Sample records for santmyer microform

  1. Bibliographic Control of Microforms. (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; Tharpe, Josephine M.

    There are two major parts to this book. The first is a study of bibliographic control of microforms, and the second is an extensive annotated bibliography of microforms. The study included a survey of 190 libraries and showed that local bibliographic control of microforms is often so inadequate that usefulness of the microform collection is…

  2. Bilateral microform cleft lip


    Pace, David; Attard Montalto, Simon; Grech, Victor E.


    Microform cleft lip (MCL), also called congenital healed cleft lip or cleft lip "frustré", is a rare congenital anomaly. MCL has been described as having the characteristic appearance of a typical cleft lip which has been corrected in utero. We present a girl with bilateral microform cleft lip associated with a preauricular sinus and bilateral camptodactyly.

  3. Microforms and Sport History. (United States)

    Levine, Peter


    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  4. Facsimile Transmission of Microforms. (United States)


    others at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Carden (1979) describes a large-scale aperture card system with a remote I I I MicroFacsimile 1-14...receivers. The most widely reported Japanese microfacsimile activities involve an experimental system developed at the University of Tokyo for the remote... typography and can include footnotes, captions, and other information set S in rather small typefaces. In addition, library microforms are typically procured

  5. Key Problems in Microforming Processes of Microparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunju WANG; Debin SHAN; Bin GUO; Jian ZHOU; Lining SUN


    From the viewpoint of production engineering, microforming is considered as an effective process to fabricate various microparts. Several key problems in microforming processes were investigated. A new microforming apparatus with a high stiffness piezoelectric actuator as the punch driver was developed to produce microparts.To improve the forming abilities and locate the billets, a floating microdie was designed. The size effects of the billets and die cavities on the microforming abilities were studied with upsetting and coining tests, respectively.And the isothermal microforming process of microgears was performed with the developed microforming apparatus. Several analysis methods were used to evaluate the forming quality of the microparts.

  6. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium. (United States)

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  7. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience. (United States)

    Dupont, Jerry


    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  8. Five Decades of Microforms at the Library of Congress. (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert C.


    Discusses the history of the microform collections at the Library of Congress (LC), highlighting the exchange of microfilmed newspapers between LC and the Biblioteca Nacional, Brazil. Recent developments in preservation microfilming, LC's acquisition of microforms, and the activities of the LC Preservation Microfilming Office are described. (3…

  9. Research Sources and Microforms in Black Studies: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B. Marks


    Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…

  10. Micro-scaled products development via microforming deformation behaviours, processes, tooling and its realization

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ming Wang


    ‘Micro-scaled Products Development via Microforming’ presents state-of-the-art research on microforming processes, and focuses on the development of micro-scaled metallic parts via microforming processes. Microforming refers to the fabrication of microparts via micro-scaled plastic deformation and  presents a promising micromanufacturing process. When compared to other  micromanufacturing processes, microforming offers advantages such as high productivity and good mechanical properties of the deformed microparts. This book provides extensive and informative illustrations, tables and photos in order to convey this information clearly and directly to readers. Although the knowledge of macroforming processes is abundant and widely used in industry, microparts cannot be developed by leveraging existing knowledge of macroforming because the size effect presents a barrier to this knowledge transfer. Therefore systematic knowledge of microforming needs to be developed. In tandem with product miniaturization, t...

  11. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin


    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  12. Review on progressive microforming of bulk metal parts directly using sheet metals (Keynote Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu M.W.


    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous trend of product miniaturization, energy saving and weight reduction, micro/meso-scale parts have been widely used in many industrial clusters. Micromanufacturing processes for production of such micro/meso-scale parts are thus critically needed. Microforming, as one of these micro manufacturing processes, is a promising process and thus got many explorations and researches. Compared with the research on size effect affected deformation behaviours, less attention has been paid to the process development for mass production of micro-parts. The product quality and fabrication productivity of micro-parts depend on the involved process chain. To address the difficulty in handling and transporting of the micro-sized workpiece, development of a progressive microforming process for directly fabricating bulk micro-parts using sheet metals seems quite promising as it avoids or facilitates billet handling, transportation, positioning, and ejection in the process chain. In this paper, an intensive review on the latest development of progressive microforming technologies is presented. First of all, the paper summarizes the characteristic of progressive microforming directly using sheet metal. The size effect-affected deformation behaviour and the dimensional accuracy, deformation load, ductile fracture, and the surface finish of the microformed parts by progressive microforming using sheet metals are then presented. Finally, some research issues from the implementation of mass production perspective are also discussed.

  13. Friction related size-effect in microforming – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chunju


    Full Text Available This paper presents a thorough literature review of the size effects of friction in microforming. During miniaturization, the size effects of friction occur clearly. The paper first introduces experimental research progress on size effects of friction in both micro bulk and sheet forming. The effects of several parameters are discussed. Based on the experimental results, several approaches have been performed to develop a model or functions to analyse the mechanism of size effects of friction, and simulate the micro deep drawing process by integrating them into an FE program. Following this, surface modification, e.g. a DLC film and a micro structure/textured surface, as a method to reduce friction are presented. Finally, the outlook for the size effect of friction in the future is assessed, based on the understanding of the current research progress.

  14. Strain gradient polycrystal plasticity for micro-forming (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Tuncay; Simonovski, Igor; Özdemir, Izzet


    The developments in the micro-device industry has produced a substantial demand for the miniaturized metallic components with ultra-thin sheet materials that have thickness dimensions on the order of 50-500 µm which are produced through micro-forming processes. It is essential to have predictive tools to simulate the constitutive behavior of the materials at this length scale taking into account the physical and statistical size effect. Recent studies have shown that on the scale of several micrometers and below, crystalline materials behave differently from their bulk equivalent due to micro-structural effects (e.g. grain size, lattice defects and impurities), gradient effects (e.g. lattice curvature due to a non-uniform deformation field) and surface constraints (e.g. hard coatings or free interfaces). These effects could lead to stronger or weaker material response depending on the size and unique micro-structural features of the material. In this paper a plastic slip based strain gradient crystal plasticity model is used to address the effect of microstructural features (e.g. grain size, orientation and the number of grains) on the macroscopic constitutive response and the local behavior of polycrystalline materials.

  15. Preparing a Union List of Microforms on the Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods. (United States)

    Henneman, John B., Jr.


    Describes a project of the Association of College and Research Libraries to compile a union list of microforms dealing with the classical, medieval, and Renaissance periods. Goals of the project, questionnaire development, survey response, and questions raised by the project are discussed. The union list, including 101 titles and 45 libraries, is…

  16. Determination of an Effective System of Bibliographic Control of Microform Publications. Interim Report. (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; Tharpe, Josephine M.

    This interim report provides some guidelines for the bibliographic control of microforms which at the present time is either inadequate or non-existent on a local level within a given library. A literature search and direct inquiry of librarians revealed that adherence to cataloging rules is inconsistent, there is wide variation in microform…

  17. New Support for the Research Process: Desktop Delivery of Microform Content (United States)

    Weare, William H., Jr.


    While trying to access microform content, patrons at the Christopher Center for Library and Information Resources at Valparaiso University were often hampered by unfamiliar equipment, temperamental software, and a puzzling file management system. In an effort to address these problems, the Access Services Department launched a pilot program for…

  18. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide


    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  19. High Intellectual Function in Individuals with Mutation-Positive Microform Holoprosencephaly. (United States)

    Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Gropman, A L; Willis, M J; Hadley, D W; Muenke, M


    Holoprosencephaly is the most common malformation of the forebrain and typically results in severe neurocognitive impairment with accompanying midline facial anomalies. Holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous and may be caused by chromosome aberrations or environmental factors, occur in the context of a syndrome or be due to heterozygous mutations in over 10 identified genes. The presence of these mutations may result in an extremely wide spectrum of severity, ranging from brain malformations incompatible with life to individuals with normal brain findings and subtle midline facial differences. Typically, clinicians regard intellectual disability as a sign that a parent or relative of a severely affected patient may be a mildly affected mutation 'carrier' with what is termed microform holoprosencephaly. Here we present 5 patients with clear phenotypic signs of microform holoprosencephaly, all of whom have evidence of above-average intellectual function. In 4 of these 5 individuals, the molecular cause of holoprosencephaly has been identified and includes mutations affecting SHH, SIX3, GLI2, and FGF8. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of holoprosencephaly and is important in the counseling of patient and affected families.

  20. Fabrication of Times and Micro-Formation of Discourse at a Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kontopodis


    Full Text Available The paper presented here starts with a reference to modernist time theories, followed by a presentation of alternative views in the works of FOUCAULT, DELEUZE, LATOUR and others. The study concentrates on the concrete context of an experimental school aiming at incorporation of excluded students into society. Based on the synthesis of discourse analysis and Actor-Network-Theory, the study puts forward a twofold question: a whether and how the "fabrication of times" is interrelated to micro-formations of discourses and b how micro-formations of discourses emerge as processes in the concrete setting of a school in regard to their temporal and other aspects. To answer this query, I combine some critical ethnographic work with an Actor-Network-Theory methodology—an approach which could be regarded as "rhizomatic analysis" (DELEUZE & GUATTARI, 1980. Examining discursive and non-discursive action with a particular focus on materialities (sites, students' documents, educational reports, CVs, and files, I introduce the notion of "temporal devices of control" and map two of them: that of synchronicity and that of convergence. In this way, I propose a new understanding of time and relate it to discourse formation. This, in turn, reveals a new potential for critical reflection on theories of time as well as on all action taking place in the school. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701119

  1. Feasibility study of the microforming combined with selective chemical vapor deposition

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    Koshimizu Kazushi


    Full Text Available Microforming has been received much attention in the recent decades due to the wide use of microparts in electronics and medical applications. For the further functionalization of these micro devices, high functional surfaces with noble metals and nanomaterials are strongly required in bio- and medical fields, such as bio-sensors. To realize an efficient manufacturing process, which can deform the submillimeter scale bulk structure and can construct the micro to nanometer scale structures in one process, the present study proposes a combined process of microforming for metal foils with a selective chemical vapor deposition (SCVD on the active surfaces of the working material. To demonstrate feasibility of this proposed process, feasibility of SCVD of functional materials onto active surfaces of titanium (Ti was investigated. CVD of iron (Fe and carbon nanotubes (CNTs which construct CNTs on the patterned surfaces of the active Ti and non-active Ti oxidation layers were conducted. Ti thin films on silicon substrate and Fe were used as working materials and functional materials respectively. CNTs were grown only on the Ti surface. Consequently, selectivity of the active surface of Ti to the synthesis of Fe particles in CVD was confirmed.

  2. Organización de las microformas en la biblioteca Organization of microforms in libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Legaz


    Full Text Available Se relevan, a partir de la consulta de la literatura especializada, las características particulares de las microformas y la problemática inherente a su gestión en las bibliotecas. En primer lugar, se realiza una breve reseña histórica sobre el origen y evolución de estos recursos para, luego, presentar una tipología y algunas aproximaciones terminológicas. Se considera especialmente la descripción bibliográfica y se proporcionan lineamientos generales sobre la determinación de los puntos de acceso. Se contemplan otras cuestiones relativas a su gestión, como ser su selección, almacenamiento y preservación. Además, se destacan las ventajas y desventajas de las microformas como soporte en las unidades de información.The particular characteristics of the microforms and the problems arised in their management are reviewed from the special literature. Firstly, a brief history about the origin and evolution of these resources is presented, followed by a typology and the terminology concerned. Bibliographic description is specially emphasized and guidelines for determination of access points are proposed. Criteria about its selection, storage and preservation are also provided. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of microforms as library material are remarked.

  3. Minor-form/microform cleft lip repair: the importance of identification and utilization of Cupid bow peak on the lateral lip. (United States)

    Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Saito, Akira; Yamamoto, Yuhei


    In minor-form or microform cleft lip, normal anatomical structures with slight displacement remain and should be used effectively to obtain symmetrical results. We treated 7 patients with minor-form or microform cleft lip between 2005 and 2009. In all patients, the peak of Cupid bow with a natural curve of the white roll was recognized on the lateral lip. We modified the incision line to maintain the natural curve and obtained a symmetrical and natural-looking Cupid bow. In this article, we emphasize the importance of preserving the remaining normal structure, particularly the curve of the white roll on the lateral lip, and suggest that the peak of the curve should be defined as Cupid bow peak of the cleft side. Details of our concept for the correction of minor-form or microform cleft lip are also introduced.

