many ceramics are associated to mortuary rites. The acquisition of the site chronology studied in this work is a contribution to studies of ancient communities that lived in the region. The additive dose method was used to determine of the paleodose in the samples, and the TL response of 320 deg C peak as function of the added dose was linear. The annual dose rate was determined by means of the instrumental neutron activation analysis, using the U, Th, K and RB concentration from soil and own sample, which yielded an average annual dose rate of 2.89 {+-} 0.33 mGy.yr{sup -1}. Using of the paleodose and annual dose rate, the ages were determined which remained between 457 - 3716 BP, value which matches with the results obtained by carbon - 14 method in the sample from burned charcoal in Justino site. (author)

  13. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Monitoracao da agua no solo em cultura irrigada de aspargo no Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall` Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Audry, Pierre [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d`Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), 75 - Paris (France). Departement Eaux Continentales

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic 5 figs.

  14. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  15. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  16. Chemostratigraphy of the lower Bambuí Group, southwestern São Francisco Craton, Brazil: insights on Gondwana paleoenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Kuchenbecker

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Bambuí Group, the most extensive carbonate-siliciclastic cover on the São Francisco craton, has been a matter of debate because of its potential correlations to global glacial events. Unfortunately, most available chemostratigraphic data came from samples collected on surface rock exposures, ever susceptible to the aggressive chemical weathering that characterizes the southeastern Brazil. On the other hand, we present here high-resolution chemostratigraphic studies based on C, O and Sr isotopic data from 53 samples collected along a weathering-free, continuous, 175 m thick sedimentary succession. This succession was recovered by borehole drilling in the southwestern São Francisco craton, where occur the Carrancas and Sete Lagoas formations, the lowermost units of the Bambuí Group. The drill cores reveal extremely irregular contacts between the basal diamictite and its basement, an Archaean foliated granodiorite. Geochronological and sedimentological data strongly suggest that the diamictite represents a lodgement till. This glaciogenic deposit is covered by a limestone succession which starts with impure carbonates showing aragonite pseudomorph fans and thin bands of black shale. The limestone pile grades to a marl-mudstone interval, which turns to a carbonate with biological components, succeeded by stromatolitic dolomite at the top. C and O isotopic signatures (referred to V-PDB allow to the subdivision of the lower carbonate-pelite section into three intervals. The first isotopic interval corresponds to a cap carbonate, and displays negative values of δ13C (c . -4‰, and a large oscillation of the δ18O (-6 to -15‰. The Interval II shows a striking homogeneity in δ13C and δ18O, around 1‰ and -7‰, respectively. At the top, Interval III shows a large positive excursion of the δ13C (up to 8‰ and δ18O (-8 to -3‰ values. Unaltered 86Sr/87Sr ratios range from 0.7075 to 0.7077, mainly at the top of the section. The

  17. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  18. Disclosing the Paleoarchean to Ediacaran history of the São Francisco craton basement: The Porteirinha domain (northern Araçuaí orogen, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Pinto, Claiton Piva; Magalhães, Joana Tiago Reis; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio Piacentini; Santos, Gabriella Galliac

    2016-07-01

    This geochronological and isotopic study focuses on one of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement domains of the São Francisco craton reworked in the Araçuaí orogen, the Porteirinha domain, Brazil. It also includes a thorough compilation of the U-Pb geochronological data related to the adjacent Archean and Rhyacian terranes from the São Francisco craton and Araçuaí orogen. The main target of this study is the TTG gneisses of the Porteirinha complex (Sample 1). The gneiss dated at 3371 ± 6 Ma unraveled a polycyclic evolution characterized by two metamorphic overprinting episodes, dated at 3146 ± 24 Ma (M1) and ca. 600 Ma (M2). The former (M1) is so far the most reliable evidence of the oldest metamorphic episode ever dated in Brazil. The latter (M2), in turn, is endemic in most of the exposed eastern cratonic margin within the Araçuaí orogen. Whole-rock Sm-Nd analysis from the gneiss provided a slightly negative εNd(t3370) = - 0.78 value, and a depleted mantle model (TDM) age of 3.5 Ga, indicating derivation mainly from the melting of a ca. 3.5 Ga tholeiitic source. Sample 2, a K-rich leuco-orthogneiss from the Rio Itacambiriçu Complex, was dated at 2657 ± 25 Ma and also presents a ca. 600 Ma M2 overprinting M2 age. The other two analyses were obtained from Rhyacian granitoids. Sample 3 is syn-collisional, peraluminous leucogranite from the Tingui granitic complex, showing a crystallization age of 2140 ± 14 Ma and strong post-crystallization Pb*-loss, also ascribed to the Ediacaran overprinting. Accordingly, it is interpreted as a correlative of the late Rhyacian (ca. 2150-2050 Ma) collisional stage of the Mantiqueira orogenic system/belt (ca. 2220-2000 Ma), overprinted by the Ediacaran collage. Sample 4 is a Rhyacian post-orogenic (post-collisional), mixed-source, peralkaline, A1-type suite, with a crystallization age of 2050 ± 10 Ma, presenting an important post-crystallization Pb*-loss related to Ediacaran collision. The focused region records some

  19. PROGRAMA CHAPÉU DE PALHA: política pública de qualificacáo para trabalhadores rurais na Fruticultura do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicentina Ramires

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policy qualilication lor rural workers in orcharding 01 the Sao Francisco Valley Abstract: The pole 01 irrigated orcharding in sub-Middle Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, began to show increasing idleness, causing a seasonal unemployment. One of the initiatives of the state government to solve this serious problem was the implementation oflhe Program Chapéu de Palha Fruticultura Irrigada(Straw hat irrigated orchading, which the main purpose is to open up new opportunities for the workers through training courses. This work aims to analyze the effectiveness of such actions, identifying lactors that aflect the actions execution. To the activities monitoring 01 the program, visits were weekly made in all courses, to check the level 01 proximity between the loreseen results and the achieved results by the executing agency, The results show that the program has laced several problems in actions implementation , ranging Irom inappropriate courses' locations, to low-frequency, low material supply for classes, and courses offering that do not meet the workers desire.

  20. Nd-Sr Isotopic Geochemistry and U-Pb Geochronology of the Fé Granitic Gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Evolution of the Mineiro Belt, Southern São Francisco Craton, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Teixeira; Ciro Alexandre Ávila; Luciana Cabral Nunes

    2008-01-01

    The Fé granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked toPaleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, central-easternBrazil. The Fé pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortesgreenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, andpyroxenite in the la...

  1. 3-D inversion of complex magnetotelluric data from an Archean-Proterozoic terrain in northeastern São Francisco Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, Mauricio S.; Egbert, Gary D.; Padilha, Antonio L.; Pádua, Marcelo B.; Vitorello, Ícaro

    2017-09-01

    We present a magnetotelluric (MT) study in the northeastern part of the São Francisco Craton that encompasses an Archean-Proterozoic terrain, the Serrinha Block, breached by a rift basin developed mostly in Early Cretaceous times during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Even though the MT sites are regularly spaced, the profiles have different orientations from one another, making the data distribution over the area highly uneven and therefore non-ideal for 3-D modeling. However, the data set is very complex, with dimensionality analysis indicating prevalence of 3-D geoelectric structure. Results from 3-D inversion are evaluated for robustness and potentiality for yielding tectonic information. At upper crustal depths, the resulting 3-D model is coherent with surface geology, whereas at mid and lower crustal depths more cryptic structures are revealed, likely of Palaeoproterozoic age. The most striking features in the model are several strong (∼1 Ωṡm) crustal conductors beneath the central part of the Serrinha Block, which we attribute to a Palaeoproterozoic oceanic plate subduction and arc-continent collision event involving the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt and the basement of the Serrinha Block. The west-dipping geometry of these conductors provides a constraint on subduction polarity and gives support to tectonic evolutionary models proposing that the Rio Itapicuru Belt was formed in an island arc environment.

  2. Energy agriculture in the Vale do Sao Francisco: electric power production from the sugar cane; Agricultura de energia no Vale do Sao Francisco: a cogeracao de energia eletrica a partir da queima do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga Neto, Amintas Ferreira; Pinto, Adeon Cecilio [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Producao], E-mail: adeon.pinto@univasf.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increasing on energy demand has generated some preoccupation for both public and private sectors involved on search and creation of new sources of energy. Within this context, fossil and hydraulic energy sources have encountered barriers to its development. In order to solve this puzzle, a new paradigm emerges based on the use of renewable sources of energy. Among these energy sources it can be mentioned solar plants, wind mills and biomass. The option for determined energy source is related to aspects such as: technological knowledge, tradition on use and availability. In a global view, the renewable resources represent 20% of the overall energy supply. This datum shows the relevance of this topic. This paper aims to expose a theoretic discussion about the adoption of renewable energy sources in the San Francisco Valley. It also offers a diagnosis of the use of such sources in household energy. (author)

  3. Implantation of wind power generation unities at rural communities of remote regions - the case of Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brazil; Implantacao de unidades de geracao de energia eolica em comunidades rurais regioes remotas - o caso do Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mauricfr@int.gov.br; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)], e-mail: szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation of implantation of wind power generation unities for the attendance of small rural communities which are typical at remote regions and not attended by the regional concessionaires distribution networks systems. The simulation applies the Homer software, from NREL, and is applied to a typical rural community of isolated regions, composed by low income families, and situated at Rio Sao Francisco valley, Bahia state, Brazil, considering the incidence of strong and constant winds in the region. In this simulation a comparative analysis of an 40 W aeolian system is performed with other systems: a traditional one based on a diesel generation, an hybrid system, and the interconnection to the electric network.

  4. Geochemistry of komatiites and basalts from the Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Implications for the origin, evolution, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Silva, Paola M.; Moreno, Juan A.; Amaral, Wagner S.

    2017-07-01

    The Neoarchean Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts are situated in the southern São Francisco Craton, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These greenstone belts were formed between ca. 2.79-2.73 Ga, and consist mostly of mafic to ultramafic volcanics and clastic sediments, with minor chemical sediments and felsic volcanics that were metamorphosed under greenschist facies. Komatiites are found only in the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, which is composed of high-MgO volcanic rocks that have been identified as komatiites and high-Mg basalts, based on their distinctive geochemical characteristics. The Rio das Velhas komatiites are composed of tremolite + actinolite + serpentine + albite with a relict spinifex-texture. The Rio das Velhas komatiites have a high magnesium content ((MgO)adj ≥ 28 wt.%), an Al-undepleted Munro-type [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj and (CaO/Al2O3)adj] ratio ranging from 27 to 47 and 0.48 to 0.89, relatively low abundances of incompatible elements, a depletion of light rare earth elements (LREE), a pattern of non-fractionated heavy rare- earth elements (HREE), and a low (Gd/Yb)PM ratio (≤ 1.0). Negative Ce anomalies suggest that alteration occurred during greenschist facies metamorphism for the komatiites and high-Mg basalts. The low [(Gd/Yb)PM 18] and high HREE, Y, and Zr content suggest that the Rio das Velhas komatiites were derived from the shallow upper mantle without garnet involvement in the residue. The chemical compositions [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj, (FeO)adj, (MgO)adj, (CaO/Al2O3)adj, Na, Th, Ta, Ni, Cr, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE] indicate that the formation of the komatiites, high-Mg basalts and basalts occurred at different depths and temperatures in a heterogeneous mantle. The komatiites and high-Mg basalts melted at liquidus temperatures of 1450-1550 °C. The Pitangui basalts are enriched in the highly incompatible LILE (large-ion lithophile elements) relative to the moderately incompatible HFS (high field strength) elements. The Zr/Th ratio ranging from 76 to

  5. New insight on the paleoproterozoic evolution of the São Francisco Craton: Reinterpretation of the geology, the suture zones and the thicknesses of the crustal blocks using geophysical and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Edson E. S.; Barbosa, Johildo S. F.; Correa-Gomes, Luiz C.

    2017-07-01

    The Archean-Paleoproterozoic Jequié (JB) and Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá (ISCB) blocks and their tectonic transition zone in the Valença region, Bahia, Brazil are potentially important for ore deposits, but the geological knowledge of the area is still meager. The paucity of geological information restricts the knowledge of the position and of the field characteristics of the tectonic suture zone between these two crustal segments JB and ISCB. Therefore, interpretation of geophysical data is necessary to supplement the regional structural and petrological knowledge of the area as well as to assist mining exploration programs. The analysis of the airborne radiometric and magnetic data of the region has established, respectively, five radiometric domains and five magnetic zones. Modeling of a gravity profile has defined the major density contrasts of the deep structures. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical data fitted to the known geological information substantially improved the suture zone (lower plate JB versus upper plate ISCB) delimitation, the geological map of the area and allowed to estimate the thicknesses of these two blocks, and raised key questions about the São Francisco Craton tectonic evolution.

  6. Lead isotope constraints on the mantle sources involved in the genesis of Mesozoic high-Ti tholeiite dykes (Urubici type from the São Francisco Craton (Southern Espinhaço, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soares Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The first results of Pb isotope compositions of the high-Ti Mesozoic dykes of the Southern Espinhaço are presented. The results do not show large variations and are significantly more radiogenic than the Pb isotope compositions of the high-Ti tholeiites from the Paraná Continental Flood Basalts. The data combined with published geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope results rule out crustal contamination processes in the genesis of the dykes, requiring magma generation in metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle with the involvement of HIMU-type and carbonatite components. The magmas may have been also derived from a mantle source containing ~4 - 5% of pyroxenite and ~1% of carbonatite melts, agreeing with published Os isotope compositions of high-Ti rocks from the Paraná Continental Flood Basalts. These metasomatizing agents could be responsible for mantle source refertilization, as was also proposed in the literature to explain the characteristics of xenoliths of the Goiás Alkaline Province, which also occurs in the border of the São Francisco Craton. Additionally, to evaluate the risks of Pb contamination during sample preparation for analysis, several experimental tests were accomplished, which indicate the need of sawed surface removal and a careful washing of small-sized rock fragments before powdering, especially for rocks with [Pb] < 7 µg/g.

  7. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  8. Determination of 2{sup 38U}, 2{sup 26R}a, 2{sup 28R}a E 4{sup 0K} in grapes and wines of Valley of the Sao Francisco; Determinacao de 2{sup 38U}, 2{sup 26R}a, 2{sup 28R}a E 4{sup 0K} em uvas e vinhos da regiao do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia Brandao da

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of the content of nutrients in musts and wine has been the subject of several studies due to its importance for the quality control and even for determining the geographical authenticity of a specific wine brand. Not less important is the assessment of the impact on the final product caused by the presence of contaminants in the soil. It has to be taken also into consideration that the addition of fertilizers, pesticides, and even irrigation water can increase the content of contaminants in the soil. Fertilizers, for example, may contain unwanted elements such as trace metals and radionuclides. These contaminants can affect both the quality and the commercial value of the agricultural products. The most important contaminants, as far as radioactive elements is concerned, are the members of the uranium and thorium natural series, and potassium-40, which is present in ali soils and rocks with an average concentration around 0.012% of the natural potassium. The content of uranium and of its decay products in soils can be modified by the addition of phosphate fertilizers. Although several studies have been performed aiming to assess the impact of the presence of metals and radionuclides in many agricultural products, there is no reference in the literature concerning the presence of natural radionuclides in grapes and wine. Therefore, this study was carried out with the objective of determining the content of some members of the uranium and thorium decay series (namely, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra), besides {sup 40}K, in grapes and wine produced in the Fazenda Milano, in the municipality of Petrolina - Pernambuco, in the Vale do Sao Francisco. Besides, measurements were performed for some trace metals, aiming to verify if any correlation exists between the metal and radionuclide contents. The radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry, using a hyper pure Germanium detector. The results for {sup 226}Ra in samples of pulp and wine ranged from 0

  9. The Namuskluft and Dreigratberg sections in southern Namibia (Kalahari Craton, Gariep Belt): a geological history of Neoproterozoic rifting and recycling of cratonic crust during the dispersal of Rodinia until the amalgamation of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerdes, Axel; Eckelmann, Katja; Gärtner, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents combined U/Pb, Th/U and Hf isotope analyses on detrital and magmatic zircon grains together with whole-rock geochemical analyses of two basement and eight sedimentary rock samples from the Namuskluft and the Dreigratberg in southern Namibia (Gariep Belt). The sedimentary sections evolved during the Cryogenian on the SW part of the Kalahari Craton and where therefore deposited in an active rift setting during the break-up of Rodinia. Due to insufficient palaeomagnetic data, the position of the Kalahari Craton within Rodinia is still under discussion. There are possibilities to locate Kalahari along the western side of Australia/Mawsonland (Pisarevski et al. in Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and break-up, Geological Society, London, 2003; Evans in Ancient Orogens and modern analogues. Geological Society, London, 2009; and others) or together with the Congo-Sao Francisco and Rio de la Plata Cratons (Li et al. in Prec Res 45: 203-2014, 2008; Frimmel et al. in Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 100: 323-354, 2011; and others). It is sill unclear which craton rifted away from the Kalahari Craton during the Cryogenian. Although Middle to Upper Cryogenian magmatic activity is known for the SE Kalahari Craton (our working area) (Richtersveld Suite, Rosh Pinah Fm), all the presented samples show no U/Pb zircon ages younger than ca. 1.0 Ga and non-older than 2.06 Ga. The obtained U/Pb ages fit very well to the exposed basement of the Kalahari Craton (1.0-1.4 Ga Namaqua Province, 1.7-2.0 Ga Vioolsdrif Granite Suite and Orange River Group) and allow no correlation with a foreign craton such as the Rio de la Plata or Australia/Mawsonland. Lu-Hf isotopic signatures of detrital zircon point to the recycling of mainly Palaeoproterozoic and to a smaller amount of Archean crust in the source areas. ɛHf( t) signatures range between -24 and +14.8, which relate to TDM model ages between 1.05 and 3.1 Ga. Only few detrital zircon grains derived from

  10. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  11. Cratons' thermal state in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Zhang, Linyou

    2017-04-01

    There are three cratons in China, the North China Craton, the Tarim Craton, and the Yangtze Craton. Each craton has experienced complicated evolution histories since their formation, presents distinct thermal regime, and displays different stability. The Tarim Craton keeps its stability till now. The eastern North China Craton has been destructed in the Mesozoic, but the western North China Craton still stable. The stability of the Yangtze craton is a controversial issue, and the newest study believed it experienced similar tectono-thermal events as the North China Craton and has also been destructed in the Mesozoic. Several sedimentary basins developed in these cratons, and most of them are rich of oil-gas resources. These basins have different formation mechanism and experienced distinct tectono-thermal evolution, which resulted in individual thermal histories. The sedimentary basins have recorded distinct thermal evolution of these craton. We analyze the heat flow data, lithospheric thermal thickness, basins' thermal histories together with tectono-thermal events in these cratons, with aim to provide ideas for geodynamical mechanism on the craton stability/destruction, as well as implications for hydrocarbon generation.

  12. Cratons and orogenic belts of the Brazilian Shield and their contained gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Leó A.; Delgado, Inácio

    2001-07-01

    The Brazilian Shield extends over much of South America to the east of the Andean Chain, and is partly covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The three major tectonic units (older than 900 Ma) of the shield are the Amazon, São Francisco, and Rio de la Plata Cratons, whereas rocks of the Neoproterozoic (900-550 Ma) Brasiliano Cycle belts surround the cratons in the eastern half of Brazil. Paleoarchean rocks occur as small cratonic nuclei in northeastern Brazil, but the cratons contain voluminous 3.0-2.6-Ga granitic and greenstone belts and a large volume of Paleoproterozoic rocks. Late Mesoproterozoic belts (~1.2 Ga) occur in the western and northwestern Amazon Craton and possibly in northeastern Brazil. There are voluminous Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic intrusive and volcanic rocks in the Amazon Craton. Belts of reworked crust are common, but the Amazon Craton grew to the north and west mainly during accretionary orogens. The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle belts contain 5% of juvenile crust in central and southern Brazil, but are dominantly derived from reworking of older crust. It is possible that the cratons were continuous in a super-continent during the Mesoproterozoic prior to the Brasiliano Cycle. Gold deposits are concentrated in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes, including the Carajás and Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold provinces of the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons, respectively, but some also occur in younger terranes. Recent alluvial gold deposits and supergene deposits in the weathering zone are widespread in Brazil.

  13. Identificação dos citoplasmas "S", "T" e "N" via PCR em populações de cebola no Vale do São Francisco Identification of "S", "T" and "N" cytoplasm via PCR in onion populations in the Sao Francisco river Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio F Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A identificação do tipo de citoplasma em cebola foi facilitada com a publicação de primers de DNA específicos para os tipos "S", "T" e "N". O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar, por meio de marcadores moleculares, o tipo de citoplasma presente na cultivar de cebola BRS São Francisco e numa população experimental em desenvolvimento na Embrapa Semi-Árido, de forma a orientar o desenvolvimento de híbridos de cebola adaptados à região. Na amostra de 19 plantas da 'BRS Alfa São Francisco' observou-se a amplificação de fragmentos de 180 pb, ausência do fragmento de 414 pb com os primers 5'cob e a amplificação do fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente nesta população é o citoplasma T. Foi também identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população BRS Alfa São Francisco. Na amostra de 44 plantas da população experimental cascuda-bronzeada observou-se a amplificação de produtos consistentes com os fragmentos de 180 e 414 pb dos primers 5'cob, bem como a amplificação de fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente na população é o citoplasma S. Não foi identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população cascuda-bronzeada. Estes resultados indicam a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de híbrido tropical, tendo como base a cultivar BRS Alfa São Francisco, enquanto que, na população cascuda-bronzeada será necessário a introgressão do citoplasma "N" para o desenvolvimento de linhagens mantenedoras.The identification of the onion cytoplasm was obtained by the development of DNA specific primers to "S", "T" and "N" types. The goal of this work was the identification of the cytoplasm type in two different onion populations in the São Francisco river Valley, in order to facilitate the development of onion hybrids from Northeast Brazil. In the sample of 19 plants of the BRS Alfa São Francisco cultivar was observed the amplification of

  14. Craton destruction and related resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhu, Guang; Meng, Qingren; Fan, Hongrui; Yang, Jinhui; Wu, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianyu

    2017-10-01

    Craton destruction is a dynamic event that plays an important role in Earth's evolution. Based on comprehensive observations of many studies on the North China Craton (NCC) and correlations with the evolution histories of other cratons around the world, craton destruction has be defined as a geological process that results in the total loss of craton stability due to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the involved craton. The mechanisms responsible for craton destruction would be as the follows: (1) oceanic plate subduction; (2) rollback and retreat of a subducting oceanic plate; (3) stagnation and dehydration of a subducting plate in the mantle transition zone; (4) melting of the mantle above the mantle transition zone caused by dehydration of a stagnant slab; (5) non-steady flow in the upper mantle induced by melting, and/or (6) changes in the nature of the lithospheric mantle and consequent craton destruction caused by non-steady flow. Oceanic plate subduction itself does not result in craton destruction. For the NCC, it is documented that westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate should have initiated at the transition from the Middle-to-Late Jurassic, and resulted in the change of tectonic regime of eastern China. We propose that subduction, rollback and retreat of oceanic plates and dehydration of stagnant slabs are the main dynamic factors responsible for both craton destruction and concentration of mineral deposits, such as gold, in the overriding continental plate. Based on global distribution of gold deposits, we suggest that convergent plate margins are the most important setting for large gold concentrations. Therefore, decratonic gold deposits appear to occur preferentially in regions with oceanic subduction and overlying continental lithospheric destruction/modification/growth.

  15. Petrology of Gameleira potassic lamprophyres, São Francisco Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Plá Cid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gameleira lamprophyres are dykes and mafic microgranular enclaves associated with the shoshonitic Gameleira monzonite. This association belongs to the Paleoproterozoic alkaline magmatism from Serrinha nucleus, northeast Brazil. The liquidus paragenesis is diopside, pargasite, apatite and mica. Reverse zoning was identified in the groundmass alkali feldspar and was related to the undercooling of lamprophyric magma during the emplacement, with high growth rate of pargasite/edenite inducing disequilibrium between feldspars and liquid. Chemical data indicate that the lamprophyres are basic rocks (SiO2 3 wt% and potassic signature (K2O/Na2O ≈ 2. High contents of MgO and Cr are consistent with a signature of a primary liquid, and such concentrations, as well as Al, K, P, Ba, Ni- and light rare earth elements, are consistent with an olivine-free metasomatic mantle source enriched in amphibole, clinopyroxene and apatite. By contrast, the ultrapotassic lamprophyres from Morro do Afonso, contemporaneous alkaline ultrapotassic magmatism in Serrinha nucleus, were probably produced by melting of a clinopyroxene-phlogopite-apatite enriched-source. The identification of different mineral paragenesis in the source of potassic and ultrapotassic lamprophyres from Serrinha nucleus can contribute to the understanding of the mantle heterogeneities and tectonic evolution of this region.Os lamprófiros Gameleira são formados por diques e enclaves máficos microgranulares associados ao monzonito shoshonítico Gameleira. Esta associação pertence ao magmatismo alcalino Paleoproterozóico do núcleo Serrinha, nordeste do Brasil. A paragênese no liquidus é formada por diopsídio, pargasita, apatite e mica. Zonamento inverso foi identificado no feldspato alcalino da matriz e relacionado ao super-resfriamento do magma lamprofírico durante sua colocação, com alta taxa de crescimento da pargasita/edenita induzindo desequilíbrio entre os feldspatos e o líquido. Dados químicos indicam que os lamprófiros são rochas básicas (SiO2 3% e assinatura potássica (K2O/Na2O ≈ 2. Elevados conteúdos de MgO e Cr são consistentes com uma assinatura primária, e tais concentrações, assim como os conteúdos de Al, K, P, Ba, Ni, e terras raras leves são consistentes com uma fonte mantélica metassomatizada sem olivine, enriquecida em anfibólio, clinopiroxênio e apatita. Por outro lado, os lamprófiros ultrapotássicos de Morro do Afonso, magmatismo alcalino contemporâneo no núcleo Serrinha, foram produzidos por uma fonte enriquecida em clinopiroxênio, flogopita e apatita. A identificação de diferentes paragênesis minerais na fonte de lamprófiros potássicos e ultrapotássicos do núcleo Serrinha pode contribuir para a compreensão das heterogeneidades do manto e a evolução tectônica desta região.

  16. Density heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    correlation between mantle density variations and the tectonic setting. Three types of cratonic mantle are recognized from mantle density anomalies. 'Pristine' cratonic regions not sampled by kimberlites have the strongest depletion with density deficit of 1.8-3.0% (and SPT density of 3.29-3.33 t/m3...

  17. Application of multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and probability calculations to Paleoproterozoic acid rocks from Brazilian cratons and provinces to infer tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.

    2013-08-01

    In present work, we applied two sets of new multi-dimensional geochemical diagrams (Verma et al., 2013) obtained from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of natural logarithm-transformed ratios of major elements and immobile major and trace elements in acid magmas to decipher plate tectonic settings and corresponding probability estimates for Paleoproterozoic rocks from Amazonian craton, São Francisco craton, São Luís craton, and Borborema province of Brazil. The robustness of LDA minimizes the effects of petrogenetic processes and maximizes the separation among the different tectonic groups. The probability based boundaries further provide a better objective statistical method in comparison to the commonly used subjective method of determining the boundaries by eye judgment. The use of readjusted major element data to 100% on an anhydrous basis from SINCLAS computer program, also helps to minimize the effects of post-emplacement compositional changes and analytical errors on these tectonic discrimination diagrams. Fifteen case studies of acid suites highlighted the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The first case study on Jamon and Musa granites, Carajás area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) shows a collision setting (previously thought anorogenic). A collision setting was clearly inferred for Bom Jardim granite, Xingú area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) The third case study on Older São Jorge, Younger São Jorge and Maloquinha granites Tapajós area (Ventuari-Tapajós Province, Amazonian craton) indicated a within-plate setting (previously transitional between volcanic arc and within-plate). We also recognized a within-plate setting for the next three case studies on Aripuanã and Teles Pires granites (SW Amazonian craton), and Pitinga area granites (Mapuera Suite, NW Amazonian craton), which were all previously suggested to have been emplaced in post-collision to within-plate settings. The seventh case

  18. Deep vs. shallow expressions of continental cratons: Can cratonic roots be destroyed by subduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Calo, M.; Eddy, C. L.; Guerri, M.; Holt, A.; Hopper, E.; Tesoniero, A.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Becker, T. W.; Wagner, L. S.

    2013-12-01

    Cratons are parts of continents that have remained tectonically quiescent over billion-year timescales. Although cratonic lithosphere has the stabilizing properties of chemical buoyancy and high viscosity, it can still be destroyed. The best known example of a missing cratonic root is beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Despite strong evidence for the past existence of a craton in northern China, high heat flow, Mesozoic basin formation, extensive seismicity, and the lack of a fast seismic root imply that the deep cratonic lithosphere is missing. The mechanism for the lithospheric root loss is a source of much debate. Many mechanisms have been proposed, among them: shearing of the lithospheric root by asthenospheric flow induced by the Indo-Eurasian collision; ponding of the Pacific slab in the transition zone acting as a source of fluids that enable hydrous weakening; and thermal erosion due to the corner-flow upwelling of hot, deep material. It is generally agreed that the influence of subduction is key, both from the temporal coincidence of subduction with increased tectonomagmatic activity on the craton and from the spatial correlation of lithospheric loss adjacent to the Pacific trench. We investigate how cratons extend to depth through comparison between seismic signatures of the cratonic lithosphere in the upper mantle and surficial evidence of cratonic boundaries. We examine global and regional tomography, as well as receiver-function constraints on lithospheric thickness in the NCC. We define craton boundaries at the surface through analyses on crust and lithospheric mantle ages and kimberlite locations. We aim to identify regions where the fast cratonic root has been lost or altered beneath Archean and Proterozoic crust and in particular place constraints on the extent of the remaining cratonic root beneath North China. Given the common emphasis on the role of subduction as a driving force for the root loss beneath the eastern NCC, we focus on

  19. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents ( 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (water contents. The olivine inclusions, however, may have been protected from metasomatism by their host diamond and record the overall low olivine water content of

  20. Sao Paulo pelletron accelerator: fortieth anniversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Dirceu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This year the 8MV Sao Paulo Pelletron tandem accelerator completes 40 years . This electrostatic accelerator was installed in the Sao Paulo University in 1972 , and it was the first of this model constructed the National Electrostatic Corporation with several innovations particularly with respect to the new concept of accelerator tube and the charge system. In the talk will be discussed the performance of the accelerator during all these years and the main result scientific results. (author)

  1. Seismic Structure of Southern African Cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Levander, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Cratons are extremely stable continental crustal areas above thick depleted lithosphere. These regions have remained largely unchanged for more than 2.5 Ga. This study presents a new seismic model of the seismic structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle constrained by seismic receiver...... functions and finite-frequency tomography based on data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). Combining the two methods provides high vertical and lateral resolution. The main results obtained are (1) the presence of a highly heterogeneous crustal structure, in terms of thickness, composition (as...... shown by estimated Vp/Vs), and sharpness of the discontinuities, (2) observation of an unexpectedly strong crustal azimuthal anisotropy, and (3) a fast lithospheric keel of the Kaapvaal Craton which reaches depths of 300-350 km and relatively slow anomalies beneath both the paleo-orogenic Limpopo Belt...

  2. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    Cratonic regions are the oldest stable parts of continents that hold most of Earth’s mineral resources. There are several open questions regarding their formation and evolution. In this PhD study, passive source seismic methods have been used to investigate the crustal and lithosphere structures...... of the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The core...... of this research was based on Ps- and Sp- receiver functions analysis to determine crustal thickness while finite-frequency traveltime tomography is utilized to model 3D heterogeneity in the upper mantle. Combining the two methods provides high vertical and lateral resolution....

  3. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  4. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: a case study of the Siberian craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija

    2014-01-01

    We present geophysical models for the lithospheric mantle of the Siberian craton, with focus on its structureand thermo-compositional heterogeneity as constrained by various geophysical data. The latter include thermalstructure of the lithosphere based on surface heat flow data and supported...... constrained independently by free-board and satellite gravityshows significant lateral variations, that are well correlated with crustal structure, surface tectonics, and regionalxenolith data. Proterozoic sutures and intracratonic basins are manifested by an increase in mantle density as comparedto light...... and lateralheterogeneity of the cratonic lithospheric mantle, with a pronounced stratification in many Precambrian terranes.We discuss lateral and vertical heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere discussed in connection to regionaltectono-thermal evolution....

