WorldWideScience

Sample records for santiago puerto rico

  1. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  2. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  3. Columbia University Puerto Rico Study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher...

  4. Los insectos de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; S. Medina Gaud

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a brief summary of the natural history and importance of the insects of Puerto Rico. We briefly discuss the orders of insects present in Puerto Rico and some of their families. Where possible, we have tried to avoid technical terms for better comprehension of a general audience. We present the observations or characteristics of insects that humans admire...

  5. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  6. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico 131.40 Section 131.40... Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters. In addition to the Commonwealth's adopted use designations, the following waterbodies in Puerto Rico...

  7. Drinking and Driving in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Romano, Eduardo; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-01-09

    Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p Puerto Rico was high, but the proportion of people arrested for DUI in a span of 12 months or during their lifetime was low. Stricter enforcement of DUI laws may be necessary to minimize DUI in urban Puerto Rico.

  8. The Indians of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert; And Others

    Produced for use in a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for other students whose native language is Spanish, this book about the Indians of Puerto Rico is intended as supplementary reading material for pre-school through fifth grade. The book, illustrated with black and white drawings,…

  9. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  10. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  11. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  12. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  13. Los bosques de Puerto Rico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humfredo Marcano Vega; Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; No Other

    2015-01-01

    Este informe presenta los resultados del cuarto inventario forestal de las islas del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. El área de bosque en la isla grande de Puerto Rico se mantuvo constante o aumentó ligeramente del año 2004 al 2009. Este cambio parece indicar que la tasa de incremento de cubierta forestal en la isla grande de Puerto Rico ha disminuido desde que...

  14. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  15. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all...

  16. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: KARST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Puerto Rico Relative Vulnerability to Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical factors, such as the slope of the land, the texture of the soil, and the precipitation regime influence erosion in an area. Parts of Puerto Rico are very...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  3. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: WETLANDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  4. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  5. A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Federico Ribes

    This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Thermo King de Puerto Rico Incorporated in Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermo King de Puerto Rico, Inc. facility is located in the Zeno Gandia Industrial Area in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Major features of the facility include six buildings used for manufacturing and storage, a wastewater treatment plant, a hazardous waste and no

  7. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in Northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.M.; Clements, R.G.; Rosa, L.I.; Santos, F.

    1975-01-01

    In October, 1973, the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority sought the initiation of studies aimed at determining background radiological characteristics of the northwestern quadrant of Puerto Rico using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Some of the studies were required for supporting data for the environmental report submitted as part of the licensing procedure in the establishment of thermonuclear electric power generation facilities in Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Previous studies of radiological characteristics of the area had been made using sodium iodide sensing equipment in an airplane flying at an altitude of 500 ft. The results are expressed in counts per second, and provide useful comparative levels for radioactivity measured with the thermoluminescent detectors. (U.S.)

  8. Puerto Rico: Information for Status Deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Rico has suffered a temporary setback from the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo , both the availability and quality of the island’s housing stock...34"ý Prnce omi Puerto Rico aw (US li ANTIUDAN (U.S.) ,M S oh’ Montserrat (UK) !tGuadsiffupe (FR.) HONDURAS DOMdINICA Caribbean Sea Rosea q Martinique...Housing (the most recent data available). While the island has suffered a temporary setback because of the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo

  9. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  10. Island in Crisis: Response to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm packing winds of 185 miles per hour skirted the northern coast of Puerto Rico, leaving 1 million residents without electrical power. Schools were closed for 5 days, but a major calamity was narrowly avoided. Overall, residents were grateful for their good fortune, but the same could not be…

  11. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  12. Areas naturales protegidas de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solórzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    En este mapa mostramos las areas naturales protegidas designadas para la conservacion de los recursos naturales en Puerto Rico y regiones reguladas por ley con el potencial de mejorar la conservacion de los mismos. La designacion de areas protegidas es un proceso dinamico debido a que es el resultado de la constante evolucion de valores en los diferentes sectores de la...