  4. Information Roundup: A Continuing Education Session on Microforms and Data Processing in the Library and Information Center: Costs/Benefits/History/Trends. Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting (4th, Portland, Oregon, May 15-17, 1975). (United States)

    Spigai, Frances G., Ed.; And Others

    Sixteen papers are presented which focus on microforms and data processing in library and information centers. Articles include discussions of cost analysis, decision making and program planning, library automation, information retrieval, indexing, cataloging, and computer services for libraries. (CH)

  5. Ultrahigh-resolution mapping of peatland microform using ground-based structure from motion with multiview stereo (United States)

    Mercer, Jason J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.


    Microform is important in understanding wetland functions and processes. But collecting imagery of and mapping the physical structure of peatlands is often expensive and requires specialized equipment. We assessed the utility of coupling computer vision-based structure from motion with multiview stereo photogrammetry (SfM-MVS) and ground-based photos to map peatland topography. The SfM-MVS technique was tested on an alpine peatland in Banff National Park, Canada, and guidance was provided on minimizing errors. We found that coupling SfM-MVS with ground-based photos taken with a point and shoot camera is a viable and competitive technique for generating ultrahigh-resolution elevations (i.e., scientists' toolkit.

  6. 介紹一些與中國有關的微縮資料收藏品 | Introduction to Some Microform Collections Relating to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Gu


    Full Text Available



    This article provided a brief explanation about microform collections. It translated and introduced some microform collections relating to China. For example, the microform

  7. Novel findings of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy, microform cleft lip and poor vision in patient with SMC1A-associated Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (United States)

    Wenger, Tara L; Chow, Penny; Randle, Stephanie C; Rosen, Anna; Birgfeld, Craig; Wrede, Joanna; Javid, Patrick; King, Darcy; Manh, Vivian; Hing, Anne V; Albers, Erin


    Relatively few patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) due to SMC1A mutation have been reported, limiting understanding of the full extent of the phenotype. Compared to children with classic NIPBL-associated CdLS, patients with SMC1A-associated CdLS have a milder physical phenotype with prominent intellectual disability, high rate of cleft palate and absence of limb reductions. We present a patient with SMC1A-associated CdLS who had typical features including developmental delay, seizure disorder, feeding difficulties, hirsutism, and cleft palate. She also was found to have three novel features: (i) left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy; (ii) microform cleft lip; and (iii) severe hyperopia and astigmatism. These features have implications regarding potential insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, screening, and medical management. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has previously been reported in SMC1A-associated CdLS, but to our knowledge this is the first reported child with LVNC. Previous reports have included children with isolated clefts of the palate without involvement of the lip. When cleft palate alone is associated with a disorder, the underlying pathophysiology for clefting is sometimes secondary due to mechanical blocking of the fusion of the palatal shelves with the developing tongue. The presence of microform cleft lip in this patient suggests that the pathophysiology of clefting in SMC1A is primary rather than secondary. Few studies report ophthalmologic findings specific to SMC1A. Based on these findings, LVNC cardiomyopathy and cleft lip should be considered features of SMC1A-associated CdLS. All patients should receive echocardiogram and undergo thorough ophthalmologic evaluation as part of routine CdLS care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Superplastic Micro-forming Mechanism and Size Effects of Micro-array Made of Nanocrystalline Material%纳米材料微阵列超塑微成形机理与尺度效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国峰; 李优; 刘奇; 赵相禹


    微成形技术是未来批量制造高精密微小零件的关键技术,但是,微小尺度下材料的塑性变形行为不仅表现出明显的尺度效应,而且零件尺度已经接近常规材料的晶粒尺寸,每个晶粒的形状、取向、变形特征对整体变形产生复杂的影响,难以保证微成形的工艺稳定性。本项目采用纳米材料进行微成形,制造微阵列,零件内部包含大量的晶粒,可以排除晶粒复杂性的影响,而且纳米材料具有超塑性,在超塑状态下,变形抗力和摩擦力都明显降低,从而显著降低微成形工艺对模具性能的苛刻要求,提高工艺稳定性和成形精度。目前,纳米材料超塑性微成形技术方面的研究极少,变形时纳米材料的力学行为、变形机理、尺度效应、位错演化、力学模型等关键问题还有待研究。采用电沉积技术制备晶粒尺寸可控的纳米材料,将工艺实验研究、性能测试、组织分析、力学性能表征、数值模拟相结合,深入探究了纳米材料微阵列超塑性微成形机理和成形规律,以促进该技术的广泛应用。%ABSTRACT:Micro-forming is a key technique for fabricating high-precision micro-part in large volume. However, plastic deformation at small scale has obvious size effects. The shape, orientation and deformation behavior of each grain have complicated influence on the micro-forming, since the scale of the parts approaches to the size of grain in common materi-als. Consequently, it is very hard to ensure the processing stability of micro-forming. In the current project, nanocrystalline materials were used to form micro-array. The influence of grain complexity could be eliminated since there were a lot of grains in the micro-part. In addition, nanocrystalline materials usually have superplasticity. Under this condition, the de-formation force and friction decrease obviously, which decreases the requirement on the mechanical

  9. Size effects of CuZn37 brass foil in microforming%CuZn37黄铜板料微塑性成形中的尺寸效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李河宗; 董湘怀; 王倩; 申昱; DIEHL A; HAGENAH H; ENGEL U; MERKLEIN M


    为研究金属微塑性成形特点,对厚度不同及粗细两种晶粒尺寸的黄铜箔试样进行了单向拉伸和微弯曲实验,并采用经典塑性理论和应变梯度理论对弯曲回弹角进行了预测.粗晶粒板料试样单向拉伸实验表明,CuZn37黄铜的硬化曲线存在一种明显的尺寸效应,即板料厚度越小,屈服强度越高.弯曲回弹实验结果也存在另一种明显的尺寸效应现象,即板料厚度越小,回弹角越大.对这两种尺寸效应产生的原因进行了分析,指出应变梯度硬化对微成形工艺过程有重要影响.%Uniaxial tensile tests and microbending experiments of brass foil specimens are performed to investigate size effects of metal foils in microforming process.The specimens are annealed at two different temperatures to obtain fine and coarse grain structure.In the paper,the springback angle in microbending process is predicted based on the classical plasticity theory and strain gradient theory.In uniaxial tensile tests,the increasing of material strength with decreasing foil thickness is observed,which indicates obvious presence of size effects for CuZn37 brass foils,especially for coarse grain specimens.In microbending experiments,obvious size-dependences of springback angle are observed,in which the springback angle of metal foils is increasing with foil thickness decreasing.The reasons for these size effects are discussed and the strain gradient hardening is important to microforming process.

  10. The Role of Microforms in Journal Publication (United States)

    Kuney, J. H.


    The need for increased use of microfilm in primary publications is discussed. The microfilm editions of the American Chemical Society journals are now being used for supplementary material of restricted interest. Details of this arrangement and experience to date are presented. (4 references) (Author)

  11. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  12. Tribological impact of the finishing technology onto meso- and microforming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Stephan F.


    Full Text Available Tribological conditions between workpiece and tool have a major impact onto forming processes. Besides lubrication, temperature, and material, they are mainly influenced by the tool surface characteristics, especially by its topography, which is a result of finishing technology. Thereby formed lubricant pockets are of prime importance for the tribosystem due to its ability to separate the tribopartners by storing lubricant. The influence of four different tool finishing processes and their according surface topographies onto frictional behaviour have been investigated and quantified by the barrel compression test, in dry and lubricated tribosystems. The tool steel surfaces were stochastically microstructured by grinding and spark erosion as well as deterministic structured with micro calottes, applied by jet electrochemical machining and compared to a polished reference tool. The allocation of open and closed lubricant pockets over tool surfaces before and after the forming process was analysed by a self-made MATLAB tool.

  13. Tribological impact of the finishing technology onto meso- and microforming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Stephan F.


    Full Text Available Tribological conditions between workpiece and tool have a major impact onto forming processes. Besides lubrication, temperature, and material, they are mainly influenced by the tool surface characteristics, especially by its topography, which is a result of finishing technology. Thereby formed lubricant pockets are of prime importance for the tribosystem due to its ability to separate the tribopartners by storing lubricant. The influence of four different tool finishing processes and their according surface topographies onto frictional behaviour have been investigated and quantified by the barrel compression test, in dry and lubricated tribosystems. The tool steel surfaces were stochastically microstructured by grinding and spark erosion as well as deterministic structured with micro calottes, applied by jet electrochemical machining and compared to a polished reference tool. The allocation of open and closed lubricant pockets over tool surfaces before and after the forming process was analysed by a self-made MATLAB tool.

  14. Experimental investigation on: Laser shock micro-forming process using the mask and flexible pad (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Liyin; Shen, Zongbao; Sha, Chaofei; Gao, Shuai; Li, Cong; Sun, Xianqing; Ma, Youjuan; Liu, Huixia


    A forming process called the mask and flexible pad laser shock forming was proposed to fabricate the micro-features on the copper foil. In this process, the mask and laser beam were used as rigid punches. Shock waves induced by plasma were used as the source of loading and plasticine was used as a flexible pad. This was a micro scale and high strain rate forming process and the traditional forming method with micro-mold was changed. In the experiment, surface morphology of formed parts was represented and it was found that the mask played a significant role in the forming process. In order to understand the forming process in the experiment, process parameters, including laser pulse energy, numbers of laser pulse and grain size, were analyzed. The experimental results showed that different parameters had different effects on formed parts. The surface quality and the thickness distribution of formed parts were investigated. It was found that formed parts could keep good surface quality after laser shocking and the reasons were explored. The thickness distribution was measured and the thickness thinning rate was calculated. There was no local tightening or rupture in the forming area. In this paper, the micro-features could be obtained on metallic foils and the method of mold-free was proved to be feasible.

  15. A Guide to the Microform Collections of the USMA (United States Military Academy) Library, (United States)


    Census for Putnam and Queens (part) Counties. (Reel 917). 3:6 U.S. Census. 1890. 1890 11th Census of the U.S. Schedules enumerating Union Veterans and...Widows of Union Veterans of the Civil War. (Reels 48 and 49). 3:6 U.S. Census. 1900. 1900 Census for Ontario, Orange, Orleans. Oswego, Putnam, and Queens ...critical of "the present practices of matrimonial engagements," and was written from the point of view of an American observer of English Institutions

  16. Microstructure evolution and surface cleaning of Cu nanoparticles during micro-forming fields activated sintering technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingxia


    Full Text Available For the purpose of extensive utilization of powder metallurgy to micro/nano- fabrication of materials, the micro gear was prepared by a novel method, named as micro- forming fields activated sintering technology (Micro-FAST. Surface-cleaning of particles, especially during the initial stage of sintering, is a crucial issue for the densification mechanism. However, up to date, the mechanism of surface-cleaning is too complicated to be known. In this paper, the process of surface-cleaning of Micro-FAST was studied, employing the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for observation of microstructure of micro-particles. According to the evolution of the microstructure, surface-cleaning is mainly ascribed to the effect of electro-thermal focusing. The process of surface-cleaning is achieved through rearrangement of grains, formation of vacancy, migration of vacancy and enhancement of electro-thermal focusing.

  17. Organización de las microformas en la biblioteca Organization of microforms in libraries


    Maite Legaz; María Alejandra Plaza; Mariana Uranga


    Se relevan, a partir de la consulta de la literatura especializada, las características particulares de las microformas y la problemática inherente a su gestión en las bibliotecas. En primer lugar, se realiza una breve reseña histórica sobre el origen y evolución de estos recursos para, luego, presentar una tipología y algunas aproximaciones terminológicas. Se considera especialmente la descripción bibliográfica y se proporcionan lineamientos generales sobre la determinación de los puntos de ...

  18. 36 CFR 1238.12 - What documentation is required for microfilmed records? (United States)


    ... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MICROFORMS RECORDS MANAGEMENT Microfilming Standards... purposes the source documents served. Microform records must be labeled and organized to support...