  5. The Building of the Archean Superior Craton: Thermal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The building of a craton involves the extraction of continental crust from the Earth's mantle and the lateral accretion of juvenile volcanic terranes. Ascertaining which conditions allow a newborn continental assemblage to survive requires information on its mechanical strength, which depends on the amount and vertical distribution of radioactive elements in the crust. There is thus a connection between crust formation mechanisms and a successful amalgamation process. To address outstanding questions concerning Archean cratons, the Superior province in Canada is the perfect region because it contains a well preserved geological record of accretion that provides compelling evidence for plate tectonic processes at 2.7 Ga. At almost the same time, the rate of continental growth decreased significantly, which may result from either slower crust formation or enhanced destruction through erosion and subduction. These issues are linked to the strength of the newborn continent. The extensive heat flow data set now available in the Superior Province reveals a clear demarcation between a chemically depleted and differentiated craton core and weakly differentiated enriched juvenile accreted terranes. The Superior craton was thus made of a strong core surrounded by weak terranes. This dichotomy implies that the accretion process could not involve complex imbrication of the accreted belts into the craton core. Subsequently, the craton may have been protected from convective disruption or delamination by its weak margins. Differences between the craton core and accreted terranes may be due to different crustal extraction processes, such as melting in a mantle plume or magmatism in a subduction zone. If subduction started at about 3 Ga, as advocated by several authors, the assembly and survival of large cratons may well be a consequence of this key shift in mantle activity. Alternatively, the chemical depletion of the craton core may be due to a prolonged history of internal

  6. Francisco J. Ayala

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    Con ocasión del Congreso “La idea de evolución. 150 años después de Darwin” entrevistamos al biólogo y profesor español (nacionalizado estadounidense) Francisco J. Ayala. Es especialista en evolución. Discípulo de Theodosius Dobzhansky. Después de ser ordenado sacerdote dominico en 1960, se desplazó a Estados Unidos, donde reside en la actualidad. Investiga e imparte clases de biología en la Universidad de California en Irvine.

  7. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  8. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev P.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of high topography in southern Africa is enigmatic. By comparing topography in different cratons, we demonstrate that in southern Africa both the Archean and Proterozoic blocks have surface elevation 500-700. m higher than in any other craton worldwide, except for the Tanzanian Craton......-Natal fold belts, ca. 3.34-3.35g/cm3 in the Proterozoic Okwa block and the Bushveld Intrusion Complex, ca. 3.34-3.37g/cm3 in the Limpopo Belt, and ca. 3.32-3.33g/cm3 in the Kaapvaal and southern Zimbabwe cratons.The results indicate that 0.5-1.0. km of surface topography, with the most likely value of ca. 0...

  9. Geological evolution of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, D.I.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; De Waele, B.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Key, R.M.; Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; Lidke, D.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Antongil Craton, along with the Masora and Antananarivo cratons, make up the fundamental Archaean building blocks of the island of Madagascar. They were juxtaposed during the late-Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic assembly of Gondwana. In this paper we give a synthesis of the geology of the Antongil Craton and present previously published and new geochemical and U-Pb zircon analyses to provide an event history for its evolution.The oldest rocks in the Antongil Craton form a nucleus of tonalitic gneiss, characteristic of Palaeo-Mesoarchaean cratons globally, including phases dated between 3320 ?? 14. Ma to 3231 ?? 6. Ma and 3187 ?? 2. Ma to 3154 ?? 5. Ma. A series of mafic dykes was intruded into the Mesoarchaean tonalites and a sedimentary succession was deposited on the craton prior to pervasive deformation and migmatisation of the region. The age of deposition of the metasediments has been constrained from a volcanic horizon to around 3178 ?? 2. Ma and subject to migmatisation at around 2597 ?? 49. Ma. A subsequent magmatic episode generated voluminous, weakly foliated granitic rocks, that also included additions from both reworked older crustal material and younger source components. An earlier granodiorite-dominated assemblage, dated between 2570 ?? 18. Ma and 2542 ?? 5. Ma, is largely exposed in xenoliths and more continuously in the northern part of the craton, while a later monzogranite-dominated phase, dated between 2531 ?? 13. Ma and 2513 ?? 0.4. Ma is more widely developed. Together these record the stabilisation of the craton, attested to by the intrusion of a younger dyke swarm, the age of which is constrained by a sample of metagabbro dated at 2147 ?? 6. Ma, providing the first evidence for Palaeoproterozoic rocks from the Antongil Craton.The youngest events recorded in the isotopic record of the Antongil Craton are reflected in metamorphism, neocrystallisation and Pb-loss at 792 ?? 130. Ma to 763 ?? 13. Ma and 553 ?? 68. Ma. These events are

  10. Construction and destruction of some North American cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D. B.; Humphreys, G.

    2015-12-01

    Construction histories of Archean cratons remain poorly understood; their destruction is even less clear because of, by definition, its rarity. By assembling geophysical and geochemical data in 3-D lithosphere models, a clearer understanding of the geometry of major structures within the Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons of central North America is now possible. Little evidence exists of subducted slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in these construction histories whereas underthrusting and wedging of proto-continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities. Archean continental building blocks may resemble the modern lithosphere of Ontong-Java-Hikurangi oceanic plateau. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons comprise smaller continental terranes that 'cratonized' during a granitic bloom at 2.61-2.55 ga. Cratonization probably represents the final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho atop depleted lithospheric mantle. Peak thermo-tectonic events at 1.86-1.7 Ga broadly metasomatized, mineralized and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making mantle peridotite more 'fertile' and conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite throughout the lithosphere at 80-120 km depths. This metasomatism may have also weakened the lithosphere or made it more susceptible to tectonic or chemical erosion. The arrival of the subducted Shatsky Rise conjugate at the Wyoming craton at 65-75 Ma appears to have eroded and displaced the thus weakened base of the craton below 140-160 km. This replaced old refertilized continental mantle with new depleted oceanic mantle. Is this the same craton?

  11. Thin lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Eastern Indian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalivahan; Bhattacharya, Bimalendu B.; Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Maurya, V. P.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) separates the hard and rigid outer layer of the earth (lithosphere) and the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle (asthenosphere) and plays a pivotal role in plate tectonics. However, its definitive detection, especially beneath the cratons, is proving elusive. One of the geophysical tools used to map the LAB beneath the cratons is through magnetotelluric (MT) observations. The resistivity at boundary falls in the range of 5-25 Ω-m and can be explained by the presence of a small amount of water in the asthenosphere, possibly inducing partial melt. Here, we report thickness of the LAB in one of the oldest dated ancient cratons of India-Eastern Indian Craton (EIC) of ~ 3.3 Gyr, from MT studies. The two prominent phase-sensitive strike directions, one each for crust and mantle, and the presence of resistive continental lower crust act as a window to mantle in resolving deeper electrical conductivity structures beneath EIC. Our results show that the LAB beneath the EIC is at 95 km. The region is interesting as the electrical properties of the crust and mantle and the Moho depth are similar to those of the Slave Craton, Canada (~ 4.0 Gyr) but the depth of the LAB beneath the EIC is half that of the Slave craton. As cratonic signatures, depicted by ultrapotassic rocks from Gondwana coal fields close to EIC, are preserved at least till early Cretaceous (117 Ma) it is likely that Himalayan orogeny could have played a major role in delamination of the lithospheric roots of the EIC in addition to attendant seismicity.

  12. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  13. Le nom des Sao : Approche étymologique

    OpenAIRE

    Tourneux, Henry

    2008-01-01

    De nombreuses légendes courent sur l'origine des Sao (peuple mythique des abords du lac Tchad). L'auteur ne prétend pas ici aborder cette question, mais simplement étudier le sens étymologique du nom "sao", en faisant appel à la comparaison entre différentes langues kotoko de la région du bassin du lac Tchad.

  14. Structure and extent of the southern African cratons: Integrated images from receiver functions and teleseimic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Levander, Alan; Bezada, Max

    2011-01-01

    beneath the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. Smaller velocities are found under the Bushveld complex and the mobile belts. We also image significant positive and negative anomalies (Vp= ±3.0% and Vs= ±0.5%) unconnected to the cratons under the cratonic keels and in the transition zone. Inverting the P wave...

  15. The Role of Water in the Stability of Cratonic Keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Cratons are typically underlain by large, deep, and old lithospheric keels (to greater than 200 km depth, greater than 2.5 Ga old) projecting into the asthenosphere (e.g., Jordan, 1978; Richardson et al., 1984). This has mystified Earth scientists as the dynamic and relatively hot asthenosphere should have eroded away these keels over time (e.g., Sleep, 2003; O'Neill et al., 2008; Karato, 2010). Three key factors have been invoked to explain cratonic root survival: 1) Low density makes the cratonic mantle buoyant (e.g., Poudjom Djomani et al., 2001). 2) Low temperatures (e.g., Pollack, 1986; Boyd, 1987), and 3) low water contents (e.g., Pollack, 1986), would make cratonic roots mechanically strong. Here we address the mechanism of the longevity of continental mantle lithosphere by focusing on the water parameter. Although nominally anhydrous , olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate trace amounts of water in the form of H bonded to structural O in mineral defects (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992). Olivine softens by orders of magnitude if water (1-1000 ppm H2O) is added to its structure (e.g., Mackwell et al., 1985). Our recent work has placed constraints on the distribution of water measured in peridotite minerals in the cratonic root beneath the Kaapvaal in southern Africa (Peslier et al., 2010). At P greater than 5 GPa, the water contents of pyroxene remain relatively constant while those of olivine systematically decrease from 50 to less than 10 ppm H2O at 6.4 GPa. We hypothesized that at P greater than 6.4 GPa, i.e. at the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere, olivines are essentially dry (greater than 10 ppm H2O). As olivine likely controls the rheology of the mantle, we calculated that the dry olivines could be responsible for a contrast in viscosity between cratonic lithosphere and surrounding asthenosphere large enough to explain the resistance of cratonic root to asthenospheric delamination.

  16. Formation of cratonic lithosphere: An integrated thermal and petrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude; Rudnick, Roberta

    2012-09-01

    The formation of cratonic mantle peridotite of Archean age is examined within the time frame of Earth's thermal history, and how it was expressed by temporal variations in magma and residue petrology. Peridotite residues that occupy the lithospheric mantle are rare owing to the effects of melt-rock reaction, metasomatism, and refertilization. Where they are identified, they are very similar to the predicted harzburgite residues of primary magmas of the dominant basalts in greenstone belts, which formed in a non-arc setting (referred to here as "non-arc basalts"). The compositions of these basalts indicate high temperatures of formation that are well-described by the thermal history model of Korenaga. In this model, peridotite residues of extensive ambient mantle melting had the highest Mg-numbers, lowest FeO contents, and lowest densities at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga. These results are in good agreement with Re-Os ages of kimberlite-hosted cratonic mantle xenoliths and enclosed sulfides, and provide support for the hypothesis of Jordan that low densities of cratonic mantle are a measure of their high preservation potential. Cratonization of the Earth reached its zenith at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga when ambient mantle was hot and extensive melting produced oceanic crust 30-45 km thick. However, there is a mass imbalance exhibited by the craton-wide distribution of harzburgite residues and the paucity of their complementary magmas that had compositions like the non-arc basalts. We suggest that the problem of the missing basaltic oceanic crust can be resolved by its hydration, cooling and partial transformation to eclogite, which caused foundering of the entire lithosphere. Some of the oceanic crust partially melted during foundering to produce continental crust composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG). The remaining lithosphere gravitationally separated into 1) residual eclogite that continued its descent, and 2) buoyant harzburgite diapirs that rose to underplate cratonic nuclei

  17. Multi-stage crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguo Zhai

    2014-07-01

    The ∼2.5 Ga metamorphic-magmatic event is stronger than in most other cratons in the world. How to understand the geological significance of the 2.5 Ga event? The following points are emphasized: (1 nearly all old rocks >2.5 Ga underwent metamorphism at ∼2.52–2.5 Ga; (2 Archean basement rocks in the NCC experienced strong partial melting and migmatization; (3 granitoid rocks derived from partial melting include potassium granites, TTG granites and monzonites. These granitoids rocks intruded both the Archean greenstone belts and micro-blocks; (4 ∼2.5 Ga mafic dikes (amphibolites, granitic dikes (veins and syenitic-ultramafic dykes are also developed. Therefore, we suggest an assembly model that all micro-blocks in the NCC were welded together by late Archean greenstone belts at the end of the late Neoarchean. We also propose that the various micro-blocks were surrounded by small ocean basins, and the old continental crust and the oceanic crust were hotter than today. Subduction and collision were on much smaller scales as compared to the Phanerozoic plate tectonic regime, although the tectonic style and mechanisms were more or less similar. The formation of crustal melt granites is one of the processes of cratonization, inducing generation of stable upper and lower crustal layers. This process also generated an upper crust of more felsic composition and a lower crust of more mafic composition, due to molten residual materials and some underplated gabbros.

  18. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  19. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  20. Dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Weber, Rolf Roland [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A monitoring programme at Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was conducted in terms of dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAH) in water analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The study was done in order to establish a baseline data for this area and verify the petroleum hydrocarbon influence from the oil terminal (DTCS) and other human activities over the channel. The DDPAH concentrations on subsurface waters were low and only one station presented a chronic local contribution. An oil spill occurred in May 1994 and it was followed-up to verify its influence in this area. The obtained data were important to verity the influence of the oil spill along the channel. The oil spill reached the majority of the sampling stations, and the highest mean concentration found was close to the accident point (49.6 {mu}g I{sup -1}). Due to the intense wind driven currents of the Channel area, however, the elevation of the hydrocarbons levels in the surface waters was only temporary. (Author)

  1. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 4. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes. Abhijit Roy A Sarkar S Jeyakumar S K Aggrawal M Ebihara H Satoh. Volume ...

  2. Magnetic anomalies across Bastar craton and Pranhita–Godavari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ites of Paleoproterozoic, and volcano-sedimentary sequences of Bailadila group and Abujmar group of rocks at around Dantewara. The Neo-proterozoic sedimentary basin (Indravati basin) is also iden- tified in this craton. Bhopalapatnam granulites are found in a narrow NNW–SSE trending belt west of Bhopalapatnam.

  3. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  4. Do cratons preserve evidence of stagnant lid tectonics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for episodic crustal growth extending back to the Hadean has recently prompted a number of numerically based geodynamic models that incorporate cyclic changes from stagnant lid to mobile lid tectonics. A large part of the geologic record is missing for the times at which several of these cycles are inferred to have taken place. The cratons, however, are likely to retain important clues relating to similar cycles developed in the Mesoarchean and Neoarchean. Widespread acceptance of a form of plate tectonics by ∼3.2 Ga is not at odds with the sporadic occurrence of stagnant lid tectonics after this time. The concept of scale as applied to cratons, mantle plumes and Neoarchean volcanic arcs are likely to provide important constraints on future models of Earth's geodynamic evolution. The Superior Province will provide some of the most concrete evidence in this regard given that its constituent blocks may have been locked into a stagnant lid relatively soon after their formation and then assembled in the next global plate tectonic interval. Perceived complexities associated with inferred mantle plume – volcanic arc associations in the Superior Province and other cratons may be related to an over estimation of plume size. A possible stagnant lid episode between ∼2.9 Ga and ∼2.8 Ga is identified by previously unexplained lapses in volcanism on cratons, including the Kaapvaal, Yilgarn and Superior Province cratons. If real, then mantle dynamics associated with this episode likely eliminated any contemporaneous mantle plume incubation sites, which has important implications for widespread plumes developed at ∼2.7 Ga and favours a shallow mantle source in the transition zone. The Superior Province provides a uniquely preserved local proxy for this global event and could serve as the basis for detailed numerical models in the future.

  5. Early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Ren; Wei, Hong-Hong; Wu, Guo-Li; Duan, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton based on investigations of Triassic-Middle Jurassic successions and age determinations of some lithostratigraphic units and dikes cutting tilted early Mesozoic strata. It used to be regarded that the northern North China craton experienced fold-thrust deformations in the Triassic to Early Jurassic based on the occurrences of unconformity beneath Triassic/Lower Jurassic units, synorogenic conglomerate, and Late Triassic thrusting. We revisited early Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Xiabancheng basin in the middle Yanshan belt to restore tectonic environments during that period of time. Detrital zircon data reveal that the Liujiagou and Ermaying Formations are actually of Middle and Late Triassic ages, respectively. Field observations show that the Ermaying and Xingshikou Formations are conformable, making up a sequence from fluvial to alluvial-fan facies. It is also noticeable that Lower-Middle Jurassic Xingshikou through Xiahuayuan succession is typified by fining- and deepening-upward depositional trend and contains abundant volcaniclastic rocks, indicative of continued subsidence of the Xiabancheng basin in a volcanic setting. All the results cast doubts on the long-held view that the first phase of shortening in the northern North China craton happened in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. The angular unconformity beneath Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan volcanics registered shortening in the northern North China craton, which plausibly took place around 170 Ma on account of zircon U-Pb ages of two dikes penetrating deformed Middle Triassic-Lower Jurassic strata and ages of Tiaojishan volcanics above the unconformity. Given the widespread occurrence of magmatism, rift basins and metamorphic core complexes during the Triassic and Early Jurassic, it follows that the northern North China craton was more likely under an extensional setting during the early Mesozoic.

  6. Lithospheric thinning in the Eastern Indian Craton: Evidence for lithospheric delamination below the Archean Singhbhum Craton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2017-02-01

    We herein present shear velocity structure extending down to 300 km depth below the Archean Singhbhum-Odisha Craton (SOC) and Proterozoic Chotanagpur granitic-gneissic terrain (CGGT), which has been obtained through the inversion modeling of P-receiver functions. We use three-component broadband recordings of 200 teleseismic earthquakes (30° ≤ ∆ ≤ 90°) from a 15 station seismic network that has been operational in the Eastern Indian shield since February 2013. We obtain the thinnest crust of 35 km overlying a thin lithosphere of 78 km, below the region near south Singhbhum shear zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. However, the thickest crust of 47 km overlying a thin lithosphere of 81 km is noticed below the region near the Singhbhum granite of 3.6 Ga. This thinning of lithosphere could be attributed to the delamination of lithospheric root due to the Himalayan orogeny with a shortening rate of 2 cm/year. This delamination model in SOC gets further support from the densification of the lower crust, which could result from repeated episodes of basaltic underplating associated with episodes related to Dalma ( 1.6 Ga) and Rajmahal ( 117 Ma) volcanisms. This led to relatively more mafic, heterogeneous and deformed crustal structure in SOC as well as EGMB (with an average crustal Vs of 4.0 km/s) in comparison to that in CGGT (with an average crustal Vs of 3.9 km/s), as seen through our modeling results. The thickest lithosphere of 100 km is observed in the southwestern SOC as well as northeastern CGGT. We also notice that a sharp and flat Moho in CGGT, which could be attributed to thermal reactivation and large volume melting of the mafic cratonic crust during the late Archean subduction process and associated volcanism episodes. This model gets further support from the estimated 169 km thick lower Vs zone in the upper mantle below CGGT. Our modeling results also support a northward subduction of Archean

  7. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  8. The Fazenda Largo off-craton kimberlites of Piauí State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Sablukova, Ludmila I.; Zakharchenko, Olga D.

    2009-10-01

    In the late 1990s, the Fazenda Largo kimberlite cluster was discovered in the Piauí State of Brazil. As with earlier known kimberlites in this area - Redondão, Santa Filomena-Bom Jesus (Gilbues) and Picos - this cluster is located within the Palaeozoic Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin that separates the São Francisco and the Amazonian Precambrian cratons. Locations of kimberlites are controlled by the 'Transbrasiliano Lineament'. The Fazenda Largo kimberlites are intensely weathered, almost completely altered rocks with a fine-grained clastic structure, and contain variable amounts of terrigene admixture (quartz sand). These rocks represent near-surface volcano-sedimentary deposits of the crater parts of kimberlite pipes. By petrographic, mineralogical and chemical features, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites are similar to average kimberlite. The composition of the deep-seated material in the Fazenda Largo kimberlites is quite diverse: among mantle microxenoliths are amphibolitised pyrope peridotites, garnetised spinel peridotites, ilmenite peridotites, chromian spinel + chromian diopside + pyrope intergrowths, and large xenoliths of pyrope dunite. High-pressure minerals are predominantly of the ultramafic suite, Cr-association minerals (purplish-red and violet pyrope, chromian spinel, chromian diopside, Cr-pargasite and orthopyroxene). The Ti-association minerals of the ultramafic suite (picroilmenite and orange pyrope), as well as rare grains of orange pyrope-almandine of the eclogite association, are subordinate. Kimberlites from all four pipes contain rare grains of G10 pyrope of the diamond association, but chromian spinel of the diamond association was not encountered. By their tectonic position, by geochemical characteristics, and by the composition of kimberlite indicator minerals, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites, like the others of such type, are unlikely to be economic.

  9. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  10. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  11. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  12. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  13. 3D Numerical Model of Continental Breakup via Plume Lithosphere Interaction Near Cratonic Blocks: Implications for the Tanzanian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, A.; Calais, E.; Burov, E. B.; Leroy, S. D.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Although many continental rift basins and their successfully rifted counterparts at passive continental margins are magmatic, some are not. This dichotomy prompted end-member views of the mechanism driving continental rifting, deep-seated and mantle plume-driven for some, owing to shallow lithospheric stretching for others. In that regard, the East African Rift (EAR), the 3000 km-long divergent boundary between the Nubian and Somalian plates, provides a unique setting with the juxtaposition of the eastern, magma-rich, and western, magma-poor, branches on either sides of the 250-km thick Tanzanian craton. Here we implement high-resolution rheologically realistic 3D numerical model of plume-lithosphere interactions in extensional far-field settings to explain this contrasted behaviour in a unified framework starting from simple, symmetrical initial conditions with an isolated mantle plume rising beneath a craton in an east-west tensional far field stress. The upwelling mantle plume is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channelled along one of its sides. This leads to the coeval development of a magma-rich branch above the plume head and a magma-poor one along the opposite side of the craton, the formation of a rotating microplate between the two rift branches, and the feeding of melt to both branches form a single mantle source. The model bears strong similarities with the evolution of the eastern and western branches of the central EAR and the geodetically observed rotation of the Victoria microplate. This result reconciles the passive (plume-activated) versus active (far-field tectonic stresses) rift models as our experiments shows both processes in action and demonstrate the possibility of developing both magmatic and amagmatic rifts in identical geotectonic environments.

  14. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-Marine... navigable waters around the SFPD's maritime interdiction training exercises. The SFPD Training Safety ] Zone... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime...

  15. Bio psychosocial follow up of the CHESF (Hydro electric power of Sao Francisco river, PE, Brazil) operators; Acompanhamento biopsicossocial dos operadores CHESF (Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife, PE, Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousseiro Neta, Thargelia Gilda de Miranda; Bezerra, Valdizia Costa; Figueiredo, Miguel Mitre de Amorim [Companhia Hidro-Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the project conception viewing the reduction of human failures occurring in the period of 1983-1998, characterizing the necessity of measurements for minimizing the presented failures. With this purpose, some measures were defined and processes implanted, with the following highlights: reviewing the occurrence analysis procedure; Control, Followup and Evaluation of perturbation analysis recommendations; qualification of the operation failure risks; forum of operation performance risks; control, followup and evaluation of the oral communication; bio psychosocial followup of the operator; technical certification.

  16. Francisco Toledo, artista de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ortiz Castañares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the art of Francisco Toledo (1940 - considered one of the greatest living Mexican artists - has consisted, since its origin, on the recover of the prehispanic culture as an aesthetic and ethical resource, in dialogue with international contemporary culture. A dialectic that is analysed throughout this text, including particularly problematic aspects of his biography, beginning from his identification with the pre Hispanic culture. It is therefore a bird's eye study, which selects certain founding characteristics of the artist and his work.

  17. ENTREVISTA A FRANCISCO MICHAVILA PITARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Equipo Editorial

    2009-01-01

    Francisco Michavila Pitarch, Catedrático de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid y Rector honorario de la Jaume I de Castellón. Ha sido director de la ETSI de Minas de la UPM, secretario general del Consejo de Universidades y rector de la Universitat Jaume I. Actualmente es el Director de la Cátedra UNESCO de Gestión y Política Universitaria. En el año 2007 se le concedió la Gran Cruz de la Orden Civil de Alfonso X el Sabio, distinción que se otorga a personas que hayan contribuido en grad...

  18. Characteristics and Trends of Luxury Commerce in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Costa Da Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the consolidation of consumption as prime stage of the production process and the diffusion of new forms of commerce in the city, as foundations for analyzing the urban space reproduction process in the contemporary period. Having as research place the metropolis of Sao Paulo - Brazil, we conducted an analysis and some thoughts on the place of commerce and consumption of luxury goods in the urban space reproduction process, analyzed from the perspective of the exten...

  19. Crime in Sao Paulo's metro system : sexual crimes against women

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato, Vania; Paz, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates personal safety conditions in the Sao Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is...

  20. Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    The statistical data on gross domestic product and expenditure, land distribution, production of principal agricultural crops, energy production and consumption, imports of petroleum products, cost structure of petroleum products, consumer price index, and financial transactions of the central government of the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome have been presented. The summary accounts of banking institutions, structure of interest rates, composition of exports, import, and terms-of-trade indic...

  1. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  2. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132... identity that can be reasonably traced between the basket and the Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa..., San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415) 338...

  4. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415.... Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132...

  5. Temperature and compositional variations in the Australian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Aitken, Alan; Kennett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The upper mantle of the Australian continent has been deeply investigated in the last two decades using a variety of geophysical methods. The resulting models have revealed the robust large-scale features of the continental lithosphere of Australia, i.e., faster seismic velocities in the Archean and Proterozoic cratons in the West, North and South Australia and slower velocities in the eastern Phanerozoic margin. Furthermore, it has been identified a layered velocity structure in central Australia. The zone of low seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle is underlain by the high-velocity zone. This layered structure may have a thermal origin, due to a redistribution of high heat producing elements within the crust or reflect compositional changes, e.g. a presence of amphibole. To discern temperature and compositional variations in the Australian upper mantle, we apply an iterative technique, which employs a joint inversion of the seismic tomography and gravity data. This technique consists in removing the effect of the crust from the observed gravity field and topography. In the second step, the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography are inverted to obtain a 3-D density model of the upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the notion that these fields are controlled by the same factors but in a different way (e.g., depending on depth and horizontal dimension of the heterogeneity.) This enables us to locate the position of principal density anomalies in the upper mantle. Afterwards, the thermal contribution to the density structure is estimated by inverting the seismic tomography model AusREM (http://rses.anu.edu.au/seismology/AuSREM/index.php). Based on the residual fields, we construct an initial compositional model of the upper mantle. In particular, a negative residual density anomaly is interpreted as the material having a larger Mg# and depleted in garnet and CPX Then, the initial thermal model is re-estimated with the new

  6. Geophysical imaging of metacratonizaton in the northern edge of the Congo craton in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussi Ngalamo, Jeannot F.; Bisso, D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Ekodeck, G. E.

    2017-05-01

    We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate the Archean Congo craton and the Oubanguides orogenic belt in Cameroon. The Oubanguides orogenic belt constitutes, from northwest to southeast, the Neoproterozoic West Cameroon domain, the Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Adamawa-Yade domain, and the dominantly Neoproterozoic Yaoundé domain (the crustal expression of the suture zone between the Congo craton and the orogenic terranes). We analyzed the WGM 2012 data to identify different gravity anomalies. We also applied the two-dimensional (2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis to the WGM 2012 data to estimate the Moho depth. Additionally, we developed a 2D forward gravity model along a Nsbnd S profile to image the lithospheric structure of the Precambrian entities. We found that: (1) the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain, the southeastern part of the West Cameroon domain, and the northern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain are characterized by low gravity anomaly. (2) the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain is marked by a pronounced E-W trending high gravity anomaly. (3) the crust is thicker beneath the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain and the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. (4) the presence of a denser lower crust material beneath the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. We propose that this denser crustal material is an under-thrusted portion of the Congo craton that has been densified through metacratonization processes that accompanied collision between the craton and the orogenic terranes. This is in good agreement with geological and geochemical observations indicating that the northern edge of the Congo craton and the Adamawa-Yade domain had undergone metacratonization during the Neoproterozoic. Our suggestion is also in good agreement with observations which show that the margins of many cratons worldwide have been decratonized due to subduction processes. Our work highlights the importance of potential field geophysical

  7. Assimilation Studies Off Cape Sao Vicente (southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Monteiro, M.

    In April 2001 the Portuguese Navy conducted a naval exercise (Swordfish 2001) in the area off Cape Sao Vicente, in the southwest tip of Portugal. The operational environ- mental assessment (OEA) component of this exercise, conducted by Instituto Hidro- grafico, intended to provide forecasts of the oceanographic conditions to the naval forces. A program of observations, which included CTD casts to maximum depth of 2500m and AXBTs casts to maximum depth 1000m, was conducted in the area be- tween 35zN and 39zN and from 7zW to 12.5zW. Forecasts of the oceanographic con- ditions were produced using the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) with as- similation of the hydrographic data. The period covered by the exercise was character- ized by predominant southerly winds, forcing upwelling conditions along the western Portuguese coast. These conditions promote the development of a large cold upwelling filament that extended a few hundreds of kilometers southwards Cape Sao Vicente. In this communication we present several results obtained for the period between 18 to 28 April 2001, marked by an event of two days of inversion of the upwelling favor- able. The numerical runs were obtained using two nested domains, one covering the global area of observations and the second one covering the shelf and slope area off Cape Sao Vicente. Double-sigma coordinates were used in both domains, with a total of 20 sigma levels. The surface forcing used the wind fields generated by ALADIN- Portugal, a limited area model (12.7-km grid resolution) nested on a global model (ARPEGE).

  8. April 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  9. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  10. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  11. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Surviving the Present: San Francisco Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tom

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the services of the San Francisco Public Library with respect to the effects of Proposition 13 and inflation, and describes the roles of the Main Library, the Business Branch, the Chinatown Branch, and the Communications Center. (CHC)

  13. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  14. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  15. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillari Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. Description GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. Conclusions We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  17. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  18. Results of Occupational Monitoring Program in Technologic Navy Center in Sao Paulo; Resultados do programa de monitoracao ocupacional do Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Clarice F.A.; Bitelli, Ricardo D.; Oliveira, Rodemir, E-mail: clarice.acosta@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: bitelli@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rodemir@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The CTMSP, Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, is a nuclear research Center located in the State of Sao Paulo. CTMSP headquarters is placed at the Campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Most of CTMSP nuclear facilities are at the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located 120 km northwest from the Capital city of Sao Paulo. CTMSP has two major nuclear programs. One is the development of a PWR reactor for naval propulsion, and the other is associated with the front end fuel cycle technology comprising enrichment, conversion and reconversion. These activities require an extensive area monitoring program. This paper presents the results of this program covering the years of 2003 to 2011. The results include surface monitoring, dose rates and uranium concentrations in the air. (author)

  19. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  20. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the...

  1. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  2. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice... of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American human remains and... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA...

  3. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... construction activities for the Middle Fork American River Project. Site materials from the Middle Fork... Jeffrey Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology...

  4. 77 FR 59648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University... contains Augustine Pattern components along with ethnohistoric and historic era materials. In 1997, human... between the archeological record and historic material culture as early as 500 B.C. Ethnographic records...

  5. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: examples from Europe, Siberia, and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija

    of the Precambrian lithosphere based on surface heat flow data, (ii) non-thermal part of upper mantle seismic velocity heterogeneity based on a joint analysis of thermal and seismic tomography data, and (iii) lithosphere density heterogeneity as constrained by free-board and satellite gravity data. The latter...... is compared with xenolith data from the Siberian kimberlite provinces. An analysis of surface heat flow indicates that many Precambrian cratons (particularly the cratons of Laurasia) are characterized by extremely low surface heat flow (... compilation of cratonic xenolith P-T arrays, which are usually consistent with surface heat flow of around 40 mW/m2. In regions with very low heat flow, the depth extent of the lithospheric keels locally may reach the depth of 300-350 km. In contrast, the lithosphere of the cratons which were a part...

  6. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  7. Francisco Miranda, Director de Colciencias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2006-09-01

    De su desempeño en Sussex (universidad distinguida mundialmente por sus estudios sobre desarrollo tecnológico, transferencia de tecnología y administración de proyectos se recibieron siempre los mejores informes, que lo colocaron en el alto nivel de los latinoamericanos ilustres que han pasado larga o brevemente por dicho claustro, como Máximo Halty-Carrere del Uruguay, Francisco Sagasti del Perú o Fernando Chaparro de Colombia. Con ese bagaje regresó al país donde fue designado como Director Administrativo del Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigación Médica (CIDEIM de Cali, cargo que ocupó de 1992 a 2002; y al terminar ese decenio fue nombrado por la Junta Directiva como Director Ejecutivo, cargo que ocupó hasta su designación en COLCIENCIAS. En Cali ha ocupado también distinguidas posiciones, tales como Miembro del Consejo Directivo de la Fundación Planeta Valle y del Consejo de Internacionalización de la Universidad Javeriana en esa ciudad...

  8. CO-EVOLUTION OF PROTEROZOIC CRATONIC FRAGMENTS IN WESTERN AND NORTHERN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanga Bold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CAOB occupies a vast area that extends from the Urals to the Far East Asia and from the Siberian craton to the North China and Tarim cratons (Fig. 1, A. In order to better constrain Precambrian tectonic evolution of the CAOB, it is important to revisit Precambrian terranes of Mongolia as outlined in Badarch et al. [2002] that contain Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic basement and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary and volcanic rocks.