  13. Lichens in Puerto Rico: an ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Díaz; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez; Robert. Lücking

    2015-01-01

    This work presents basic information on tropical lichenology. It also describes general aspects about the ecology and biodiversity of these organisms in eight forest ecosystems present along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. These ecosystems consist of elfin woodlands, palo colorado, sierra palm, tabonuco, lowland moist, dry, mangrove, and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-9 - Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico. 1.1402(a)-9 Section 1.1402(a)-9...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-9 Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. A resident of Puerto... alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, shall compute his net earnings from...

  15. 33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (a) The following area is established as a safety zone during the... the Eco-Electrica waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto...

  16. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  17. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Preparándonos para vencer: Programa para identificar las necesidades de información y apoyo para las mujeres sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama...of recruitment. Controls were identified from participants in the Estudio Continuo de Salud (ECS), a National Health Survey in Puerto Rico, which was...menopausal at interview, as expected by the age criteria for inclusion . Eighty eight percent (88%) of the participants had their first pregnancy before age

  18. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  19. Sand and gravel resources of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rafael W.

    Many of Puerto Rico's beaches are eroding, and though rates of erosion vary, it is a major concern for the tourism and residential development industries. More than 85 percent of the population lives within 7 kilometers of the coast and they are heavily dependent on tourists that are attracted by the island's beaches and coral reefs. High-quality scientific data are needed to help formulate public policy regarding residential and commercial construction along the coast, beach replenishment, and future use of marine resources. Scientists have long recognized that the causes of coastal land loss are not limited to a relative rise in sea level, but can be manmade as well. For example, sediment supply to beaches especially along the north shore of Puerto Rico has been strongly affected by upstream river channeling, dam construction, various agricultural practices, paving and urbanization, as well as shallow-water oceanographic processes. The response to coastal erosion in Puerto Rico has been mostly crisis based leading to engineered solutions that have a negative effect on the coastal environment.

  20. 78 FR 3495 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13437 and 13438] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00017 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Dated 01/03/2013. Incident: Heavy...

  1. 75 FR 39060 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12214 and 12215] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00009 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1919-DR...

  2. 76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/ 27/2011...

  3. 76 FR 67244 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  4. 75 FR 51294 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12270 and 12271] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PUERTO RICO dated 08/11/2010. Incident: Severe...

  5. 76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  6. 75 FR 69733 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  7. 75 FR 68394 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369 Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA--1946--DR...

  8. 78 FR 4966 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13445 and 13446] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Tropical...

  9. 76 FR 55154 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR...

  10. 76 FR 56858 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  11. 76 FR 44647 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12699 and 12700] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00013 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR...

  12. 76 FR 66768 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12897 and 12898] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4040-DR), dated 10/ 18/2011...

  13. 75 FR 2165 - Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration Nos. 12004 and 12005; Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007] Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of...

  14. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  15. Characterization of the Network of Protected Areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; Maya Quinones; William Gould

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and associated landscape diversity and forest cover characteristics within the network of terrestrial protected areas in Puerto Rico. We conducted spatial analysis to quantify different indicators of diversity at these sites. We found that protected areas in Puerto Rico overlap the most species-rich regions on the island,...

  16. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  17. Burden of stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Juan; Santiago, Fernando; González, Juan; Rodríguez, Abiezer; Pericchi, Luis; Rodríguez-Mercado, Rafael; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the first cause of long-term disability in Puerto Rico. Trained staff reviewed and independently validated the medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with possible stroke at any of the 20 largest hospitals located in Puerto Rico during 2007, 2009, and 2011. The mean age of the 5005 newly diagnosed stroke patients (51·2% female) was 70 years. At the time of hospitalization, women were 4½ years older, were less likely to be married (60·2% vs. 39·9%, P diabetes (56·0% vs. 54·8%), hypertension (89·1% vs. 85·0%), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) > 100 mg/dL (65·7% vs. 57·5%) P < 0·05. Ischemic stroke represented 75% of all types of strokes. Atrial fibrillation was mentioned in 7·9% of the medical records. The risk for dying before discharge was similar for both genders, but was 40% higher for women than for men at one-year follow-up: age-adjusted odds ratio = 1·4 (95% confidence interval = 1·2-1·5). © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  18. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  19. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-132-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On December 7, 2012, the Executive Secretary... activation limit of FTZ 7, on [[Page 20888

  20. 20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404.1089 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self...