  19. Dicentric Chromosome 14;18 Plus Two Additional CNVs in a Girl with Microform Holoprosencephaly and Turner Stigmata. (United States)

    Sireteanu, A; Voloşciuc, M; Grămescu, M; Gorduza, Ev; Vulpoi, C; Frunză, I; Rusu, C


    We report a 20-year-old female with features evocative of Turner syndrome (short stature, broad trunk, mild webbed neck), dysmorphic face, minor features of holo-prosencephaly (HPE), small hands and feet, excessive hair growth on anterior trunk and intellectual disability. Cytogenetic analysis identified a pseudodicentric 14;18 chromosome. Genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array showed a terminal deletion of approximately 10.24 Mb, from 18p11.32 to 18p11.22, flanked by a duplication of approximately 1.15 Mb, from 18p11.22 to 18p11.21. In addition, the SNP array revealed a duplication of 516 kb in 16p11.2. We correlated the patient's clinical findings with the features mentioned in the literature for these copy number variations. This case study shows the importance of microarray analysis in the detection of cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in patients with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies.

  20. On the importance of recording microforms and digitised versions produced for preservation on the international level, with a focus on standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Schwartz


    Full Text Available When we think about preserving our cultural heritage the first thing that comes to mind is how to find ways to properly store and protect the original works of art, literature and science. Our aim is to save them for our time and for generations to come. We wish to restore them in such a way that their original structure and content is respected and remains unaltered while the material is strengthened to withstand the pressure exacted by use, climate and many other hazards. Very notable aims. Reality, however, is quick to bring disillusion. User demand far exceeds our possibilities to sufficiently prepare the original items or even to restore them diligently enough not to alter their originality. True restoration is bound to consume resources and time to such an extent that we cannot but treat only a relatively small number of items.

  1. 36 CFR 1260.46 - How will NARA implement automatic declassification? (United States)


    ... declassification for 5 additional years for classified information contained in microforms, motion pictures..., motion pictures, audiotapes, videotapes, or comparable media that make a review for...

  2. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume 3. Section 7 - Information Retrieval. Section 8 - Dissemination Practices. Section 9 - Microform Systems and Reprography (United States)


    z4 "L) Nx r- Il) 10 ZV ’ 0 In LL; Is t4’ ) N C ’ L . NL I 0L Cj -f W -fr z Ct cf t- ej IxzI 𔃾 ’ A U4 ( A cr z 4 -) e3 " L3 L’ 𔃽 CD 1 -q Z4) 49 U Ix... CAD 1973- 10,000 Aluminium ALUMINUM 1968- 630 Biology BIOSIS 1973- 20,000 Biology PASCAL 1972- 40,000 Chemistry CHEMAES 1969- 32,000 Computers/control...and othe: annotat’on cam be overlaid on the screened half-tone areas. single litho negative is made from the ’paste up’ camera copy, which coatains

  3. 固体发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的复合菌筛选%Choose Complex Bacterium and Fungus as Fermentation Microform on Soybean Meal, Rapeseed Meal and Cottonseed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓露芳; 范学珊; 王加启


    试验根据豆粕、菜粕和棉粕作为植物性蛋白饲料的营养特性,选择中性蛋白酶活较高的细菌和真菌作为发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的菌种以改善豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的蛋白质品质.通过细菌和真菌的两两组合生长试验,分别筛选出适合发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳复合菌各一组.试验结果表明,发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳菌株组合为BS-2和Ao、BS-natto和Ao、BS-natto和Ao.%Based on nutrition characters on soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal, high neutral enzyme production of bacteria and fungus were chose to inoculate in them to improve their protein quality as animal feed. Compounded one bacterium strain and one fungus strain cultured together, chose the best group to ferment the soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal. The results showed the best groups were BS-2 and Ao for soybean meal, BS-natto and Ao for rapeseed meal, and BS-natto and Ao for cotton seed meal.

  4. 10 CFR 4.6 - Maintenance of records. (United States)


    ... microform is authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records during the required...

  5. 10 CFR 31.21 - Maintenance of records. (United States)


    ... microform is authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records during the required...

  6. Predicting the Number of Public Computer Terminals Needed for an On-Line Catalog: A Queuing Theory Approach. (United States)

    Knox, A. Whitney; Miller, Bruce A.


    Describes a method for estimating the number of cathode ray tube terminals needed for public use of an online library catalog. Authors claim method could also be used to estimate needed numbers of microform readers for a computer output microform (COM) catalog. Formulae are included. (Author/JD)

  7. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records? (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements... organizing and storing records; (b) Maintain electronic, audiovisual and cartographic, and microform records in accordance with 36 CFR parts 1236, 1237, and 1238 of this subchapter, respectively; (c)...

  8. 36 CFR 1238.14 - What are the microfilming requirements for permanent and unscheduled records? (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MICROFORMS RECORDS MANAGEMENT Microfilming... microfilm under a microscope with an image of a known density. (3) Base plus fog density of microfilms. The...

  9. 10 CFR 35.5 - Maintenance of records. (United States)


    ... authorized personnel and the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing...

  10. 10 CFR 32.3 - Maintenance of records. (United States)


    ... and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible,...

  11. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016:


    Feb 11, 2016 ... that there was no significant influence of physical format on users' ... microform, network access, Compact Disk-Read Only Memory ... formats continue to change, and the library will collect and provide movies, music and.

  12. 发展中大国间贸易摩擦的微观形成机制——以印度对华反倾销为例%The Micro-Formation Mechanism of Trade Conflicts between Large Developing Countries: India's Anti-dumping Action against China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝松; 谢申祥; Huang Deyuan



  13. The RASD Outstanding Reference Sources Committee: Retrospect and Prospect. (United States)

    Sheets, Janet; Masters, Deborah C.


    Describes the Reference and Adult Services Division's Outstanding Reference Sources Committee procedures for preparation of the 1979 listing, discusses expansion to include nonbook sources, and provides a retrospective list of nonbook sources selected by the 1979-80 committee. Nonbook sources include microforms and databases. Six references are…

  14. 78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public... (United States)


    ... to project a community preference for traditional microform files so that public participation does... decision on which approach suits a specific site and best encourages the community's participation. \\2\\ U.S..., 2013. Mathy Stanislaus, Assistant Administrator, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. For...

  15. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.


    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  16. Effect of heat on tensile properties of thin pure titanium foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Qiu


    Full Text Available The occurrence of size effects in microforming process may result in nonhomogeneous material characteristics. Heat assisted microforming is an effective approach to reduce the influence of size effects. To improve the heating rate, resistance heating method is introduced to the microforming process. To investigate the size effect of heat on material deformation for thin foils in microforming, uniaxial tensile tests were performed for the foils with different grain sizes at different temperatures by tensile testing system incorporating with resistance heating method. The results show that the reduction of the stress at elevated temperatures compared to room temperature is higher for the foils with larger grain size than that for the foils with smaller grain size. The fracture strain decreases with increasing temperature when the temperature is below 300 °C, and then increases as the temperature increases when the temperature is above 300 °C. In addition, the work hardening behavior of the material is independent of the grain size. As temperature increases, the work hardening increases.

  17. Nocturnal lagophthalmos and recurrent erosion. (United States)

    Sturrock, G. D.


    The symptoms and corneal changes caused by sleeping with one or both eyes open are described in 102 patients. The clinical picture is identical to that of the microform recurrent erosion. The close relationship between the micro- and macro-forms of recurrent corneal erosion suggests that the latter condition is also precipitated by nocturnal lagophthalmos. Images PMID:1268178

  18. 36 CFR 1254.108 - What are NARA's requirements for the microfilming process? (United States)


    ... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL... microform output at scheduled intervals during the project to verify that the processed film meets the... inspect the film, we must receive the film within 5 days after it has been processed. You must...

  19. In-plane laser forming for high precision alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gert-Willem; Brouwer, Dannis; Huis in 't Veld, Bert


    Laser microforming is extensively used to align components with submicrometer accuracy, often after assembly. While laser-bending sheet metal is the most common laser-forming mechanism, the in-plane upsetting mechanism is preferred when a high actuator stiffness is required. A three-bridge planar ac

  20. 10 CFR 20.2110 - Form of records. (United States)


    ... by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records during the required retention period. Records, such...

  1. 78 FR 22795 - EPAAR Clause for Printing (United States)


    ... city, county, town, school district or special district with a population of less than 50,000; and (3... plate or image to be used in the production of printing or microform. ``Camera copy'' (or ``camera-ready... produced in a miniaturized image format, for mass or general distribution and as a substitute...




  3. Clinical and genetic study on 356 Brazilian patients with a distinct phenotype of cleft lip and palate without alveolar ridge involvement. (United States)

    Alvarez, Camila Wenceslau; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio


    Oral clefts include cleft lip (CL), cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) and cleft palate (CP), with wide variations in clinical presentation and degree of severity. We described a sample of individuals with CL and CP without alveolar arch involvement (CL + CP) to verify if the characteristics of this group are distinct from those with CL with or without CP (CL/P) described in literature. The sample was composed of 356 patients with CL + CP, registered at HRCA-USP, Bauru-SP-Brazil. The following characteristics were investigated: sex ratio, parental age at the time of conception, parental consanguinity, familial recurrence, laterality of the cleft and associated anomalies. A subgroup of 30 individuals with microforms of CL and CP were taken from the sample and compared with the remaining cases. Statistical differences were found between this CL + CP sample and the literature data for groups with CL/P regarding laterality, sex ratio, consanguinity, familial recurrence, and the presence of associated anomalies. The microform sample showed a statistical difference in paternal age. In most evaluated aspects, this sample presents similar characteristics to the consulted literature data for CL/P; as do the group of microform cleft cases when compared with the remaining CL + CP sample in this study. Microforms of cleft can represent a target group for investigation into the embryogenetic mechanisms of oral clefts and their phenotypic variability. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sub mucous cleft palate with fenestration


    Shah, Sheerin; Garg, Ramneesh; Uppal, Sanjeev K.; Mittal, Rajinder K.


    Congenital fenestration in sub mucous cleft palate is not a common identity. This patient is a 16-year-old female who presented with nasal speech. On examination, she had associated microform cleft lip with nasal deformity. Successful palatoplasty with intra velar veloplasty was done.

  5. Effect of microtopography on isotopic composition of methane in porewater and efflux at a boreal peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorodnikov, M.; Wilmking, M. [Greifswald Univ. (Georgia). Inst. of Botany and Landscape Ecology; Marushchak, M.; Biasi, C. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science, Bioteknia 2], E-mail:


    The application of stable isotopes is an approach to identify pathways of methanogenesis, methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation and transport in peatlands. We measured the stable C isotopic characteristics ({delta}C-13) of CH{sub 4} in peat profiles below hummocks, lawns and hollows of a Finnish mire to study the patterns of CH{sub 4} turnover. Porewater CH{sub 4} concentrations ([CH{sub 4}]; at 0.5-2 m) increased with depth below all microforms. Emissions of CH{sub 4} from hummocks were the lowest, and increased with the increasing water-saturated zone, being {approx}10 times higher from hollows. Thus, the microtopography of the peatland did not affect the porewater [CH{sub 4}] in the water-saturated part of the peat profile, but the CH{sub 4} emissions were affected due to differences in the oxidative potential of the microforms. There was a decrease in {delta}C-13-CH{sub 4} with depth below all microforms indicating dominance of CO{sub 2}-reduction over acetate cleavage pathway of methanogenesis at deep peat layers. However, estimated potential portions of transported CH{sub 4} comprised 50%-70% of the {delta}C-13-CH{sub 4} enrichment on microforms at the 0.5-m depth, hereby masking the acetate cleavage pathway of methanogenesis. Stable C composition ({delta}C-13) of CH{sub 4} proved to be a suitable (but not sufficient) tool to differentiate between types of methanogenesis in continuously water-saturated layers below microforms of a peatland. Combined flux-based and multi-isotopic approaches are needed to better understand the CH{sub 4} turnover process. (orig.)

  6. Flow stress and tribology size effects in scaled down cylinder compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GONG Feng; WANG Chun-ju; SHAN De-bin


    Microforming is an effective method to manufacture small metal parts. However, macro forming can not be transferred to microforming directly because of size effects. Flow stress and tribology size effects were studied. Scaled down copper T2 cylinder compression was carried out with the lubrication of castor oil and without lubrication. The results show that the flow stress decreases with decreasing the initial specimen diameter in both lubrication conditions, and the flow stress decreases by 30 MPa with the initial specimen diameter decreasing from 8 mm to 1 mm. The friction factor increases obviously with decreasing the initial specimen diameter in the case of lubricating with castor oil, and the friction factor increases by 0.11 with the initial specimen diameter decreasing from 8mm to 1mm. However, the tribology size effect is not found in the case without lubrication. The reasons of the flow stress and tribology size effects were also discussed.