  9. Heterogeneously hydrated mantle beneath the late Archean Yilgarn Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, T. J.; Nebel, O.; Jourdan, F.; Faure, K.; Kirkland, C. L.; Belousova, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Archean mafic-ultramafic melts, crystallized as layered intrusions in the upper crust and extruded as komatiitic flows, are primary probes of upper mantle chemistry. However, the message from their primary chemical composition can be compromised by different modes of contamination. Contaminants are typically cryptic in terms of their geochemical and isotopic signals but may be related to metasomatised mantle sources, ambient crustal assimilation or subduction-related inputs. In this work we present critical evidence for both dry and wet Archean mantle sources for two juxtaposed layered intrusions in the Australian Yilgarn Craton. The ca. 2813 Ma Windimurra and ca. 2800 Ma Narndee Igneous Complexes in Western Australia are two adjacent layered intrusions and would be expected to derive via similar mantle sections. A key difference in their chemistry is the presence of crystal-bound water in the Narndee Igneous Complex, represented primarily by abundant hornblende. Such a primary hydrous phase is notably absent in the Windimurra Igneous Complex. New 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for fresh Narndee hornblende (weighted mean: 2805 ± 14 Ma, MSWD = 1.8, probability = 0.18) agrees with the published U-Pb age of 2800 ± 6 Ma for the complex and is consistent with a magmatic origin for this phase. Zircon Hf and whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopes for the Narndee Igneous Complex indicate only minor crustal contamination, in agreement with H and O isotope values in amphibole and O isotope values in rare zircon crystals, plagioclase and pyroxene within both complexes. These findings illustrate a fast temporal transition, in proximal bodies, from anhydrous to hydrous mantle sources with very minor crustal contamination. These large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions are igneous bodies with a primitive chemical bulk composition that requires large degrees of mantle melting. This has been attributed by many workers to mantle plume activity, yet not without dispute, as subduction-related flux

  10. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  11. El universo literario de Francisco Umbral

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    El universo literario de Francisco Umbral Mi meta es probar la originalidad de la relación de Francisco Umbral con su propia obra a la cual dedicó la mayor parte de su vida, llevando al mismo tiempo una carrera de periodista, esencialmente columnista de prensa, desde los años sesenta y de escritor, difícil de clasificar, fuera de los géneros tradicionales, pero con una tendencia marcada hacia el memorialismo personal. Desde siempre, Umbral ha compaginado una colaboración con órganos d...

  12. La danza macabra de Francisco Amighetti

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo-Salazar, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    En este ensayo se realizará un análisis del grabado El Borracho Abrazado de la Muerte, realizado en 1947 por el artista costarricense Francisco Amighetti Ruiz (1907-1998). La obra forma parte de los 31 grabados que ilustran el libro Francisco en Harlem, escrito por el propio artista, publicado en 1947. Este texto narra parte de las aventuras del autor en Harlem, Nueva York, en 1943. La imagen del grabado muestra a un hombre abrazado a un esqueleto, los dos caminan por una acera donde hay un b...

  13. Seismic anisotropy of Precambrian lithosphere: Insights from Rayleigh wave tomography of the eastern Superior Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Darbyshire, Fiona; Bastow, Ian; Totten, Eoghan; Gilligan, Amy

    2017-05-01

    The thick, seismically fast lithospheric keels underlying continental cores (cratons) are thought to have formed in the Precambrian and resisted subsequent tectonic destruction. A consensus is emerging from a variety of disciplines that keels are vertically stratified, but the processes that led to their development remain uncertain. Eastern Canada is a natural laboratory to study Precambrian lithospheric formation and evolution. It comprises the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Craton, surrounded by multiple Proterozoic orogenic belts. To investigate its lithospheric structure, we construct a frequency-dependent anisotropic seismic model of the region using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations across eastern Canada. The joint interpretation of phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy patterns reveals a seismically fast and anisotropically complex Superior Craton. The upper lithosphere records fossilized Archean tectonic deformation: anisotropic patterns align with the orientation of the main tectonic boundaries at periods ≤110 s. This implies that cratonic blocks were strong enough to sustain plate-scale deformation during collision at 2.5 Ga. Cratonic lithosphere with fossil anisotropy partially extends beneath adjacent Proterozoic belts. At periods sensitive to the lower lithosphere, we detect fast, more homogenous, and weakly anisotropic material, documenting postassembly lithospheric growth, possibly in a slow or stagnant convection regime. A heterogeneous, anisotropic transitional zone may also be present at the base of the keel. The detection of multiple lithospheric fabrics at different periods with distinct tectonic origins supports growing evidence that cratonization processes may be episodic and are not exclusively an Archean phenomenon.

  14. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards.... The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  15. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT)

  16. The Preservation of Meso- Archean Refractory Lithospheric Mantle Underneath the Eastern Margin of the Tanzania Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q.; Liu, J.; Pearson, G. D.; Gibson, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies on the petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Tanzanian Craton and its rifted margins have investigated the origin, chemical change and thermal state of the cratonic roots from its core area (Nzega and Mwadui), its Northern (Marsabit) and Eastern margin Labait and Lashaine area (e.g. Dawson, 1964; Henjes-Kunst and Altherr, 1991; Lee & Rudnick, 1999; Chesley et al., 1999; Gibson et al., 2013). These studies suggest that the Tanzanian cratonic mantle formed via high degrees of melt extraction in the Archean (oldest Re-depletion age TRD = 3.4 Ga, Burton et al., 2000) and sev­eral episodes of refertilization. In order to gain further temporal and chemical understanding on the effects of tectonic processes on cratonic roots, we carried out a Re-Os isotopic study on peridotites (n = 11) from Lashaine, which will be followed by Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd and Sr isotope investigations of the constituent minerals of the same samples. The preliminary whole-rock Os isotope data from Lashaine peridotites show a large range of 187Os/188Os (0.1061 - 0.1261), with TRD ages from Meso-Archean to very young (3.1 Ga to 0.3 Ga). There is a negative correlation between TRD and bulk alumina contents. One sample with the lowest Al2O3 yields the oldest age of 3.1 Ga. Five samples range from 2.5 to 2.8 Ga, three give ages close to 2 Ga, and one sample with a high Al2O3 has a TRD at 0.3 Ga. The positive Al2O3-187Os/188Os correlation trend passes above the PM composition may reflect ancient metasomatism by high Re/Os melts or recent metasomatism by very radiogenic Os plume-derived melts. These processes could be related to the evolution of the peripheral Proterozoic mobile belts, or Cenozoic rifting on the Eastern margin. Collectively, our new Os isotope data demonstrate that Meso-Archean (at least 3.1 Ga old) mantle portions are still retained underneath the rifted Eastern margin of the Craton. This is in line with previous results indicating that Archean cratonic

  17. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  18. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2012. Ano base 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  19. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  20. Water usage in bio ethanol production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de M.; Gomes, Rodolfo D.M.; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F.; Mosqueira-Salazar, Klever Joao; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the water availability, water use legislation, charges and taxes in the state of Sao Paulo, legislation regarding water disposal, potential for reducing water consumption, demand water streams, reusing water streams, and closing water circuits.

  1. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  2. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  3. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  4. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  5. Compositional trends among Kaapvaal Craton garnet peridotite xenoliths and their effects on seismic velocity and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt, Derek; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We examine the modes and compositions of garnet-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal Craton to quantify factors governing density and seismic velocity variations within metasomatically altered cratonic mantle. Three distinct compositional trends are resolved by principal component...... analysis. The first reflects differences in residue composition resulting from partial melting. The second is associated with orthopyroxene (opx) enrichment, possibly due to silica addition by subduction zone fluids in the source region of the xenoliths. The third principal component reflects garnet...... and clinopyroxene enrichment possibly as a consequence of melt infiltration. More than half of the mineral mode variance among Kaapvaal Craton xenoliths can be accounted for by opx enrichment. Melt depletion effects can account for as much as 30% of the variance, while less than 20% of the variance is associated...

  6. In vitro electromagnetically stimulated SAOS-2 osteoblasts inside porous hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Lorenzo; Saino, Enrica; Sbarra, Maria Sonia; Visai, Livia; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Magenes, Giovanni; Benazzo, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    One of the key challenges in reconstructive bone surgery is to provide living constructs that possess the ability to integrate in the surrounding tissue. Bone graft substitutes, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and biomaterials have been widely used to heal critical-size long bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, congenital deformity, and tissue degeneration. In particular, porous hydroxyapatite is widely used in reconstructive bone surgery owing to its biocompatibility. In addition, the in vitro modification of hydroxyapatite with osteogenic signals enhances the tissue regeneration in vivo, suggesting that the biomaterial modification could play an important role in tissue engineering. In this study we have followed a biomimetic strategy where electromagnetically stimulated SAOS-2 human osteoblasts proliferated and built their extracellular matrix inside a porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. The electromagnetic stimulus had the following parameters: intensity of the magnetic field equal to 2 mT, amplitude of the induced electric tension equal to 5 mV, frequency of 75 Hz, and pulse duration of 1.3 ms. In comparison with control conditions, the electromagnetic stimulus increased the cell proliferation and the surface coating with bone proteins (decorin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, type-I collagen, and type-III collagen). The physical stimulus aimed at obtaining a better modification of the biomaterial internal surface in terms of cell colonization and coating with bone matrix. PMID:19827111

  7. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  8. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  9. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  10. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Taricco, Mario Augusto; Plese, José Píndaro P; Flores, Camila; Teixeira, Saulo A; Luzio, José

    2014-03-01

    The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time) organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  11. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, S.; Müntener, O.; Jean, G.; Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2016-12-01

    The temporal coincidence between LIPs and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic and Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundaries combined with geochronological data demonstrating that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. As current hypothesis for LIPs seems unable to produce these successive climatic changes, we evaluate an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. Even in presence of abnormal potential mantle temperature, the presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. Various studies on Kaapvaal craton have shown that sulfide minerals are enclosed in the basal part of the cratonic lithosphere. We argue that initial gas emission was dominated by sulfur liberated from sulfide-bearing cratonic lithosphere causing global cooling and eustatic regression, which was followed by warming/transgression associated with the progressive increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated to LIPs emission. We suggest that the nature of the underlying lithosphere during large LIP eruption exerts an important control on the consequences at the Earth's surface. This model offers an explanation for why LIPs erupted through oceanic lithosphere are not associated with climatic and biotic crises comparable to LIPs emitted through cratonic lithosphere.

  12. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new satellite magnetometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Langlais, B.; Olsen, Nils

    2002-01-01

    , associated with spherical harmonic degrees 15-26 and centered over Kentucky and the south-central United States, are the manifestations of the magnetic edges of the southern boundaries of cratonic North America. The techniques and models developed here may be of use in defining other cratonic boundaries.......[1] A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Orsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies...

  13. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new magnetic satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Mandea, M.; Hulot, G.

    2002-01-01

    with spherical harmonic degrees 15-26 and centered over Kentucky and the south-central United States, are the manifestations of the magnetic edges of the southern boundaries of cratonic North America. The techniques and models developed here may be of use in defining other cratonic boundaries.......A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Ørsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies, associated...

  14. Craton-derived alluvium as a major sediment source in the Himalayan Foreland Basin of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Kettanah, Y.; Gibling, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    , which drain northward into the Yamuna, are vigorous monsoonal rivers with large catchments. Stratigraphic and petrographic evidence shows that sediment derived largely from these rivers extends north of the axial Yamuna River. Red feldspathic sand and gravel underlie much of the southern foreland basin...... of the Bundelkhand Complex. Along the Yamuna Valley the red alluvium is overlain by gray alluvium dated at 82–35 ka ago, which also yields a cratonic signature, with large amounts of smectite derived from the Deccan Traps. Cratonic contributions are evident in alluvium as young as 9 ka ago in a section 25 km north...

  15. Palaeomagnetism of the early Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, F.; Sonnette, L.; de Kock, M. O.; Robion, P.; Horng, C. S.; Cousture, A.; Wabo, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) was the host of several major magmatic events during the Palaeoproterozoic, including the volcanic Hekpoort and Ongeluk Formations. Their possible comagmatic origin is the subject of a long debate. We performed a palaeomagnetic study of the Hekpoort Formation to be compared with the available palaeopole of the Ongeluk Formation, but also to contribute to the apparent polar wander path of the Kaapvaal craton. Characterization of magnetic mineralogy by three-axis thermal demagnetization of isothermal remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility versus temperature points out magnetite as the main remanence carrier in most samples.

  16. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... anisotropy in the crust of the Kalahari craton, which is 30-40% of the total anisotropy as measured by SKS splitting. Our analysis is based on calculation of receiver functions for the data from the SASE experiment which shows strong splitting between the SV and SH components. The direction of the fast axes...

  17. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  18. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  19. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  20. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  1. Morphological evolution in the San Francisco Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    San Francisco Bight, located near the coast of San Francisco, USA, is an extremely dynamic tidal inlet environmental subject to large waves and strong currents. Wave heights coming from the Pacific Ocean commonly exceed 5 m during winter storms. During peak flow tidal currents approach 3 m/s at the Golden Gate, a 1 km wide entrance that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Flow structure in this region varies markedly spatially and temporally due to the complex interaction by wind, waves and tidal currents. A multibeam sonar survey was recently completed that mapped in high resolution, for the first time, the bottom morphology in the region of the ebb tidal delta. This data set includes a giant sand wave field covering an area of approximately 4 square kilometers. The new survey enables the calculation of seabed change that has occurred in the past 50 years, since the last comprehensive survey of the area was completed. This comparison indicates an average erosion of 60 centimeters which equates to a total volume change of approximately 9.3 x 107 m3. Morphologic change also indicates that flood channels have filled and that the entire ebb delta is contracting radially.

  2. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  3. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanosedimentary units and tectonic events occurring in the Ri´o de la Plata Craton (RPC) are reviewed. A belt consisting of volcanosedimentary successions exhibiting greenschist-facies metamorphism is exposed in the eastern RPC (Nico Pe´rez Terrane) in Uruguay. The Parque UTE G...

  4. Seismic structure of a late-Archean microcontinent in the middle of the Western Australian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Johnson, Simon; Dentith, Mike; Murdie, Ruth; Gessner, Klaus; Korhonen, Fawna; Bodin, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The Capricorn Orogen recorded the Paleoproterozoic amalgamation of the Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn cratons to form the Western Australian Craton. Regional surveys involving geological mapping, geochemistry, and geophysics reveal a prolonged tectonic history in craton assembly and subsequent intracratonic reworking, which have significantly re-shaped the orogenic crust. A high-density earthquake seismology deployment targeted the Glenburgh Terrane, an exotic late-Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal block previously inferred from distinct structural and isotopic characters in the core region of the terrane. Prominent Moho and intracrustal discontinuities are present, replicating the overall trend and depth range found in the previous high-resolution deep crustal reflection image. Significant lateral variations in the seismic signal are found across the terrane boundary, showing a relatively thin crust (40km) crust with elevated Vp/Vs ratios (>1.76) in the margin. The small Vp/Vs ratios ( 1.70) are mapped terrane-wide, indicating a felsic bulk crustal composition. Considering the available constraints from isotopic age, magnetotelluric models and absolute shear wave velocities from ambient noise tomography, the Glenburgh Terrane is interpreted as a microcontinent made in the Archean, which however may have been altered during the WAC assembly and cratonization, as well as subsequent intracratonic reworking/magmatic differentiation processes. Our results illustrate that multi-disciplinary datasets bring complementary resolution and therefore may put tighter constraints on the tectonic processes that have affected the crust.

  5. The 1000Ma reassembly of Dharwar and Bastar cratons – Evidence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    All the Purana Basins formed in close spatial association with the stable cratons, and at present cover ... The other Proterozoic basin of the SIB is the oval shaped Cuddapah Basin, the largest among all Purana Basins, .... Sm-Nd isotope analysis from the Vinjamuru gabbro of the NKSB has yielded 2654±100. Ma whole rock ...

  6. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction : Applications to Central East African Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    The East African Rift system (EARS) provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the

  7. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Roddaz, M.; Dino, R.; Soares, E.; Uba, C.; Ochoa-Lozano, D.; Mapes, R.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of

  8. The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: A microscale 187Os/188Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae Craton (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, A.; Luguet, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Pearson, D. G.; Lorand, J.-P.; Nowell, G. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report detailed petrographic investigations along with 187Os/188Os data in Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) on four cratonic mantle xenoliths from Somerset Island (Rae Craton, Canada). The results shed light on the processes affecting the Re-Os systematics and provide time constraints on the formation and evolution of the cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton. When devoid of alteration, BMS grains mainly consist of pentlandite + pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite. The relatively high BMS modal abundance of the four investigated xenoliths cannot be reconciled with the residual nature of these peridotites, but requires addition of metasomatic BMS. This is especially evident in the two peridotites with the highest bulk Pd/Ir and Pd/Pt. Metasomatic BMS likely formed during melt/fluid percolation in the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) as well as during infiltration of the host kimberlite magma, when djerfisherite crystallized around older Fe-Ni-sulfides. On the whole-rock scale, kimberlite metasomatism is visible in a subset of bulk xenoliths, which defines a Re-Os errorchron that dates the host magma emplacement. The 187Os/188Os measured in the twenty analysed BMS grains vary from 0.1084 to >0.17 and it shows no systematic variation depending on the sulfide mineralogical assemblage. The largest range in 187Os/188Os is observed in BMS grains from the two xenoliths with the highest Pd/Ir, Pd/Pt, and sulfide modal abundance. The whole-rock TRD ages of these two samples underestimate the melting age obtained from BMS, demonstrating that bulk Re-Os model ages from peridotites with clear evidence of metasomatism should be treated with caution. The TRD ages determined in BMS grains are clustered around 2.8-2.7, ∼2.2 and ∼1.9 Ga. The 2.8-2.7 Ga TRD ages document the main SCLM building event in the Rae craton, which is likely related to the formation of the local greenstone belts in a continental rift setting. The Paleoproterozoic TRD ages can be explained by

  9. Water and Metasomatism in the Slave Cratonic Lithosphere (Canada): An FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, McKensie; Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Pearson, D. Graham; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Kopylova, Maya G.; Griffin, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Water in the mantle influences melting, viscosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The role played by water in the long-term stabilization of cratonic roots is currently being debated. This study focuses on water contents of mantle minerals (olivine, pyroxene and garnet) from xenoliths found in kimberlites of the Archean Slave craton. 19 mantle xenoliths from central Lac de Gras, and 10 from northern Jericho were analyzed by FTIR for water, and their equilibration depths span the several compositional layers identified beneath the region. At both locations, the shallow peridotites have lower water contents in their olivines (11-30 ppm H2O) than those from the deeper layers (28-300 ppm H2O). The driest olivines, however, are not at the base of the cratonic lithosphere (>6 GPa) as in the Kaapvaal craton. Instead, the deepest olivines are hydrous (31-72 ppm H2O at Lac de Gras and 275 ppm H2O at Jericho). Correlations of water in clinopyroxene and garnet with their other trace element contents are consistent with water being added by metasomatism by melts resembling kimberlite precursors in the mantle approx.0.35 Ga ago beneath Lac de Gras. The northern Jericho xenoliths are derived from a region of the Slave craton that is even more chemically stratified, and was affected at depth by the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie igneous events. Metasomatism at Jericho may be responsible for the particularly high olivine water contents (up to 300 ppm H2O) compared to those at Lac de Gras, which will be investigated by acquiring trace-element data on these xenoliths. These data indicate that several episodes of metasomatic rehydration occurred in the deep part of the Slave craton mantle lithosphere, with the process being more intense in the northern part beneath Jericho, likely related to a translithospheric suture serving as a channel to introduce fluids and/or melts in the northern region. Consequently, rehydration of the lithosphere does not necessarily cause cratonic root

  10. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction: Applications to Central East African Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koptev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The East African Rift system (EARS provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the pre-rift, syn-rift and post-rift far-field volcanic and tectonic activity show that the EARS formed in the context of the interaction between a deep mantle plume and a horizontally and vertically heterogeneous lithosphere under far-field tectonic extension. We bring quantitative insights into this evolution by implementing high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical numerical deformation models of a lithosphere of realistic rheology. The models focus on the central part of the EARS. We explore scenarios of plume-lithosphere interaction with plumes of various size and initial position rising beneath a tectonically pre-stretched lithosphere. We test the impact of the inherited rheological discontinuities (suture zones along the craton borders, of the rheological structure, of lithosphere plate thickness variations, and of physical and mechanical contrasts between the craton and the embedding lithosphere. Our experiments indicate that the ascending plume material is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channeled along one of its sides, leading to the formation of a large rift zone along the eastern side of the craton, with significant magmatic activity and substantial melt amount derived from the mantle plume material. We show that the observed asymmetry of the central EARS, with coeval amagmatic (western and magmatic (eastern branches, can be explained by the splitting of warm material rising from a broad plume head whose initial position is slightly shifted to the eastern side of the craton. In that case, neither a mechanical weakness of the contact between the craton and the embedding lithosphere nor the presence of second plume are required to

  11. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Bezada, Max; Thybo, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity pert....... We also image significant positive and negative anomalies (±3.0%) unconnected to the cratons under the cratonic keels and in the transition zone. We are currently inverting the P wave data using different reference models, and examining the S-wave travel times....

  12. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  13. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the... direction. The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  14. 77 FR 28771 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During... forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast...

  15. 78 FR 20792 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During... forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast...

  16. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  17. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... conjunction with the construction of the New Don Pedro Reservoir. Site materials from the New Don Pedro...-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California. The objects are consistent with the material...

  18. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  19. Trace element enrichment in off-craton peridotites: comparison of off-craton Proterozoic and Pan-African mantle beneath southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Trace element abundances in constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite from off-craton mantle beneath the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal belt (South Africa) and in clinopyroxene and amphibole from the Pan African Damara belt (Namibia) have been determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. Chondrite normalised rare earth element abundances in clinopyroxenes show a wide range of patterns from LREE depleted, through sinusoidal patterns to strongly LREE enriched. In garnets, the patterns range from strongly LREE depleted with flat HREE, through sinusoidal patterns to 'humped' sinusoidal patterns. Numerical modelling shows that the range of REE enrichment patterns can be generated via reactive porous flow mechanisms involving an alkaline silicate melt and where, in the Proterozoic mantle, there is a high fluid/solid ratio (i.e. all clinopyroxene and garnet are products of modal metasomatism and/or near fully equilibrated with a metasomatic fluid). In contrast, clinopyroxene in the Pan African mantle shows evidence for cryptic metasomatism, where enrichment of pre-existing clinopyroxene by alkaline silicate melts has occurred at the distal regions of an advancing metasomatic front. Extreme fluid/melt compositions are not required to account for the enrichment patterns Numerical modelling of primitive mantle normalised trace element abundances in clinopyroxenes show that the commonly observed strong relative depletions in Nb-Ta and Rb-Ba present in clinopyroxenes can be accounted for by crystallisation of accessory phlogopite (in Proterozoic mantle) and amphibole (in Pan African mantle) from the metasomatising melt/fluid. In contrast, strong relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes in both Proterozoic and Pan African mantle regions requires either metasomatic crystallisation of zircon, or involvement of a carbonatitic melt as metasomatic agent. Trace element enrichment patterns seen in clinopyroxene and garnet in the Proterozoic off-craton regions of southern Africa

  20. Neoarchean Subduction Recorded in the Northern Margin of the Yangtze Craton, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. B.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Neoarchean is an important era during which plate tectonics began to operate widely on the earth and the continental crust compositions changed dramatically. However, reliable record of plate subduction has never been reported yet in the Yangtze Craton. Here we report geochemical studies on gneissic tonalite, trondhjemite and amphibolite in the Yudongzi Complex in the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton, which suggests that there is a plate subduction recorded in this area at about 2.7 Ga.The rocks in the Yudongzi Complex are gneissic granite, gneissic tonalite, amphibolite gneiss and magnetite quartzite. Most rocks are enriched in sodic. The gneissic granites show positive Eu anomalies, high (La/Yb)cn and Sr/Y ratios, low Ybcn and Y, resembling typical TTG. The amphibolite and tonalite gneiss show less fractionated REE patterns. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating on one gneissic trondhjemite, one amphibolite and one tonalite gave crystallization ages of 2667±21 Ma, 2701±10 Ma and 2697±9 Ma, respectively. They all recorded a metamorphic event at about 2.48 Ga. The SHRIMP zircon oxygen isotope analysis for a trondhjemite and an amphibolite gave δ18O values of 6.2±0.3‰ and 6.3±0.4‰, respectively. The oxygen isotope ratios higher than normal mantle values suggest a source experienced low temperature alteration. The laser fluoration analysis of bulk minerals gave δ18O values of 6.4-8.8‰ for zircon and 12.5-15.2‰ for quartz. The zircon Lu-Hf isotope analysis on the trondhjemite and amphibolite gave similar ɛHf(t) values of 0.08±0.48 and 0.07±0.63, respectively. Whole-rock ɛNd(t) values range from -1.5 to +1.0. These trondhjemite and tonalite can be interpreted as derivation from partial melting of subducted oceanic slab with a garnet-amphibolite residue.Considering the 2.67 Ga A-type granitic rocks at Huji in the interior of the craton, plate subduction took place in the northern edge of the Yangtze Craton. The Yudongzi trondhjemite and tonalite were

  1. Liquefaction potential mapping for San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavazanjian, E.; Echezuria, H.; Roth, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of saturated deposits of cohesionless soil in downtown San Francisco to experience initial liquefaction due to seismically induced pore pressure is evaluated. Initial liquefaction, or the zero effective stress state, is used as the index of liquefaction potential because it provides the best available index for damage due to seismically induced pore pressures. Liquefaction potential is evaluated by comparing the conditional probability of liquefaction, or liquefaction susceptibility, to the expected intensity of seismic loading, or liquefaction opportunity. The probabilistic evaluation is made using a liquefaction hazard model developed by Chameau. Assuming the water table to be at the ground surface, results indicate that while no liquefaction is expected anywhere for an intensity with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.05, only the most resistant deposits will survive an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.02. For an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.01, initial liquefaction is expected to occur within all saturated, cohesionless soil deposits in the downtown San Francisco area. It must be emphasized that in dense soil deposits the consequences of initial liquefaction may be minimal because of their limited shear strain potential.

  2. Water transportation ability of flat-lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy M.; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2018-01-01

    Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.

  3. Depth of anisotropy in the North American craton from surface wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, V.; Pettersen, O.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of P-wave traveltimes has shown the the North American craton is characterized by a coherent pattern of anisotropy with significant dip of the fast axis in some regions. The depth distribution of the anisotropy is however little constrained by P-wave analysis, limiting the geodynamical interpretation of the model. Surface wave polarizations are very sensitive to dip of anisotropy and can provide the missing depth-constraint to the model. We present an analysis of surface wave polarizations recorded at a number of stations on the North American craton. We show that the frequency range in which we do not observe polarization anomalies implies that the dipping anisotropy is not located in the upper part of the lithosphere.

  4. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Sebastien; Guex, Jean; Muntener, Othmar; Bartolini, Annachiara; Spangenberg, Jorge; Schoene, Blair; Schaltegger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    The temporal coincidence between large igneous provinces (LIPs) and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) and Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Pl-To) boundaries combined with geochronological data in order to establish the sequence of events that initiate two of the major mass extinctions recorded in Earth's history. This synthesis demonstrates that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. The initial regressive events recorded at T-J and Pl-To boundaries seem difficult to reconcile either with large initial CO2 degassing associated with plume activity or by volatile-release (CO2, CH4, Cl2) from deep sedimentary reservoirs during contact metamorphism associated to dykes and sills intrusion because massive CO2 degassing is expected to produce super greenhouse conditions. We evaluate, here, an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Petrological constraints on primary magmas indicate that the mantle is hotter and melts more extensively to produce LIP lavas than for current oceanic islands basalts. However, available data suggest that the Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. The presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. This initial step of thermal erosion / thermal heating of the cratonic lithosphere is critical to understand the volatile budget associated with LIPs while

  5. Mesoproterozoic volcanism, metallogenesis and tectonic evolution along the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    D.Phil. The western margin of the Archean Kaapvaal Craton, at its contact with the polydeformed and metamorphosed Proterozoic Namaqua Province, is host to four volcanosedimentary successions of Mesoproterozoic age (1.1-1.3 Ga) that occur in close spatial and temporal association to each other. These are the Areachap Group, the Leerkrans Formation of the Wilgenhoutsdrif Group and the two volcanosedimentary successions that comprise the Koras Group. There has been protracted debate as to the...

  6. Low temperature Phanerozoic history of the Northern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U. D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Nelson, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    The Phanerozoic cooling history of the Western Australian Shield has been investigated using apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology. AFT ages from the northern part of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, primarily range between 200 and 280 Ma, with mean confined horizontal track lengths varying between 11.5 and 14.3 μm. Time-temperature modelling of the AFT data together with geological information suggest the onset of a regional cooling episode in the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian, which continued into Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous time. Present-day heat flow measurements on the Western Australian Shield fall in the range of 40-50 mW m -2. If the present day geothermal gradient of ˜ 18 ± 2 °C km -1 is representative of average Phanerozoic gradients, then this implies a minimum of ˜ 50 °C of Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic cooling. Assuming that cooling resulted from denudation, the data suggest the removal of at least 3 km of rock section from the northern Yilgarn Craton over this interval. The Perth Basin, located west of the Yilgarn Craton, contains up to 15 km of mostly Permian to Lower Cretaceous clastic sediment. However, published U-Pb data of detrital zircons from Permian and Lower Triassic basin strata show relatively few or no grains of Archaean age. This suggests that the recorded cooling can probably be attributed to the removal of a sedimentary cover rather than by denudation of material from the underlying craton itself. The onset of cooling is linked to tectonism related to either the waning stages of the Alice Springs Orogeny or to the early stages of Gondwana breakup.

  7. Continuous cratonic crust between the Congo and Tanzania blocks in western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Klemens; Koehn, Daniel; Barth, Matthias G.; Tiberindwa, John V.; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Aanyu, Kevin; Foley, Stephen F.

    2010-10-01

    Western Uganda is a key region for understanding the development of the western branch of the East African rift system and its interaction with pre-existing cratonic lithosphere. It is also the site of the topographically anomalous Rwenzori Mountains, which attain altitudes of >5000 m within the rift. New structural and geochronological data indicate that western Uganda south and east of the Rwenzori Mountains consists of a WSW to ENE trending fold and thrust belt emplaced by thick-skinned tectonics that thrust several slices of Proterozoic and Archaean units onto the craton from the south. The presence of Archaean units within the thrust stack is supported by new Laser-ICP-MS U-Pb age determinations (2637-2584 Ma) on zircons from the Rwenzori foothills. Repetition of the Paleoproterozoic units is confirmed by mapping the internal stratigraphy where a basal quartzite can be used as marker layer, and discrete thrust units show distinct metamorphic grades. The thrust belt is partially unconformably covered by a Neoproterozoic nappe correlated with the Kibaran orogenic belt. Even though conglomerates mark the bottom of the Kibaran unit, intensive brittle fault zones and pseudotachylites disprove an autochthonous position. The composition of volcanics in the Toro-Ankole field of western Uganda can be explained by the persistence of a cratonic lithosphere root beneath the northwardly thrusted Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks of westernmost Uganda. Volcanic geochemistry indicates thinning of the lithosphere from >140 km beneath Toro-Ankole to ca. 80 km beneath the Virunga volcanic field about 150 km to the south. We conclude that the western branch of the East African rift system was initiated in an area of thinner lithosphere with Palaeoproterozoic cover in the Virunga area and has propagated northwards where it now abuts against thick cratonic lithosphere covered by a thrust belt consisting of gneisses, metasediments and metavolcanics of Neoarchaean to Proterozoic

  8. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  9. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  11. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  12. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  13. Reengineering Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Laboratories at Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Antonio C.; Consonni, Denise

    Brazilian engineering schools are under a strict program to reengineer their courses with the financial support of the federal agencies. At the electronic engineering department at the University of Sao Paulo, this process started by modifying the Basic Electricity and Electronic Laboratories. This paper describes the new structure of these labs…

  14. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  15. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  16. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  17. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  18. Productivity and cost analysis of feller buncher at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to analyze the productivity and costs of using feller bunchers for timber harvesting at Sao Hill Forest Plantations. Productivity studies were performed during clear felling operations. Continuous time study technique using snap-back timing method was used for data collection on productive ...

  19. Productivity and cost analysis of grapple skidder at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore this study was conducted to analyze the productivity and cost of grapple skidder at Sao hill forest plantation. Time and motion studies were used for data collection. Time elements of grapple skidder operations that were recorded included: travel empty time, grappling time, travel loaded time and unloading time.

  20. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  1. 78 FR 54487 - YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing Operations Group, YP Subsidiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Zero Chaos, San Francisco, California; YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Assistance on February 13, 2013, applicable to workers of YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division...

  2. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  3. Campo Belo Metamorphic Complex: tectonic evolution of an Archean sialic crust of the southern São Francisco Craton in Minas Gerais (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARILDO H. OLIVEIRA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic geological studies performed in the study area allowed the characterization of six lithodemic units: three gneissic, one amphibolitic, one supracrustal and one fissure mafic. The mineral assemblage and the structural record of these lithodemic units indicate that the study area was affected by five tectonothermal events. The structural pattern of the first and oldest event occurred under granulite facies conditions and reveals essentially a sinistral kinematic pattern. The second event, showing dominant extensional characteristics, is related to the generation of an ensialic basin filled by the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the supracrustal lithodemic unit. The third event, which is the most expressive in the study region, is characterized by a vigorous regional migmatization process and by the generation of the Claudio Shear Zone, presenting dextral kinematic movement. The fourth event is represented by a fissure mafic magmatism (probably two different mafic dike swarms and finally, the fifth event is a regional metamorphic re-equilibration that reached the greenschist facies, closing the main processes of the tectonic evolution of the Campo Belo Metamorphic Complex.Estudos geológicos sistemáticos permitiram a caracterização de seis unidades litodêmicas na área estudada: três gnáissicas, uma anfibolítica, uma supracrustal e uma máfica fissural. A assembléia mineral e os registros estruturais dessas unidades litodêmicas mostraram que a área estudada foi afetada por cinco eventos tectonotermais. O padrão estrutural do primeiro e último evento ocorreu em condições de fácies granulito e revelaram uma cinemática essencialmente sinistral. O segundo evento mostrou uma tectônica extensional relacionado à abertura da bacia ensiálica onde se alojou a seqüência vulcanosedimentar da unidade supracrustal. O terceiro evento, que é o mais expressivo na região estudada, é o responsável por um intenso processo de migmatização regional e pela geração da Zona de Cisalhamento Cláudio (de cinemática dextral. O quarto evento é representado por um magmatismo máfico fissural (provavelmente dois tipos diferentes de enxames de diques máficos e, finalmente o quinto evento é um retrometamorfismo regional que atingiu a fácies xisto verde, finalizando os principais processos de evolução tectônica do Complexo Metamórfico Campo Belo.