  1. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic information helps plan and balance the reinvention and invigoration of the agriculture sector while maintaining ecological services. We used simple criteria that included currently protected lands and the importance of slope and forest cover in protection from erosion to identify land well-suited for conservation, agriculture and forestry in Puerto Rico. Within these categories we assessed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA farmland soils classification data, lands currently in agricultural production, current land cover, and current land use planning designations. We found that developed lands occupy 13 percent of Puerto Rico; lands well-suited for conservation that include protected areas, riparian buffers, lands surrounding reservoirs, wetlands, beaches, and salt flats, occupy 45 percent of Puerto Rico; potential working lands encompass 42 percent of Puerto Rico. These include lands well-suited for mechanized and non-mechanized agriculture, such as row and specialty crops, livestock, dairy, hay, pasture, and fruits, which occupy 23 percent of Puerto Rico; and areas suitable for forestry production, such as timber and non-timber products, agroforestry, and shade coffee, which occupy 19 percent of Puerto Rico.

  2. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of Five Projects in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Memorias de Melgarejo). Melgarejo mentions that one of these three mills was located next to the mouth of the Loiza River, and that this was also the...Mexico. Cordova, Pedro Tomas de Memorias historicas de Puerto Rico. D-3 D’Alzina, Ismael 1957 Historia gr~fica de Puerto Rico, 1. Primera Epoca. Ed...Servidumbre de faja de terreno de 5.0 metros de ancho y 400.46 metros de largo a favor de la Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico

  3. Radionuclide content of soils from Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.McB.; Clements, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and interpret gamma ray energy spectra from natural radioactivity and fallout radionuclides measured on soil samples collected in the projected thermonuclear power plant exclusion zone in Barrio Islote, Puerto Rico

  4. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  5. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  6. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  7. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  8. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  9. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: SHELFBND (Shelf Boundary)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  10. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  11. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  12. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  13. National Status and Trends: Guanica, Puerto Rico Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses chemical contaminant status in sediment and coral tissues (Porites astroides) collected in and around Guanica Bay, Puerto Rico in 2009....

  14. 75 FR 68393 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12366 and 12367] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster [[Page 68394

  15. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  16. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  17. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fajardo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  18. Ponce, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ponce, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  19. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arecibo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  2. San Juan, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Juan, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  4. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  5. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  6. 76 FR 47286 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12699 and 12700 Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00013 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Puerto...

  7. Rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility zonation of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Lepore; Sameer A. Kamal; Peter Shanahan; Rafael L. Bras

    2011-01-01

    Landslides are a major geologic hazard with estimated tens of deaths and $1–2 billion in economic losses per year in the US alone. The island of Puerto Rico experiences one or two large events per year, often triggered in steeply sloped areas by prolonged and heavy rainfall. Identifying areas susceptible to landslides thus has great potential value for Puerto Rico and...

  8. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  12. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  13. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Luquillo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  14. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  15. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Desecheo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  16. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barceloneta), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  17. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (San Juan), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barcelon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Pargue), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  4. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Rincon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Guayanil), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  6. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Parguera), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  7. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  8. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  12. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  13. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ponce), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  14. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isabela), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  15. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  16. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  17. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  18. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, Carol M.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C.; Carew, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  19. Economic Cost of Dengue in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Zeng, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, reached a record high in 2010. To inform policy makers, we derived annual economic cost. We assessed direct and indirect costs of hospitalized and ambulatory dengue illness in 2010 dollars through surveillance data and interviews with 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients treated in 2008–2010. We corrected for underreporting by using setting-specific expansion factors. Work absenteeism because of a dengue episode exceeded the absenteeism for an episode of influenza or acute otitis media. From 2002 to 2010, the aggregate annual cost of dengue illness averaged $38.7 million, of which 70% was for adults (age 15+ years). Hospitalized patients accounted for 63% of the cost of dengue illness, and fatal cases represented an additional 17%. Households funded 48% of dengue illness cost, the government funded 24%, insurance funded 22%, and employers funded 7%. Including dengue surveillance and vector control activities, the overall annual cost of dengue was $46.45 million ($12.47 per capita). PMID:22556069