  7. Pre-Production Model Cartographic EBR System. (United States)


    System ........ ................. 4 3 Enlargement of Contours & Grids Plotted in Vector Mode ...... ............. 6 4 Aviation FLIP Chart Recorded in...33 17 Example of Multiup Microform Containing 16 AAIPS FLIP Charts ... .......... ... 40 U’Z)o; "’ I III II .. ..... . .L...imagery from satellite and aerial reconnaissance sensors data Radar imagery Flight Information Publications ( FLIP ) Charts and Texts as back-up for

  8. Recording and Scanning Advances in Cartographic EBR Systems. (United States)


    Grids Plotted in Vector Mode ... ............. . 2-5 4 Aviation FLIP Chart Recorded in Vector Mode ...... .................. . 2-6 5 Enlargement of...of Multiup Microform Containing 16 AAIPS FLIP Charts .. .......... . 3-3 ii 11G11 PREFACE The work described in this report was authorized by the U.S...separations Continuous tone imagery from satellite and aerial reconnaissance sensors data Radar imagery Flight Information Publications ( FLIP ) Charts and Texts

  9. Organización de las microformas en la biblioteca


    Legaz, Maite; Plaza, María Alejandra; Uranga, Mariana


    The particular characteristics of the microforms and the problems arised in their management are reviewed from the special literature. Firstly, a brief history about the origin and evolution of these resources is presented, followed by a typology and the terminology concerned. Bibliographic description is specially emphasized and guidelines for determination of access points are proposed. Criteria about its selection, storage and preservation are also provided. Besides, the advantages and dis...

  10. Influence of Surface Topographical Interaction between Tool and Material in Micro-Deep Drawing (United States)

    Shimizu, Tetsuhide; Murashige, Yushiro; Ito, Kuniyoshi; Manabe, Ken-Ichi

    In the miniaturization of dimensions for sheet metal forming, the relative ratio of the surface asperities of tools and blanks to the outside dimensions becomes larger than that in the case of the conventional macroscale process. This means that the surface asperities may affect frictional behavior, so that it would also affect processing characteristics and accuracy of products. In this report, micro-deep drawing for producing cups of 700μm diameter and 20μm thickness is conducted using microtools and stainless steel foils with different surface conditions. To evaluate the effects of surface properties on micro-formability and micro-forming accuracy, punch force, surface accuracy, and the thickness strain distribution of microcups are experimentally investigated. Additionally, using a finite element (FE) model that considers surface roughness, the effect of surface roughness on formability is analyzed under different tool and material surface conditions. Results show that the global forming behavior in microforming is subjected much more intensely to tribological contact behavior, which is caused by the difference of surface asperities, than that in the case of the macroscale region. Moreover, it is shown that predominant factor over this local tribological behavior is the interaction of both tool/material surface asperities that depends on the normal load condition.

  11. Book Review: Digital preservation of cultural heritage collection: Among libraries of India and Iran: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taher


    Full Text Available Digital libraries universally have emerged in two ways. One, they are born digital (also known as electronic resource. Two, they are converted to become digital-by scanning or other data capturing techniques –from printed, microform, manuscripts, etc.. The converted digital resources demand greater attention by decision makers with regards design, plan and implementation– i.e., in the process of preservation of cultural heritage collections. The book depicts both the types of digital collections, albeit in a limited way, viz., a sample population for libraries based on heritage resources and level of digitization, and b two developing countries.

  12. Molecular analysis of holoprosencephaly in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Pagani Savastano


    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a spectrum of brain and facial malformations primarily reflecting genetic factors, such as chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations. Here, we present a clinical and molecular analysis of 195 probands with HPE or microforms; approximately 72% of the patients were derived from the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC, and 82% of the patients were newborns. Alobar HPE was the predominant brain defect in almost all facial defect categories, except for patients without oral cleft and median or lateral oral clefts. Ethmocephaly, cebocephaly, and premaxillary agenesis were primarily observed among female patients. Premaxillary agenesis occurred in six of the nine diabetic mothers. Recurrence of HPE or microform was approximately 19%. The frequency of microdeletions, detected using Multiplex Ligation-dependant Probe Amplification (MLPA was 17% in patients with a normal karyotype. Cytogenetics or QF-PCR analyses revealed chromosomal anomalies in 27% of the probands. Mutational analyses in genes SHH, ZIC2, SIX3 and TGIF were performed in 119 patients, revealing eight mutations in SHH, two mutations in SIX3 and two mutations in ZIC2. Thus, a detailed clinical description of new HPE cases with identified genetic anomalies might establish genotypic and phenotypic correlations and contribute to the development of additional strategies for the analysis of new cases.

  13. Recent Developments in Microhydroforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forouhandeh


    Full Text Available Microforming is an emerging forming technology area in which small parts of 1 mm or less are formed under a variety of processes and process conditions. The technology is serving several industries like machine tools, medical and surgery, aerospace, atomic power, automotive, and energy sectors. Hydroforming has been a major field of interest for engineering and scientific research as well as designers and developers to look for its optimal process in terms of surface quality and part consolidation. Sheet hydroforming (SHF process is found to be a special one for sheet metal component manufacturing formed under high fluid pressure. In this paper, an overview of various aspects of research on microforming and microhydroforming (sheet/tube hydroforming by the authors and others in general has been presented. Most of the papers reviewed herein relate to modeling and simulation of the process and various forming issues such as process parameters, and experimental study of different alloys has been studied. Finally, current ongoing research on micro-SHF work by the authors has been introduced.

  14. Peat properties and water retention in boreal forested peatlands subject to wildfire (United States)

    Thompson, Dan K.; Waddington, James M.


    Peat cores from a recently burned peatland and one over 75 years since fire in Alberta, Canada were analyzed for physical properties and water retention. Wildfire exposed denser peat at the peat surface, more so in hollow than hummock microforms. Water retention in peat has implications for postfire Sphagnum regeneration, as this more dense peat requires smaller volumes of water loss before a critical growth-inhibiting pore-water pressure of -100 mb is reached. Simulations of water retention after fire showed that hollow microforms are at a higher risk of losing low-density surface peat, which moderates water table (WT) declines via high specific yield. Exposure of dense peat to the surface after fire increases surface moisture under a constant WT. The net effect of decreasing specific yield and increasing water retention at the surface has implications on hydrologic stability and resilience of boreal peatlands to future wildfire risk under a changing climate. Earth system models incorporating wildfire disturbance in boreal peatlands would benefit from the inclusion of these hydrological feedbacks in this globally significant carbon reservoir.

  15. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography. (United States)

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B


    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  16. Multi-decadal water-table manipulation alters peatland hydraulic structure and moisture retention. (United States)

    Moore, Paul; Morris, Paul; Waddington, James


    Peatlands are a globally important store of freshwater and soil carbon. However, there is a concern that these water and carbon stores may be at risk due to climate change as vapour pressure deficits, evapotranspiration and summer moisture deficits are expected to increase, leading to greater water table (WT) drawdown in northern continental regions where peatlands are prevalent. We argue that in order to evaluate the hydrological response (i.e. changes in WT level, storage, surface moisture availability, and moss evaporation) of peatlands under future climate change scenarios, the hydrophysical properties of peat and disparities between microforms must be well understood. A peatland complex disturbed by berm construction in the 1950's was used to examine the long-term impact of WT manipulation on peatland hydraulic properties and moisture retention at three adjacent sites with increasing average depth to WT (WET, INTermediate reference, and DRY). All three sites exhibited a strong depth dependence for hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and bulk density. Moreover, the effect of microform on near-surface peat properties tended to be greater than the site effect. Bulk density was found to explain a high amount of variance (r2 > 0.69) in moisture retention across a range of pore water pressures (-15 to -500 cm H2O), where bulk density tended to be higher in hollows. The estimated residual water content for surface Sphagnum samples, while on average lower in hummocks (0.082 m3 m-3) versus hollows (0.087 m3 m-3), increased from WET (0.058 m3 m-3) to INT (0.088 m3 m-3) to DRY (0.108 m3 m-3) which has important implications for moisture stress under conditions of persistent WT drawdown. While we did not observe significant differences between sites, we did observe a greater proportional coverage and greater relative height of hummocks at the drier sites. Given the potential importance of microtopographic succession for altering peatland hydraulic structure, our

  17. Improving Paper Machine Efficiency/Productivity through On-line Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus K Aidun


    This project involves implementing a new technology, microforming, in a headbox to produce an isotropic sheet with significant reductions in the MD/CD stiffness ratio (increasing CD specific STFI) and improved sheet uniformity. Microforming involves generating axial vorticity (i.e., swirl) prior to the converging nozzle of the headbox by retrofitting an existing tube block with swirl generation devices referred to as Vortigen system. The Vortigen system developed in this project is a retrofit technology to a hydraulic headbox tube block. The tubes in the tube block are re-designed to generate axial vorticity (or swirl) in the tubes. This type of flow results in higher intensity small-scale turbulence in the forming jet at the slice. The net effect, as demonstrated in pilot and commercial trials, is improvement in formation and surface smoothness, lower MD/CD tensile ratio, and consequently, higher CD strength properties such as CD STFI, Ring Crush and tensile or breaking length. The objective of this project is to implement microforming by developing the retrofit technology for generation and on-line control of axial vorticity in the tubes to optimize turbulent scale and intensity, and consequently, fiber network structure properties in the sheet. This technology results in significant improvements in the performance and capital effectiveness of the paper machine (PM) for a fraction of the cost to replace a headbox. In this project we have developed and demonstrated the concept of generating axial vorticity to control the fiber orientation in the converging zone of the headbox, and to produce a sheet with isotropic fiber orientation. The technology developed here has been demonstrated in static form on several pilot trials and two series of commercial trials. The economic feasibility of this technology is based primarily on fiber savings in cases where a more isotropic fiber orientation can be used to reduce the basis weight of the product. Even a 5% decrease in

  18. Simulation of ultra-thin sheet metal forming using phenomenological and crystal plasticity models (United States)

    Adzima, F.; Manach, PY; Balan, T.; Tabourot, L.; Toutain, S.; Diot, JL


    Micro-forming of ultra-thin sheet metals raises numerous challenges. In this investigation, the predictions of state-of-the-art crystal plasticity (CP) and phenomenological models are compared in the framework of industrial bending-dominated forming processes. Sheet copper alloys 0.1mm-thick are considered, with more than 20 grains through the thickness. Consequently, both model approaches are valid on theoretical ground. The phenomenological models’ performance was conditioned by the experimental database used for parameter identification. The CP approach was more robust with respect to parameter identification, while allowing for a less flexible description of kinematic hardening, at the cost of finer mesh and specific grain-meshing strategies. The conditions for accurate springback predictions with CP-based models are investigated, in an attempt to bring these models at the robustness level required for industrial application.

  19. Texture evolution during micro-drawing of ultrafine grained copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, L.S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Lapovok, R., E-mail: [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Molotnikov, A.; Gu, C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Fundenberger, J.-J. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Davies, C.H.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)


    Texture evolution during the microforming of severely deformed copper was studied by experimental measurements using X-ray and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction techniques and by numerical simulation. The simulation includes the finite element analysis of micro-cup Swift tests on copper pre-deformed by different number of ECAP passes and polycrystal modelling of texture evolution. It was shown that FE simulations combined with a posteriori polycrystal plasticity modelling is an effective tool for the modelling of the texture development in the cup-drawing process. The obtained good agreement between the simulations and the measured texture development revealed that the rigid body rotations of the material during the cup test play a very important role in the texture evolution. Through-thickness variations of the texture were also observed both in experiments and simulations and are shown to be the result of the differences in the accumulated strains and the rigid body rotations across the cup wall.

  20. UNLV Information Science Research Institute quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartker, T.A.


    Sections of this report include: symposium activity, staff activity, document analysis program, text-retrieval program, institute activity, etc. It is believed that as large, complete collections of documents become available in digital libraries, users will demand complete interaction with the information; document access mechanisms will have to grow beyond keywords and full-text searches to include browsing, searching of images, and searching on basis of abstract concepts. It is proposed to study the microform document conversion process, including image preprocessing, recognition, postprocessing for extracting information, and natural language techniques. Characterization of algorithms will allow generation of a system that automatically adapts to a wide range of image quality, thereby allowing large-scale conversion efforts. It is proposed to focus first on the NSF Antarctic database (approx. 55,000 documents).