  4. How Many Transgender Men Are There in San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin; Fisher Raymond, H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of transgender men (transmen) adults living in San Francisco. We integrated two population size estimation methods into a community-based health survey of transmen (n = 122) in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014-2015: the service multiplier and wisdom of the crowds. The median estimate was 806 transmen adults in San Francisco (0.11% of adults) and 4027 in the Bay Area. Considering potential biases, we believe our estimates are conservative. Knowing the denominator of persons at risk for health conditions is necessary for public health planning, surveillance, and impact evaluation.

  5. Francisco de Borja y la corte

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Millán, José

    2013-01-01

    Català: Francesc de Borja va participar activament en el sistema cortesà dels Àustria espanyols, tant abans com després de l’ingrés a la Companyia. La seva actuació s’emmarca en la facció ebolista, dominant durant la regència de Joana d’Àustria, i explicaria, per exemple, la persecució a què Borja fou sotmès el 1559 per l’inquisidor Fernando de Valdés, membre de la facció albista. Paraules clau: Cort; Francesc de Borja; Inquisició; Partit albista; Partit ebolista. Castellano: Francisco...

  6. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  7. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  8. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area; Demanda do radiofarmaco fluor 18-FDG nas regioes metropolitanas do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Planejamento e Inovacao Tecnologica]. E-mail: renato.sato@uol.com.br; dmzouain@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  9. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT: THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, water resource management has been developed using an essentially technical approach. Currently, public opinion on water resource management is formed as a result of growing environmental concerns and social conflicts arising from poorly planned actions. Environmental problems are complex and have multiple dimensions, including social and economic. Therefore, the inclusion of a human dimension in integrated assessment methodologies is required for the introduction of new elements to the water management planning process. Environmental water allocation (EWA is understood as the quantity, quality and distribution of water required for the maintenance of the functions and processes of aquatic ecosystems on which people depend. Within the various holistic assessment methodologies, the Building Block Methodology (BBM was found to be the most suitable, in the Brazilian context, for maintaining and restoring essential elements of the natural flow regime. This article describes the process of social participation in the environmental flow assessment (EFA for the Sao Francisco River, and compares it with some of the lessons learned from EFA in other parts of the world. The process involved multiple stakeholders who have conflicting interests. BBM was used to guide the field interviews, to incorporate the empirical observations by the local population and to guide the methodological procedures of the multidisciplinary team. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of this holistic approach in organizing the elements to be evaluated. It also facilitated important contributions to the establishment of a dialogue between the actors to achieve a better understanding of the multiple aspects involved in the decisions associated with the EWA.

  10. Diagnostic about the use of electric power in Sao Paulo University; Diagnostico sobre o uso da energia eletrica na Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lineu B. dos; Galvao, Luiz C.R.; Saidel, Marco A.; Udaeta, Miguel E.M.; Kanayama, Paulo H. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the Energy Conservation Program in the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, named CONSERVUSP. The objectives of the program are to promote the use of energy efficiently within the University; to offer more energetic services without increasing the energy consumption and to promote the creation of research areas that would be able to graduate professionals aware of the importance of the rational use of energy. It will be also created a data bank with information on how energy is being used presently. This will permit the definition of the potentialities for energy conservation in the future. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Wind power system for Sao Gabriel, Irece region, Bahia-Brazil; Sistema eolico de Sao Gabriel, regiao de Irece-Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Carlos D' Alexandria [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosbruni@cefetba.br; Camelier, Luiz Alberto A. [Companhia de Engenharia Rural da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: lcamelier@ig.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An electric power plant supplied by a wind-generator is the solution for supply drink water on a small community on Sao Gabriel, Irece - Bahia -Brazil. On behalf of the feasibility a wind power system is described in detail concerning it's technical specifications, it's operation, constraints and it's energy demand. Furthermore wind power system supply is described in detail. Simulations is shows how the system is designed to guarantee a reliability in pumping of drinking water powered by wind power system and it's expansion in the future. (author)

  12. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  13. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  14. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  15. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  16. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  17. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  18. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  19. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  20. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  1. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  2. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Eule; M K Sullivan; S A Schroeder; K S Hudmon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine...

  3. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  4. Earthquake Damage in San Francisco, CA, April 18, 1906

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  5. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  6. Consequências cardiovasculares na SAOS Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lorenzi Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma condição clínica muito comum é SAOS, que está associada a várias doenças cardiovasculares, incluindo hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fibrilação atrial e aterosclerose. A associação entre SAOS e doença cardiovascular não é somente uma consequência da sobreposição de fatores de risco, incluindo obesidade, sedentarismo, ser do sexo masculino e ter idade maior. Existem evidências crescentes de que SAOS contribui de forma independente para o aparecimento e a progressão de várias doenças cardiovasculares. Os mecanismos pelos quais SAOS pode afetar o sistema cardiovascular são múltiplos e incluem a ativação do sistema nervoso simpático, inflamação sistêmica, resistência a insulina e geração de estresse oxidativo. Existem evidências que o tratamento de SAOS com CPAP pode reduzir a pressão arterial, sinais precoces de aterosclerose, risco de recorrência de fibrilação atrial e mortalidade, principalmente por acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, em pacientes com SAOS grave.Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common condition associated with various cardiovascular diseases, including systemic arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis. The association between OSAS and cardiovascular disease has been related to the overlapping of risk factors, including obesity, having a sedentary lifestyle, being male, and being older. However, there is mounting evidence that OSAS can also independently contribute to the development and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which OSAS can affect the cardiovascular system are multiple, including the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. There is also evidence that the treatment of OSAS with CPAP can reduce arterial blood pressure, early signs of atherosclerosis, the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence, and mortality (principally

  7. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 5422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felice, G.D. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Lage, M.C.S.M. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Quimica, Campus da Ininga, Ininga, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Guidon, N. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 {+-} 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  8. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  9. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Project Locations, San Francisco CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  10. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Map Service, San Francisco CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  11. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  12. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  13. La experiencia del partido dos trabalhadores en la alcadía de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio KOWARICK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, Lucio Kowarick y André Singer analizan la gestión del Partido dos Trabalhadores en la Alcaldía de Sao Paulo encabezada por Luiza Erundina. Con esta evaluación pretenden conocer la acción del PT a través de uno de sus principales elementos de construcción del PT, el gobierno de las ciudades, que complementa a los otros dos, la vinculación con los movimientos sindicales y populares y la acción parlamentaria.ABSTRACT: In this article, Lucio Kowarick and Andre Singer analyses the government of Sao Paulo by Partido dos Trabalhadores, with Luiza Erundina. With this evaluation, they try to know the action of PT through one of the main elements of contruction of PT, the government of cities. The other are links with trade unions and popular movements and parliamentarian action.

  14. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  15. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  16. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  17. Dos edificios administrativos, en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crown Zellerbach has been built on a large triangular plaza, at the outskirts of San Francisco. This is one of the most recent tall buildings in the city. The Wells Fargo Bank is also situated on this plaza. It is of special interest, both as regards its shape and functional organisation. It has a ground floor, where most of the mercantile activities take place, and a basement, containing a Council room; the strong rooms, with 2,500 private boxes as well as the bank's own safe; washing rooms; mechanical equipment rooms; a rest room; a bar for the employees and independent stairs. The building has a circular planform, 21.5 m in diameter and 354 m2 in area. The structure is metallic, the vertical supports are along the periphery, spaced every 1.626 m. The enclosing curtain walls are glass and anodized aluminium. The roof has radially distributed metal beams, interconnected by prefabricated concrete units, covered with copper sheeting. This bank, shaped like a hunting lodge, and finished with delicate care, contrasts sharply with the powerful volume of the Crown Zellerbach, and of other nearby buildings, and adds distinction to the plaza.Sobre una gran plaza triangular del extrarradio de San Francisco se alzan: el Crown Zellerbach, uno de sus más recientes rascacielos, y un bello pabellón independiente, el Wells Fargo Bank. El resto de la plaza es de dominio público. La originalidad, en forma y organización del segundo, ha hecho que le dediquemos la mayor atención: consta de una planta baja, en la que se desarrollan, prácticamente, todas las actividades mercantiles, y un piso inferior, en donde se distribuyen: un Salón de Consejos, el departamento de cajas de seguridad, con 2.500 unidades, y las cajas del Banco, los aseos, equipos mecánicos, etc., una sala de descanso y bar para los empleados, con escalera de acceso independiente. Tiene planta circular, de 21,5 m de diámetro y 354 m2 de superficie. La estructura es metálica, con

  18. Aspectos genéticos da SAOS Genetic aspects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane C. Mesquita Petruco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da SAOS é resultante da interação entre fatores genéticos e ambientais. Os mais importantes fatores de risco são obesidade e idade. Outros fatores relevantes são anormalidades craniofaciais, hipotireoidismo, menopausa e uso de álcool e de sedativos. A hereditariedade tem sido relacionada a SAOS pela a associação de SAOS a níveis de HLA, obesidade, síndromes genéticas, etnias, sonolência excessiva, alteração do controle ventilatório, expressão de mediadores inflamatórios, entre outros. Este capítulo aborda a variabilidade genética e fenotípica da doença, demonstrando sua relevância no entendimento da fisiopatologia e na avaliação clínica de SAOS.The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The principal risk factors are obesity and age. Other relevant risk factors are craniofacial abnormalities, hypothyroidism and menopause, as well as the use of alcohol and sedatives. By virtue of its association with factors such as HLA levels, obesity, genetic syndromes, ethnicity, excessive sleepiness, alterations in ventilatory control and expression of inflammatory mediators, OSAS has been related to heritability. This chapter addresses the genetic and phenotypic variability of the disease, showing its relevance in the understanding of the physiopathology and clinical evaluation of OSAS.

  19. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, V.M.; Faga, M.T.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    In the decision-making process for the construction and expansion of natural gas infrastructure, different factors must be considered to prioritize areas with high market potential for the given service. The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic model that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the distribution network, taking the advance of natural gas in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) as a specific case study. (author)

  20. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  1. A Magnetotelluric Survey of the Kaapvaal Craton and its surroundings: The SAMTEX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. G.; Evans, R.; Garcia, X.; Hamilton, M.; Evans, S.; Fourie, S.; Mountford, A.; Spratt, J.; Chave, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    Initiated in 2003, the Southern African Magnetotelluric (MT) Experiment (SAMTEX) is being conducted by a consortium comprising academic, industry and government partners representing five countries from around the world. When completed, it will be the largest land-based MT study yet performed, and to date includes the collection of MT sounding data with broadband (~0.002 s to ~6000 s) magnetotelluric (BBMT) instruments at more than 330 sites. Long period (20 s to ~10,000 s) magnetotelluric (LMT) instruments were installed at approximately a third of the sites to enhance depth penetration. The total length of the profiles is well over 5,000 km, with a BBMT station spacing of nominally 20 km, and an LMT spacing of 60 km (every third BBMT site) and includes a wide variety of Archean and Proterozoic terrains. The survey is being conducted in order to gain insight into the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the cratons of southern Africa and their surrounding terranes, and from that knowledge to infer Archean and Proterozoic processes of formation and deformation. The main profile of the survey, traversing the Kaapvaal craton from SW-NE, is largely coincident with a seismic experiment (SASE) and it is expected that the combined results of SASE and SAMTEX, together with the superb geochemical knowledge, should complement each other and add considerably to our understanding of southern Africa. Here we present details of the experiment and preliminary models from the ~1300 km long profile collected during the first phase of the experiment across the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa.

  2. Tectonics of the junction region between the East European craton and West Arctic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, A. S.; Morozov, Y. A.; Terekhov, E. N.; Bayanova, T. B.; Tyupanov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    The region of the junction and interaction between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West Arctic Craton (WAC) is regarded as a complexly built zone or assembly of both the volumetric and dividing linear tectonic elements: the Trollfjord-Rybachi-Kanin (TRK) Lineament, the pericratonic subsidence zone of the EEC, the Karpinskii Lineament, the Murmansk Block of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield, and the Kolmozero-Voronya Zone, which are briefly characterized in this paper. Evidences of thrusting have been established not only in the TRK Suture Zone and on the Rybachi Peninsula, which represent a fragment of the Timanides fold-thrust belt, but also to the southwest, in the Upper Riphean and Vendian terrigenous sequences making up the Sredni Peninsula and related to the pericratonic trough of the VEC. Two phases of fold-thrust deformations with elements of left-lateral strike-slip offset pertaining to the activity and evolution of the lineament suture dividing the Sredni and Rybachi peninsulas have been recorded. The variously oriented fault-fold systems within this fault zone are evidence for multistage deformation and can be explained by an at least twostage change in the kinematics that control displacement along the fault. The disintegrated granitic massifs of the Archean crystalline basement tectonically squeezed out in the upper crust as protrusions are localized within TRK Fault Zone. Plagiogranitic bodies, which underwent superposed fault-fold deformations of both kinematic stages, are an evidence of the vigorous tectonic event that predated folding and two-stage strike-slip displacement along the TRK Fault—by thrusting of Riphean sequences from north to south toward the Archean craton. The nappe-thrust regional structure was formed at this stage; elements of it have been recognized in the Sredni, Rybachi, and Kanin peninsulas. The main stages of tectonic evolution in the junction zone between the EEC and the WAP have been revealed and substantiated.

  3. Persistent River Basin Disequilibrium in a Cratonic Landscape: Ozark Dome, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, H. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Keen-Zebert, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative research on landscape evolution has focused on tectonically active landscapes, leaving the pace and primary drivers of topographic change in tectonically quiescent environments, which make up the majority of Earth's surface, poorly understood. We use topographic analysis and a characteristic metric of river basin geometry, χ, to test the hypothesis that river basin dynamics, including divide migration and stream capture, can cause transient pulses of incision and large gradients in erosion rate, which in turn influence the morphology of cratonic landscapes. In testing this hypothesis, we describe and interpret the disequilibrium observed in river networks draining a typical low-elevation cratonic landscape, the Ozark dome, USA and propose alternative mechanisms to climate and tectonics that generate and sustain large-scale landscape disequilibrium. The Ozark dome was uplifted in the fore-bulge of the Ouachita orogeny and lies south of the extent of glaciation and primarily north of eustatic sea-level changes. The Ozarks have not experienced significant tectonic activity since the late Paleozoic. Landscape response times predicted by stream-power river incision models would suggest that landscapes subjected to consistent, low rates of isostatic uplift should be close to steady state. Yet, rivers draining the Ozark dome appear to be in disequilibrium. Anomalous stream network topology, variable relief across the dome, cross-divide topographic asymmetry that corresponds with large cross-divide gradients in χ, and the prevalence of multiple flights of strath terraces suggest transient and non-uniform bedrock incision rates. Our results suggest that erosional competition between river basins drive much of the observed topographic asymmetry and the in-situ formation of high-elevation, low-relief surfaces on the Ozark dome. This implies that basin dynamics, rather than tectonics, lithology, or climate, may set the large-scale morphology of some cratonic

  4. Magnetic fabrics and rock magnetism of the Xiong'er volcanic rocks and their implications for tectonic correlation of the North China Craton with other crustal blocks in the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiru; Yang, Zhenyu; Peng, Peng; Ge, Kunpeng; Jin, Zhenmin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-08-01

    The tectonic background of the Paleoproterozoic Xiong'er volcanic rocks (XVR) is important for understanding the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton (NCC), as well as its paleogeographic position during the assembly of the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent. Here we report the results of the first anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study of the XVR, and use the interpreted flow directions to constrain the emplacement mechanism and to assess its geological significance for the reconstruction of the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent. Thirty lavas were sampled from three sections in western Henan Province. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including measurements of hysteresis loops, magnetization versus temperature curves and first order reverse curves, were performed to identify the main magnetic phases and grain sizes. The inferred directions from the AMS results reveal a radial flow pattern with an eruption center probably located near Xiong'er Mountain. Our data suggest that the XVR may have been emplaced in a triple-conjugated continental rift on the south margin of the NCC, probably initiated from a paleoplume. Based on this interpretation, a comparison of geological and paleomagnetic results among the proposed crustal blocks in the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent suggests a close linkage of the NCC with São Francisco-Congo, Rio de la Plate and Siberia.

  5. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg{sup -1} and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  6. Geochemistry of the Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India: Implications for PGE Metallogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Manavalan Satyanarayanan; Singh Surya Prakash; Balaram Vysetti; Niranjan Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    The southern part of the Bundelkhand craton contains a series of a E-W trending mafic and ultramafic rocks, about 40 km in length and 2–4 km wide, that occur as intrusions within the Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). They are confined between the Madawara- Karitoran and Sonrai-Girar shear zones. Dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and websterite are the commonly occurring ultramafic rocks that have high MgO, Ni, Cr, PGE and low Al2O3, CaO, K2O, TiO2 and V contents, and ...

  7. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Gladkochub; T. V. Donskaya; Shihong Zhang; S. A. Pisarevsky; A. M. Stanevich; A. M. Mazukabzov; Z. L. Motova

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC) is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB) on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan ...

  8. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Nuggihalli greenstone belt is part of the older greenstone belts (3.4 - 3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar Craton, southern India. This greenstone sequence consists of conformable metavolcanic and metasedimentary supracrustal rock assemblages that belong to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic...... of aggregation and breakup of supercontinents. The 3.1 Ga chromite deposits of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt are part of the global komatiitic surge and are perhaps related to the amalgamation stage of the supercontinent 'Ur' in the southern hemisphere, which is believed to have been stable at ˜ 3.0 Ga....

  9. [The five wills of Francisco Xavier Balmis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro Torrijos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of the testamentary records of Francisco Xavier de Balmis (1753-1819), director of the Royal Philanthropic Expedition of the Vaccine, constitutes a new source material with which to study his biographical profile.Balmis wrote a total of five wills covering the period from 1803-1818 and coinciding with crucial moments in his life.The analysis of these documents has led to interesting observations that confirm Balmis’s personal insecurity before facing the Expedition, his vulnerability when he was stripped of his possessions for joining the royalist cause against Napoleon, the reassurance he felt when his honors and property were restored, or his fortitude in facing the final moments of his life. The documents also reveal that Balmis used his career as a military surgeon as a tool to achieve social prestige, and belie the assumptions of an obscure end. The inventory of his goods confirms his comfortable economic situation and his ability to manage it. The notarial sources are confirmed by this case of Balmis, an official of the Crown, as an appropriate source for the study of urban oligarchies of the Spanish Ancien Régime.

  10. Retracing the Text: Francisco Brines' Poemas excluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nantell

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In 198S Francisco Brines published Poemas excluidos [Excluded Poems] . In this work he included, ironically and paradoxically (considering the title, various poems that had been excluded from his previously published collections of poetry. This essay investigates the critical activity of reconstructing the text within the included-excluded intertextual context of Brines' poetic production. In particular, as will be shown, Poemas excluidos demonstrates the play of texts and play of meaning that constitute the complex object the literary critic seeks to describe. One aspect of the play of texts evident in this work is that the poem is a symbiont not only of other poems of the collection but also of earlier and later poems of Brines' other collections. From this symbiosis arises the interplay of texts and the indeterminacy of meaning of Poemas excluidos . Textual reconstruction yields yet another important result. As critics attempt to untangle the tangle of texts, they become more and more caught up in the snarl of texts, and the play of meaning of the object scrutinized. Critical commentary, then, itself becomes yet one more thread in the intricate intertextual web of Poemas excluidos .

  11. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, M.; Bezada, M.; Thybo, H.; Levander, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the Southern African cratons to depths as great as the bottom of the transition zone. We utilized P-wave cross-correlation arrival times at three different frequency bands 1, 0.5 and 0.25 Hz. All P-wave arrivals were hand-processed. Crustal corrections were calculated using a crustal model we derived from PdS receiver functions using H-K analysis (Zhu and Kanamori, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2000), and varied with azimuth. We chose damping for the inversion by examining the model norm-data misfit L curve. Checkerboard resolution tests showed good model recovery for 8°x8° anomalies with Vp variations of ±1.5%; 4°X4° checkerboards showed moderately good recovery. To try to isolate the depth extent of anomalies in the model we ran two suites of squeezing tests: 1) We reduced the maximum depth of the model from 1000 to 700 to 410 km. 2) For a 1000 km deep model we increased the damping parameter in the deeper layers progressively and examined the rms misfit and the imaged structure. Visual inspection of the tomographic images produced from these inversions showed that the lateral distribution of structures remained unchanged as the depth of the model was reduced and deep structures persist even with large damping, but with the rms error changing significantly. This indicates to us that the deeper structures are real. We have obtained a new P-wave tomography model showing the depth extent of the cratonic keel. We can distinguish the lateral and the vertical extent in Vp variations between the Archean and modified regions such as the Bushveld complex, and the mobile belts surrounding the cratons. The high velocity (+1.0%) cratonic roots extend to

  12. Spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone in Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Rizzo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone of two beaches (Engenho d´Água and São Francisco in São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil, from August 1995 through July 1996. This region is commonly affected by oil spills and sewage waste. The substratum of the two beaches is composed of a mixture of sand and rock fragments. We established three levels (100 m2 in the intertidal zone of each study site: lower, intermediate, and upper. In general, species richness increased from upper towards lower levels. The distribution of species at Engenho d´Água was more homogeneous than at São Francisco. Only some individual spatial patterns were recognised at São Francisco. The most abundant polychaete species at Engenho d´Água (Nematonereis hebes, Timarete filigera, and Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis occurred in the intermediate and lower levels. The upper level of São Francisco was characterised by a peak of opportunists, with a large number of individuals but few dominant species (Capitella sp., Scolelepis squamata, Laeonereis acuta, and the oligochaete Tubifex sp.

  13. Identifying the Transition Zone Between East and West Dharwar Craton by Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.

    2018-01-01

    The data from 12 temporary broadband seismic stations operated across east-west corridor in Dharwar region of Indian Peninsula along with ten other seismic stations operated by CSIR National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in the region have been analysed that provide high-resolution image of southern Dharwar crust. Crust along the corridor is imaged by receiver function H-k stacking, common conversion point stacking using data from 22 sites in combination with joint inversion modeling of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. The velocity image reveals thinner crust (36-38 km) except one site (coinciding with Cuddapah basin on the surface) in East Dharwar Craton (EDC), while crust beneath the West Dharwar Craton (WDC) is thicker (46-50 km). This study also observed a transition zone between EDC and WDC starting west of Closepet granite to the east of Chitradurga Schist Belt (CSB), which shows diffused Moho with a thickness of 40-44 km. Chitradurga Schist Belt is identified as the contact between Mesoarchean (WDC) and Neoarchean (EDC) crustal blocks. The lowermost part of the crust (V_s > 4.0) is thin (2-6 km) beneath EDC, intermediate (6-8 km) beneath transition zone and thicker (14-30 km) beneath WDC across the profile.

  14. On the Origin of High Shear Wave Velocities in the Deep Roots of Cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Duncan, M. S.; Garber, J. M.; Hernandez, J. A.; Maurya, S.; Zhang, H.; Faul, U.; McCammon, C. A.; Montagner, J. P.; Moresi, L. N.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Rudnick, R. L.; Stixrude, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    Some seismic models derived from tomographic studies indicate very high shear wave velocities around 150 km depth, which cannot be explained by standard cratonic peridotite compositions derived from kimberlites, even under the assumption of very cold geotherms (i.e. 28mW/m3 surface heat flux). We present the results of a multi-disciplinary study conducted at the CIDER Summer 2016 program in Santa Barbara (CA), in which we have reviewed various geophysical and petrological constraints on the nature of cratonic roots (seismic velocities, electrical conductivity, gravity, lithologies) and explored a range of possible solutions. We find that matching the high shear wave velocities requires a large proportion of eclogite that is not matched by observed eclogite proportions in kimberlite samples. The high shear velocity of diamond makes it a viable candidate to account for such high velocities, in a proportion that is compatible with the global carbon budget. Our most recent results will be presented as well as suggestions for possible mechanisms for diamond formation and emplacement.

  15. Les organismes du Précambrien terminal du craton ouest africain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eboureau

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available THE ORGANISMS OF THE TERMINAL PRECAMBRIAN OF THE WESTERN AFRICAN CRATON The terminal Precamhrian (Lipalian of the western African Craton, in the Adrar of Mauritania, has provided, especially in the Guelb er Richát, many organisms with an archaic structure, often very simple. It concerns some coccoides, often grouped in more or less complex spheroides according to an evolutionary pattern that could be accurately established. The understanding of fossil forms from the Precambrian is, to a great extent, the result of an interpretation made of an included ‘black spot', which one adopted for the emissions of substance produced by these forms. Compared to the present species, the Precambrian organisms recall the coccoid Bacteria and the Cyanophyceae. These microorganisms are oolithes in origin and are by no means mineral, since they contain stain-sensitive glucides with Schiff’s reagent following the action of periodic acid. These forms, usually spherical, are classified amongst the Oncolithes. These organisms are also responsible for the massive calcareous or dolomitic reefs reaching considerable thickness and containing some known stromatolites in many parts of the world. Stromatolites are Conophyton. Collenia . . . They are spherical, lamellate or columnar. These reef formations of Africa reach a thickness of 3 000 m in the Adoudounian of Collenia of the Anti-Atlas, of 600 m in the Zemmour, of 150 m in the Adrar of Mauritania, of 100 m in the cliff of Hank in the north of the Taoudeni Basin.

  16. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  17. Correlations between the North China Craton and the Indian Shield: Constraints from regional metallogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caifeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the North China Craton (NCC and the Indian Shield (IND has been a hot topic in recent years. On the basis of ore deposit databases, the NCC and IND have shown broad similarity in metallogenesis from the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. The two blocks both have three major metallogenic systems: (1 the Archaean BIF metallogenic system; (2 the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn metallogenic system; and (3 the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn system. In the north margin of the NCC and the west margin of the IND, the Archaean BIF-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn deposits had the same petrogenesis and host rocks, the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn deposits were controlled by active belts, and the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn deposits were mainly related to multi-stage rifting. Matching regional mineralization patterns and geological features has established the continental assembly referred to as “NCWI”, an acronym for the north margin of the NCC (NC and the west margin of the IND (WI during the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. In this assembly, the available geological and metallogenic data from the Eastern Block and active belts of NC fit those from the Dharwar craton and the Aravalli–Delhi–Vindhyan belt of WI, respectively. Moreover, the depositional model and environment of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary manganese deposits in NCWI implied that the assembly may be located at low latitudes, where the conditions were favorable for dissolving ice and precipitating manganese deposits.

  18. Identifying the Transition Zone Between East and West Dharwar Craton by Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.

    2017-09-01

    The data from 12 temporary broadband seismic stations operated across east-west corridor in Dharwar region of Indian Peninsula along with ten other seismic stations operated by CSIR National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in the region have been analysed that provide high-resolution image of southern Dharwar crust. Crust along the corridor is imaged by receiver function H-k stacking, common conversion point stacking using data from 22 sites in combination with joint inversion modeling of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. The velocity image reveals thinner crust (36-38 km) except one site (coinciding with Cuddapah basin on the surface) in East Dharwar Craton (EDC), while crust beneath the West Dharwar Craton (WDC) is thicker (46-50 km). This study also observed a transition zone between EDC and WDC starting west of Closepet granite to the east of Chitradurga Schist Belt (CSB), which shows diffused Moho with a thickness of 40-44 km. Chitradurga Schist Belt is identified as the contact between Mesoarchean (WDC) and Neoarchean (EDC) crustal blocks. The lowermost part of the crust (V_s > 4.0 ) is thin (2-6 km) beneath EDC, intermediate (6-8 km) beneath transition zone and thicker (14-30 km) beneath WDC across the profile.

  19. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  20. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  1. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  2. Café Takksemi - og aðrir tankar úr San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city.......Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city....

  3. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  4. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  7. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  8. Thermal stabilization of the Zimbabwe Craton deduced from high-precision Rb-Sr chronology, Great Dyke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nebel, O.; Mezger, K.

    2008-01-01

    Dating low temperature events such as magmatic cooling or (hydro-)thermal surges in Archean and Proterozoic terranes is crucial in defining cratonal thermal stabilization after episodic continental growth during the Archean and Early Proterozoic. Rubidium-Sr chronology is potentially a powerful tool

  9. Formation and temporal evolution of the Kalahari sub-cratonic lithospheric mantle: Constraints from Venetia xenoliths, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, R.C.; Morel, M.L.A.; Nebel, O.; Mason, P.R.D.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The ~533 Ma Venetia Diamond Mine is located between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and the study of selected xenoliths provides the opportunity to investigate the temporal evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) underneath southern Africa, as well as the extent and potentially

  10. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  11. Sources and mobility of carbonate melts beneath cratons, with implications for deep carbon cycling, metasomatism and rift initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Romer, Rolf L.; Stracke, Andreas; Steenfelt, Agnete; Smart, Katie A.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2017-05-01

    Kimberlite and carbonatite magmas that intrude cratonic lithosphere are among the deepest probes of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Their co-existence on thick continental shields is commonly attributed to continuous partial melting sequences of carbonated peridotite at >150 km depths, possibly as deep as the mantle transition zone. At Tikiusaaq on the North Atlantic craton in West Greenland, approximately 160 Ma old ultrafresh kimberlite dykes and carbonatite sheets provide a rare opportunity to study the origin and evolution of carbonate-rich melts beneath cratons. Although their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-Li isotopic compositions suggest a common convecting upper mantle source that includes depleted and recycled oceanic crust components (e.g., negative ΔεHf coupled with > + 5 ‰ δ7Li), incompatible trace element modelling identifies only the kimberlites as near-primary low-degree partial melts (0.05-3%) of carbonated peridotite. In contrast, the trace element systematics of the carbonatites are difficult to reproduce by partial melting of carbonated peridotite, and the heavy carbon isotopic signatures (-3.6 to - 2.4 ‰ δ13C for carbonatites versus -5.7 to - 3.6 ‰ δ13C for kimberlites) require open-system fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Given that the oxidation state of Earth's mantle at >150 km depth is too reduced to enable larger volumes of 'pure' carbonate melt to migrate, it is reasonable to speculate that percolating near-solidus melts of carbonated peridotite must be silicate-dominated with only dilute carbonate contents, similar to the Tikiusaaq kimberlite compositions (e.g., 16-33 wt.% SiO2). This concept is supported by our findings from the North Atlantic craton where kimberlite and other deeply derived carbonated silicate melts, such as aillikites, exsolve their carbonate components within the shallow lithosphere en route to the Earth's surface, thereby producing carbonatite magmas. The relative abundances of trace elements of such highly

  12. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during a fireworks display in support of the Epic... Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks launch site will be located in position 37...

  13. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  14. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  15. Immunization with Streptococcus suis bacterin plus recombinant Sao protein in sows conveys passive immunity to their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Kai-Jen; Cheng, Li-Ting; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2017-01-07

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunization with recombinant Sao-L (surface antigen one-L, rSao-L) protein from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 in pigs was able to increase cross-serotype protection against S. suis serotype 1 and 2 challenge. Since weaning piglets are more susceptible to S. suis infections due to the stresses associated with weaning, prepartum immunization in sows may convey passive immunity to piglets and provide protection. Pregnant sows were immunized with a vaccine containing inactivated S. suis serotype 2 plus rSao as the antigens. Blood samples were collected from their piglets after birth for analysis of antigen-specific antibody titers and levels of various cytokines. Results demonstrated that the titers of S. suis and rSao-specific antibodies were significantly (p immunizing pregnant sows with the vaccine containing inactivated S. suis bacterin plus rSao as the antigens is able to enhance passive immunity against heterologous and homologous S. suis challenge in their piglets.