  20. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  1. Source, Use, and Disposition of Freshwater in Puerto Rico, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Water diverted from streams and pumped from wells constitutes the main sources of water for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A better understanding is needed about water-use patterns, particularly about the amount of water used, where and how this water is used and disposed, and how human activities impact water resources. Irrigation practices, indoor and outdoor household uses, industrial uses, and commercial and mining withdrawals affect reservoirs, streams, and aquifers. Accurate and accessible water information for Puerto Rico is critical to ensure that water managers have the ability to protect and conserve this natural resource. The population of Puerto Rico increased 15 percent, from 3.4 million in 1985 to 3.9 million people 2005 and resulted in an increased demand for freshwater, mostly for the public-supply water use category. Almost 99 percent of the residents in Puerto Rico were served by public-supply water systems in 2005. One of the major challenges that water managers confront is the need to provide sufficient freshwater availability in the densely populated areas. Public-supply water is provided by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA) and by non-PRASA systems. Non-PRASA systems refer to community-operated water systems (water systems that serve a rural or suburban housing area).

  2. Shapefile of the bathymetric contours of Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico, September 2013-May 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, in 2013–14 in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer...

  3. Cardiovascular services and human resources in Puerto Rico - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palmieri, Mario R

    2009-01-01

    Available information (2004-2008) concerning population statistics, the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular services and human resources in Puerto Rico is presented. Relevant information concerning life expectancy at birth, death by specific causes in a recent four years period, the commonest causes of death, and the related cardiovascular risk factors prevalence data available is included. The surgical and medical interventional services rendered to cardiovascular patients in different institutions and their locations in Puerto Rico in the year 2008 is presented. Some remarks concerning the productivity of physicians by our Schools of Medicine is included. Information about ACGME accredited postgraduate cardiovascular training programs conducted in Puerto Rico is presented. Data concerning the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity obtained by BRFSS in presented.

  4. Recent Advances in Dengue: Relevance to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyd, David H.; Sharp, Tyler M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in Puerto Rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012–2013. Although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. Case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the differentiation between dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis and chikungunya, is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of cases. An understanding of dengue epidemiology and surveillance in Puerto Rico provides context for clinicians in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. This review aims to improve health professionals’ ability to diagnose dengue, and as highlight the relevance of recent advances in dengue prevention and management in Puerto Rico. PMID:26061055

  5. [Legal secrecy: abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Arias, R E

    1998-03-01

    The essay discusses abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970, concentrating in its legal status as well as its social practice. The research documents the contradictions between the legality of the procedure and a social practice characterized by secrecy. The essay discusses the role of the Clergy Consultation Service on Abortion in promoting the legal practice of absortion in Puerto Rico. It also discusses the ambivalent role of medical doctors who, despite being legally authorized to perform abortions to protect the life and health of women, refused to perform the procedure arguing abortion was illegal. The essay concludes with a brief discussion on perceptions of illegality regarding abortion, emphasizing the contradictions between the practice of abortion and that of sterilization in Puerto Rico.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  7. Leprosy in Puerto Rico: insight into the new millennia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Diana C; Candelario, Nicole; Carrasquillo, Osward Y; Figueroa, Luz; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2017-04-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the elimination of the disease as a global prevalence of less than one case per 10,000 population. However, disease transmission is an ongoing worldwide public health concern, as evidenced by the more than 220,000 new cases diagnosed each year. This study is an update of the incidence and prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico for the period of 2000-2014. A retrospective analysis of data was obtained from the Tropical Disease Clinic (TDC) of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. Sixty-three new cases of leprosy are detailed in this study. Disease incidence and prevalence were 1.65 and 5.26 per 100,000 inhabitants (of the island of Puerto Rico), respectively, and an average of 4.2 new cases per year. Most of the male patients in the study suffered from lepromatous leprosy (P = 0.026). In all, 47 (74.6%) patients had been born in Puerto Rico, and 29 (46%) had an affected family member or were in close contact with someone with leprosy. Compared to those of previous studies, these results demonstrate a decrease in both the incidence and prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico over the past 15 years. The relatively high prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico means that it remains endemic on the island. Concerted efforts must be undertaken to achieve the goal of the elimination of this old and stigmatized disease. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  9. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism... the market and non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be... Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required information is to conduct focus groups to help in...