  1. The friction in rod forward and backward micro extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piwnik


    Full Text Available Micro parts are increasingly applied in industry because of the trend to miniaturization every day devices. Microforming is a method of manufacturing metal micro elements using a plastic treatment. This kind of production ensures high productivity, shapes and dimensions repeatability and good surface quality. Size effect connected with small dimensions affects changes in treatment processes of micro parts. While forming in micro scale, surface roughness is size independent and does not decrease with decreasing detail dimensions. The article presents schemas for forward and backward extrusion of metal rods. Using FEM, tool’s roughness as a triangle wave has been assumed, taking into account thereby size effect. Influence of roughness on extrusion forces by comparison with traditional flat tools and constant friction shear factor m has been specified. Impact of roughness caused growth of extrusion forces while forward extruding. On the contrary, backward extrusion ensured stable required forces, regardless of a surface structure.

  2. Novel Sonic Hedgehog Mutation in a Couple with Variable Expression of Holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aguinaga


    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is the most common developmental defect of the forebrain and midface in humans. sporadic and inherited mutations in the human sonic hedgehog (SHH gene cause 37% of familial HPE. A couple was referred to our unit with a family history of two spontaneous first trimester miscarriages and a daughter with HPE who presented early neonatal death. The father had a repaired median cleft lip, absence of central incisors, facial medial hypoplasia, and cleft palate. Intelligence and a brain CT scan were normal. Direct paternal sequencing analysis showed a novel nonsense mutation (W127X. Facial characteristics are considered as HPE microforms, and the pedigree suggested autosomal dominant inheritance with a variable expression of the phenotype. This study reinforces the importance of an exhaustive evaluation of couples with a history of miscarriages and neonatal deaths with structural defects.

  3. Cryophenomena in the Cold Desert of Atacama (United States)

    Buchroithner, Dr.; Trombotto, Dr.


    The study area of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas in the High Atacama Andes of Chile (68°39' W, 27°02' S), a kind of Patagonian "bajo sin salida", shows well preserved landforms resulting from a combination of slope, eolian, lacustrine/litoral, fluvial, glacial and periglacial regimes. They permit the reconstruction of geomorphological processes within this isolated catchment of approximately 160 km2. The mean annual air temperature varies between -2 and -4 °C and the precipitation is approximately 150 mm/a. Snowfall is frequent but the snow is quickly sublimated, redeposited and/or covered by cryosediments, i.e. mainly pumice pebbles. Water bodies present icings, even in summer. Regarding its climatic conditions the study area represents an extremely cold desertic region. Extremophile microfauna was also found. The area displays both in situ mountain permafrost and creeping permafrost. The active layer is 30 to 45 cm thick. It is a periglacial macro-environment where interdependent processes, and not only cryogenic processes but also erosion and eolian deposition and the action of fluvial washout mainly caused by precipitation, accumulation, retransportation/redeposition and melting of snow, play an important role. The cryogenic geomorphology of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas is varied and contains microforms such as patterned ground and microforms caused by cryoturbation, as well as mesoforms like rockglaciers and cryoplanation surfaces. Slopes are strongly affected by gelifluction. New cryoforms in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere like the Atacama Pingo (Pingo atacamensis) and Permafrosted Dunes ("Dunas heladas") were found. Intense niveo-eolian processes participate in the erosion of preexisting landforms, in the formation of subterraneous ice layers, and the retransportation/redeposition of snow and sediments. Studies of this periglacial environment are crucial for the understanding of Tundrean paleoenvironments and Martian conditions.

  4. Boc modifies the spectrum of holoprosencephaly in the absence of Gas1 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Seppala


    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly is a heterogeneous developmental malformation of the central nervous system characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage, midline facial anomalies and wide phenotypic variation. Indeed, microforms represent the mildest manifestation, associated with facial anomalies but an intact central nervous system. In many cases, perturbations in sonic hedgehog signaling are responsible for holoprosencephaly. Here, we have elucidated the contribution of Gas1 and an additional hedgehog co-receptor, Boc during early development of the craniofacial midline, by generating single and compound mutant mice. Significantly, we find Boc has an essential role in the etiology of a unique form of lobar holoprosencephaly that only occurs in conjunction with combined loss of Gas1. Whilst Gas1−/− mice have microform holoprosencephaly characterized by a single median maxillary central incisor, cleft palate and pituitary anomalies, Boc−/− mice have a normal facial midline. However, Gas1−/−; Boc−/− mutants have lobar holoprosencephaly associated with clefting of the lip, palate and tongue, secondary to reduced sonic hedgehog transduction in the central nervous system and face. Moreover, maxillary incisor development is severely disrupted in these mice, arresting prior to cellular differentiation as a result of apoptosis in the odontogenic epithelium. Thus, Boc and Gas1 retain an essential function in these tooth germs, independent of their role in midline development of the central nervous system and face. Collectively, this phenotype demonstrates both redundancy and individual requirements for Gas1 and Boc during sonic hedgehog transduction in the craniofacial midline and suggests BOC as a potential digenic locus for lobar holoprosencephaly in human populations.

  5. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: responses to warming and water table manipulations (United States)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.


    Mid-latitude treed bogs are significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites; control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years; drained) with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and tree root respiration (Rr) (across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The carbon (C) balance was calculated by adding net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to driest and warmest 2013, The control site was a~C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, experimental site was a C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g m-2, respectively. Although all microforms at the experimental site had large net CO2 emissions, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) at the hummocks and lichens at the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at drained hummocks and significant losses at hollows. The tree NPP was highest at the drained site. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ∼1 °C and differential air warming of ∼6 °C (at mid-day full sun) across the study years. Warming significantly enhanced the shrub growth and CO2 sink function of the drained hummocks (exceeding the cumulative respiration losses at hollows induced by the lowered water level × warming). There was an interaction of water level with warming across hummocks that resulted in largest net CO2 uptake at warmed drained hummocks. Thus in 2013, the warming treatment enhanced the

  6. Dental findings in parents of children with cleft lip and palate. (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Moss, A L


    The incidence of dental abnormalities in the cleft lip and palate population has been reported to be much higher than in the normal population. The role of genes in the production of a cleft lip and palate, and dental anomalies is thought to be complex, with autosomal dominant, recessive, and x-linked genes all playing a role. Noncleft parents can carry some of the cleft lip and palate genes, which produce clinically subtle manifestations in their facial skeleton. The purpose of this study was to look for evidence of increased dental anomalies in the non-cleft parents of cleft lip and palate children. The dentitions of the parents of 60 children with different types of cleft lip and palate were examined prospectively to see whether or not they exhibited features found more readily in the cleft lip and palate rather than did the normal population. Their dentitions were studied to record the following dental features: congenitally missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, or morphologic changes of the crowns of the permanent teeth. The number and position of any frenal attachments were also recorded. The results of this study did not show any differences in incidence of dental anomalies from the noncleft population. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that congenital absence of lateral incisors is a microform of cleft lip and palate. Further, these results also failed to reveal any consistent pattern in the number and position of frenal attachments.

  7. A multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold prepared by 3D printing and NFES technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yan


    Full Text Available The current focus in the field of life science is the use of tissue engineering scaffolds to repair human organs, which has shown great potential in clinical applications. Extracellular matrix morphology and the performance and internal structure of natural organs are required to meet certain requirements. Therefore, integrating multiple processes can effectively overcome the limitations of the individual processes and can take into account the needs of scaffolds for the material, structure, mechanical properties and many other aspects. This study combined the biological 3D printing technology and the near-field electro-spinning (NFES process to prepare a multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold. While using 3D printing technology to directly prepare the macro-scaffold, the compositing NFES process to build tissue micro-morphology ultimately formed a tissue engineering scaffold which has the specific extracellular matrix structure. This scaffold not only takes into account the material, structure, performance and many other requirements, but also focuses on resolving the controllability problems in macro- and micro-forming which further aim to induce cell directed differentiation, reproduction and, ultimately, the formation of target tissue organs. It has in-depth immeasurable significance to build ideal scaffolds and further promote the application of tissue engineering.

  8. EP and CD-ROM products - Current trends of production and market development - (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko

    The printed books and magazines/journals have been, and still even now are, dominant materials for public reading and reference usage. Microform publications have been also adopted for library collection build-up, but it is still within a very limited scale and coverage. As the first "new media" product, we should approve the fact that "CD-ROM" keeps amazingly large information storage capacity and also quite flexible application utility. So far, among the firstly released CD-ROMS, bibliographic databases, both for Japanese and English publications, look already quite widely purchased and now installed in many workstations of libraries. The users should evaluate its cost-effectiveness not only by its great data storage capacity but also by its frequent usage merit for library work rationalization. Multiple applied usage of CD-ROM will surely serve to such library routine works as searching, cataloguing, reading list preparation, inventory checking and new order placing, etc. 'CD-ROM' is the first EP product for quite wide usage.

  9. GLIMIR: Manifestation and Content Clustering within WorldCat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janifer Gatenby


    Full Text Available The GLIMIR project at OCLC clusters and assigns an identifier to WorldCat records representing the same manifestation. These include parallel records in different languages (e.g., a record with English descriptive notes and subject headings and one for the same book with French equivalents. It also clusters records that probably represent the same manifestation, but which could not be safely merged by OCLC's Duplicate Detection and Resolution (DDR program for various reasons. As the project progressed, it became clear that it would also be useful to create content-based clusters for groups of manifestations that are generally equivalent from the end user perspective (e.g., the original print text with its microform, ebook and reprint versions, but not new editions. Lessons from the GLIMIR project have improved OCLC's duplicate detection program through the introduction of new matching techniques. GLIMIR has also had unexpected benefits for OCLC's FRBR algorithm by providing new methods for identifying outliers thus enabling more records to be included in the correct work cluster.

  10. OCLC Registry of Digital Masters – Opportunities for European Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lees


    Full Text Available I would like to thank the Preservation Division for the invitation to participate in the programme today. I would also like to thank the LIBER Board for their interest in the early stages of this project culminating in the announcement LIBER President Erland Kolding Nielsen made last night about LIBER support and collaboration with OCLC PICA with respect to the Digital Registry. This initiative reflects my new role within OCLC PICA, which is to identify opportunities for joint development with our major shareholder OCLC, and sometimes 3rd parties such as LIBER. My main purpose today is to provide a descriptive paper to inform LIBER members about the OCLC Digital Registry and to outline the possible role for LIBER and its membership in a model for European participation. My presentation will be in three phases: the need for a registry, a description of the Registry and finally, and perhaps most importantly, to outline opportunities for LIBER and its members in establishing a model for European contribution. We are all familiar with the concept of a registry through our participation in union catalogues and perhaps also from our experience with microfilms through the European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM hosted by our friends in Göttingen.

  11. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Zhongke; Zheng, H.Y. [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Machining Technology Group, Singapore (Singapore)


    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles. (orig.)

  12. High-speed microprobe for roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures (United States)

    Doering, Lutz; Brand, Uwe; Bütefisch, Sebastian; Ahbe, Thomas; Weimann, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin; Frank, Thomas


    Cantilever-type silicon microprobes with an integrated tip and a piezoresistive signal read out have successfully proven to bridge the gap between scanning force microscopy and stylus profilometry. Roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMS) with depths down to 5 mm and widths down to 50 µm have been demonstrated. To improve the scanning speed up to 15 mm s‑1, the wear of the tip has to be reduced. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with alumina (Al2O3) has been tested for this purpose. Repeated wear measurements with coated and uncoated microprobe cantilevers have been carried out on a roughness standard at a speed of 15 mm s‑1. The tip shape and the wear have been measured using a new probing tip reference standard containing rectangular silicon grooves with widths from 0.3 µm to 3 µm. The penetration depth of the microprobe allows one to measure the wear of the tip as well as the tip width and the opening angle of the tip. The roughness parameters obtained on the roughness standard during wear experiments agree well with the reference values measured with a calibrated stylus instrument, nevertheless a small amount of wear still is observable. Further research is necessary in order to obtain wear resistant microprobe tips for non-destructive inspection of microstructures in industry and microform measurements, for example in injection nozzles.