  16. Thallium isotopes as a potential tracer for the origin of cratonic eclogites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Williams, Helen M.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman; Viljoen, Fanus

    2009-12-01

    Cratonic eclogites are inferred to originate either from subducted ocean crust or mantle melts accreted onto the roots of continents. These models have different implications for the growth of continents, but it is currently difficult to determine the origin of individual eclogite suites. Upper ocean crust altered at low temperatures and marine sediments both display high thallium (Tl) concentrations and strongly fractionated Tl isotope signatures relative to the ambient upper mantle. In this study we carry out the first examination of the suitability of Tl isotopes as a tracer for an ocean-crust origin of cratonic eclogites. We have analysed the Tl isotope composition of clinopyroxene and garnet in six eclogites from the Kaalvallei and Bellsbank kimberlite pipes in South Africa. Minerals were pre-cleaned with an HCl leaching technique and the leachates display variably light Tl isotope ratios. These most likely reflect low-temperature hydrothermal alteration occurring after eruption of the kimberlite that carried the eclogites to the surface. The leached mineral pairs all display identical Tl isotope ratios, strongly suggesting that the source of the analysed Tl is identical for each mineral pair. It is, however, not possible to exclude the possibility that the analysed Tl originates from kimberlitic material that was not removed by the cleaning procedure. Only one of the six samples exhibits a Tl isotope composition different from ambient mantle. Assuming that the Tl isotope signatures indeed represent the eclogite minerals and not any form of contamination, the Tl isotope composition in this sample is consistent with containing a minor component (low temperatures. Thallium isotopes may become one of the most sensitive indicators for the presence of low-T altered ocean crust because of the stark contrast in Tl concentration and isotopic composition between the mantle and altered ocean crust. In fact, no other chemical or isotopic tracer could have provided an

  17. Cover sequences at the northern margin of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Bracciali, L.; Schofield, D.I.; Wollenberg, U.; Lidke, D.J.; Rasaona, I.T.; Rabarimanana, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The island of Madagascar is a collage of Precambrian, generally high-grade metamorphic basement domains, that are locally overlain by unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and poorly understood low-grade metasediments. In the Antalaha area of NE Madagascar, two distinct cover sequences rest on high-grade metamorphic and igneous basement rocks of the Archaean Antongil craton and the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo belt. The older of these two cover sequences, the Andrarona Group, consists of low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The younger sequence, the newly defined Ampohafana Formation, consists of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The Andrarona Group rests on Neoarchaean granites and monzogranites of the Antongil craton and consists of a basal metagreywacke, thick quartzites and an upper sequence of sericite-chlorite meta-mudstones, meta-sandstones and a volcaniclastic meta-sandstone. The depositional age of the volcaniclastic meta-sandstone is constrained in age by U–Pb laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of euhedral zircons to 1875 ± 8 Ma (2σ). Detrital zircons of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age represent an input from the Antongil craton and a newly defined Palaeoproterozoic igneous unit, the Masindray tonalite, which underlies the Andrarona Group, and yielded a U–Pb zircon age of 2355 ± 11 Ma (2σ), thus constraining the maximum age of deposition of the basal part of the Andrarona Group. The Andrarona Group shows a low-grade metamorphic overprint in the area near Antalaha; illite crystallinity values scatter around 0.17°Δ2Θ CuKα, which is within the epizone. The Ampohafana Formation consists of undeformed, polymict conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone, and red mudstone. An illite crystallinity value of >0.25°Δ2Θ CuKα obtained from the rocks is typical of the diagenetic zone. Occurrences of rhyodacite pebbles in the Ampohafana Formation and the intrusion of a basaltic dyke suggest a deposition in a WSW-ENE-trending graben system during the opening of the Indian

  18. Constraints on the depth and thermal history of cratonic lithosphere from peridotite xenoliths, xenocrysts and seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Kathy A.; Pearson, D. Graham; McKenzie, Dan; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.; Priestley, Keith

    2011-07-01

    the southern African lithosphere. We find very similar estimates for the heat flow and thickness of the lithosphere between SW Namibia (off-craton) and Bultfontein (on-craton). This supports suggestions of a cratonic thermal regime and equivalent lithospheric thickness across that region of southern Africa at the time of kimberlite sampling, with concurrent local thermal disturbance evident in Namibia. Complimentary, novel, seismically-obtained geotherm estimates show that the lithosphere in Namibia is now significantly thinner than the estimate at 70 Ma obtained from xenolith thermobarometry.

  19. Francisco Pino: el poeta de los agujeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Francisco Pino (1910-2002, en sus dos vertientes, experimental y no-experimental, posee una coherencia absoluta en cuanto a su concepción creacionista, que considera el poema como «manifestación de existencia». En este contexto aparecen en los años setenta sus libros de agujeros troquelados, que son su característica más relevante y constituyen una muestra de osadía artística y rebeldía vital. Estos libros de agujeros, minúsculas maquetas del uni-verso, poseen un sentido metafísico-religioso: Pino representa en ellos el vacío y el silencio consustancial a la poesía como música inaudible y espacio invisible, y nos ofrece los planos de una arquitectura poética que comunica con el infinito por medio de la ventana troquelada. Hay una búsqueda de la palabra poética total en toda su obra, desde sus primeros versos, en los que ya aparecen intuiciones reveladoras de sus hallazgos posteriores. Aunque, para Pino, la poesía es búsqueda constante, persecución de una presa inalcanzable. En esa persecución, hallará los caligramas, los libros troquelados y los poemas visua-les realizados en todo tipo de soportes desechables, pues Pino afirmó siempre su deseo de permanecer en la órbita de lo efímero, ajeno al anhelo de eterni-dad y ajeno también a las convenciones de la Historia del Arte, aunque su postura condenara a su obra al ostracismo o la expusiera a la irrisión. En la ilustración de uno de sus últimos libros, el titulado Tejas: lugar de Dios. Obertura, un pájaro se deshace en el poema. Sin trino ni mensaje posible, el poeta recoge la pluma del pájaro y con ella escribe. Así pues, la poesía surge tras la destrucción del poeta, como consecuencia de su disolución en el texto, una inmolación feliz e inexplicable, que inunda de luz cegadora el poema, iluminándole, sin llegar a desvelar su misterio.

  20. Sone megafan: A non-Himalayan megafan of craton origin on the southern margin of the middle Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar; Dayal, Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Researchers in the last few decades have focused on the fluvial megafans at the base of Himalayan foothills in the Ganga Basin. No major effort has so far been made to delineate any such large depositional environment at the base of the northern Indian peninsular craton at the distal parts of the basin. In this work, for the first time, we document a megafan, unusually created by the cratonic Sone River in the marginal plains south of the Ganga. The geomorphology of the megafan surface, distribution of palaeochannels, sedimentology, and areal extent of the megafan are described. The study also reconstructs the tectonic and palaeoclimatic conditions, which might have helped in sediment supply from the cratonic catchment areas of the Sone. We suggest tectonic control over the Sone River channel dynamics and development of the megafan. The oval- and fan-shaped, craton-derived sediment body covers an area of around 12,000 km2 in the marginal plains and about 9000 km2 in the central alluvium north of the Ganga River. The megafan is around 190 km long and 240 km wide. The mean slope of the megafan surface is 0.03°. An onlap of Himalayan sediments has occurred over the megafan at its toe parts caused by southward encroachment of the Ganga during the Holocene. The megafan sediments comprise brownish yellow fine to coarse sand and gravels with an admixture of carbonaceous nodules (kankars). The thickness of the megafan sediment, which directly overlies the Precambrian basement, varies from only a few meters in the south near the peninsular craton to 1000 m at the north in the central alluvial plain. The granular zones form prolific aquifer systems in an otherwise poor hydrogeological setting of the marginal plains.

  1. Paleointensity determination on Neoarchaean dikes within the Vodlozerskii terrane of the Karelian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of paleomagnetic studies and paleointensity determinations from two Neoarchaean Shala dikes with an age of 2504 Ma, located within the Vodlozerskii terrane of the Karelian craton, are presented. The characteristic components of primary magnetization with shallow inclinations I = -5.7 and 1.9 are revealed; the reliability of the determinations is supported by two contact tests. High paleointensity values are obtained by the Thellier-Coe and Wilson techniques. The calculated values of the virtual dipole moment (11.5 and 13.8) × 1022 A m2 are noticeably higher than the present value of 7.8 × 1022 A m2. Our results, in combination with the previous data presented in the world database, support the hypothesized existence of a period of high paleointensity in the Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic.

  2. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  3. Refined Proterozoic evolution of the Gawler Craton, South Australia, through U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, C.M.; Flint, R.B.; Parker, A.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Blissett, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Through the application of both conventional U-Pb zircon analyses and small-sample U-Pb isotopic analyses, the nature and timing of tectonic events leading to the formation of the Gawler Craton have been defined more precisely. Constraints on deposition of Early Proterozoic iron formation-bearing sediments have been narrowed down to the period 1960-1847 Ma. Deformed acid volcanics, including the economically important Moonta Porphyry, have zircon ages of ??? 1790 and 1740 Ma. The voluminous acid Gawler Range Volcanics and correlatives to the east were erupted over a short interval at 1592 ?? 2 Ma, and were intruded by anorogenic granites at ??? 1575 Ma. Small-sample zircon analyses proved to be an extremely valuable adjunct to conventional analyses, generally yielding more-concordant data which forced a curved discordia through an upper intercept slightly younger than from a conventional straight-line discordia. ?? 1988.

  4. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    2010-01-01

    .01-0.38; Cr-ratio = 0.02-0.99) and in silicate-rich chromitite (Mg-ratio = 0.06-0.48; Cr-ratio = 0.60-0.99). In the massive chromitites, the sub-solidus re-equilibration for chromite is less or absent. However, the re-equilibration is prominent in the co-existing interstitial and included olivine (Fo(96...... has been used to compute the nature of the parental melt. The parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt that is similar to the composition of the komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone sequences of the Western Dharwar Craton. Tectonic discrimination...

  5. Palaeointensity determinations on rocks from the Achaean- Paleoproterozoic dykes from the Karelian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valera; Shcherbakova, Valentina; Lubnina, Natalia; Zhidkov, Grigory; Tsel'movich, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The Karelian craton was a fragment of either an earlier late Archean supercontinent, sometimes referred to as Kenorland. Now the craton is a large Archean composite granite-greenstone terrane in the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield bounded by Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in the south-west and by Lapland-Kola orogen in the north-east and Belomorian province in the east-north-east. Mafic dykes, volcanic rocks, sills, and layered intrusions with ages of ca. 2.51-2.45 Ga and ca. 2.06-1.95 Ga are widespread and well-studied in the Karelian Craton. Paleointensity (Banc) results obtained on the Shala dike (age of 2504 Ma by U-Pb, ID TIMS) tracked near vl. Shala and on the Deda island are discussed here. Eighteen block samples of gabbronotires were collected in two sites in the Shala quarry. Stepwise thermal demagnetization (≤ 20 steps, up to 600 C) and stepwise AF demagnetization were done. To monitor possible mineralogical changes during thermal cleaning, magnetic susceptibility was measured after each heating step. Intensive rock magnetic investigations and thermal palaeointensity experiments using the Thellier-Coe (with check-points) and Wilson procedures were carried out. Electronic microscopy study of two samples was made too. For the exception of a viscous component some specimens from the contact zone of the gabbronorite dyke with thin dolerite dyke show two distinct components. The first E-NE intermediate-down direction component was separated at fields up to 50-60 mT and unblocking temperatures up to 520-540 C. The other S-SE low-down direction component is separated at fields from 60 to 100 mT and unblocking temperatures from 540 to 590-600 C. Based on the positive contact tests for the gabbronorite dyke, the S-SE shallow inclination remanence (I = -5.7 degrees) is interpreted to be of primary origin. Reliable palaeointensity determinations Banc fitting a set of selection criteria were determined on 13 samples from 2 sites carrying

  6. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  7. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation.

  8. Unraveling the Brittle History of Cratonic Areas Reveals the Profound Mechanical Instability of "Stable" Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, G.; Mattila, J.

    2014-12-01

    Archean cratons are considered stable regions that have basically remained undeformed since the Precambrian, forming the ancient cores of the continents. While this is certainly true with respect to episodes of thoroughgoing ductile deformation, recent research indicates that shields are not nearly as mechanically stable within the field of environmental conditions leading to brittle deformation. Structural and illite K-Ar geochronological studies on fault gouges point to a significant mechanical instability, wherein large volumes of 'stable' rocks can become saturated with fractures and brittle faults soon after exhumation to below 300-350° C. Indeed, old crystalline basements present compelling evidence of long brittle deformation histories, often complex and thus challenging to unfold. We use the Svecofennian Shield (SS) as an example of a supposedly 'stable' craton to show that it is possible to unravel the details of brittle histories spanning more than 1.5 Gyr. New structural and geochronological results from Finland are integrated with a review of existing data from Sweden to explore how the effects of far-field stresses are partitioned within a shield, which was growing progressively saturated with fractures as time passed from its initial consolidation. Comparison of time-constrained paleostress data from different locations of the shield shows a remarkably similar stress evolution through time, despite the different local geological boundary conditions. This suggests that the southern SS has behaved as a mechanically coherent block since the Late Mesoproterozoic, time when it had already reached structural maturity with respect to the saturation of brittle features. Structural reactivation rather than generation of new fractures is the key mechanism that has controlled the mechanical evolution of the shield and that will steer its future brittle evolution. Similar brittle histories within different domains of the shield also imply that far-field stresses

  9. Deep Structure and Subsidence of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Coelho, D. L. O.; Julià, J.

    2016-12-01

    Cratonic basins are typically underlain by thick lithosphere and slowly subside over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphy consist of unconformity-bounded sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks. The origin and evolution of these basins remain enigmatic. Here, we address this problem by carrying out an integrative study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin in NE Brazil. We analyse a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile crossing the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 9 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed throughout the basin. Our aim is to constrain subsidence histories in the context of crustal structure and basin architecture. Combined interpretation of the deep seismic profile and 1D velocity models calculated by joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves locates the Moho at 39 km beneath the city of Teresina on the basin's eastern region. At the eastern edge of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km beneath Precambrian basement. In the centre of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km. Beneath Teresina, an increase in S wave velocity at 30 km coincides with mid-crustal reflections on the deep seismic profile. This feature is interpreted as the top of a high-velocity body within the crust. Ancillary seismic profiles show that the stratigraphy is divisible into packages of undisturbed reflections separated by bright, rugged reflections that resemble buried paleolandscapes. Correlation of seismic profiles with well logs shows that these surfaces are basin-wide erosional unconformities that are observable in outcrop. Backstripped and water-loaded subsidence curves show exponential decrease in subsidence over the last 400 Ma. This background subsidence is punctuated by departures from the long-term trend at times when unconformities occur, which we interpret as mild regional uplift events.

  10. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  11. Los clasicos políticos, por Francisco Javier Conde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Carranza

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Estudios Políticos de Madrid inició, ya desde 1949 y bajo la dirección de den Francisco Javier Conde, la publicación de la colección Clásicos políticos, en la que se incluyen obras de autores griegos y latinos.

  12. Francisco Martinez de Castrillo: An Early Spanish Author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Jaime

    Francisco Martinez de Castrillo was a pioneer Spanish dental author who wrote and published Coloquio Breve y Compendioso Sobre la Materia de la Dentadura y Maravillosa Obra de la Boca, the first book published ever in the Spanish language. However, his life and work is largely unknown to the history of the dental profession. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  13. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  14. Francisco Ferrer: lieux de mémoire en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François AGUINAGA

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available La répartition en France des rues qui portent le nom de Francisco Ferrer et la date de leur création donne une image de la répartition des bastions du mouvement ouvrier au début du XXe siècle.

  15. The poetics of Francisco Pino, rare avis in Spanish poetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Hub.

    Francisco Pino (1910-2002) can be considered as a "rara avis" in Spanish poetry. Having published dozens of books rather anonymously, and generally with small private presses, he began publishing through more renowned publishing companies in 1978. His various new editions, anthologies and editions

  16. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  17. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  18. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  19. Descriptive analysis of narrative photojournalism in two digital newspapers: Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López Del Ramo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the paucity of studies in this field, this paper seeks to develop an analysis of new products in the digital news media’s narrative photojournalism, its components and substantive aspects, focusing on digital newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian. The sample consists of 35 pieces with a total of 899 photographs, of which 351 (39.1% correspond to Folha de Sao Paulo and 548 (60.9% to The Guardian. Drawing on a content analysis methodology, a self-designed record is used with indicators that are seldom referred to in studies on photography, such as structural design, functionality or integration of multimedia content. The results indicate that these products have different formats and configurations, possess a clear structure, are of a medium-high length, and contain simple functionality. A good hierarchical organization, variety, large size and high-quality images provide a strong visual impact. The textual elements complement and clarify the logical meaning of the story. The inclusion of audiovisual content and links is discreet but well contextualized. All this represents a significant aesthetic-communicative advance as compared to the conventional treatment of photography in the digital press.

  20. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  1. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  2. Genesis of the Zhijiadi Ag-Pb-Zn Deposit, Central North China Craton: Constraints from Fluid Inclusions and Stable Isotope Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao Liu; Suo-Fei Xiong; Shao-Yong Jiang; Hua-Liang Li; Qi-Zhi Chen; Hai Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The Zhijiadi Ag-Pb-Zn deposit is located in the central North China Craton. Fluid inclusions (FIs) studies indicate three types of FIs, including aqueous, aqueous-carbonic, and daughter mineral-bearing multiphase inclusions...

  3. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  5. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  7. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Evolution of Neoarchaean supracrustal belts at the northern margin of the North Atlantic Craton, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Stensgaard, Bo Møller; Keiding, Marie; Hollis, Julie A; van Gool, Jeroen A.M.; Garde, Adam A.

    2006-01-01

    The Archaean North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland collided at c. 1.9 Ga with a lesser-known Archaean craton to the north, to form the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. The Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic grade and strain intensity decrease northward through the orogen, allowing investigation of the reworked Archaean components in its northern part. Two Archaean supracrustal belts in this region – the Ikamiut and Kangilinaaq belts – are investigated here using field mapping, aeromagnetic data, zircon g...

  8. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  9. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  10. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  11. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  12. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  13. Correlations between Pb isotopes and volatile elements in melt inclusions from Sao Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, M. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Vlastelic, I.; Shimizu, N.; Whitehouse, M.

    2009-12-01

    Sao Miguel is the biggest eastern-most island of the Azores archipelago in the northern Atlantic and is known to have a very peculiar isotopic systematics including Sr, Nd and Pb. We studied 4 lavas of Sao Miguel, one is from the 1563 historical lava flow Queimado peak eruption, one is from Picos Volcanic zone and the two others are Pliocene ankaramites from the Nordest. The olivine phenocrysts of these samples have been documented for helium isotopes and show very radiogenic 3He/4He ratios (<6Ra). We analyzed 9 primitive olivine-hosted melt inclusions for both Pb isotopes and volatile element concentrations (H2O, CO2, F, S, and Cl). The Pb isotope ratios were measured by a multicollection SIMS 1280 (NMNH Stockholm, Sweden) and volatiles by a monocollection SIMS 1280 (WHOI, USA). The repeated 207Pb/206Pb measurements of the GOR132 glass standard (20 ppm Pb) yielded a 0.15% relative variation (1 sigma of the distribution). All the melt inclusions have 207Pb/206Pb (0.782 to 0.797) and 208Pb/206Pb (1.969 to 2.041) lower than MORB value (DMM: 0.857, 2.053), i.e., more radiogenic compositions. We found positive linear correlations between 207Pb/206Pb and CO2, F, S, and Cl. The correlations further improve when Pb isotope ratios are plotted against F/P2O5, and Cl/K2O. The Sao Miguel source is characterized by a mixing between a low 207Pb/206Pb and low 208Pb/206Pb in the Nordest coming from a long time residence of high (U+Th)/Pb recycled material, and a component with higher ratios, more similar to other islands from the central group. The low 3He/4He ratio measured on Nordest samples also suggests a high (U+Th)/3He in its source, which may be due to degassing presumably during an early stage of the recycling. The low 207Pb/206Pb with low volatiles samples could also be explain this early degassing. Samples with the highest 207Pb/206Pb are richer in volatile suggesting the presence of a volatile rich lithology beneath the Azores central group, which was also proposed by

  14. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  15. Crustal uplift of the Precambrian cratons due to metamorphism in crustal rocks under infiltration of mantle fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergey; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total area of the continents. During the last several million years cratonic areas underwent rapid uplift, from 100-200 m in East Europe to 1000-1500 m Southern Africa. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier and this popular mechanism cannot be applied to its recent uplift. Large thickness of cratonic mantle lithosphere, 100-200 km in most regions, together with its low density precludes delamination of this layer and magmatic underplating as possible causes of recent uplift. It cannot be precluded that in some cratonic regions recent uplift occurred due to delamination of the lower part of mantle lithosphere with the density increased by metasomatism. Even a small uplift of ≥ 100-200 m would require delamination of a thick layer of mantle lithosphere. As a result a temperature drop of > 200 C would arise at the base of the lithosphere producing a shear wave velocities drop of > 2%. According to the seismic tomography data such a drop in VS is observed only in some regions with the Precambrian lithosphere, e.g., in Northeastern Africa. Spatial distribution of the Precambrian cratons is quite different from that predicted by the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle. Moreover, many uplifted blocks are bounded by steep slopes hundreds of meters to one kilometer high and only tens of kilometers wide. Such slopes could not have been formed by bending of thick cratonic lithosphere under the forces acting from below. Their recent formation indicates rock expansion within the crust at shallow depth comparable with the slope width. Rocks formed at the pressure P ˜ 0.5-1.0 GPa are widespread on the Precambrian cratons. This indicates that during their lifetime a layer of rocks ˜ 15-30 km thick has been removed from the crustal surface by denudation. As a result rocks which were initially located in the lower crust emerged to the middle or upper crust. Due to metamorphic

  16. The Zimbabwe Craton in Mozambique: A brief review of its geochronological pattern and its relation to the Mozambique Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaúque, F. R.; Cordani, U. G.; Jamal, D. L.; Onoe, A. T.

    2017-05-01

    The eastern margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, along the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border, includes the oldest rocks of west-central Mozambique constituting a large terrain of granite-greenstone type dated between 3000 and 2500 Ma. These rocks consist mainly of gneisses and granitoid rocks of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic composition belonging to the Mudzi Metamorphic Complex in the northern part and to the Mavonde Complex in the southern part. The latter is associated with a granite-greenstone terrain, which includes the eastern part of Mutare-Odzi-Manica greenstone belt. A volcano-sedimentary sequences cover, belonging to the apparently Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic Umkondo and Gairezi groups respectively was deposited along the eastern margin of the craton and is exposed in the territory of Mozambique. The Umkondo minimum age is marked by intrusive dolerite in Zimbabwe dated at 1100 Ma while for the Ghairezi it is still not well established. The Gairezi Group was subjected to progressive metamorphism of Pan-African age. At the margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, in its northern part, metasedimentary units occur representing a passive margin of Neoproterozoic age. They make up the Rushinga Group, which includes felsic metavolcanic rocks dated at ca.800 Ma. Granulites and medium- to high-grade paragneisses, and migmatites of the Chimoio, Macossa and Mungari Groups of Neoproterozoic metamorphic age, overly the ortho-metamorphic pre-existing rock of ca. 1100 Ma, which belongs to the Báruè Magmatic Arc. They characterize the N-S trend Mozambique Belt, which appears to the east of the craton tectonically juxtaposed on the Archean rocks. The maximum age of deposition of these rocks, indicated by U-Pb dating of detrital zircons, is ca. 700 Ma and their minimum age is limited by a few monzonitic Cambrian intrusions dated at ca. 500 Ma. The Neoproterozoic bimodal Guro Suite, dated at ca. 850 Ma and composed of felsic and mafic members characterizes the east

  17. Interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells with stainless steel coated by silicalite-1 films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Vandrovcová, Marta; Plšek, Jan; Bouša, Milan; Brabec, Libor; Dragounová, Helena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 76, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 775-781 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02681S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicalite-1 film * biocompatibility * human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  18. Strain accumulation in bituminous binders under repeated creep-recovery loading predicted from small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Olli-Ville; Winter, H. Henning

    2017-11-01

    The creep-recovery (CR) test starts out with a period of shearing at constant stress (creep) and is followed by a period of zero-shear stress where some of the accumulated shear strain gets reversed. Linear viscoelasticity (LVE) allows one to predict the strain response to repeated creep-recovery (RCR) loading from measured small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) data. Only the relaxation and retardation time spectra of a material need to be known and these can be determined from SAOS data. In an application of the Boltzmann superposition principle (BSP), the strain response to RCR loading can be obtained as a linear superposition of the strain response to many single creep-recovery tests. SAOS and RCR data were collected for several unmodified and modified bituminous binders, and the measured and predicted RCR responses were compared. Generally good agreement was found between the measured and predicted strain accumulation under RCR loading. However, in the case of modified binders, the strain accumulation was slightly overestimated (≤20% relative error) due to the insufficient SAOS information at long relaxation times. Our analysis also demonstrates that the evolution in the strain response under RCR loading, caused by incomplete recovery, can be reasonably well predicted by the presented methodology. It was also shown that the outlined modeling framework can be used, as a first approximation, to estimate the rutting resistance of bituminous binders by predicting the values of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test parameters.

  19. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  20. Feasibility study for the implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source facility in Sao Paulo

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda-Neto, J D T

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source is proposed here, using the forthcoming 30 MeV electron CW-Microtron under construction in Sao Paulo. A method to estimate photoneutron fluxes, based on thin target bremsstrahlung approximation, has been developed. The versatility and possible broad range of applications associated with such a facility are addressed.

  1. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  2. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  3. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  4. Precambrian Processes, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and Cratonic Keels: Insights From Teleseismic Tomography in Northern Hudson Bay, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Bastow, I. D.; Gilligan, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Earth conditions in the Precambrian, and their effect upon the formation of cratons and orogenies from that era, are not fully understood. For example, the precise onset of modern plate tectonics remains ambiguous; it has been hypothesised to have begun anywhere from ~4.1Ga (Hopkins, 2008) to ~1Ga (Stern, 2005). Also, the exceptional depth to which fast wave-speed and geoid anomalies extend beneath some cratons points to the existence of thick "cratonic keels", the origin of which remains unexplained. To improve our understanding of the early Earth processes, geological evidence preserved within ancient plates that have remained largely unchanged since the Precambrian can be used. The rocks of northern Hudson Bay include Archean domains, the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), and lie atop one of the largest cratonic keels on Earth (Bastow et al., 2013), making this region an ideal laboratory for study of Precambrian processes. Here, we use seismological data recorded at Canadian POLARIS and Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) stations to perform a relative arrival-time study of northern Hudson Bay region and the THO. Waveforms are aligned using the adaptive stacking routine of Rawlinson et al. (2004), and inversions are produced using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) inversion code of Rawlinson et al. (2006). Our inversions provide an improved velocity model of the lithosphere and upper mantle of northern Canada, suggesting updated boundaries between lithospheric blocks at mantle depths and constituting new body-wave constraints on their structure. The results are used to address a number of outstanding questions regarding the processes that formed the THO and the Laurentian Keel of North America.

  5. Deep Structure and Subsidence History of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicky; Coelho, Diogo; Julià, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Cratonic sedimentary basins constitute some of the largest sedimentary basins on Earth. They are typically underlain by thick (i.e. 200 km) lithosphere and are characterized by slow, punctuated subsidence that occurs over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphic records mainly consist of sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks bounded by basin-wide erosional unconformities. Despite the importance of these basins, their origin and evolution remain poorly understood, mainly due to scarcity of well-constrained geological and geophysical data. In order to address this problem, an integrative study of the Parnaíba Cratonic basin in NE Brazil has been carried out within the framework of a multidisciplinary investigation. Here, we combine the analysis of a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile that crosses the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 12 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed across the basin. Our main goal is to constrain the basin's subsidence history in the context of its deep crustal structure and sedimentary architecture. Joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group dispersion measurements has been used to calculate 1D shear wave velocity models for crust and upper mantle beneath each seismic station. Combined interpretation of these velocity profiles and the deep seismic reflection profile has been carried out. Our results suggest Moho depths of approximately 35 km and 38 km beneath Precambrian basement east and west of the Parnaíba basin, respectively. In contrast, the Moho occurs at approximately 39 km beneath the city of Teresina, located on the eastern region of the basin, and at depths between 40 km and 42 km beneath the central and western areas of the basin. These results are combined to construct a sub-surface model underneath Parnaíba, and gravity modeling is used to test its validity. Average

  6. The new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate in Brazil: The expansion of snowball Earth events to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio Henrique Garcia; Sans-Jofre, Pierre; Bandeira, José Cavalcante da Silva; Oliveira, José Guilherme Ferreira de; Sial, Alcides Nóbrega

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate deposits exposed in the border of the Pimenta Bueno and Colorado grabens, western part of Parecis Basin, southwestern Amazon Craton, Brazil, have been previously considered as Paleozoic record. These deposits lying unconformably on Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, the basement of the grabens, and consist predominantly by pinkish dolomite overlying glacial diamictites, with average negative values of δ13C of -3,10‰VPDB. The contact between the dolostone and diamictites is sharp and deformed similarly with others Neoproterozoic cap carbonates occurrences in the Amazon Craton, also related to the Marinoan Glaciation (635 Ma). This new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate is composed by two facies associations. Facies Association 1 consists of pinkish peloidal dolostone with even parallel and quasi-planar laminations, wavy and megarriple bedding, macropeloid lenses associated with low-angle truncations, interpreted as fairwhether- and storm-influenced shallow platform deposits. Facies association 2 consists in dolostone rhythmically interbedded with shale underlaid by 5 m-thick laminated siltstones, interpreted as moderately deep platform deposits. This retrogradational succession is overlaid in angular unconformity by Early Paleozoic diamictites and locally by Mesozoic volcanic rocks. This cap carbonate precedes the Paleozoic deposits of Parecis Basin and represents a post-glacial event linked to the Marinoan glaciation, extending to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton the phenomena of the Snowball Earth hypothesis.

  7. Alterações cognitivas na SAOS Cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterações da cognição e do desempenho estão bem estabelecidas em pacientes com SAOS, causando um impacto significativo sobre a qualidade de vida e o risco de acidentes nesses indivíduos. Tais alterações são mais profundas nos quadros mais graves de SAOS, o que explica a aparente discrepância na frequência e gravidade desse prejuízo entre estudos com pacientes de clínicas de sono e estudos de base populacional. Vários aspectos podem estar comprometidos, incluindo o processamento cognitivo, a atenção sustentada, as funções executivas e a memória. Entretanto, os mecanismos causais desses déficits não estão inteiramente elucidados, e existem controvérsias, particularmente em relação à contribuição relativa da hipóxia intermitente e da interrupção do sono presentes na SAOS. O impacto da sonolência diurna sobre o desempenho desses pacientes nos diversos testes cognitivos também ainda deve ser determinado, assim como o possível efeito de comorbidades frequentes, incluindo o diabete melito, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a doença cardiovascular e a obesidade. Existem evidências convincentes de que o tratamento com CPAP produz uma significativa melhora do desempenho e da cognição, sobretudo nos portadores de SAOS moderada e grave, embora sejam necessários mais estudos acerca do seu impacto a longo prazo.Cognitive and performance impairment is well established in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, having a significant impact on the quality of life and the risk of accidents in these individuals. The severity of the impairment correlates with that of the OSAS, which explains the apparent discrepancy between studies using patients from sleep clinics and population-based studies in terms of the reported frequency and severity of such impairment. Cognitive processing, sustained attention, executive functioning, and memory have all been reported to be impaired in OSAS. However, the causal

  8. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dbenites@ipen.br, e-mail: amgordon@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and

  9. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  10. Classification System and Information Services in the Library of SAO RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, G. S.

    The classification system used at SAO RAS is described. It includes both special determinants from UDC (Universal Decimal Classification) and newer tables with astronomical terms from the Library-Bibliographical Classification (LBC). The classification tables are continually modified, and new astronomical terms are introduced. At the present time the information services of the scientists is fulfilled with the help of the Abstract Journal Astronomy, Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, catalogues and card indexes of the library. Based on our classification system and The Astronomy Thesaurus completed by R.M. Shobbrook and R.R. Shobbrook the development of a database for the library has been started, which allows prompt service of the observatory's staff members.

  11. [Risk factors associated with overweight among adolescents from western Sao Paulo state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rômulo Aráujo; Conterato, Igor; Messias, Kelly Patrícia; Christofaro, Diego Giuliano Destro; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between being overweight and family risk factors in adolescents from Western Sao Paulo state. This cross-sectional study involved 1779 adolescents of both genders and with ages ranging between 11 and 17 years. The participants' body mass index was calculated, and the family risk factors were analyzed through a questionnaire. Excessive weight was associated with the male gender (CR = 1.55 [1.22-1.97]), studying in a private school (CR = 2.14 [1.56-2.94]) and mother's higher education (CR = 0.52 [0.33-0.83]). There is a need to implement initiatives to fight obesity in the school environment and reach the whole family structure, taking gender-related specificities into consideration.

  12. Coulthard, M. 1991. Linguagem e sexo. Sao Paulo: EditoraAtica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Buchweitz Garcez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discutir o sexo dos anjos podenio ser urn empreendimento tic intitil como sempre pareceu. Dessa forma, perguntar por que falamos de "Homens" quando nos referimos a toda a humanidade incluindo as mulheres ou perguntar por que afinal Deus 6 "ele", e nao "ela" ou "aquilo", significa refletir sobre as conseqiiencias para a sociedade da escolha (intencional? do genero masculino como o genero näo marcado. Significa, tambem, refletir sobre as linguagens faladas por homens e mulheres, se elas silo diferentes entre si e quais sic, as diferencas; e, uma vez constatadas as diferencas, refletir sobre como elas se manifestam, de onde vem e quais sao seas conseqUencias. Esse 6 objetivo de Malcolm Coulthard em Linguagem e Sexo: mostrar as diferencas lingufsticas relacionadas ao sexo do falante.

  13. Investigation of wind characteristics and wind energy assessment in Sao Joao do Cariri (SJC) - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Laerte; Filho, Celso

    2010-09-15

    In this study wind characterization and wind energy assessment of the Sao Joao do Cariri (SJC) in Paraiba state situated in Brazilian northeast. The average wind speed and temperature for 25 and 50 m were found 4,74m/s, 24,46C and 5,31m/s 24,25C with wind speed predominate direction of SSE (165 degrees). Weibull shape, scale ,Weibull fit wind speed and Power wind density found 2,54, 5,4m/s, 4,76m/s and 103W/m2 for 25m wind height measurements and 2,59, 6,0m/s, 5,36m/s and 145W/m2 for 50m wind height measurements.