  10. 75 FR 1543 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Puerto Rico; Guaynabo PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Control of Atmospheric Pollution. On July 15, 2009, the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board submitted... Control of Atmospheric Pollution Commonwealth Puerto Rico regulations effective date EPA approval date... analysis and revisions to Rules 102 and 423 of the Puerto Rico Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric...

  11. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for capital-related...

  12. 5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Puerto Rico. 532.275 Section 532.275 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The Department of Defense shall establish special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (b) Rates shall...

  13. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.370 General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Except as provided in § 412.374, hospitals located in Puerto Rico are subject to the rules in this subpart governing the prospective payment...

  14. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18... Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, submitted an application to the Board for authority to expand FTZ 61 to include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent...

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD, under...

  16. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with...

  17. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. (a) General rule. (1) An individual (whether a United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... a different language. (b) Television and Class A television licensees in Puerto Rico may enter into...

  19. 42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Puerto Rico. 412.220 Section 412.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.220 Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Subpart G of this part sets...

  20. 78 FR 9884 - Approval of Subzone Status; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act... subzone at the facility of Zimmer Manufacturing BV located in Ponce, Puerto Rico (FTZ Docket B-81-2012... hereby approves subzone status at the facility of Zimmer Manufacturing BV located in Ponce, Puerto Rico...

  1. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  2. 42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1988 through FY 1997. For discharges occurring on or after October...

  3. 78 FR 13625 - Approval of Subzone Status; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico On December 12, 2012, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board docketed an application submitted by the Puerto Rico Trade & Export Company, grantee... Sea World, Inc., in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. The application was processed in accordance with the FTZ...

  4. Contributions to the study of gasteromycetes of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel M. Nieves-Rivera; D. Jean. Lodge; Orson K. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Battarrea stevenii and Tulostoma cf. meridionale, two cosmopolitan taxa are reported as new records for Puerto Rico. Both species were collected from the same disturbed subtropical dry forested area. A partial checklist of the taxa of macromycetes collected from Boquer*on Commonwealth- and Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuges is also provided.

  5. Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

  6. Guide to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Miller; A.E. Lugo

    2009-01-01

    This guide is an introduction to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico. It covers the diversity of ecological systems in the island, their most common plant and animal species, and salient aspects of their structure and functioning. Terrestrial, wetland, coastal, and marine ecosystems are included, as well as agroforest and urban systems. The discussion of the...

  7. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  8. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  9. Convective mixing by internal waves in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.

    2016-01-01

    A2.4 km long deep-sea mooringwas deployed for 14 months in the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepestpart of the Atlantic Ocean. Below its top buoyancy package, the mooring line held a 200 m long stringof high-resolution temperature sensors and a current meter. Over the instrumented range between6,004 and

  10. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Brown; Ariel Lugo

    2017-01-01

    We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the...

  11. Diameter growth of subtropical trees in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2009-01-01

    Puerto Rico’s forests consist of young, secondary stands still recovering from a long history of island-wide deforestation that largely abated in the mid-20th century. Limited knowledge about growth rates of subtropical tree species in these forests makes it difficult to accurately predict forest yield, biomass accumulation, and carbon...

  12. 76 FR 59178 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  13. 76 FR 63699 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  14. 75 FR 76517 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  15. 76 FR 62133 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the...

  16. 76 FR 56861 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  17. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  18. English Acquisition in Puerto Rico: Teachers' Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein Ebsworth, Miriam; Ebsworth, Timothy John; Cai, Chencen

    2018-01-01

    Acquiring English in Puerto Rico involves the perceived advantages of bilingualism in contact with socio-political and economic forces that encourage and constrain the development of a population that is bilingual and biliterate in Spanish and English. Using a mixed design we report the perspectives of 86 experienced English teachers on the…

  19. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Frank H. Wadsworth; Maya Quinones; Stephen J. Fain; Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

    2017-01-01

    Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic...

  20. Lichenological studies in Puerto Rico: history and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Eugenio Santiago-Valentin

    2010-01-01

    European scientists initiated lichenology in Puerto Rico in the 19th century. Activity of the discipline increased notably on the island during the first three decades of the 20th century, primarily by the field explorations and publications of the New York Botanical Garden scientists and associates (A. A. Heller, N. L. and E. G. Britton, L. W. Riddle), and by the work...