  13. Microstructural Evolution at Micro/Meso-Scale in an Ultrafine-Grained Pure Aluminum Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing with Subsequent Annealing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu


    Full Text Available Micro-forming with ultrafine-grained (UFG materials is a promising direction for the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS components due to the improved formability, good surface quality, and excellent mechanical properties it provides. In this paper, micro-compression tests were performed using UFG pure aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP with subsequent annealing treatment. Microstructural evolution was investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that microstructural evolutions during compression tests at the micro/meso-scale in UFG pure Al are absolutely different from the coarse-grained (CG materials. A lot of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs and recrystallized fine grains are formed inside of the original large grains in CG pure aluminum after micro-compression. By contrast, ultrafine grains are kept with few sub-grain boundaries inside the grains in UFG pure aluminum, which are similar to the original microstructure before micro-compression. The surface roughness and coordinated deformation ability can be signmicrostructure; micro/meso-forming; ultrafine grains; ECAP; aluminumificantly improved with UFG pure aluminum, which demonstrates that the UFG materials have a strong potential application in micro/meso-forming.

  14. Fabrication of NiTi shape memory alloy by Micro-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kunlan


    Full Text Available A NiTi shape memory alloy, known as nitinol, has been intensively studied for last five decades. The NiTi alloy with large size is commonly produced by vacuum sintering, thermal explosion mode of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (TE-SHS and spark plasma sintering (SPS. These methods are, however, rarely utilized for the forming of miniature and micro-sized components and have their own limits and disadvantages, such as long process chains and low efficiency with the processes. In the study reported in this paper, an innovation in rapid powder consolidation technology, called Micro-FAST (combining micro-forming and electric-current activated sintering techniques (FAST is introduced for the forming of micro-components in which the loose powders are loaded directly into the die, followed by electric-sintering. In the study, Φ4.0 mm × 4.0 mm miniature cylinders were formed with pre-alloyed NiTi powders. Sintered sample with relative density of 98.65% has been fabricated at a sintering temperature of 1150 °C in a relatively short cycle time (119.5 s. Based on the results of SEM and XRD, it was found that the densified samples with Ni3Ti, NiTi and NiTi2 phases were produced.

  15. A semi-automated approach for mapping geomorphology of El Bardawil Lake, Northern Sinai, Egypt, using integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sayed Embabi


    Full Text Available Among the other coastal lakes of the Mediterranean northern coast of Egypt, Bardawil Lake is a unique lagoon, as it is fed only by seawater. The lagoon is composed of two main basins, and several other internal small basins interconnected to one another. Although the general geomorphologic characteristics are treated in some regional studies, we used a semi-automated approach based on a wide variety of digital image processing for mapping the major geomorphological landforms of the lake on a medium scale of 1:250,000. The approach is based primarily on data fusion of Landsat ETM+ image, and validated by other ancillary spatial data (e.g. topographic maps, Google images and GPS in situ data. Interpretations of high resolution space images by Google Earth and the large-scale topographic maps (1:25,000, in specific, revealed new microforms and some detailed geomorphologic aspects with the aid of GPS measurements. Small sand barriers, submerged sand dunes, tidal channels, fans and flats, and micro-lagoons are the recurrent forms in the lake. The approach used in this study could be widely applied to study the low-lying coastal lands along the Nile Delta. However, it is concluded from geological data and geomorphologic aspects that Bardawil Lake is of a tectonic origin; it was much deeper than it is currently, and has been filled with sediments mostly since the Flandrian transgression (∼8–6 ka bp.

  16. Toxic behavior of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on environmental microorganisms. (United States)

    Dhas, Sindhu Priya; Shiny, Punalur John; Khan, Sudheer; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natrajan


    Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ag and ZnO NPs) are widely used as antimicrobial agents. However, their potential toxicological impact on environmental microorganisms is largely unexplored. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensitivity and adaptability of five bacterial species isolated from sewage towards Ag and ZnO NPs. The bacterial species were exposed to increasing concentration of nanoparticles and the growth inhibitory effect, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and extracellular proteins (ECPs) productions were determined. The involvement of surface charge in nanoparticles toxicity was also determined. The bacterial species were constantly exposed to nanoparticles to determine the adaptation behavior toward nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited remarkable growth inhibitory effect on tested bacterial species. The toxicity of nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on surface charge effects. Though, these organisms are highly sensitive to Ag and ZnO NPs, the continuous exposure to these nanoparticles leads to moderate adaptation of bacterial species and the adapted bacterial species convert the highly toxic nano form to less toxic microform. Finally we predict that the continuing applications of nanoparticles in consumer products may lead to the development of nanoparticles resistant bacterial strains in future.

  17. Classificação e tipologia dos lapiás. Contributo para uma terminologia das formas cársicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Classification and types of karren. A contribution for a karst landforms terminology. The bibliography that refer to the forms developed in limestone rocks normally emphasizes the so called major karst forms (sinkholes, uvalas, poljes and fluvio-karstic forms, paying less attention to the so called minor karst forms, that are formed by the karren ones. In this particular field, the bibliography available in Portuguese is no exception. Hence the option of choosing this set of forms amongst all the wide range of karstic landforms, in addition to the fact that these smaller forms show better the existence of active dissolution processes at the surface that contribute decisively to the hydrologic underground karst activity. Most of the karren classifications are essentially descriptive favoring the morphology (forms and microforms, which leads to a multiplication of terms conferring a secondary role to the genesis and processes related to its formation. Therefore, we tried to develop a methodology to classify the karren and the related type of forms based on the formation processes that includes the type of sediment cover and the morphology. We consider three major groups of karren: i those in which the dominant process (associated to dissolution is related to running water; ii those formed by the combined action of the runoff and of dissolution controlled by structural factors; iii those with a mostly biochemical genesis, resulting from the action of dissolution (due to the persistence of water in flattened surfaces and of the living organisms.

  18. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching


    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  19. A multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold prepared by 3D printing and NFES technology (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Haiping; Zhang, Fuhua; Zheng, Lulu; Hu, Qingxi


    The current focus in the field of life science is the use of tissue engineering scaffolds to repair human organs, which has shown great potential in clinical applications. Extracellular matrix morphology and the performance and internal structure of natural organs are required to meet certain requirements. Therefore, integrating multiple processes can effectively overcome the limitations of the individual processes and can take into account the needs of scaffolds for the material, structure, mechanical properties and many other aspects. This study combined the biological 3D printing technology and the near-field electro-spinning (NFES) process to prepare a multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold. While using 3D printing technology to directly prepare the macro-scaffold, the compositing NFES process to build tissue micro-morphology ultimately formed a tissue engineering scaffold which has the specific extracellular matrix structure. This scaffold not only takes into account the material, structure, performance and many other requirements, but also focuses on resolving the controllability problems in macro- and micro-forming which further aim to induce cell directed differentiation, reproduction and, ultimately, the formation of target tissue organs. It has in-depth immeasurable significance to build ideal scaffolds and further promote the application of tissue engineering.

  20. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change (United States)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.


    Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 °C and differential air warming of ~ 6 °C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained

  1. Correlation between vegetation pattern and microtopography in periglacial areas of the Central Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdol, Renato


    Full Text Available The distributional patterns of plant species were analyzed within periglacial microforms belonging to the collective groups of patterned grounds and sorted stripes In the Ortles-Cevedale group (Lombardy, Italy. The edges of primitive polygons are practically free of vegetation, whilst the central areas are colonized by pioneer plants of detritic slopes. This is clearly correlated with a low degree of sediment sorting. The morphological evolution of the forms proceeds at a faster rate at the edge of polygons than in the central areas. Vegetation, on the other hand, colonizes the coarse debris at the polygons’ edges slowly but colonizes the fine material in the central areas actively. The centre of the most evolved polygons is covered by a carpet of Salix herbacea. Age determinations of Salix shoots are not useful for dating purposes, but provide Information about the local microclimate.

    [es] Se han analizado los modelos de distribución de especies vegetales en microformas periglaciares pertenecientes al tipo de suelos estructurales en el Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardía, Italia. Los límites de los polígonos de piedras están prácticamente libres de vegetación, mientras las áreas centrales están colonizadas por plantas pioneras de laderas pedregosas. La evolución morfológica actúa a mayor velocidad en el borde de los polígonos que en las áreas centrales. Por otro lado, la vegetación coloniza lentamente los bordes de los polígonos, y más activamente las zonas centrales. El centro de la mayoría de los polígonos está cubierto por un manto de Salix herbacea. La determinación de la edad de los vástagos de Salix no ha sido un método útil a efectos cronológicos, pero proporciona información sobre el microclima local.
    [fr] On étude les modèles de distribution d'espèces végétaux dans microformes périglaciaires appartenants au type de sols structurales dans l'Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardie

  2. Development and testing of an improved model of the thermal behaviour of peat soils. (United States)

    Kettridge, N.; Baird, A.


    Many biogeochemical processes in peats are temperature-sensitive. Despite this, little work has been done on characterising the thermal behaviour of peats. Most existing studies have looked only at 1-D thermal behaviour using simple models in which the thermal properties are constant with depth, and the temperature variation at the surface is specified from field measurements or is assumed to follow a sine wave. We report on the development and application of a more realistic thermal model of peat soils in which heat transfer is described by a system of `capacitors' or nodes and `resistors'. Its features include: 1. A realistic surface boundary condition where convective (sensible and latent) and radiative (short- and long- wave) heat transfers are accounted for by nodes representing the air/atmosphere above the peatland surface. 2. The ability to vary thermal properties with depth in order to simulate, for example, the effect of an unsaturated zone above the water table on thermal behaviour. 3. The ability to simulate 3-D patterns of heat transfer in patterned peatlands consisting of hummocks, lawns, hollows, and pools (microforms). In order that the model can be applied to a 3-D system, the standard large-scale parameterisation of the Penman-Monteith equation, used to calculate convective heat fluxes, has been improved. First, aerodynamic resistance has been calculated from newly developed sensitive self-logging atmometers, enabling measurement of potential evaporation at high frequencies and at different positions on and surrounding a microform, either at the ground surface or within the plant canopy. Secondly, dual probe heat pulse sensors (DPHPS) have enabled the measurement of soil thermal properties and volumetric water content of a small volume of soil at regular time intervals. In combination with measured water-table fluctuations, a stack of DPHPS within the unsaturated zone has enabled the accurate measurement of actual evapotranspiration, without the

  3. Estenose congênita da abertura piriforme Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Tagliarini


    Full Text Available A estenose congênita da abertura piriforme é uma rara causa de obstrução nasal que pode ocorrer no recém-nascido. É provocada pelo crescimento excessivo do processo nasal medial da maxila causando um estreitamento do terço anterior da fossa nasal. Inicialmente foi relatada uma deformidade isolada, posteriormente a estenose congênita da abertura piriforme foi considerada como apresentação de forma menor da holoprosencefalia. Neste artigo relatamos um caso de recém-nascido do sexo masculino que apresentava desde o parto dispnéia, cianose e episódios de apnéia. O paciente foi submetido a cirurgia com alargamento da abertura piriforme por acesso sublabial. No seguimento apresentou boa evolução durante o acompanhamento. O relato desta deformidade mostra sua importância como causa de obstrução nasal congênita e diagnóstico diferencial de atresia coanal. A estenose congênita da abertura piriforme pode ser reparada adequadamente, quando necessário, através de procedimento cirúrgico.The congenital stenosis of pyriform aperture is an unusual cause of neonatal nasal obstruction. It is due to bony overgrowth of the nasal lateral process of the maxilla. Initially this narrowest part of nasal airway was considered an isolated deformity; subsequently the congenital Stenosis of pyriform aperture was thought to represent a microform of holoprosencephaly. In this report a male neonate had respiratory distress, cyclic cyanosis and apnea after delivery. The patient underwent surgical correction of pyriform stenosis by sublabial access. In the follow up, the patient had good evolution. The report of this deformity shows an important cause of neonatal nasal obstruction and its differential diagnosis with bilateral choanal atresia. Congenital stenosis of nasal pyriform aperture can be surgically corrected when necessary.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of the Nonsynonymous Polymorphism rs17563 in BMP4 Gene in Brazilian Population Suggests Protection for Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Kawasaki Araújo


    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without palate (CL±P is common congenital anomalies in humans. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (Bmp4 is involved in the etiology of CL±P in animal models. The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs17563 T>C (p.V152A in the BMP4 gene has been associated to the risk of nonsyndromic CL±P in Chinese population and microforms from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMP4 gene in CL±P in Brazilian sample using genetic association approach. Our sample was composed by 123 patients with nonsyndromic CL±P and 246 controls, in which absence of CL±P was confirmed in 3 generations. The rs17563 polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association. Our data showed statistical power to detect association (86.83% in this sample. Logistic regression results showed significant association between C allele and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.40, and 95% CI = 0.25–0.65, as well as CC genotype and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.35, and 95% CI = 0.19–0.66. So, there is a strong association between nonsyndromic CL±P and BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism in our sample and the C allele had a protective effect against the occurrence of nonsyndromic CL±P.