  14. Lithospheric thermal evolution and dynamic mechanism of destruction of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zian; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Ge; Zhao, Chongbin; Liang, Yingjie

    2017-09-01

    The dynamic mechanism for destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) has been extensively discussed. Numerical simulation is used in this paper to discuss the effect of mantle upward throughflow (MUT) on the lithospheric heat flux of the NCC. Our results yield a three-stage destruction of the NCC lithosphere as a consequence of MUT variation. (1) In Late Paleozoic, the elevation of MUT, which was probably caused by southward and northward subduction of the paleo-Asian and paleo-Tethyan oceans, respectively, became a prelude to the NCC destruction. The geological consequences include a limited decrease of the lithospheric thickness, an increase of heat flux, and a gradual enhancement of the crustal activity. But the tectonic attribute of the NCC maintained a stable craton. (2) During Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, the initial velocity of the MUT became much faster probably in response to subduction of the Pacific Ocean; the conductive heat flux at the base of the NCC lithosphere gradually increased from west to east; and the lithospheric thickness was significantly decreased. During this stage, the heat flux distribution was characterized by zonation and partition, with nearly horizontal layering in the lithosphere and vertical layering in the underlying asthenosphere. Continuous destruction of the NCC lithosphere was associated with the intense tectono-magmatic activity. (3) From Late Cretaceous to Paleogene, the velocity of MUT became slower due to the retreat of the subducting Pacific slab; the conductive heat flux at the base of lithosphere was increased from west to east; the distribution of heat flux was no longer layered. The crust of the western NCC is relatively hotter than the mantle, so-called as a `hot crust but cold mantle' structure. At the eastern NCC, the crust and the mantle characterized by a `cold crust but hot mantle.' The western NCC (e.g., the Ordos Basin) had a tectonically stable crust with low thermal gradients in the lithosphere; whereas

  15. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early

  16. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Located along the northwestern edge of the West African Craton, Morocco exhibits a wide variety of magmatic events from Archean to Quaternary. The oldest magmatic rocks belong to the Archean Reguibat Shield outcrops in the Moroccan Sahara. Paleoproterozoic magmatism, known as the Anti-Atlas granitoids, is related to the Eburnean orogeny and initial cratonization of the WAC. Mesoproterozoic magmatism is represented by a small number of mafic dykes known henceforth as the Taghdout mafic volcanism. Massive Neoproterozoic magmatic activity, related to the Pan-African cycle, consists of rift-related Tonian magmatism associated with the Rodinia breakup, an Early Cryogenian convergent margin event (760-700 Ma), syn-collisional Bou-Azzer magmatism (680-640 Ma), followed by widespread Ediacaran magmatism (620-555 Ma). Each magmatic episode corresponded to a different geodynamic environment and produced different types of magma. Phanerozoic magmatism began with Early Cambrian basaltic (rift?) volcanism, which persisted during the Middle Cambrian, and into the Early Ordovician. This was succeeded by massive Late Devonian and Carboniferous, pre-Variscan tholeiitic and calc-alkaline (Central Morocco) volcanic flows in basins of the Moroccan Meseta. North of the Atlas Paleozoic Transform Zone, the Late Carboniferous Variscan event was accompanied by the emplacement of 330-300 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids in upper crustal shear zones. Post-Variscan alkaline magmatism was associated with the opening of the Permian basins. Mesozoic magmatism began with the huge volumes of magma emplaced around 200 Ma in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) which was associated with the fragmentation of Pangea and the subsequent rifting of Central Atlantic. CAMP volcanism occurs in all structural domains of Morocco, from the Anti-Atlas to the External Rif domain with a peak activity around 199 Ma. A second Mesozoic magmatic event is represented by mafic lava flows and gabbroic intrusions in

  17. The thermal structure of cratonic lithosphere from global Rayleigh wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Bao, Xueyang; Ma, Zhitu

    2017-01-01

    The resolution of and level of agreement between different attenuation models have historically been limited by complexities associated with extracting attenuation from seismic-wave amplitudes, which are also affected by the source, the receiver, and propagation through velocity heterogeneities. For intermediate- and long-period Rayleigh waves, removing the amplitude signal due to focusing and defocusing effects is the greatest challenge. In this paper, three independent data sets of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitude are analyzed to investigate how three factors contribute to discrepancies between the attenuation models: uncertainties in the amplitude measurements themselves, variable path coverage, and the treatment of focusing effects. Regionalized pure-path and fully two-dimensional attenuation models are derived and compared. The approach for determining attenuation models from real data is guided by an analysis of amplitudes measured from synthetic spectral-element waveforms, for which the input Earth model is perfectly known. The results show that differences in the amplitude measurements introduce only very minor differences between the attenuation models; path coverage and the removal of focusing effects are more important. The pure-path attenuation values exhibit a clear dependence on tectonic region at shorter periods that disappears at long periods, in agreement with pure-path phase-velocity results obtained by inverting Rayleigh wave phase delays. The 2-D attenuation maps are highly correlated with each other to spherical-harmonic degree 16 and can resolve smaller features than the previous generation of global attenuation models. Anomalously low attenuation is nearly perfectly associated with continental cratons. Variations in lithospheric thickness are determined by forward modeling the global attenuation variations as a thermal boundary layer of variable thickness. Temperature profiles that satisfy the attenuation values systematically

  18. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  19. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  20. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  2. La imagen del arzobispo y cardenal Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Cruz Alcañiz, Cándido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Buitrón (1722-1804 as an historic personage generates a projection in a continuous image. The author presents and analyses the portraits from his period as Archbishop of Mexico (1766-1772 and those from his period as Archbishop of Toledo (1772-1800, all testimonies of his social activities.

    Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Buitrón (1722-1804 como personaje histórico genera una proyección advertida en una imagen continuada. Damos a conocer y analizamos los retratos de su etapa como arzobispo de México (1766-1772 y como arzobispo de Toledo (1772-1800, testimonios de su actividad social.

  3. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helen; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey; California State University, Monterey Bay; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. View eastward, through the Golden Gate into central San Francisco Bay. Depth of sea floor color coded: red (less than 10 m deep) to purple (more than 100 m deep). Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Sand waves in this view average 6 m in height and 80 m from crest to crest. Golden Gate Bridge is about 2 km long. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 4x for sea floor, 2x for land.

  4. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  5. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  6. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  7. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  8. Key Elements of Cratonic and Pericratonic Lithospheric Structure Revealed by Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiling collected both by national programs (COCORP in the US; LITHOPROBE in Canada) and regional programs (e.g. GLIMPCE, CDROM,) have traversed most of the major tectonic elements of the North American craton and its Precambrian periphery. Once argued to be relatively bland in terms of reflection character, the craton has turned out to exhibit a rich diversity of fabrics and features of fundamental tectonic significance. Among the more distinctive characteristics are: 1) crustal penetrating zones of pronounced reflectivity that suggest distributed shear fabrics, a likely fingerprint of past crustal flow. The type example is the Grenville Front at the eastern edge of the Superior Province; 2) A sharp contrast in reflectivity across the Moho, exemplified by seismic reflection profiles in the Abitibi-Grenville, Superior and Slave Provinces; 3) Distinct, dipping reflections that penetrate into the mantle from the lower crust, usually interpret as fossil subduction zones; 4) Prominent reflections that delineate thin, extensive sills in the upper to mid crust; 5) Thick layered sequences that mark extensive buried volcano-sedimentary units in the peripheral platforms of the central U.S.; and 6) Apparent continuity of crustal fabrics across the Moho that argue for preservation of Precambrian tectonic structures in the upper mantle, even in Phanerozoic remobilized terranes, and/or evolution of the Moho as a phase change rather than a lithologic contrast in some areas. For the most part, the structural assemblages revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling in the North American craton support a plate tectonic regime in the Archean. Perhaps the most iconic of the deep reflection transects of cratonic North America is the SNORCLE transect of the LITHOPROBE program, which demonstrates not only the intrinsic heterogeneity of the crust and crust-mantle boundary, but a complex assemblage of mantle discontinuities that preserve tectonic fabrics well

  9. Geochemistry of the Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India: Implications for PGE Metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Satyanarayanan; Singh, Surya Prakash; Balaram, Vysetti; Niranjan, Mohanty

    2015-12-01

    The southern part of the Bundelkhand craton contains a series of a E-W trending mafic and ultramafic rocks, about 40 km in length and 2-4 km wide, that occur as intrusions within the Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). They are confined between the Madawara- Karitoran and Sonrai-Girar shear zones. Dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and websterite are the commonly occurring ultramafic rocks that have high MgO, Ni, Cr, PGE and low Al2O3, CaO, K2O, TiO2 and V contents, and shows peridotitic affinity. A distinct trend of crystallization from peridotite to komatiitic basalt has been inferred from geochemical plots, which also indicates the occurrence of at least two varieties among the ultramafic suite of the Madawara ultramafic complex, namely, Group I comprising dunite, spinel peridotite, harzburgite and lherzolite, and Group II consisting of pyroxenite, websterite and olivine websterite. In several places, the rocks of Group II have an intrusive relationship with Group I, and are relatively enriched in total platinum group elements (PGE ~ 300 ppb). The discrimination diagrams suggest that the PGE are enriched in low sulphur-fugacity source magma at moderate to deeper depths by high degree of partial melting of the mantle.

  10. Strong lateral variations of lithospheric mantle beneath cratons - Example from the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H. A.; Debayle, E.; Maupin, V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding mechanisms for creation and evolution of Precambrian continental lithosphere requires to go beyond the large-scale seismic imaging in which shields often appear as laterally homogeneous, with a thick and fast lithosphere. We here present new results from a seismic experiment (POLENET-LAPNET) in the northern part of the Baltic Shield where we identify very high seismic velocities (Vs˜4.7 km/s) in the upper part of the mantle lithosphere and a velocity decrease of ˜0.2 km/s at approximately 150 km depth. We interpret this velocity decrease as refertilisation of the lower part of the lithosphere. This result is in contrast to the lithospheric structure immediately south of the study area, where the seismic velocities within the lithosphere are fast down to 250 km depth, as well as to that of southern Norway, where there is no indication of very high velocities in the lithospheric mantle (Vs of ˜4.4 km/s). While the relatively low velocities beneath southern Norway can tentatively be attributed to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, the velocity decrease beneath northern Finland is not easily explained with present knowledge of surface tectonics. Our results show that shield areas may be laterally heterogeneous even over relatively short distances. Such variability may in many cases be related to lithosphere erosion and/or refertilisation at the edge of cratons, which may therefore be particularly interesting targets for seismic imaging.

  11. On the nature and origin of highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: Petrological and geophysical constraints from the Tanzanian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. A.; McMahon, S. C.; Day, J. A.; Dawson, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and timescales of garnet formation are important to understanding how subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) has evolved since the Archean, and also to mantle dynamics, because the presence of garnet greatly influences the density of the lower lithosphere and hence the long-term stability of thick (150 to 220 km) subcratonic lithosphere. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of garnet in the SCLM remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. Garnets found in mantle xenoliths from the eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton (Lashaine) have diverse compositions and provide major constraints on how the underlying deep (120 to 160 km) mantle evolved during the last 3 billion years. Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism [Stachel et al., 2004]. These rare ultradepleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with highly-refractory olivine (Fo95.4) and orthopyroxene (Mg#=96.4). These phases are all more magnesian than generally encountered in global mantle harzburgites and diamond inclusions. The ultradepleted garnets form interconnecting networks around grains of orthopyroxene which give the rocks a banded appearance: we propose that the increase in pressure associated with cratonization may have caused isochemical exsolution of ultradepleted garnet from orthopyroxene. These unique garnets have not previously been identified in global suites of mantle xenoliths or diamond inclusions. We believe they are rare because their low concentrations of trace elements make them readily susceptible to geochemical overprinting. This highly-refractory low-density peridotite may be common in the 'shallow' SCLM but not normally brought to the

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE OF THE SIBERAIN CRATON AND SEISMODYNAMICS OF DEFORMATION WAVES IN THE BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The evolution and specific features of seismogynamics of the Baikal zones are reviewed in the context of interactions between deep deformation waves and the regional structure of the lithospheric mantle. The study is based on a model of the mantle structure with reference to chemical compositions of mantle peridotites from ophiolotic series located in the south-western framing of the Siberian craton (Fig. 1. The chemical zonation of the lithospheric mantle at the regional scale is determined from results of analyses of the heterogeneity of compositions of peridotites (Fig. 2, Table 1 and variations of contents of whole rock major components, such as iron, magnesium and silica (Fig. 3. According to spatial variations of the compositions of peridotites, the mantle has the concentric zonal structure, and the content of SiO2 is regularly decreasing, while concentrations of FeO∑ and MgO are increasing towards the centre of such structure (Fig. 4. This structure belongs to the mantle of the Siberian craton, which deep edge extends beyond the surface contour of the craton and underlies the north-western segment of the Central Asian orogenic belt.Results of the studies of peridotites of the Baikal region are consistent with modern concepts [Snyder, 2002; O’Reilly, Griffin, 2006; Chen et al., 2009] that suggest that large mantle lenses underlie the Archaean cratons (Fig. 5. The lenses are distinguished by high-density ultrabasic rocks and compose high-velocity roots of cratons which have remained isolated from technic processes. Edges of the mantle lenses may extend a few hundred kilometers beyond the limits of the cratons and underlie orogenic belts that frame the cratons, and this takes place in the south-western segment of the Siberian craton.The revealed structure of the lithospheric mantle is consistent with independent results of seismic and magmatectonical studies of the region. The Angara geoblock is located above the central part of the

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE OF THE SIBERAIN CRATON AND SEISMODYNAMICS OF DEFORMATION WAVES IN THE BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The evolution and specific features of seismogynamics of the Baikal zones are reviewed in the context of interactions between deep deformation waves and the regional structure of the lithospheric mantle. The study is based on a model of the mantle structure with reference to chemical compositions of mantle peridotites from ophiolotic series located in the south-western framing of the Siberian craton (Fig. 1. The chemical zonation of the lithospheric mantle at the regional scale is determined from results of analyses of the heterogeneity of compositions of peridotites (Fig. 2, Table 1 and variations of contents of whole rock major components, such as iron, magnesium and silica (Fig. 3. According to spatial variations of the compositions of peridotites, the mantle has the concentric zonal structure, and the content of SiO2 is regularly decreasing, while concentrations of FeO∑ and MgO are increasing towards the centre of such structure (Fig. 4. This structure belongs to the mantle of the Siberian craton, which deep edge extends beyond the surface contour of the craton and underlies the north-western segment of the Central Asian orogenic belt.Results of the studies of peridotites of the Baikal region are consistent with modern concepts [Snyder, 2002; O’Reilly, Griffin, 2006; Chen et al., 2009] that suggest that large mantle lenses underlie the Archaean cratons (Fig. 5. The lenses are distinguished by high-density ultrabasic rocks and compose high-velocity roots of cratons which have remained isolated from technic processes. Edges of the mantle lenses may extend a few hundred kilometers beyond the limits of the cratons and underlie orogenic belts that frame the cratons, and this takes place in the south-western segment of the Siberian craton.The revealed structure of the lithospheric mantle is consistent with independent results of seismic and magmatectonical studies of the region. The Angara geoblock is located above the central part of the

  14. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  15. Elaboration, publication and implementation of a technical regulation of radiological protection at the State of Sao Paulo; Elaboracao, publicacao e implementacao de uma norma tecnica de protecao radiologica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Furnari, Laura [Associacao Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Technological improvements of new equipment and some new topics of the international recommendations from ICRP 60 (1990) are considered in a meeting of radiation protection experts and representatives of professionals involved with the use of ionizing radiation in health care services. As a result a new regulation is proposed to the Sao Paulo State Health Department (Brazil). The importance of performing a quality assurance program is emphasized 2 refs., 2 tab.

  16. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  17. Thermoelectric power plant of Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, Planning; Planejamento da central termoeletrica da COSIPA - Companhia Siderurgica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio; Costa, Luiz Orlando; Silva, Clovis Aprigio da; Paiva Borges, Elmar de; Martinez, Francisco Gomes [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1990-02-01

    This paper shows the operational philosophy, control and supervision of the Thermoelectric power plant of the Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, in operations of fuel distribution, steam generation, electric power generation and air flow. 8 tabs.

  18. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: fmokdessi@usp.br, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usf.edu.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade São Francisco (USF), Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  19. Species determination within Staphylococcus genus by extended PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of saoC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sitarska, Agnieszka; Nytko, Kinga; Kosecka, Maja; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic methods based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are widely used for microbial species determination. In this study, we present the application of saoC gene as an effective tool for species determination and within-species diversity analysis for Staphylococcus genus. The unique sequence diversity of saoC allows us to apply four restriction enzymes to obtain RFLP patterns, which appear highly distinctive even among closely related species as well as atypical isolates of environmental origin. Such patterns were successfully obtained for 26 species belonging to Staphylococcus genus. What is more, tracing polymorphisms detected by different restriction enzymes allowed for basic phylogeny analysis for Staphylococcus aureus, which is potentially applicable for other staphylococcal species. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cenozoic extension along the reactivated Aurora Fault System in the East Antarctic Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfarra, Paola; Maggi, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The East Antarctic Craton is characterized by major intracontinental basins and highlands buried under the 34 Ma East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their formation remains a major open question. Paleozoic to Cenozoic intraplate extensional tectonic activity has been proposed for their development and in this work the latter hypothesis is supported. Here we focus on the Aurora Trench (AT) within the Aurora Subglacial Basin (latitude 75°-77°S, longitude 117°-118°E) whose origin is still poorly constrained. The AT is an over 150-km-long, 25-km-wide subglacial trough, elongated in the NNW-SSE direction. Geophysical campaigns allowed better definition of the AT physiography showing typical half-graben geometry. The rounded morphology of the western flank of the AT was simulated through tectonic numerical modelling. We consider the subglacial landscape to primarily reflect the locally preserved relict morphology of the tectonic processes affecting the interior of East Antarctica in the Cenozoic. The bedrock morphology was replicated through the activity of the listric Aurora Trench Fault, characterized by a basal detachment at 34 km (considered the base of the crust according to available geophysical interpretations) and vertical displacements ranging between 700 and 300 m. The predicted displacement is interpreted as the (partial) reactivation of a weaker zone along a major Precambrian crustal-scale tectonic boundary. We propose that the Aurora Trench Fault is the southern continuation of the > 1000 km long Aurora Fault independently recognized by previous studies. Together they form the Aurora Fault System, a long lived tectonic boundary with poly-phased tectonic history within the EAC that bounds the eastern side of the Aurora Subglacial Basin. The younger Cenozoic reactivation of the investigated segment of the Aurora Fault System relates to the intraplate propagation of far-field stresses associated to the plate-scale kinematics in the Southern Ocean.

  1. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  2. 2.9 GA Magmatism in Eastern Hebei, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Guo, J.

    2016-12-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive isotopic investigation of zircons from metamorphosed volcanic rocks from Caochang village in Zunhua complex, Eastern Hebei. A detailed investigation of internal structures of zircons, combined with SIMS U-Pb and oxygen isotope analyses and ICP-MS Hf zircon analyses as well as whole-rock geochemical study revealed the previously unknown 2.9Ga magmatic event and 2.87Ga metamorphic event in Eastern Hebei. The Mesoarchean rocks include high silica rhyolites, high silica sodic rhyolites, dacites and basalts. They together constitute an ancient bimodal volcanic rock series, which may be the largest outcrop of Mesoarchean supracrustal rocks in North China craton. Low δ18O compositions and inherited cores of zircons, low Cr, Ni composition and negative Eu anomaly in whole rock geochemical characteristic, as well as the relevant study of experimental petrology indicate a genesis of shallow crustal recycling with deep hydrothermal circulation. Their lower ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) (close to CHUR) indicate rapid reworking of altered juvenile crust. Thus these rhyolites may be formed by remelting of young hydrothermally altered basaltic crust or altered felsic wallrocks. All the geochemical evidence and the existence of Archean potassic rhyolites as well as the bimodal volcanic rock series imply a continent rift zone setting. The existence of Mesoarchean rocks and widespread ancient inherited and detrital zircons (>2.6 Ga) imply a possible ancient continent in Eastern Hebei, not only in Caozhuang nearby but also in Zunhua-Qinglong area. They provide valuable information about the Mesoarchean magmatic evolution. Meanwhile, they may imply the mesoarchean era (especially the 2.9 Ga) represent another major magmatic event of equal importance with 2.6-2.5 Ga period, at least in the eastern block. The magmatic and metamorphic history in Eastern Hebei are far more complex than previously thought.

  3. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  4. Notch signaling is antagonized by SAO-1, a novel GYF-domain protein that interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SEL-10 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Valerie A; Guiney, Evan L; Goldberg, Lindsey Y; Haduong, Josephine H; Kwartler, Callie S; Scangos, Katherine W; Goutte, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Notch signaling pathways can be regulated through a variety of cellular mechanisms, and genetically compromised systems provide useful platforms from which to search for the responsible modulators. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene aph-1 encodes a component of γ-secretase, which is essential for Notch signaling events throughout development. By looking for suppressors of the incompletely penetrant aph-1(zu147) mutation, we identify a new gene, sao-1 (suppressor of aph-one), that negatively regulates aph-1(zu147) activity in the early embryo. The sao-1 gene encodes a novel protein that contains a GYF protein-protein interaction domain and interacts specifically with SEL-10, an Fbw7 component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. We demonstrate that the embryonic lethality of aph-1(zu147) mutants can be suppressed by removing sao-1 activity or by mutations that disrupt the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction. Decreased sao-1 activity also influences Notch signaling events when they are compromised at different molecular steps of the pathway, such as at the level of the Notch receptor GLP-1 or the downstream transcription factor LAG-1. Combined analysis of the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction and comparisons of sao-1 and sel-10 genetic interactions suggest a possible role for SAO-1 as an accessory protein that participates with SEL-10 in downregulation of Notch signaling. This work provides the first mutant analysis of a GYF-domain protein in either C. elegans or Drosophila and introduces a new type of Fbw7-interacting protein that acts in a subset of Fbw7 functions.

  5. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  6. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  7. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05 with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99 after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance, use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use

  8. RUNX2 regulates the effects of TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis in SaOs-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfa, Ghali; Christophe, Chauveau; Philippe, Lencel; Romain, Salomez; Khaled, Hani; Pierre, Hardouin; Odile, Broux; Jean-Christophe, Devedjian

    2010-04-01

    The runt-related transcriptional factor RUNX2 is an essential mediator of the osteoblast phenotype and plays a pivotal role in the process of osteoblast differentiation. The involvement of RUNX2 includes the regulation of genes that are important in committing cells to the osteoblast lineage. Increasing evidences are consistent with a requirement of RUNX2 for stringent control of osteoblast proliferation and recent data even suggested that RUNX2 might act as a proapoptotic factor. Among the cytokines described as modulators of osteoblast functions, TNFalpha affects both apoptosis and the differentiation rate from mesenchymal precursor cells of osteoblast. Thus we evaluated on the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 stably transfected with a RUNX2 dominant negative construct (DeltaRUNX2) the effects of serum and TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we showed that SaOs-2 clones expressing high levels of DeltaRUNX2 presented a higher proliferation rate than clones transfected with an empty vector. This increase in cell growth was accompanied by a rise in cyclins A1, B1 and E1 expression and a decrease in the cyclin inhibitor p21. Moreover we observed that the expression of the RUNX2 transgene protected the SaOs-2 cells from the antiproliferative and the apoptotic effects induced by TNFalpha. This was accompanied by the inhibition of Bax and activation of Bcl2 expression. Experiments done on SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with siRNA confirmed that RUNX2 represents a critical link between cell fate, proliferation and growth control. This study also suggested that RUNX2 might control osteoblastic growth depending on the differentiation stage of the cells by regulating expression of elements involved in hormones and cytokines sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crustal structure of the Carpathian orogen from receiver function analysis: how craton subduction and active delamination affect the crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The Carpathian arc is an uncommon curved collisional system, involving the subduction of the Eastern European craton and the Proterozoic Moesian platform beneath younger European microplates. The Cenozoic collision led to the closure of the Tethys Oceanic basin, portions of which are actively breaking off or delaminating beneath the orogen, generating deep mantle earthquakes. Neogene volcanism, possibly related to subduction slab roll-back, also formed a band of presently extinct volcanoes in the back-arc region. The Carpathian embayment is thus an ideal laboratory to investigate crustal processes related to subduction of cratonic material, multiple plate junctions and active delamination. To better understand how the crustal structure changes from the Eastern European cratonic foreland, across the curved subduction zone, to the younger European microplates, we analyse teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations located across eastern and southern Carpathians, in Romania and Moldova. We processed data from permanent seismic networks (The Romanian National Seismic Network) as well as data from temporary deployments such as CALIXTO (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) and SCP (South Carpathian Project). Using extended multi-taper spectral division, we compute and analyse radial and transverse receiver functions. Energy on the transverse component may be an indicator of crustal anisotropy or the existence of intracrustal dipping interfaces. Using phase-weighted H-k stacking of receiver functions, we estimate the crustal thickness and the bulk crustal Poisson's ratio as well as the seismic sharpness of the Moho discontinuity. Furthermore, we invert receiver functions to obtain the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath individual stations, which provide concurrent information on the Moho nature. Our results provide a better understanding of crustal structure across complex collisional systems involving the subduction of

  10. New Precambrian paleomagnetic and geochronological results from the North China Craton and their implications for supercontinent Nuna reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2013-05-01

    A recent update of available global paleomagnetic data demonstrate that a coherent Nuna formed by ca. 1.75 Ga, and lasted till at least ca. 1.4 Ga (Zhang et al, 2012). This paleomagnetism-based reconstruction of Nuna is also in agreement with those proposed, geologically based models, including the SAMBA connection between Baltica, Amazonia and Western Africa (Johansson, 2009), the Nuna core connection between Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia (Evans and Mitchell, 2011), the proto-SWEAT connection between Laurentia, Mawson block and Australian blocks (Payne et al., 2009) and the NCB-India connection (Zhao et al., 2011). The North China Craton (NCC) is positioned by superimposing its four high quality poles between 1.78 Ga and ~1.44 Ga atop coeval poles from the combined cratonic assemblage, including Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and Australian blocks. In this reconstruction, the present south margin of the NCB represented an active continental margin in Nuna and likely faced an open ocean, whilst its north margin was connected to a large landmass. Recently, Su et al (2012) reported a precise age of 1611±8 Ma (zircon U-Pb LA-MC- ICPMS) obtained from a tuff bed in the Luoyukou Formation in western Henan Province. This age suggested that two high quality paleomagnetic poles from the Baicaoping and Yunmengshan formations in this region, which were considered as of 1.2-1.3 Ga, should be of ~1.61 - 1.78 Ga. Although with poor age constraint, the two poles also support the NCC's position in the Nuna. In addition, new paleomagnetic results have been obtained from the well dated ~1.33 Ga mafic sills in the northern NCC (Zhang et al, 2011; Chen et al, 2013). However, because there is no coeval pole from other major cratons, whether the NCC had still connected with them is not conclusive.

  11. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  12. Saghro Group in the Ougnat Massif (Morocco), an evidence for a continuous Cadomian basin along the northern West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, André; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Ouanaimi, Hassan; Raddi, Youssef; Aït Brahim, Lahsen; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki; Baidder, Lahssen; Saddiqi, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The Saghro Group (SG) is a folded, low-grade volcano-sedimentary series up to 8 km thick that crops out within and to the north of the Pan-African suture zone in the central and eastern Anti-Atlas. Here we describe the SG of the Ougnat inliers that are exposed in the easternmost Anti-Atlas beneath the unconformable, Late Ediacaran Ouarzazate Group (OZG) volcanic rocks. The Ougnat SG mostly consists of volcaniclastic greywackes accumulated in a peritidal-to-shallow basin. The basin infilling was deformed by NNE-trending, mostly upright folds with axial-planar slaty cleavage and low-grade metamorphism. The deformed SG rocks were intruded by the ∼550 Ma Mellab hypovolcanic granodiorite. The latter also crosscuts the lowest OZG rocks that are dated to 574-571 Ma in the western Saghro region. The SG rocks that form the Siroua and Saghro inliers have an oldest age of 620-610 Ma and were folded at ∼610-580 Ma at the onset of the Cadomian orogenic events. We show that the SG rocks are similar to the ;Série verte; (SV) rocks that are exposed in the Ougarta and western Hoggar east of the Pan-African suture. We infer that the SG and SV rocks accumulated in a same, continuous basin that was bounding the West African Craton to the north and the east. This strongly subsiding basin formed close to a volcanic arc and was folded during the last Pan-African synmetamorphic events. Fold orientation and age of folding differ however along the edge of the West African Craton. The orogenic greywackes that form the remnants of the SG-SV basin thus constitute a precious record of the diachronic Cadomian event s.l. along the West African Craton northern margin.

  13. Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Veiga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

  14. Francisco Antonio Zea y sus actividades científicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available La vida de don Francisco Antonio Zea, estudiada y valorizada en estos últimos tiempos por biógrafos de calidad, falta aún conocerse en varios aspectos que poco a poco van aclarando los archivos nacionales y extranjeros, y uno de ellos es el científico, en el que Zea pudo ser una lumbrera por su capacidad y "vocación decidida" para las ciencias naturales, al igual que su maestro y protector el sabio José Celestino Mutis.

  15. Francisco de Vitoria and the root of the criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The penal enlightenment was forged as the culmination of a process of bankruptcy paradigms. This is much due to the forward positions that were built before its claims, especially those of natural law rationalists who were based on legal thought of the modern age. In this context, the criminal ideas of Francisco de Vitoria gain considerable importance for understanding the matrix of the criminal law of these days, because they are linked to the enlightenment. Such ideas break the paradigm of the middle ages and replaced in theocentrism by anthropocentrism in the criminal field.

  16. Criollismo de otra experimentación: Francisco Madariaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Haydée Páez

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe de qué modo la repetición implica la singularidad. Contra la generalidad de lo particular, se apuntala la universalidad de lo singular, decía Deleuze. Si la repetición atañe a un fenómeno interno a la escritura de Francisco Madariaga, a su poesía, también el acto mismo de irrupción dentro del lado de los no muy leídos de la poesía argentina, repite desplazados, ciertos efectos de los faros prendidos a finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo siguiente

  17. Criollismo de otra experimentación: Francisco Madariaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Haydée Páez

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe de qué modo la repetición implica la singularidad. Contra la generalidad de lo particular, se apuntala la universalidad de lo singular, decía Deleuze. Si la repetición atañe a un fenómeno interno a la escritura de Francisco Madariaga, a su poesía, también el acto mismo de irrupción dentro del lado de los no muy leídos de la poesía argentina, repite desplazados, ciertos efectos de los faros prendidos a finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo siguiente

  18. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission

  20. El indio animal en dos novelas de Francisco Leal Quevedo

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Arismendi, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo examina la construcción de una imagen del indio, asimilado con la animalidad, en dos novelas juveniles de Francisco Leal Quevedo: El mordisco de la media noche (2010) y Los hijos del viento: una aventura nukak (2012), la primera ambientada en la Guajira y la segunda en la selva amazónica. Se propone que el influjo de un discurso antropológico referido a las cosmovisiones ecologistas habría dado lugar, por mediación del gesto mimético propio de la ficción, a la imagen del indi...

  1. [Effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang-qiang; Yin, Chang-chang; Zhou, Hu-yan; He, Ding-wen; Liang, Guang-sheng; Liu, Yu-liang; Yin, Ming

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and its mechanism. The effect of the total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on the proliferation of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells was detected by CCK assay, and the morphological changes of cells treated with total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum were observed using contrast microscope. Flow cytomerty was performed to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells, and the gene expression levels of Caspase-3, BCL-2, BAX were detected by RT-PCR. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum suppressed the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Under a microscope observation of cell morphology, the volume became smaller ,the number of internal particles was increased. Cell apoptosis rate was positively related to the drug concentration. After treated for 48 hours, Caspase-3 and BAX expression were up-regulated, BCL-2 and BCL-2/BAX were decreased. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum can inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 by inducing cell apoptosis,the mechanism of which might be related with reducing BCL-2/BAX and activating Caspase-3.

  2. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  3. The Unimpressible Race. A Century of Educational Struggle by the Chinese in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Victor

    This book traces the history of the Chinese experience in America, particularly in the San Francisco area, from the California Gold Rush era of the 1850s to the construction of a new all-Chinese school in San Francisco's Chinatown district in the 1950s. The first five chapters of the book detail the withholding of school privileges from both…

  4. Tuberculosis in Mexican-born persons in San Francisco: reactivation, acquired infection and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, R M; Ponce de Leon, A; Hopewell, P C; Alarcon, R G; Moss, A R; Paz, E A; Schecter, G F; Small, P M

    1997-12-01

    San Francisco, California. To determine the relative contributions of infection acquired in San Francisco and reactivation of tuberculous infection acquired elsewhere in Mexican-born persons who developed tuberculosis in San Francisco, and to determine the frequency of transmission leading to secondary cases of tuberculosis in other persons. The study population consisted of all Mexican-born tuberculosis patients reported in San Francisco from 1991 through June 1995. All patients had positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and DNA fingerprinting of isolates using IS6110 with more than two bands. Patients were classified as infected in San Francisco or infected elsewhere based on pre-defined criteria that included a second DNA fingerprinting technique (polymorphic guanine-cytosine-rich sequence), chart reviews, and selected patient interviews. Of the 43 Mexican-born patients studied, nine (21%) met the definition of infection acquired in San Francisco and 34 (79%) met the definition of reactivation of infection acquired elsewhere. Only one of the 43 cases resulted in two secondary cases in US-born persons. One-fifth of the Mexican-born patients who developed tuberculosis in San Francisco acquired their tuberculous infection in San Francisco; transmission from Mexican-born persons leading to tuberculosis in other persons is uncommon.

  5. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship channel...

  6. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  7. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  8. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  9. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  10. [Clinical relationships and ethical problems in primary care, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes

    2010-08-01

    to identify ethical problems in primary care according to nurses' and doctors' perceptions. to know ethical issues of patient-professional relationships in primary care. Synthesis to integrate and reinterpret primary results of qualitative studies. Primary healthcare centers, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTEXT: Incidental sample of 34 nurses and 36 medical doctors working in primary healthcare centers selected by convenience. Individual, semi-structured interviews to identity situations considered as sources of ethical problems. The sample is socially representative of primary care health centers and professionals. Data collection assured discourse saturation. Hermeneutic-dialectical discourse analysis was used to study the results. Patient-professional relationships and team work were the main sources of ethical problems. The most important problems were patient information, privacy, confidentiality, interpersonal relationship, linkage and patient autonomy. These issues reflect the recent changes in clinical relation ships and show the peculiarities of primary care with its continuous care which lasts a long time. Healthcare involves multiprofessional team work in the midst of the patient claims for autonomy. Good care of patients needs requires a relationship based on communication and cooperation, and includes feelings and values, with communication skills. Ethical problems in primary care are common situations. For quality and humane primary care the relationship should consist of dialogue, trust and cooperation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  12. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  13. Cash Transfers and Mayoral Elections: The Case of Sao Paulo's Renda Mínima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanches Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies analyze the effects of national conditional cash transfer (CCT programs, such as the Brazilian Bolsa Família and the Mexican Oportunidades, on presidential elections. Most of them show that these programs boost incumbents' electoral support among the poor. This research note is the first scholarly attempt to investigate this phenomenon at a lower-level unit of a federal state, by assessing the impact of a municipal cash transfer program on a mayoral election. Specifically, it investigates whether Renda Mínima, the cash transfer program of the city of Sao Paulo, affected beneficiaries' electoral behavior in favor of the incumbent candidate in the 2004 mayoral election. This note analyzes survey data from CEBRAP/IBOPE and shows that cash transfers did, indeed, affect beneficiaries' behavior in the predicted direction, but only in cases where they did not benefit from any other CCT program, such as the federal Bolsa Família or the São Paulo state Renda Cidadã. These results suggest that the pro-incumbent effect of CCT programs may be diluted by similar programs launched by governments at other tiers of a federation, even if they are led by the same party.

  14. Measurement of the Radial Velocity of Vega and SAO 104807 by high resolution spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, F.; Ordoñez, J.; Suarez, W.; Quijano, A.

    2017-07-01

    The radial velocity is the component of the velocity with which a celestial object approaches (blueshift) or go away (redshift) of the observer. The precise measurement of the redshift allowed to Humason and Hubble discover the expansion of the Universe. In 1998 two research teams simultaneously discovered that this expansion is accelerated, for that reason the hypothesis of the dark energy has been raised to explain the existing repulsion. The present work shows the measurement of the radial velocity of Vega and SAO104807 by high resolution spectrometry. Using the instruments of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nariño, located in the south of Colombia, was measured the displacement that the spectral lines of both celestial objects suffer due to the Doppler effect. The results obtained were quite close to those recorded in databases such as SIMBAD, according to the used equipment. The instruments used were: Celestron CGE Pro 1400 Telescope, Shelyak LHIRES III High Resolution Spectrometer and SBIG ST-8300 CCD Camera. The characteristics of the spectrometer are: Diffraction grating: 2400 lines/mm, Spectral dispersion (H alpha): 0:012 nm/pixel, Radial velocity resolution: 5 km/s.

  15. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  16. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  17. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  18. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (Southern Brazilian upper margin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H.; Silveira, Ilson C.A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Soutelino, Rafael G.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon dating obtained from sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon dating from materials collected using different sampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr{sup -1}. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ria type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Rio de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian coastal current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl). (author)

  19. [Relationship between low birthweight and air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa; Gouveia, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. We analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. We estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. Only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. For the evaluation of the effects of air pollution, we excluded preterm and multiple deliveries. Pollutants analyzed were ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particles (PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO). The effect of maternal exposure to air pollution on birthweight was evaluated using linear and logistic regression. A total of 4.6% of newborns weighed less than 2,500 g at birth. Maternal exposure to CO, PM10, and NO2 during the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased birthweight. Our results reinforce the notion that maternal exposure to air pollution during the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to lesser weight gain in the fetus.

  20. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  2. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  3. Geology, mineralization, and geochronology of the Qianhe gold deposit, Xiong'ershan area, southern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke-Fei; Li, Jian-Wei; Selby, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Bi, Shi-Jian; Deng, Xiao-Dong

    2013-08-01

    The Qianhe gold deposit in the Xiong'ershan area is located along the southern margin of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic North China Craton. The deposit consists of six orebodies that are hosted in Paleoproterozoic andesites to basaltic andesites and structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Individual orebodies comprise auriferous quartz veins and disseminated Au-bearing pyrite within hydrothermally altered rocks on both sides of, or close to, the veins. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration has produced various mixtures of K-feldspar, quartz, sericite, chlorite, epidote, carbonate, and sulfides. Pyrite is the most important ore mineral, associated with minor amounts of galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Other trace minerals include molybdenite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, rutile, xenotime, and parisite. Gold occurs mostly as native gold and electrum enclosed in pyrite or along microfractures of sulfides and quartz. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions in auriferous quartz suggest that gold and associated minerals were precipitated in the range of 160-305 °C from aqueous or carbonic-aqueous fluids with salinities of 6-22 wt% NaCl equiv. Samples of molybdenite coexisting with Au-bearing pyrite have Re-Os model ages of 134-135 Ma, whereas ore-related hydrothermal sericite separates yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages between 127 and 124 Ma. The Re-Os and 40Ar/39Ar ages are remarkably consistent with zircon U-Pb ages (134.5 ± 1.5 and 127.2 ± 1.4 Ma; 1 σ) of the biotite monzogranite from the Heyu-intrusive complex and granitic dikes in and close to the Qianhe gold mine, indicating a close temporal and thus possibly genetic relationship between gold mineralization and granitic magmatism in the area. Fluid inclusion waters extracted from auriferous quartz have δD values of -80 to -72 ‰, whereas the calculated δ 18OH2O values range from 3.1 to 3.8 ‰. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes from this study and previous work indicate that ore fluids

  4. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin: An appraisal of existing seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50 km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... on acquisition and interpretation method and completeness of crustal model. The database represents major improvement in coverage and resolution and includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity...

  5. Anisotropic Lithospheric layering in the North American craton, revealed by Bayesian inversion of short and long period data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Competing hypotheses for the formation and evolution of continents are highly under debate, including the theory of underplating by hot plumes or accretion by shallow subduction in continental or arc settings. In order to support these hypotheses, documenting structural layering in the cratonic lithosphere becomes especially important. Studies of seismic-wave receiver function data have detected a structural boundary under continental cratons at 100-140 km depths, which is too shallow to be consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as inferred from seismic tomography and other geophysical studies. This leads to the conclusion that 1) the cratonic lithosphere may be thinner than expected, contradicting tomographic and other geophysical or geochemical inferences, or 2) that the receiver function studies detect a mid-lithospheric discontinuity rather than the LAB. Recent studies (Bodin et al., 2015, Calo et al. 2016) confirmed the presence of a structural boundary under the north American craton at 100-140 km depths by taking advantage of the power of a trans-dimensional Monte Carlo Markov chain (TMCMC). They generated probabilistic 1D radially shear wave velocity profiles for selected stations in North America by jointly inverting 2 different data types (PS Receiver Functions, surface wave dispersion for Love and Rayleigh waves), which sample different volumes of the Earth and have different sensitivities to structure. The resulting 1D profiles include both isotropic and anisotropic discontinuities in the upper mantle (above 350 km depth). Here we extend this approach and include the vp/vs ratio as an unknown in the TMCMC algorithm to avoid artificial layers induced by multiples of the receiver functions. Additionally, we include SKS waveforms in the joint inversion and invert for azimuthal anisotropy to verify if layering in the anisotropic structure of the stable part of the North American continent involves significant changes in the direction of

  6. Proceedings of the Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research Symposium: February 4-6, 2004, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. (Tech. coords.) Chavez

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research (SARR) Symposium was held February 4-6, 2004 in San Francisco, California at the Presidio of San Francisco, a component of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and at San Francisco State University. The theme was: Linking People to the Outdoors: Connections for Healthy Lands, People and Communities.

  7. 76 FR 19519 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Francisco Ferry Terminal Expansion Project in the City and County of San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Federal... Transportation Authority (WETA) are planning to prepare an EIS for the proposed expansion and improvements to the... Expansion Project is to support and expand ferry service on San Francisco Bay, as established by WETA in its...

  8. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  9. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP, administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nanoparticles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing

  10. Projected Bioclimatic Change for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A.; Taylor, M.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Weiss, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Past and future climate data for the San Francisco Bay Area were classified using the Rivas-Martinez (R-M) system to group long-term annual climate averages into categories with biotic significance based on thermotypic and ombrotypic regimes. Bioclimate maps were generated at 270 meter resolution for ten San Francisco Bay Area counties for six 30-year periods from 1911 to 2100 which include the historical 1) 1911-1940, 2) 1941-1970, 3) 1971-2000, and future 4) 2011-2040, 5) 2041-2070, and 6) 2071-2100. Historic averages were generated from PRISM climate data. Future climate projections were generated from two IPCC-based future scenarios (A2 and B1) and two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and the Parallel Climate Model). Strong congruence was found among the boundaries for historic bioclimates and current vegetation types. However, future scenarios had varying patterns of losses and gains in bioclimate classes and these tracked mesoclimate gradients. Comparisons between projected bioclimatic categories and modeled future climatic water deficit show strong correspondence except in zones of deep alluvial deposits. Maps show areas of bioclimatic stability, e.g. areas that did not change under any future projection, versus areas with significant bioclimatic shifts in all future scenarios. These analyses and maps will be useful for assessing natural resource vulnerability to climate change and natural resource conservation-based climate adaptation decisions.

  11. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the defining landscape feature of the place we call ‘The Bay Area,’ but most of us only experience the Bay as we view it from an airplane window or drive across one of its bridges. These views from afar suggest that the Bay is static and sterile, but this impression is deceptive. If you are one of the many thousands of students who have experienced the Bay through a school excursion with the Marine Science Institute or other educational programs, you observed its rich plankton soup under a microscope, sorted clams and worms and crustaceans from mud samples, and identified the gobies, sole, halibut, bat rays, sharks, sardines, and smelt caught with trawls. San Francisco Bay is much more than a landscape feature. It is a dynamic ecosystem, continually changing and teeming with life. The Bay once supported the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of the United States, but commercial fishing for shellfish, shrimp, sturgeon, shad, salmon, and striped bass ended many decades ago because of habitat loss, pollution, invasive species and over harvest.

  12. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  13. Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Women who inject drugs in cities where syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are well established may have different risks for HIV infection. In 1997, we interviewed 149 female syringe exchangers in San Francisco, CA, a city with high rates of injection drug use that is home to one of the largest and oldest SEPs in the United States. In this report, we describe their sociodemographics, health, and risk behavior, and we examine factors associated with recent syringe sharing. Fifty percent of respondents were women of color and the median age was 38 years. Most (86%) injected heroin and nearly half were currently homeless or had recently been incarcerated. One-third of all women reported needle sharing in the prior month. This was higher than the rate of needle sharing reported by a mixed gender sample of San Francisco exchangers in 1993, although it resembled the rate reported by a mixed gender sample in 1992. In a multivariate analysis, syringe sharing was associated with age, housing status, and sexual partnerships. Syringe sharers were more likely to be young, homeless, or have a sexual partner who was also an injection drug user. While wide access to sterile syringes is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDU), syringe exchange alone cannot eradicate risky injection by female IDU. Additional efforts to reduce risky injection practices should focus on younger and homeless female IDU, as well as address selective risk taking between sexual partners.

  14. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em robalo (Centropomus sp.) e pescada (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumidos na cidade de Sao Paulo por analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: karen.fabiano@usp.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1.

  15. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  16. Interaction of coeval felsic and mafic magmas from the Kanker granite, Pithora region, Bastar Craton, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, R.; Krishna, Kumar; Vishwakarma, Neeraj; Hari, K. R.; Ram Mohan, M.

    2017-10-01

    Field and petrographic studies are carried out to characterize the interactions of mafic and felsic magmas from Pithora region of the northeastern part of the Bastar Craton. The MMEs, syn-plutonic mafic dykes, cuspate contacts, magmatic flow textures, mingling and hybridization suggest the coeval emplacement of end member magmas. Petrographic evidences such as disequilibrium assemblages, resorption textures, quartz ocelli, rapakivi and poikilitic textures suggest magma mingling and mixing phenomena. Such features of mingling and mixing of the felsic and mafic magma manifest the magma chamber processes. Introduction of mafic magmas into the felsic magmas before initiation of crystallization of the latter, results in hybrid magmas under the influence of thermal and chemical exchange. The mechanical exchange occurs between the coexisting magmas due to viscosity contrast, if the mafic magma enters slightly later into the magma chamber, then the felsic magma starts to crystallize. Blobs of mafic magma form as MMEs in the felsic magma and they scatter throughout the pluton due to convection. At a later stage, if mafic magma enters the system after partial crystallization of felsic phase, mechanical interaction between the magmas leads to the formation of fragmented dyke or syn-plutonic mafic dyke. All these features are well-documented in the study area. Field and petrographic evidences suggest that the textural variations from Pithora region of Bastar Craton are the outcome of magma mingling, mixing and hybridization processes.

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Mississippian HP pipe and the western margin of the North American craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, D. T. A.; Lewchuk, M. T.

    The HP pipe is a small oval (80m×40m) kimberlitic diatreme near Golden, B.C., in the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rocky Mountains. The pipe intrudes gently-dipping (˜10°S) Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician limestones with nearly vertical contacts. It is comprised of carbonate breccia fragments and pyroxenite nodules in a light-green serpentine matrix and gives a Rb-Sr age of 348±7 Ma. A later phase of dark-green dikes cut the breccia and adjacent limestones. AF and thermal step demagnetization of 168 specimens from 42 oriented blocks was done using an automated cryogenic magnetometer in a shielded room for remanence measurement. The diatreme breccia and dikes retain a stable A remanence component after thermal cleaning above ˜400°C and AF cleaning above ˜20 mT. Their combined mean direction of 129.8°, -44.3° (α95 = 6.5°) after tilt correction gives a concordant Mississippian pole position of 138.5°E, 44.5°N (Dp = 5.1°, Dm = 8.2°). The limestones provide a positive contact test by giving a stable B component direction of 114.4°, -22.7° (α95 = 12.4°) with a concordant Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician pole of 141.0°E, 24.3°N (δp = 7.0°, δm = 13.3°). These concordant poles indicate that the fold-and-thrust belt is part of the North American craton. Thus the suture with allochthonous terranes to the west must be located at or west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Both the diatreme and limestones retain a low-coercivity and unblocking-temperature C component, isolated by vector subtraction without tilt correction, that records a minor overprint from the Laramide Orogeny combined with Pleistocene viscous remanence.

  18. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Cambrian sequence, zircons resembling those of local basement sources are very rare or absent. Obviously, basal Vendian/Cambrian sedimentary rocks sealed off the basement as a source of zircon. Therefore a distant source, probably outside the Svecofennian Domain, could be supposed for the bulk clastic minerals and zircons of the upperpart of the Vendian and the lower part of the Cambrian. Probably, studies of isotopic ages of different typological varieties of zircons, both of obviously local and distant origin, could provide new information on respective source rock ages and areas, and on the general palaeogeographic pattern of the Vendian and Cambrian epicratonic sedimentary basins of the East-European Craton.

  19. Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An arguable point regarding the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the North China Craton (NCC is whether the tectonic setting in the central belt during the mid-Paleoproterozoic (2.35–2.0 Ga was dominated by an extensional regime or an oceanic subduction–arc regime. A review of the mid-Paleoproterozoic magmatism and sedimentation for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region suggests that a back-arc extension regime was dominant in this region. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that the 2.35–2.0 Ga magmatism shows a typical bimodal distribution where the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic rocks mainly comprise highly-fractioned calc-alkaline to alkaline (or A-type granites, and that this magmatism was coeval with development of extensional basins characteristic of transgressive sequences with volcanic interlayers such as in the Hutuo Group. Although the final amalgamation of the NCC was believed to occur at ∼1.85 Ga, recent zircon U–Pb age dating for mica schist in the Wutai Group suggests a collisional event may have occurred at ∼1.95 Ga. The metamorphic ages of ∼1.85 Ga, obtained mostly from the high-grade rocks using the zircon U–Pb approach, most probably indicate uplifting and cooling of these high-grade terranes. This is because (i phase modeling suggests that newly-grown zircon grains in high-grade rocks with a melt phase cannot date the age of peak pressure and temperature stages, but the age of melt crystallization in cooling stages; (ii the metamorphic P–T paths with isobaric cooling under 6–7 kb for the Hengshan and Fuping granulites suggest their prolonged stay in the middle–lower crust; and (iii the obtained metamorphic age data show a continuous distribution from 1.95 to 1.80 Ga. Thus, an alternative tectonic scenario for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region involves: (i formation of a proto-NCC at ∼2.5 Ga; (ii back-arc extension during 2.35–2.0

  20. The Birth of a Cratonic Core: Petrologic Evolution of the Hadean-Eoarchean Acasta Gneiss Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimink, J. R.; Chacko, T.; Davies, J.; Pearson, D. G.; Stern, R. A.; Heaman, L. M.; Carlson, R.; Shirey, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Granitoid magmatism within the 4.02-3.6 Ga Acasta Gneiss Complex records distinct whole-rock compositional changes during the building the Slave Craton. Previously1,2 we suggested that these signatures implied petrologic changes from initiation of evolved crust formation in an Iceland-like setting to partial melting of hydrated mafic crust at increasing depth through time, culminating in relatively voluminous magmatism at 3.6 Ga. Increasing La/Yb in these rocks suggest increasing depth of melting (and increasing residual garnet content) with time, ending in emplacement of rocks comparable to other Archean TTG suites3, with both high pressure (high La/Yb) and low pressure (low La/Yb) rocks represented at 3.6 Ga. Data from rocks with variable La/Yb that crystallized 3.6 Ga allow us to evaluate potential mechanisms for formation of rocks of this age such as subduction/accretion or intracrustal melting/delamination. Despite major and trace element compositional and age variability, zircon oxygen isotope compositions from a wide variety of rocks are extremely consistent (+6.0-6.5 ‰ from 3.9-2.9 Ga), implying a similar source, one that had been altered by surface waters1. Potential source rocks include the upper portion of oceanic crust, which contains a large portion of mafic crust that had been altered at low temperatures (e.g., 4). Paired whole rock and zircon radiogenic isotopic data are especially sensitive to the extent of pre-existing felsic material in the region, as well as the longevity of primary, basaltic rocks prior to their reworking into more evolved crust. New paired zircon Hf and whole rock Nd isotope data collected from these samples show variably unradiogenic signatures and allow an exploration of similarities and disparities between crust formation in the Acasta Gneiss Complex and other Paleoarchean-Mesoarchean crustal blocks. [1] Reimink et al., 2016. Precambrian Research 281, 453-472. [2] Reimink et al., 2014 Nature Geoscience 7, 529-533. [3

  1. A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks from the Tanzania Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mafic rocks comprising tholeiitic pillow basalt, dolerite and minor gabbro form the basal stratigraphic unit in the ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga Geita Greenstone Belt situated in the NW Tanzania Craton. They outcrop mainly along the southern margin of the belt, and are at least 50 million years older than the supracrustal assemblages against which they have been juxtaposed. Geochemical analyses indicate that parts of the assemblage approach high Mg-tholeiite (more than 8 wt.% MgO. This suite of samples has a restricted compositional range suggesting derivation from a chemically homogenous reservoir. Trace element modeling suggests that the mafic rocks were derived by partial melting within the spinel peridotite field from a source rock with a primitive mantle composition. That is, trace elements maintain primitive mantle ratios (Zr/Hf = 32–35, Ti/Zr = 107–147, producing flat REE and HFSE profiles [(La/Ybpm = 0.9–1.3], with abundances of 3–10 times primitive mantle and with minor negative anomalies of Nb [(Nb/Lapm = 0.6–0.8] and Th [(Th/Lapm = 0.6–0.9]. Initial isotope compositions (ɛNd range from 1.6 to 2.9 at 2.8 Ga and plot below the depleted mantle line suggesting derivation from a more enriched source compared to present day MORB mantle. The trace element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are similar to the mafic rocks outcropping ∼50 km south. The mafic rocks outcropping in the Geita area were erupted through oceanic crust over a short time period, between ∼2830 and ∼2820 Ma; are compositionally homogenous, contain little to no associated terrigenous sediments, and their trace element composition and short emplacement time resemble oceanic plateau basalts. They have been interpreted to be derived from a plume head with a primitive mantle composition.

  2. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  3. Mesoarchean sanukitoid rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Althoff, Fernando Jacques; da Silva Leite, Albano Antonio

    2009-02-01

    The Archean sanukitoid Rio Maria Granodiorite yielded zircon ages of ˜2.87 Ga and is exposed in large domains of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, southeastern Amazonian craton. It is intrusive in the greenstone belts of the Andorinhas Supergroup, in the Arco Verde Tonalite and Caracol Tonalitic Complex (older TTGs). Archean potassic leucogranites, younger TTGs and the Paleoproterozoic granites of Jamon Suite are intrusive in the Rio Maria Granodiorite. The more abundant rocks of the Rio Maria Granodiorite have granodioritic composition and display medium to coarse even-grained textures. These rocks show generally a gray color with greenish shades due to strongly saussuritized plagioclase, and weak WNW-ESE striking foliation. The significant geochemical contrasts between the occurrences of Rio Maria Granodiorite in different areas suggest that this unit corresponds in fact to a granodioritic suite of rocks derived from similar but distinct magmas. Mingling processes involving the Rio Maria Granodiorite and similar mafic to intermediate magmas are able to explain the constant occurrence of mafic enclaves in the granodiorite. The associated intermediate rocks occur mainly near Bannach, where mostly quartz diorite and quartz monzodiorite are exposed. The dominant rocks are mesocratic, dark-green rocks, with fine to coarse even-grained texture. The Rio Maria Granodiorite and associated intermediate rocks show similar textural and mineralogical aspects. They follow the calc-alkaline series trend in some diagrams. However, they have high-Mg#, Cr, and Ni conjugate with high contents of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), typical of sanukitoids series. The patterns of rare earth elements of different rocks are similar, with pronounced enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and strong to moderate fractionation of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). Field aspects and petrographic and geochemical characteristics denote that the granodiorites and

  4. Zn adsorption in soils of different morphogenesis from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Raul Henrique; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Mineral de Plantas]. E-mail: rsartori@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The zinc (Zn) adsorption by nine different morphogenetic soil from to Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were studied. Superficial samples of soils: Ferralsol, Feralsol, Vertisol, Acrisol, Cambisol, two Arenosol, Phaeozem and Gleysol were used. It was study the influence of soil characteristics on the parameters of adsorption of zinc, described by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich, as well as the free energies of the adsorption reaction. Soil samples (0.5 g) were put in plastic bottle and suspended in 10 mL of solution 0.01 mol L{sup -1} of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} containing zinc in concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L{sup -1}, as zinc nitrate and labeled with 1.11 kBq mL{sup -1} of {sup 65}Zn radionuclide. The pots were shaken during 24 hours. The Zn adsorption was calculated by counting the radioactivity in the solution, after centrifugation. The equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were efficient to describe the parameters of adsorption of Zn. The results showed that the different soils can be separated in three groups in agreement with the maximum adsorption of Zn: <500 mg kg{sup -1} (Ferralsol, Vertisol, Arenosol-1 and Arenosol-2); 500 to 1000 mg kg{sup -1} 20 (Ferralsol, Cambisol and Phaeozem) and > 1000 mg kg{sup -1} (Acrisol and Gleysol). The negative values of the free energy change ({partial_derivative}G) of the reaction of zinc adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the reaction in all studied concentrations and the metal binding affinity of soil, which decreased with the increase of the concentration of Zn in the solution. The adsorption values and free energy change value from the reaction were related to the chemical and physical soil characteristics. (author)

  5. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

    2005-07-01

    This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns.

  7. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  8. Fiber intake, constipation, and overweight among adolescents living in Sao Paulo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Erica Bloes; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gama, Cíntia Mendes; Lopez, Fabio Ancona; Taddei, José Augusto C; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight. In total, 716 adolescents were included within the study, of whom 314 attended private school and 402 attended public school. Evaluation of fiber intake was based on a 24-h daily intake record and a frequency questionnaire. Data concerning bowel movements and height and weight measurements were also taken. Fiber consumption, below that recommended ("age + 5"), was found in 61.8% and 41.4% (P = 0.000) of girls attending private and public schools, respectively, and in 44.1% and 25.6% of boys (P = 0.001). Adolescents who did not eat beans on more than 4 d/wk presented a higher risk of fiber intake below that recommended (age + 5; P < 0.05), with odds ratios ranging from 10.4 to 14.2 according gender and private or public schooling. Dietary fiber intake below that recommended was associated with a greater risk (P < 0.05) toward overweight in students attending public schooling (odds ratios 2.84 and 2.95 for males and females, respectively). Low dietary fiber intake was not associated with constipation. Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.

  9. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state-of-the-art geology, concepts of evolution of interrelated geodynamic and biotic events throughout the history of the Earth have been developed (Fig. 1. Research results on sediments, bio-stratigraphy and geodynamics of the southern fragment of the Siberian craton (SSC, Fig. 2 provide for more or less reliable assessments of the status and evolution of ancient landscapes and biotas from the Lower Proterozoic to the Cenozoic.In the Lower Proterozoic, the geodynamic regime of the Urik-Iyskiy graben was similar to those of the westernpacific island-arc systems, which resulted in the orogen formation and established post-orogen granitoids of 1.86 bln years of age. At the beginning of the Early Riphean, volcano-sedimentary masses were accumulated in continental basins (Fig. 2, 3A. Collision orogenesis also resulted in the occurrence of the terrigeno-volcanogenic complex of the Akitkanskaya suite in the Western Pribaikalie and the transecting Irelskiy granitoids, aged 1.86 bln years, at the edge of the craton. Later on, most probably before the Riphean, peneplanation took place, and a shallow peripheral sea was formed with highly-mature sediments of the Purpolskaya suite. Different environments are reconstructed in the KodarUdokan zone. Sediments of the Udokanskaya suite, varying in thicknesses from 11 to 14 km, suggest a complicated evolution of sedimentation in the peripheral marine basin. Dozens of radiochronological datings of granitoids of the Chuiskiy and Kodarskiy complex which transect the Udokanskaya suite are within the range from 1.7 to 2.0 bln years. From the deposit composition and texture, it can be suggested that the middle, Chineiskaya sub-suite was formed under island-arc conditions; and glacial phenomena occurred in the late Udokan time.Further geological history of the SSC can be described only within the period after the Late Riphean sedimentations (see Fig. 3Б, В. The SSC evolution in the Neo-Proterozoic began with

  10. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the state-of-the-art geology, concepts of evolution of interrelated geodynamic and biotic events throughout the history of the Earth have been developed (Fig. 1. Research results on sediments, bio-stratigraphy and geodynamics of the southern fragment of the Siberian craton (SSC, Fig. 2 provide for more or less reliable assessments of the status and evolution of ancient landscapes and biotas from the Lower Proterozoic to the Cenozoic.In the Lower Proterozoic, the geodynamic regime of the Urik-Iyskiy graben was similar to those of the westernpacific island-arc systems, which resulted in the orogen formation and established post-orogen granitoids of 1.86 bln years of age. At the beginning of the Early Riphean, volcano-sedimentary masses were accumulated in continental basins (Fig. 2, 3A. Collision orogenesis also resulted in the occurrence of the terrigeno-volcanogenic complex of the Akitkanskaya suite in the Western Pribaikalie and the transecting Irelskiy granitoids, aged 1.86 bln years, at the edge of the craton. Later on, most probably before the Riphean, peneplanation took place, and a shallow peripheral sea was formed with highly-mature sediments of the Purpolskaya suite. Different environments are reconstructed in the KodarUdokan zone. Sediments of the Udokanskaya suite, varying in thicknesses from 11 to 14 km, suggest a complicated evolution of sedimentation in the peripheral marine basin. Dozens of radiochronological datings of granitoids of the Chuiskiy and Kodarskiy complex which transect the Udokanskaya suite are within the range from 1.7 to 2.0 bln years. From the deposit composition and texture, it can be suggested that the middle, Chineiskaya sub-suite was formed under island-arc conditions; and glacial phenomena occurred in the late Udokan time.Further geological history of the SSC can be described only within the period after the Late Riphean sedimentations (see Fig. 3Б, В. The SSC evolution in the Neo-Proterozoic began with

  11. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state; Metodologia para correlacao entre doses e detectabilidade em imagens mamograficas padroes: aplicacao no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia

    2005-07-01

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, A{sub g}, establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, A{sub g}, image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The A{sub g} presented a mean value of (10,42 {+-} 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation

  12. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  13. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  14. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Levantamento das condicoes de funcionamento de servicos de radiodiagnostico medico - programa de vigilancia das radiacoes ionizantes no Estado de Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Moraes, Anna Cristina Andrade de [Escola de Governo e Administracao Publica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fundacao do Desenvolvimento Administrativo (FUNDAP)

    1996-12-31

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an `inspection form` of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Relationship between Precambrian North Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic tillites of North Korea and Southern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Zhai, M.; Peng, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Jia, X.; Zhang, H.; Lei, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Relationship between Precambrian Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton (NCC) is focus of attention. There are Neoproterozoic tillites in Phyongnam Basin, Nangrim massif, North Korea (NK) and Southern NCC. Nangrim massif was regarded as a part of the NCC according to similar Precambrian basements between Nangrim massif and Longgang massif in the Northeast NCC. But the comparation of Neoproterozoic rocks is lacked between NK and NCC. Detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 2 pebbly phyllite samples of Pirangdong Series in Phyongnam Basin and 2 argillaceous cemented mix-conglomeate samples of Luoquan Series in Southern NCC was analyzed in this research. Detrital zircon ages of pebbly phyllites of Pirangdong Series distribute mainly at 1.85 Ga, 1.8 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.4 Ga and 1.2 Ga. A small number of them are at 3.2 Ga, 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.3 Ga, 2.1 Ga and 900 - 860 Ma. Detrital zircon ages of mix-conglomeates of Luoquan Series mainly focus on 2.5 Ga, 2.2 Ga, 2.0 Ga, 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga. Minor of them distribute at 1.12 Ga. The similar age distribution of Pirangdong and Luoquan Series of 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga, 1.85 - 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga corresponds to Precambrian significant tectonic- magmatic- thermal events of the NCC, which indicates that the Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC are main provenances of both Pirangdong and Luoquan Series. This also confirm that the Phyongnam Basin is a part of Neoproterozoic sedimentary covers of the NCC. It is worth to mention that 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma magmatic rocks in the NCC are seldom reported which relate to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent. whereas they crop out widely in the South China Craton (SCC) and was always regarded as a mark distingusing the two craton. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma zircon ages preserved in sedimentary rocks not only in North Korea and Southern NCC but also in Northeast NCC and East NCC provide data to compare Neoproterozoic strata between NCC and SCC and important clues to

  16. The plight of gay visibility: intolerance in San Francisco, 1970-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    During the 1970s, San Francisco was often characterized as the "Gay Mecca" of the United States. While it's true that San Francisco was more supportive of the gay community during this period, this depiction often dismisses the problematic side of the increasing visibility of homosexuals. As with the increasing visibility of any minority group who is struggling to find its place in a community, the homosexual population in San Francisco soon found itself the target of anti-gay harassment and violence. This article hopes to elaborate on the published reports of intolerance that were chronicled by the gay community's own press.

  17. Entrevista con Francisco Pérez de los Cobos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Pérez Collados

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Pérez de los Cobos es magistrado del Tribunal Constitucional, catedrático de Derecho del Trabajo y autor de una importante obra académica en el campo del Derecho, así como de una selecta y cuidada obra literaria en el ámbito de la poesía infantil, los aforismos y el cuento.Hablamos con él de lectura, teniendo en cuenta que las lecturas que él hace de nuestras leyes tienen una relevancia que nos afecta a todos.Y ocurre que después de leer sus reflexiones sobre la importancia de la lectura, así como sobre los narradores y los poetas que ha cultivado a lo largo de toda su vida, nos queda un sentimiento que quiero explicitar: el de la felicidad que ofrece la inteligencia cuando se rodea de sensibilidad.