  5. The Re-interpretation of Power in Jurisprudence%权力概念的法理重释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从公法学立场来看,权力是由国家所垄断和专属的,它附属于国家,又被称为公权力。法律对公权力的规范是通过权力制衡来完成的。然而,事实上的权力不仅仅只有公权力一种,它可以分为政治学模式下的权力、经济学模式下的权力和社会学模式下的权力。尤其需要重视的是社会学模式下权力的多元化和微观化所带给我们的启示,微观权力理论有助于我们深入理解法律是如何通过对权力逻辑的把握而实践的,必须认真对待权力。%Over the point of the modern public law, the concept ot power woula monopol~zeu oy to~ ~-~, which is attached to it that is called public power or state power. And the law rules this sort of power by the checks and balance. However, there is not only the public power among the powers that are divided into the following mod- els as the politics, the economics and the sociology. And particularly, the multiply and the micro-forms of the power in the sociological aspect would give more clues in the way of understanding that how the law makes the practices and taking it seriously by the powers.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Presence of Dental Anomalies in the Primary and Permanent Dentitions of Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients. (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Nakano, Masayuki; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yasunaga, Atsushi; Haruyama, Naoto; Takahashi, Ichiro


      The aim is to survey primary and permanent dental anomalies: hypodontia, microdontia, a supernumerary tooth, and fused teeth in patients with cleft lip and/or palate.   Retrospective longitudinal study Subjects :  The subjects were selected from all 1724 patients with cleft lip and/or palate who were registered at the orthodontic clinic of Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, from 1970 to 2009. Finally, 994 subjects were evaluated for primary dentition, 1352 for permanent dentition, and 871 for the longitudinal changes from primary to permanent dentition.   The prevalence of dental anomalies was compared for each tooth type, among various cleft types, between males and females, and between the alveolar cleft area and the noncleft area.   The prevalence of hypodontia was 16.2% for primary dentition and 52.7% for permanent dentition in the subjects with cleft lip and/or palate. Hypodontia increased with the severity of the cleft type. Multiple hypodontia was found more frequently in the subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate and the subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Microformed lateral incisors were found in 22.7% of permanent lateral incisors but not in primary dentition. Supernumerary teeth were found in 17.7% of the subjects with cleft lip and/or palate for primary maxillary dentition and in 5.7% for permanent maxillary dentition.   The prevalence of hypodontia was greater in permanent dentition than in primary dentition; although, it was not much different between males and females or between the right and left sides. The prevalence of dental anomalies was significantly different among four groups by cleft type: cleft lip, cleft lip and alveolus, cleft lip and palate, and cleft palate.

  7. 14q13.1-21.1 deletion encompassing the HPE8 locus in an adolescent with intellectual disability and bilateral microphthalmia, but without holoprosencephaly. (United States)

    Piccione, Maria; Serra, Gregorio; Consiglio, Valeria; Di Fiore, Antonella; Cavani, Simona; Grasso, Marina; Malacarne, Michela; Pierluigi, Mauro; Viaggi, Chiara; Corsello, Giovanni


    Interstitial deletions involving 14q13.1q21.1 are rare. In the literature at least 10 cases involving this region have been described and all patients showed a phenotype within the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. Previous studies suggested the HPE8 region as a candidate locus for HPE at 14q13. We report an adolescent with a 14q13.1q21.1 deletion encompassing the HPE8 region associated with intellectual disability (ID), bilateral microphthalmia, and coloboma, without cerebral anomalies typical of HPE. Except for ocular defects (i.e., microphthalmia, coloboma) consistent with HPE-type anomalies, the minor facial dysmorphia was not suggestive for HPE and the absence of cerebral anomalies should rule out this diagnosis. The deletion of the potential HPE candidate genes NPAS3, EAPP, SNX6, and TULIP1, raises doubts about their pathologic role in determining HPE. It is likely that deletions of HPE genes are not sufficient to cause HPE, and that multiple genetic, chromosomal, and environmental factors interact to determine the variable clinical expression of HPE. This is the first case of a 14q deletion encompassing the HPE8 locus with the only features consistent with HPE-type anomalies affecting the ocular system (i.e., microphthalmia, coloboma), and without cerebral anomalies specific for HPE. The inclusion of potential HPE candidate genes in the deletion raises the question whether this patient is affected by a less severe form of HPE (HPE microform), or whether he has a new ID/MCA deletion syndrome.

  8. Three-dimensional facies architecture of the Salem Limestone (middle Mississippian), Eastern Margin of Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, A.; Keith, B.D.; Thompson, T.A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    Mapping of sedimentary surfaces in the Middle Mississippian Salem Limestone exposed on sawed quarry walls in south-central Indiana has revealed a hierarchy of depositional units representative of the extremely dynamic hydrographic regime of the upper shoreface zone. The depositional units on the scale of microform and mesoform are represented by the microfacies and the facies respectively. Based on their hierarchy, genetically related depositional units and associated bounding surfaces were grouped together to construct four architectural packages (APs) of the scale of mesoforms. AP-I is dominantly an echinoderm- and bryozoan-rich grainstone and consists of bedforms ranging from small ripples bounded by first-order surfaces to two- and three- dimensional megaripples bounded by the second-order surfaces. It formed as part of a giant ramp (asymmetric wavefield) within the intrashoal channel setting. AP-II, also a skeletal grainstone, is a complex of giant sandwaves that moved into the area under the infulence of a storm and partly filled the basal channel form of AP-I. Large avalanche foresets with tangential toesets prevail. AP-III is a dark-gray spatially discontinuous skeletal grainstone to packstone that laterally grades into a skeletal packstone to wackestone. It locally developed overhangs, rips-ups, and hardground on its upper surface. AP-IV is a skeletal and oolitic grainstone formed of tabular two-dimensional megaripples (planar cross-beds) and three-dimensional oscillatory megaripples (trough cross-beds). These architectural packages based on the bedform architecture and micro-and mesoscale compositional changes can be used to characterize micro-, meso, and macroscale heterogeneities. Models of facies architecture from this and similar outcrop studies can be applied to the subsurface Salem reservoirs in the Illinois Basin using cores.

  9. 工艺参数对激光冲击微造型效果的影响%Process Parameters Analysis on Surface Texturing under Laser Shock Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志辉; 刘会霞; 沈宗宝; 李品; 胡杨; 刘辉; 杜道忠; 王霄


    Laser surface texturing (LST) is widely used in surface micro-forming, but its main problem is that the ablation process causes melting, cracking and changing of the surface microstructure. By using laser shock processing (LSP) micro dents are fabricated on A17075 surface, which not only overcomes the weakness of LST, but also inherits the advantage of LSP. Choosing AxioCSM700 true color confocal scanning microscopy and Vecco WYKO surface morphology, the geometry morphology of micro dents are observed. With HXD-1000TMSC/LCD MH-VK double press heads, the interior and surface micro-hardness of micro dents are measured. Experimental results show that the diameter and the depth of micro dents change with laser pulse energy, the times of laser shock, focal length and thickness of confined layer K9 glass. The hardness of micro dent increases gradually along radial direction and the biggest hardness occurs in the center, which effectively improves the wear resistance of material.%激光表面织构(LST)是一种广泛应用的表面微造型方法,然而其主要缺点是消融过程会导致材料熔化、断裂以及改变表面微观组织.基于激光冲击强化(LSP)技术在Al7075表面开展微凹坑造型研究,其特点是既能克服激光表面织构的缺点,又能继承激光冲击强化的优点.使用AxioCSM700真彩色共聚焦扫描显微镜和VeccoWYKO表面形貌仪观察微凹坑的几何形貌,用HXD-1000TMSC/LCD MH-VK双压头显微硬度计测量微凹坑的内部以及周围表面的硬度.实验结果表明,微凹坑的直径和深度随激光的脉冲能量、冲击次数、离焦量、约束层K9玻璃厚度的变化呈现一定的变化规律;微凹坑的影响区域,沿着凹坑径向方向硬度逐渐增加,中心位置硬度最大,这有利于提高材料的抗磨损能力.

  10. Application of a long-range terrestrial laser scanner in research on lowland geodynamic processes (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Daria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Tyszkowski, Sebastian


    Progress in the LIDAR technology allows collection of data over a longer range and with a higher precision than most of geodetic measurement methods. It is particularly useful in areas that are inaccessible, dangerous, or with a highly variable morphology. These include mountains, steep slopes of river valleys, and edges of water bodies. Because of a high variation in altitude, they are particularly prone to geodynamic processes. In recent years, such areas have been surveyed more and more often with the use of Airborne Laser Scanning, but the high costs and low frequency of surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of phenomena and recorded processes. A few years ago, a new method for imaging of land surfaces started to be used: Terrestrial Laser Scanning. The latest scanners make long-distance scanning possible, up to several kilometres), which until recently had been reserved exclusively for Airborne Laser Scanning. The ease and mobility of scanning allows recording of geodynamic processes immediately after their initiation and their constant monitoring, with a high frequency of data collection. The usefulness of long-distance Terrestrial Laser Scanning is presented here on the basis of mass movements on slopes of a large river valley (the lower Vistula valley) and edges of artificial water bodies. These areas were selected because of a high dynamics of geodynamic processes. The scanning was performed at a distance of 2-4 km from the objects, with a resolution of 0.002°. Such parameters of the equipment and the broad scope and long range enable researchers simultaneous scanning of wide belts of the marginal zone. They also allow precise imaging of slopes, including the microforms that cannot be recorded with any other method. Thanks to the characteristics of laser beam reflection, it is also possible to perform analyses that allow identification of landslide initiation, as well as initial stages of erosion of river banks and edges of water bodies. In this

  11. Using of the Form Characteristics in Determining the Genre of Archival Records Arşiv Belgelerinin Türünün Belirlenmesinde Form Özelliklerinin Kullanılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Çiçek


    Full Text Available Record genre is one of the descriptive felds that is used in the process of describing archival records. Today, in archival applications the genre of a record is generally limited to the medium, such as the records being on paper, electronic records or microform. Describing the genre correctly helps users and archivists to understand the functions and characteristics of records. However, this research shows that there are more terms related to the records production that can be used to describe the genre of a record. The main purpose of this essay is to suggest that the content of the records be the decisive element in describing type. Arşiv belgeleri tanımlanırken kullanılan niteleme alanlarından biri de belge türüdür. Günümüzde arşiv uygulamalarında belgelerin kağıt, elektronik evrak ya da mikrofilm gibi çoğu kez bulunduğu ortama göre türlere ayrıldığı görülmektedir. Oysa, tür doğru tanımlandığında hem kullanıcıya hem de arşivciye belgenin fonksiyonuyla birlikte yapısal özellikleri hakkında bilgi verir. Bu yüzden türe karar verilirken belgelerin biçimsel taraflarına mı yoksa içerikle birlikte form özelliklerini de yansıtan karakteristik yapılarına mı bakılması gerektiği öncelikli olarak çözülmesi gereken bir sorundur. Bu makalede karakteristik özelliklerin esas alınması gerektiği savunulmuştur.