  18. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teresa Gowan, Hobos, Hustlers and Backsliders: Homeless in San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aldeia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Gowan apresenta‑nos uma obra atípica no contexto da produção de conhecimento científico sobre o fenómeno dos sem‑abrigo nos Estados Unidos da América (EUA. Recorrendo a um trabalho etnográfico notável, desenvolvido ao longo da segunda metade da década de 1990 em São Francisco, a autora enquadra o seu estudo no contexto sócio-histórico e geográfico mais vasto, articulando a análise do terreno com as teorias acerca do fenómeno e com os registos das perspectivas das próprias pessoas que ...

  20. Francisco de Goya: tres cuadros, tres épocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnáiz, José Manuel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes three works in his opinion belonging to three periods of Goya's activity: The first one The Death of San Francisco Javier is the definitive version based on the "bozetto" now in the Zaragoza Museum which derives from a drawing and canvass by the italian painter Bertucci. The second is The Portrait of Child Pedro Jordan de Urríes, heir of the Marquesado de Ayerbe, as first boom of one of the most aristocratic and rich families of Zaragoza. The third work is a sketch for The Tribunal of the Inquisición now in the Academy of San Fernando with remarkable differences, which raises again the problem of the series of small panels in the Munich Museum. The author includes interesting letters addressed by Matheron to Valentin Carderera asking information about Goya, and reproduce the original text of Goya's letter to Zapater dated of 15th. April 1777, until now homeless.No disponible

  1. A sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Emílio Vauthier Borges de Macedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa a noção de sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez. Porque a vontade constitui elemento essencial do seu conceito de Direito, alguns autores criticaram Suárez por ver nele o precursor do positivismo voluntarista dos teóricos de Direito Internacional do século XIX. Mas isso é um equívoco. A sociedade internacional suareziana é mais do que a mera vontade dos Estados, pois se baseia num conceito bastante transcendente: a Caridade. Assim, procura refutar-se uma concepção difundida, mas imerecida do teólogo espanhol. O artigo empregou o método de abordagem indutivo, e as suas fontes primárias foram as obras de Suárez, e as secundárias as dos seus comentaristas.

  2. A molecular epidemiological assessment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Adrian; Creasman, Jennifer; Hopewell, Philip C; Gonzalez, Leah C; Wong, Maida; Jasmer, Robert M; Daley, Charles L

    2004-01-01

    The epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is not well understood. We studied all cases of extrapulmonary TB reported in San Francisco during 1991-2000 to determine risk factors for extrapulmonary TB and the proportion caused by recent infection. Isolates were analyzed by IS6110-based restriction fragment-length polymorphisms analysis. There were 480 cases of extrapulmonary TB, of which 363 (76%) were culture positive; isolates were genotyped for 301 cases (83%). Multivariate analysis identified young age, female sex, and HIV infection as independent risk factors for nonrespiratory TB (excluding pulmonary, pleural, and disseminated TB). Pleural TB was less common in HIV-seropositive persons and women than were nonrespiratory forms of extrapulmonary TB. Pleural TB is different from other forms of extrapulmonary TB and is associated with the highest clustering rate (35% of cases) of all forms of TB. This high rate of clustering occurs because pleural TB is often an early manifestation of recent infection.

  3. El realismo "full hd" de Juan Francisco Ferré

    OpenAIRE

    Florenchie, Amélie

    2013-01-01

    A partir de las teorías sobre el simulacro del filósofo francés Jean Baudrillard, así como del análisis del posmodernismo como resultado de la lógica cultural del capitalismo tardío de Fredric Jameson, y de los postulados más recientes de Eloy Fernández Porta sobre la evolución de la cultura hacia el paradigma estético del afterpop, nos proponemos estudiar en este artículo las características del “realismo de alta definición” definido por Juan Francisco Ferré a propósito de su penúltima novel...

  4. Constraining the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle from inversion of seismic data: Implications for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg; Kronrod, Victor; Prokofyev, Alexey; Zhidikova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimation of the temperature distribution in the Earth's mantle is a key problem in petrology and geophysics. In this study, we discuss the method of estimating temperature, composition and thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath some Archean cratons from absolute seismic velocities. The phase composition and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle were modelled within the Na2O-TiO2-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system including the non-ideal solid solution phases. For the computation of the phase diagram for a given chemical composition, we have used a method of minimization of the total Gibbs free energy combined with a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Our forward calculation of phase diagram, seismic velocities and density and inverse calculation of temperature includes anharmonic and anelastic parameters as well as mineral reaction effects, including modes and chemical compositions of coexisting phases. Sensitivity of density and velocities to temperature, pressure and composition was studied. Inverse code computes the temperature distribution in the upper mantle from seismic and compositional constraints. The output results contain the self-consistent information on phase assemblages, densities and velocities. The approach used here requires a small number of thermodynamically defined parameters and has important advantages over earlier procedures, which contain no information about entropy, enthalpy and Grüneisen parameter. We inverted for temperature the recent P and S velocity models of the Kaapvaal craton as well as the IASP91 reference Earth model. Several long-range seismic profiles were carried out in Russia with Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE). The velocity models from PNEs recorded along these profiles were used to infer upper mantle temperature profiles beneath the Siberian craton. The seismic profiles were inverted on the basis of low and high temperature xenoliths of garnet peridotites from kimberlite pipes of

  5. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Al margen de las Obras de Francisco de la Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Abadín Barro, Soledad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de la Torre's Works, published by Quevedo in 1631, enclose a second part, described in later years as an «appendix», with translations that did not belong in the original project prepared by the author some decades before. The summary of the 1588 license for printing describes the work's content as «lyric and adonic verse, and bucolic», without mentioning the translations. The new date throws into question the participation of Almeida and Brocense in the preparation and transmission of the manuscript that came to Quevedo. Therefore, the volume of 1631 cannot be considered as an example of salmantin group's collective poetical essay. Related chronological considerations also throw new light on the relationship between the author and Fernando de Herrera.Las Obras de Francisco de la Torre, publicadas por Quevedo en 1631, incluyen una segunda parte, que más tarde se llamaría «apéndice», con traducciones ajenas al proyecto inicial preparado por el propio autor décadas antes. El sumario de la licencia de impresión de 1588 describe el contenido de la obra aprobada como «los versos líricos y adónicos y la bucólica», sin mencionar las traducciones. La nueva fecha lleva a cuestionar el protagonismo de Almeida y el Brócense en la preparación y transmisión del manuscrito que más tarde llegaría a Quevedo. El volumen de 1631, por lo tanto, no puede considerarse como un exponente de un ejercicio poético colectivo del círculo salmantino. Los datos cronológicos también permiten replantear la relación del autor con Fernando de Herrera.

  7. Francisco Giralte y el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasallo Toranzo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high valuation placed on the tomb of Bishop Gutierre de Carvajal, sculpted by Francisco de Giralte, resulted in a lawsuit for which the most important artists from Toledo, Alcalá and Madrid were called to testify. Their testimonies, made during the crucial moment when Berruguete died and the court arrived at Madrid are very useful for understanding the artistic appreciation of a work. Thus, relevant artists of the period –Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo or Juan Bautista de Toledo– attested to the perfect technique, the beauty of the carving, the multiplicity of personages represented next to the dead Bishop, and the wish to achieve their portrait likenesses.La alta tasación alcanzada por el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal, obra de Francisco Giralte, motivó un pleito al que fueron llamados los principales artistas de Toledo, Alcalá y Madrid. Sus testimonios, realizados en el crucial momento en que se produjo la muerte de Berruguete y llegó la corte a Madrid, son muy útiles para conocer la estimación artística de una obra, de la que personajes como Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás de Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo o Juan Bautista de Toledo ponderaron la perfección técnica, la belleza de su talla, la multiplicación de personajes representados junto al finado y la voluntad retratística presente en todos ellos.

  8. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  10. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  11. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  12. Gravity Anomalies, Seismic Structure and Subsidence History of the Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Watts, A. B.; Daly, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cratonic basins are characterized by their sub-circular shape, long-lived (>150 Myr) subsidence, shallow marine/terrestrial sediments that young towards the centre of the basin and thick seismic lithosphere. Despite the recognition of >20 basins world-wide, the paucity of geological and geophysical data over these basins means their origin remains enigmatic. In order to address this problem, we have undertaken an integrated analysis of the Parnaíba cratonic basin, NE Brazil using a 1400 km long seismic reflection profile recorded to 20 s TWTT, field observations, well logs, gravity data acquired at 1 km intervals and five wide-angle reflection/refraction receiver gathers recorded at offsets up to 100 km. We find a depth to pre-Paleozoic basement and Moho of 3.5 and 41 - 43 km respectively beneath the basin centre. A prominent mid-crustal reflection (MCR) can be tracked laterally for 300 km at depths between 17 - 25 km. A low-fold wide-angle receiver gather stack shows that the crust below the MCR is characterized by a 4 s TWTT package of reflections. Forward gravity modelling suggests that the MCR represents the upper surface of a high-density (+175 kg m-3) lower crustal body, likely of magmatic origin. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data from wells in the centre of the basin show an exponentially decreasing subsidence. We show that process-oriented gravity and flexure modelling suggest that the basin cannot be due to extension as this does not account for the observed gravity anomaly and predicts too shallow a Moho ( 34 km). Equally, extensive rift structures are not observed on the deep seismic profile. Therefore, other processes must be invoked to explain the basin subsidence. Process-oriented gravity modelling shows that a dense body in the lower crust, that has loaded and flexed the crust downwards, together with sediment loading, provides a satisfactory fit to the regional gravity anomaly. This model is consistent with wide-angle seismic data, which

  13. Dobreflection: An Exceptional Example of Basin Inversion In The East-european Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, U.; Stovba, S.; Maystrenko, Y.; Stephenson, R.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobreflection Working Group

    DOBREflection is a joint project of Ukrainian organisations (Ukrgeofisika and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences) and an international European consortium that included acquisition of some 250 km of deep seismic re- flection data in 2000 and 2001. The aim was to study the south-eastern continuation of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) into the coal mining areas of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), including the sedimentary fill and its deformation as well as the structure of the deeper crust. The DF is the strongly inverted and compressionally deformed part of the DDB, which is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the south-western part of the East-European Craton (EEC) between the Ukrainian Shield (UkS) to the south-west and the Voronezh Massif (VM) to the north-east. DOBREflection reveals that the base of the predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary succession in the DF reaches a maximum of about 20-km in its axial part. However, the Donbas area has been much more seriously affected by secondary tectonic events than those parts of the DDB further north. In particular, significant shortening in response to Late Cretaceous Eo-Alpine compression is in evidence. While syn- and post-rift faults with offsets up to more than 3-km disrupt the basement horizon, the shortening (basin inversion) is displayed mainly as folding within the sedimentary succession. The fold patterns sug- gest a detachment surface most likely located within the Upper Devonian sequence, perhaps indicating the presence of salt rich layers. Shortening is also accommodated on two important crustal-scale structures. The first of these is a slightly inclined listric shear zone, or thrust, cutting the entire crust - including the UkS Moho - south of the DF, upwards through the complete sedimentary package ending in the northern part of the DF within an area of reverse faults exposed at the surface. The latter have vertical offsets up to a few kilometres whereas the

  14. The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province in the SW Amazonian Craton: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Leite, Washington Barbosa; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Ramiro; Payolla, Bruno Leonelo; Tosdal, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    .50 Ga), Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (1.40-1.36 Ga), and the Teotônio Intrusive Suite (1.38 Ga). Magmatism of these types also occur at the end of the Rondonian-San Ignacio Orogeny, and are represented by the Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (1.34-1.36 Ga), and the São Lourenço-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (1.31-1.30 Ga). The cratonization of the province occurred between 1.30 and 1.25 Ga.

  15. Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mount Deans Pegmatite Field, Eastern Yilgarn Craton/Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-Cesium-Tantal (LCT) pegmatites are an important source for the rare metals Li, Cs and Ta, commodities that are now consumed in a rapidly increasing amount in high technology applications. Despite that LCT pegmatites are characteristic features for the Archaean geology of Western Australia, only the Greenbushes, Cattlin Creek and Wodgina deposits are currently exploited for Li and Ta. Therefore, Western Australia still possesses a great potential for the identification of additional resources for Li, Ta and possibly also Cs. The present study presents an overview of the geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Mount Deans pegmatite field, located c. 13 km S of Norseman, in the Eastern Goldfields Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton. The Mount Deans pegmatite field is Meso- to Neo-Archaean in age and hosted in the N-S trending Dundas Hill greenstone belt. The pegmatite field covers an area of 6 km in N-S and 4 km in E-W extension and comprises several dozens of individual pegmatite sheets and lenses. Structurally the pegmatite bodies are subdivided into two distinct types. Type I occurs predominantly in the southern part, is gently dipping (5-10°) to various directions and has variable thicknesses (3-25 m). Type II occurs in the northern part of the pegmatite field, dips steeply (50-90°) with a general N-S striking and has only a limited thickness (10 cm to 5 m). A clear distinction can also be made through their internal structure and mineralogy. Type I pegmatites exhibit a distinct structural and mineralogical zoning, whereas type II pegmatites are unzoned. Also albite, zinnwaldite, lepidolite and quartz form the bulk of the pegmatite; lepidolite is considerably more common in type II. Based on its peraluminous and strongly calc-alkaline character, as well as its enrichment in rare elements (i.e., Li, Rb, Cs, Ta, Nb, F), the pegmatites at Mount Deans are interpreted as LCT-pegmatites. However, despite the occurrence of rare element minerals like cassiterite

  16. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product using ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanyu; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Yang, Kai; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Cai, Zhaonan; Allaart, Marc; Ancellet, Gérard; Calpini, Bertrand; Coetzee, Gerrie J. R.; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Cupeiro, Manuel; De Backer, Hugo; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hall, Tristan J.; Johnson, Bryan; Joseph, Everette; Kivi, Rigel; Kois, Bogumil; Komala, Ninong; König-Langlo, Gert; Laneve, Giovanni; Leblanc, Thierry; Marchand, Marion; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Morris, Gary; Newchurch, Michael J.; Ogino, Shin-Ya; Ohkawara, Nozomu; Piters, Ankie J. M.; Posny, Françoise; Querel, Richard; Scheele, Rinus; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Schnell, Russell C.; Schrems, Otto; Selkirk, Henry; Shiotani, Masato; Skrivánková, Pavla; Stübi, René; Taha, Ghassan; Tarasick, David W.; Thompson, Anne M.; Thouret, Valérie; Tully, Matthew B.; Van Malderen, Roeland; Vömel, Holger; von der Gathen, Peter; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Yela, Margarita

    2017-07-01

    We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA) on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004-2008) and post-RA (2009-2014). The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure ˜ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure) are within 2 % with SDs of ˜ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA) due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure > ˜ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs and SDs at extreme off-nadir positions. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the post-RA comparison is considerably worse with larger SDs reaching 2 % in the stratosphere and 8 % in the troposphere and up to 6 % in TOC. There are systematic differences that vary with latitude compared to the pre-RA comparison. The retrieval comparison demonstrates good long-term stability during the pre-RA period but exhibits a statistically significant trend of 0.14-0.7 % year-1 for pressure < ˜ 80 hPa, 0.7 DU year-1 in SOC, and -0. 33 DU year-1 in TOC during the post-RA period. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI's radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability and reduce the latitude/season/SZA and cross

  17. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  18. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  19. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  20. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  1. Possibility of groundwater as an alternative for citric culture recovery in Sao Vicente District, Araruama, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; Possibilidade de agua subterranea como alternativa na recuperacao da citricultura no Distrito de Sao Vicente, Municipio de Araruama, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Leonidas Castro [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Results and perspectives of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding Survey in Eastern Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, run by DEGEO/IA/UFRRJ (Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Agronomy Institute, Geology Dept.) for the Municipal Prefecture of Araruama in Sao Vicente District, RJ, where underground is needed to support irrigation projects, mainly of citrus, are presented. Geophysical data interpretation resulted in a 900 m long geoelectrical cross section illustrating that groundwater subsurface conditions in the surveyed area comprise: the 1400-1800 ohm.m resistivimetric regions associated to the granitic-gneissic embasement`s fracturing/faulting zones; the 215 ohm.m resistivimetric region associated to the embasement`s type C weathering horizon; and all others resistivimetric regions, below the water table, ranging from 27-227 phm.m, associated to an averaging 35 m thick and course sedimentary package overlaying the crystalline. Finally it is possible to conclude that groundwater in Sao Vicente, District of Araruama, RJ, must not be considered a possibility. It must be considered a reality, and surely the only alternative for restoration and expansion of the citriculture in this rural area of Rio de Janeiro State. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  2. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  3. Francisco de Valderrama, verdadero autor de las mazas del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author reveals the true creator of the maces of Seville Town Hall, Francisco de Valderrama, a rediscovered silversmith about whom new biographical data is offered. Also included is a detailed study of these civic maces (traditionally attributed erroneously to Francisco de Alfaro, key works of Sevillian Mannerism.

    En este artículo se da a conocer el verdadero autor de las mazas del ayuntamiento de Sevilla, Francisco de Valderrama, orfebre redescubierto del que además aportamos nuevos datos biográficos. Asimismo, hacemos un estudio pormenorizado de estas mazas capitulares, obra clave de la plástica manierista sevillana y que tradicionalmente había sido atribuida erróneamente a Francisco de Alfaro.

  4. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  5. San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1978. The report begins with a general...

  6. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  7. [Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) executive summary was written to guide management on Don Edwards San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15...

  8. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - San Francisco Bay, Central Coast [ds159

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - San Francisco Bay, Central and South Coasts [ds159] shapefile contains four years of in-stream salmonid habitat data at the reach level. The...

  9. Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay through Additional Wastewater Sidestream Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The report begins with highlights from the...

  11. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The report begins with highlights from the...

  12. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. The report begins with highlights from the...

  13. Annual Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1984. The report begins with highlights from the...

  14. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1982. The report begins with highlights from the...

  15. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  16. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2009-10 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Restoring vegetation adjacent to the tidal...

  17. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  18. Final Critical Habitat for the San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus) occur based on the description...

  19. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2008-09 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation management is often straightforward:...

  20. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  1. Advancement of Salinity and Flow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the utility and approximate cost of expanding the salinity water quality monitoring network along the axis of the San Francisco Estuary from Suisun Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River.

  2. Public perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Lisa A; Corelli, Robin L; Roth, Andrew P; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2013-11-01

    In October, 2008, legislation was implemented in the city and county of San Francisco, California, prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. To characterise public awareness and perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco community pharmacies. A brief, anonymous survey was used to assess public awareness and perceptions of a ban on tobacco sales approximately 1 year after implementation. Individuals were approached by researchers outside of chain pharmacies in San Francisco. Smokers and non-smokers were included, and participants did not have to be patrons of the pharmacy. Of 198 participants, 56% were in favor of the ban, 27% opposed it and 17% were undecided. A greater proportion of current tobacco users (81%) than former/never users (48%) were aware of the ban (pshopping behaviour at retail pharmacies. In the city and county of San Francisco, public support exists for prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies.

  3. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  4. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  5. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  6. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  7. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  8. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, and Ellicott Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  9. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  10. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  11. Final Environmental Statement : Acquisition of lands for the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Government proposes to acquire approximately 23,000 acres of land in the South San Francisco Bay region, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, to...

  12. Dioxin toxin equivalents, PCBs, and PBDEs in eggs of avian wildlife of San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay (Bay) is considered an impaired waterbody under section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 2, 3, 7,...

  13. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Refuge Master Plan : 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan guides the longrange development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats,...

  14. Geodynamic background for large-scale mineralization in the southern environs of the Siberian Craton in the Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budyak, A. E.; Goryachev, N. A.; Skuzovatov, S. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The geodynamic position of the productive Kevaktinskii and Dal'netaiginskii stratigraphic units with Au-U mineralization is considered within the Baikal-Patom highland. The Au-U specialization of rocks of the Kevaktinskaya Group results from its formation in the environments of the passive continental margin with introduction of the juvenile material related to riftogenesis and further collision, whereas the same specialization of the Dal'netaiginskaya Group is explained by exhalation activity in the back-arc spreading zone. The formation of most of the Au and U large-scale deposits within the southern environs of the Siberian Craton was controlled by Paleozoic oogenesis upon closure of the Paleoasian Ocean.

  15. U-Pb thermochronology of the lower crust: producing a long-term record of craton thermal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Perron, T.; Schoene, B.; Dudas, F. O.

    2010-12-01

    The EarthScope initiative is focused on providing an enhanced view of the North American lithosphere and the present day stress field of the North American continent. Of key interest is the interaction between convecting asthenosphere and the conducting lithospheric mantle that underlie the continents, especially the cold ‘keels’ that underlie Archean domains. Cratonic regions are in general characterized by minimal erosion and or sediment accumulation. The Integration of seismic tomography, and mantle xenolith studies reveal a keel of seismically fast and relatively buoyant and viscous mantle; physical properties that are intimately linked with the long-term stability and topographic expression of the region. Missing from this model of the continental lithosphere is the 4th dimension--time--and along with it our understanding of the long-term evolution of these stable continental interiors. Here we present a thermal record from the North American craton using U-Pb thermochronology of lower crustal xenoliths. The use of temperature sensitive dates on lower crustal samples can produce a unique time-temperature record for a well-insulated and slowly cooling lithosphere. The base of the crust is insulated enough to remain unperturbed by any plausible changes to surface topography, yet unlike the subadjacent lithospheric mantle, contains accessory phases amenable to U-Pb dating (rutile, apatite, titanite). With near steady state temperatures in the lower crust between 400-600 °C, U-Pb thermochronometers with similar average closure temperatures for Pb are perfectly suited to record the long-term cooling of the lithosphere. Xenoliths from multiple depths, and across the craton yield time-temperature paths produced from U-Pb thermochronometers that record extremely slow cooling (<0.25 °C/Ma) over time scales of billions of years. Combining these data with numerical thermal modeling allow constraints to be placed on the dominant heat transfer mechanisms operating

  16. Polyphase neotectonic movements in the Gavilgarh Fault Zone, central Indian craton: evidences from geomorpho-tectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Dipanjan; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Jain, Vikrant

    2014-05-01

    The central part of Indian craton is believed to be a stable continental region with low strain build-up and long earthquake recurrence periods. It comprises two major Archean cratonic fragments (i.e. the Bundelkhand and the Bastar Cratons) and a Proterozoic mobile belt called Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), along which the cratonic fragments were amalgamated in the Proterozoic. Gavilgarh Fault Zone (GFZ) is an important component of CITZ and is represented by a >250 km long, ENE-WSW trending fault line which demarcates the southern boundary of the Satpura mountains. Although the eastern part of the lineament shows evidences of polyphase tectonic movements in the Meso-Neoproterozic (Chattopadhyay and Khasdeo, 2011), there is no focussed analysis of neotectonic activity in this fault zone although a number of earthquakes have been recorded within the CITZ in last 100 years or so. The present study comprises structural mapping and geomorphological analysis of a 200 km long stretch of the GFZ lineament. GFZ shows evidences of reverse fault-slip movements that possibly resulted in an uplift of the northern side, as deeper level rocks (e.g. Paleozoic Gondwana sandstones) are juxtaposed against the overlying Deccan Trap basalts of Mesozoic age along the fault line. Crushing of basalts along the lineament, asymmetric folds within Gondwana sandstone, inclination of Anisotropic Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) axes etc. provide evidences for fault-drag folding related to the post-Deccan reverse faulting. Drainages crosscutting the lineament adjusted with the tectonic uplift either by incising their own sediments and bed rock or by increasing their sinuosity, only in the northern side, as seen in the satellite images. Hypsometric Integral values suggest that the immature/in-equilibrated drainage basins were restricted in the north while mature/equilibrated basins developed in the south of the lineament. Longitudinal profiles and S-L Index of the river profiles, prepared

  17. Comparison of mantle lithosphere beneath early Triassic kimberlite fields in Siberian craton reconstructed from deep-seated xenocrysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ashchepkov

    2016-07-01

    Kharamai mantle clinopyroxenes represent three geochemical types: (1 harzburgitic with inclined linear REE, HFSE troughs and elevated Th, U; (2 lherzolitic or pyroxenitic with round TRE patterns and decreasing incompatible elements; (3 eclogitic with Eu troughs, Pb peak and high LILE content. Calculated parental melts for garnets with humped REE patterns suggest dissolution of former Cpx and depression means Cpx and garnets extraction. Clinopyroxenes from Ary-Mastakh fields show less inclined REE patterns with HMREE troughs and an increase of incompatible elements. Clinopyroxenes from Kuranakh field show flatter spoon-like REE patterns and peaks in Ba, U, Pb and Sr, similar to those in ophiolitic harzburgites. The PT diagrams for the mantle sections show high temperature gradients in the uppermost SCLM accompanied by an increase of P-Fe#Ol upward and slightly reduced thickness of the mantle keel of the Siberian craton, resulting from the influence of the Permian–Triassic superplume, but with no signs of delamination.

  18. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    and Singapore , was established with the purpose of regional cooperation in economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields...COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL BRIDGING THE SAN FRANCISCO SYSTEM : 21st CENTURY STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE ASIAN-PACIFIC By...the disproportionate security and economic burdens of key bilateral alliances that grew to embody the “San Francisco System .” The United States

  19. EL CONVENTO DE SAN FRANCISCO DE MÉXICO. UN ESTUDIO DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Salas Cuesta

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Fra...

  20. EL CONVENTO DE SAN FRANCISCO DE MÉXICO. UN ESTUDIO DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Salas Cuesta; María Elena Salas Cuesta

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Frail...

  1. El convento de San Francisco de México: un estudio de salud pública

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas Cuesta, Marcela

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Fra...

  2. Remagnetization in bituminous limestones of the Neoproterozoic Araras Group (Amazon craton): Hydrocarbon maturation, burial diagenesis, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, E.; Trindade, R. I. F.; NéDéLec, A.

    2006-06-01

    Neoproterozoic carbonates of the Araras Group exhibit two distinct magnetic components across the same carbonate succession in a cross-section between the Amazon craton and the Paraguay fold belt. Pink dolostones of the Mirassol d'Oeste Formation carry a dual polarity, primary component, whereas black bituminous limestones of the Guia Formation yield a secondary postfolding component. Magnetic signatures of the Guia limestones, such as high anhysteretic remanence magnetization/saturation isothermal remanence magnetization ratios, high-frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility and contradictory Lowrie-Fuller and Cisowski tests, are typical of remagnetized carbonates. Unblocking temperatures suggest that the stable high-temperature remanence is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite for which an authigenic origin is suggested by scanning electron microscope observations. The different magnetic properties noted between dolostones with or without bitumen and between dolostones and limestones in the same metamorphic conditions lead to the hypothesis that the amount of hydrocarbon as well as the lithology influence nucleation of authigenic magnetic minerals in these rocks. Presence of magnetite pseudoframboids and euhedral iron sulphide crystals occurring in fracture and voids are in favor of a chemical remanence (CRM). The presence of pyrrhotite as one of the main carriers of CRM in these rocks, and its association with bitumen in fractures is probably related to an epigenetic enrichment of sulfur due to hydrocarbon seepage. However, hydrocarbon maturation solely could not explain the differences of the magnetic mineralogy observed in the craton and the fold belt. Enhanced magnetite formation in the thrust and fold belt is interpreted to be the result of higher temperatures leading to stronger diagenesis of clay minerals.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii isolates: multilocus RFLP-PCR genotyping from human patients in Sao Paulo State, Brazil identified distinct genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia Brandão; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Qu, Daofeng; Su, Chunlei; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  5. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  6. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  7. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  8. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  9. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  10. Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE: influência sobre os riscos e eventos de queda em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Afonso Burgos

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos países vêm experimentando o processo de envelhecimento populacional e a consequente elevação das doenças associadas a ele, como dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio, perdas na qualidade do sono e síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos. OBJETIVOS:Investigar a correlação entre a Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE com os riscos e eventos de quedas em indivíduos idosos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS:Estudo descritivo, comparativo, de corte transversal com amostra de 75 indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, gêneros masculino e feminino. Foram utilizados o mini-exame do estado mental; escalas de depressão geriátrica simplificada; de sonolência de epworth; de avaliação do equilíbrio de tinneti; índice de massa corporal (IMC; registros estabilométricos das oscilações posturais ântero-posterior (AP e médio-lateral (ML. RESULTADOS: Maior prevalência de Saos no gênero masculino. Não foi encontrada correlação com significância estatística (Pearson, p ≤ 0,01 entre as variáveis IMC e estabilometria. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa (ANOVA, p ≤ 0,05 entre IMC (subgrupos normal, sobrepeso, graus I, II, III, e IV e estabilometria; entre os graus de severidade de Saos e estabilometria; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e mesmo grau de severidade de Saos; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e diferentes graus de Saos; entre os diferentes graus de Saos (GC, G1, (GC e G2, subgrupos de IMC e registros estabilométricos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados resultados que corroborassem a hipótese de proporcionalidade entre graus de severidade de Saos, IMC e registro estabilométrico.

  11. Sp1/Sp3 and DNA-methylation contribute to basal transcriptional activation of human podoplanin in MG63 versus Saos-2 osteoblastic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Christina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin is a membrane mucin that, among a series of tissues, is expressed on late osteoblasts and osteocytes. Since recent findings have focussed on podoplanin's potential role as a tumour progression factor, we aimed at identifying regulatory elements conferring PDPN promoter activity. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism controlling basal PDPN transcription in human osteoblast-like MG63 versus Saos-2 cells. Results We cloned and sequenced 2056 nucleotides from the 5'-flanking region of the PDPN gene and a computational search revealed that the TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses features of a growth-related gene, such as a GC-rich 5' region and the presence of multiple putative Sp1, AP-4 and NF-1 sites. Reporter gene assays demonstrated a functional promoter in MG63 cells exhibiting 30-fold more activity than in Saos-2 cells. In vitro DNase I footprinting revealed eight protected regions flanked by DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the region bp -728 to -39 present in MG63, but not in Saos-2 cells. Among these regions, mutation and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA identified four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites and two binding sites for yet unknown transcription factors. Deletion studies demonstrated the functional importance of two Sp1/Sp3 sites for PDPN promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 independently increased the stimulatory effect of the promoter and podoplanin mRNA levels in MG63 and Saos-2 cells. In SL2 cells, Sp3 functioned as a repressor, while Sp1 and Sp3 acted positively synergistic. Weak PDPN promoter activity of Saos-2 cells correlated with low Sp1/Sp3 nuclear levels, which was confirmed by Sp1/Sp3 chromatin immunoprecipitations in vivo. Moreover, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analyses and bisulfite sequencing detected strong methylation of CpG sites upstream of bp -464 in MG63 cells, but hypomethylation of these sites in Saos-2 cells. Concomitantly

  12. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  13. Major, trace and platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry of Archean Iron Ore Group and Proterozoic Malangtoli metavolcanic rocks of Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India: Inferences on mantle melting and sulphur saturation history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, M.R.; Manikyamba, C.; Ray, J.; Ganguly, S.; Santosh, M.; Saha, A.; Rambabu, S.; Sawant, S.S.

    extraction and crust formation for several billion years (Stern et al., 2012). The dominant and diverse metallogenic characteristics of Archean craton inventories were devel- opedduring their separation from themantle and thereafter the inherited metals were...

  14. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product using ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004–2008 and post-RA (2009–2014. The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa in the high latitudes. It demonstrates clear improvement over the a priori down to the lower troposphere in the tropics and down to an average of ∼ 550 (300 hPa at middle (high latitudes. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the profile mean biases (MBs are less than 6 %, and the standard deviations (SDs range from 5 to 10 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa to less than 18 % (27 % in the tropics (midlatitudes for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure are within 2 % with SDs of  < 5 % and the MBs of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC are within 6 % with SDs of 15 %. In the high latitudes, the profile MBs are within 10 % with SDs of 5–15 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa but increase to 30 % with SDs as great as 40 % for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure  > ∼ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs

  15. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  16. La potestad tributaria en Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Amezúa Amezúa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Suárez es el teólogo más relevante de la escuela española de derecho natural o Escuela de Salamanca en sentido amplio. Según piensa, el derecho de imponer tributos justos reside en exclusiva en la autoridad suprema, sin necesitar el consentimiento de las Cortes. El Estado tiene ese poder de establecer leyes tributarias para asegurar la paz, el orden y el buen gobierno de la comunidad. Es el poder más importante entre todas las facultades propias de la soberanía, pero debe respetar las exigencias de un impuesto justo: además de la autoridad legítima, una causa justa y distribución proporcional. En este artículo, desarrollaremos la doctrina de Suárez, su interpretación acerca de la duda probable sobre la injusticia del impuesto, y su aceptación de los impuestos sobre el consumo. Todos estos razonamientos iban dirigidos a fortalecer al gobernante, que debe actuar dentro de un marco ético respetuoso con el bien común.

  17. The San Francisco MSM Epidemic: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy L. Rapatski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate various scenarios for ending the San Francisco MSM (men having sex with men HIV/AIDS epidemic (1978–1984. We use our previously developed model and explore changes due to prevention strategies such as testing, treatment and reduction of the number of contacts. Here we consider a “what-if” scenario, by comparing different treatment strategies, to determine which factor has the greatest impact on reducing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The factor determining the future of the epidemic is the reproduction number R0; if R0 < 1, the epidemic is stopped. We show that treatment significantly reduces the total number of infected people. We also investigate the effect a reduction in the number of contacts after seven years, when the HIV/AIDS threat became known, would have had in the population. Both reduction of contacts and treatment alone, however, would not have been enough to bring R0 below one; but when combined, we show that the effective R0 becomes less than one, and therefore the epidemic would have been eradicated.

  18. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  19. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  20. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...