  12. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica


    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  13. Holoprosencephaly

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    Henry Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a complex brain malformation resulting from incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon, occurring between the 18th and the 28th day of gestation and affecting both the forebrain and the face. It is estimated to occur in 1/16,000 live births and 1/250 conceptuses. Three ranges of increasing severity are described: lobar, semi-lobar and alobar HPE. Another milder subtype of HPE called middle interhemispheric variant (MIHF or syntelencephaly is also reported. In most of the cases, facial anomalies are observed in HPE, like cyclopia, proboscis, median or bilateral cleft lip/palate in severe forms, ocular hypotelorism or solitary median maxillary central incisor in minor forms. These latter midline defects can occur without the cerebral malformations and then are called microforms. Children with HPE have many medical problems: developmental delay and feeding difficulties, epilepsy, instability of temperature, heart rate and respiration. Endocrine disorders like diabetes insipidus, adrenal hypoplasia, hypogonadism, thyroid hypoplasia and growth hormone deficiency are frequent. To date, seven genes have been positively implicated in HPE: Sonic hedgehog (SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, TGIF, PTCH, GLI2 and TDGF1. A molecular diagnosis can be performed by gene sequencing and allele quantification for the four main genes SHH, ZIC2, SIX3 and TGIF. Major rearrangements of the subtelomeres can also be identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Nevertheless, in about 70% of cases, the molecular basis of the disease remains unknown, suggesting the existence of several other candidate genes or environmental factors. Consequently, a "multiple-hit hypothesis" of genetic and/or environmental factors (like maternal diabetes has been proposed to account for the extreme clinical variability. In a practical approach, prenatal diagnosis is based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI rather than on molecular

  14. Banks of microscopic forms and survival to darkness of propagules and microscopic stages of macroalgae Bancos de formas microscópicas y supervivencia a la oscuridad de propágulos y formas microscópicas de macroalgas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the number of species conforming a bank of microscopic forms in tide pools in central Chile accounted only for half the number of species present in the macroscopic vegetation around the pools. An elemental condition for survival in these banks is the ability of microscopic forms to tolerate darkness or very low irradiances for extended periods. To test this ability, spores of 17 green, brown and red algal species, present and absent from the bank, were incubated at different combinations of irradiances and day lengths. Propagules of 47 % of the species tested (eight species germinated in total darkness while the propagules of the other nine species germinated under conditions of very low irradiance (2-10 µmol m-2 s-1. In most species, microforms showed a higher tolerance to darkness than the propagules. Some survived for over a year and one species (Gelidium lingulatum could live under complete darkness for 500 days. The ability to survive in total darkness did not relate to presence or absence of a species in the banks of microscopic forms previously studied, to phylogenetic relatedness, life history style, propagule size, morphology of microscopic forms or to successional status (fugitive versus late successional. Thus, tolerance to darkness appears to be common to propagules and microscopic stages of most benthic algae. The growth patterns exhibited by the microforms of Lessonia nigrescens, Chaetomorpha firma and Glossophora kunthii suggest high irradiances on these recruits might determine the shallower limits of distribution of these speciesEstudios previos han encontrado que el número de especies formando un banco de formas microscópicas en pozas de mareas de Chile central incluyó sólo la mitad del número de especies presentes en la vegetación macroscópica en las cercanías de las pozas intermareales. Una primera condición para sobrevivir en estos bancos radica en la capacidad de las formas

  15. Methane and CO2 fluxes from peat soil, palm stems and field drains in two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Borneo, on different tropical peat soil types. (United States)

    Manning, Frances; Lip Khoon, Kho; Hill, Tim; Arn Teh, Yit


    Oil palm plantations have been expanding rapidly on tropical peat soils in the last 20 years, with 50 % of SE Asian peatlands now managed as industrial or small-holder plantations, up from 11% in 1990. Tropical peat soils are an important carbon (C) store, containing an estimated 17 % of total peatland C. There are large uncertainties as to the soil C dynamics in oil palm plantations on peat due to a shortage of available data. It is therefore essential to understand the soil C cycle in order to promote effective management strategies that optimise yields, whilst maintaining the high C storage capacity of the soil. Here we present CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia on peat soils. Data were collected from different surface microforms within each plantation that experienced different surface management practices. These included the area next to the palm, in bare soil harvest paths, beneath frond piles, underneath cover crops, from the surface of drains, and from palm stems. Data were collected continuously over one year and analysed with different environmental variables, including soil temperature, WTD, O2, soil moisture and weather data in order to best determine the constraints on the dataset. Total soil respiration (Rtot) varied between 0.09 and 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1. The largest fluxes (0.59 - 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1) were measured next to the palms. Larger CO2 fluxes were observed beneath the cover crops than in the bare soil. This trend was attributed to priming effects from the input of fresh plant litter and exudates. Peat soil type was shown to have significantly different fluxes. The different plantations also had different environmental drivers best explaining the variation in Rtot - with soil moisture being the most significant variable on Sabaju series soil and soil temperature being the most significant environmental variable in the plantation with the Teraja series soil. Rtot was shown to reduce significantly with increasing

  16. Accelerated aging tests for evaluation of shear behavior of FRP connectors in precast sandwich insulation wall panels%预制夹芯保温墙体FRP连接件抗剪性能加速老化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟辰; 付凯; 李向民


    为实现预制夹芯保温墙体主体结构与围护结构同寿命,有必要开展混凝土环境下预制夹芯保温墙体纤维增强塑料(FRP)连接件的力学性能(主要是层间剪切性能)的加速老化试验研究。基于ACI 440.3R-04规定的试验方法,将30根预制夹芯保温墙体FRP连接件浸入60℃的模拟混凝土溶液中进行加速老化试验,侵蚀时间分别为3.65,18,36.5,92,183d,主要分析了侵蚀时间对FRP连接件层间剪切强度的影响。研究表明,在60℃模拟混凝土溶液环境下,FRP连接件的层间剪切强度早期退化较快,侵蚀36.5d后,退化速率逐渐变缓;侵蚀36.5d和183d后,FRP连接件的层间剪切强度分别下降了17.22%和26.89%。扫描电子显微镜(SEM)的观测表明,侵蚀后FRP连接件劣化区域内的纤维与周围树脂之间出现了明显的脱粘现象,而且随着侵蚀时间的增加这种脱粘现象更加明显。%In order to make the main structure of the precast sandwich insulation wall panel to have the same life with building envelope,it is necessary to conduct the accelerated aging tests for evaluation of mechanical property(mainly its interlaminar shear strength) for FRP connectors under simulated concrete environment.According to the ACI 440.3R-04,the test consisting of 30 FRP connectors in 60℃ of simulated concrete environment for 3.65,18,36.5,92,183d was conducted to evaluate the interlaminar shear strength of FRP connectors under simulated concrete environment.The results show that,with the aging time,the interlaminar shear strength of FRP connectors decreased significantly before 36.5d.After being exposed to simulated concrete environment for 36.5,183d,interlaminar shear strength degradation of FRP connectors were 17.22%and 26.89% respectively.The micro-formation of the FRP connectors' surface was surveyed under scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and it indicates that the bonds between fiber and resin of FRP connectors in the

  17. Super-plastic forming process of Zr-based bulk metallic glass%Zr基非晶合金超塑性成形工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖广兰; 王俊; 喻强; 朱志靖


    采用感应耦合等离子体刻蚀工艺制备了微型硅模具,基于硅模具研究了非晶合金Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5的超塑性微零件成形工艺.采用差示扫描量热仪测定了Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5的过冷液相区间为360~440℃,在过冷液相区间热压成形非晶合金微零件、机械研磨去除零件飞边和采用40%的KOH溶液腐蚀去除硅模具,得到非晶合金微型零件.自主研制了成形设备,仿真分析与实验相结合,解决了成形过程中设备的温度控制问题,比较分析了不同温度下的成形结果,实验与仿真结果符合较好.在410℃条件下成功制备出模数0.03、齿数66和厚度500μm的微型内齿轮,齿形轮廓清晰,X射线衍射仪扫描结果显示该微齿轮为非晶结构,从而验证了采用该工艺制备微型零件的可行性.%Super-plastic micro-forming process of bulk metallic glasses Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 utilizing micro silicon molds was investigated,where the micro silicon molds were fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching.The super-cooled liquid region,360~440 ℃,was measured by differential scanning calorimeter.Micro components were thermoformed in the super-cooled liquid region.The flash of micro components was removed by mechanical grinding,and the silicon molds were resolved with 40% KOH.Forming equipment was developed on the basis of the super-plastic process,and the temperature-control was solved by simulation analysis and experiments.Subsequently,the forming results in different temperatures were analyzed,which confirmed the simulation results.Finally,an internal gear with 0.03 module,66 teeth and 500 μm thickness was obtained with good dimensional accuracy at 410 ℃.The gear had a relatively good profile with an amorphous structure proved by X-ray diffraction scanning,which substantiated the feasibility of the process.

  18. The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan) (United States)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida


    that are clearly seen in biofilms on the surface of gravels of the desert pavement and on the walls of vesicular pores in the crust and subcrust (AKL) horizons of the soil. The organomineral compounds are accumulated in the vesicular pores due to the synthesis and mineralization of the microbial biomass. This is a specific feature of the humus-accumulative process in the extremely arid desert soils. The biogenic transformation of iron-containing minerals, the mobility of iron, and its accumulation in films and coagulated microforms is largely due to the living activity of iron bacteria. These iron pedofeatures are specific of the extremely arid desert soils. We suppose that some part of vesicular pores in the AKL horizon has a microbiological origin, because separate bacterial cells may form intracellular gas vacuoles and extracellular gas bulbs, as well as membrane sacs and cell dilatations that can shape the vesicular pores. In general, our data indicate that soils, including extremely arid desert soils, serve as reservoirs of the microbial diversity and ensure the development and preservation of diverse microorganisms with specific mechanisms of adaptation to the sharp changes in the environmental conditions. This biota-protecting role of soils is particularly well pronounced during the climatic pessimum. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 12-04-00990a.

  19. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range) (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.


    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  20. Too Few Articles in the Journal Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries are Research‐Based. A review of: Crawford, Gregory A., and Jessica Feldt. “An Analysis of the Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46.3 (Spr. 2007: 77‐87.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Blythe


    articles appearing in 90 journals. However, only six journals were responsible for publishing 60% of the articles on the results list. Based on the categorization into topics or types,five article types – “general essays,” articles on “instruction for searching online catalogs and databases,” “articles on course‐ or assignment‐related instruction,” “programmatic and management issues,”and “specific institution instruction” –accounted for 54% of the total articles; eleven other topics are represented in the remaining articles. Only 24.5% of the articles could be considered “research‐based.” While nine types of research methods were used, 62.3% of the research‐based articles relied on surveys or questionnaires. However, taking into account what could be an expected decline in interest for studying instruction for microforms, and an increased interest in studying instruction for the Internet, the types of articles published each year between 1971 and 2002 remained generally static.Conclusion – The authors conclude that, unsurprisingly, a select few journals are responsible for publishing the majority of articles on instruction in academic libraries, and note that these journals are “closely associated with academic librarianship and instruction” (85. The authors’ findings concerning the types of articles published over the course of the date range examined, although interesting, are equally unsurprising. What is surprising and alarming, is that only a quarter of all articles published are research-based. Furthermore, those articles that were found to be research-based did not often employ sophisticated research methods, preferring for example, the use of descriptive statistics over inferential statistics. Ideally, this article will spur the development and publication of more, and more rigorous, research‐based scholarship in addition to pointing authors both to the journals most likely to publish their research and to the topics

  1. Necessity and Way of Comprehensive Improvement of Abilities and Appli-cation Ability of Librarians in the Hospital%医院图书馆馆员提高综合素质和应用能力的必要性和途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    s comprehensive review of their own professional qualities and overall qualities, and they should improve their scientific research qualities through self-study, thus, the hospital library can play a vital role, and there is a direct relationship between the quality of the service department of the hospital library and the quality of the librarians, therefore, the paper studies the comprehensive improvement of overall abilities and application a-bility of librarians in the hospital, the medical library is an important part of hospital scientific research institutions, which can improve the doctor’s instruction accomplishment and constantly enrich hospital culture connotation, and it plays an es-sential role in improving the overall qualities. With the popularization of computer information knowledge, most library re-sources can be used after the treatment of information technology. The medical literature is made to play a connection role between the leaner and the library, in this case, the improvement of quality of librarians in the hospital is an inevitable choice of development and should be sound researched and explored. With the constant development of science and technol-ogy, the non-print materials appears in most hospital libraries, such as some audio-visual materials, machine-readable ma-terials and microforms, the production of new materials greatly changes the structure of library collection at the basic level, the proportion of various carriers in the new situation is higher and higher, the different styles of information carriers come out more and more widely after the introduction of various images and medical imaging materials, therefore, the new channel is also opened up in the information dissemination. In this case, the librarians must sound improve the recognition of new carrier and new structure, thus, the situations such as confusion, unknown and failing to provide services to customers can be avoided at work.