  1. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  2. 76 FR 60513 - Puerto Rico; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on August 21, 2011, and continuing, are of sufficient severity and... adversely affected by this declared emergency: All 78 municipalities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  3. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  4. Energy Colonialism Powers the Ongoing Unnatural Disaster in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. de Onís

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 20, 2017, Hurricane María made landfall in Puerto Rico. Blasting the Caribbean archipelago with 155-mile/h winds, this, in many ways, unnatural disaster exposed the brutal consequences of energy colonialism and an extractivist economy, as well as ongoing and increasing advocacy for decentralized solar infrastructure by many local residents and other renewables supporters. This paper argues that acknowledging colonial power relations and their consequences is essential for studying the interplay of energy systems, environments, and actors. To support this claim, this essay outlines Puerto Rico’s history as a US colony by focusing on key policies and their implications; examines openings for and barriers to decentralized, community solar in Puerto Rico; and concludes by discussing future research directions on just energy transitions and the imperative of uprooting colonialism and agitating for community self-determination and energy justice in these transformations.

  5. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-84-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, in Toa Baja, Puerto Rico...

  6. 77 FR 43063 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico AGENCY: National Geodetic...-16 ( http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a016/a016.html ), to affirm the Puerto Rico Vertical... the islands of Puerto Rico, Culebra, Mona and Vieques of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and to the...

  7. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island.

  8. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  9. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia de...

  10. 33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico. 165.778 Section 165.778 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (a) Security zone. A moving and fixed security zone is established around all cruise ships entering, departing, mooring, or anchoring in the Port of Mayaguez, Puerto...

  11. Psychosocial risk factors and asthma among adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2018-05-08

    Asthma and psychosocial stressors are common among Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of current asthma, and examined potential psychosocial risk factors and current asthma, among adults in Puerto Rico. Cross-sectional study of 3,049 Puerto Ricans aged 18-64 years living in Puerto Rico between May 2014 and June 2016. A structured interview was conducted to obtain information on demographics, lifestyles, mental disorders, and respiratory health. Current asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and still having asthma. Two-sample t tests (for continuous variables) or chi-square tests (for categorical variables) were used in bivariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine psychosocial risk factors and current asthma. The estimated prevalence of current asthma was 10.2%. In a multivariable analysis, exposure to violence (odds ratio [OR] for each 1-point increment in a validated scale = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 1.21) and a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.80 to 5.01) were significantly associated with current asthma, independently of major depressive disorder. Moreover, a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt was associated with co-existing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (i.e. asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or ACOS (OR = 9.05, 95% CI = 3.32-24.67). Our findings suggest that asthma is a major health problem among adults in Puerto Rico, with psychosocial risk factors playing a significant role on asthma and ACOS. Addressing chronic stressors and mental illness should be part of comprehensive strategies to reduce asthma burden in this population.

  12. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Edward F; Burrows, Nilka R; Barker, Lawrence E; Beckles, Gloria L; Boyle, James P; Cadwell, Betsy L; Kirtland, Karen A; Thompson, Theodore J

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties) in Puerto Rico. The mean unadjusted estimate for all counties was 14.3% (range by county, 9.9%-18.0%). The average width of the confidence intervals was 6.2%. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed little. These 78 county estimates are higher on average and showed less variability (i.e., had a smaller range) than the previously published estimates of the 2008 diabetes prevalence for all United States counties (mean, 9.9%; range, 3.0%-18.2%).

  13. Usher syndrome in Puerto Rico: a clinical and genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Casasnovas, Jaime E; Izquierdo, Natalio J; Millán, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate patients with the Usher syn drome in Puerto Rico. Three patients with the Usher syndrome underwent an ophthalmic and audiologic evaluation; and genetic linkage analysis. All patients were legally blind based on visual acuity and visual field results. Two patients had macular edema as shown on Stratus OCT. All patients had moderate hearing loss as part of the syndrome. A patient, and two family members had three mutations leading to protein changes including: p.S4588Y; p.Y4505C; and p.14474M. Phenotypic findings in patients with the Usher syndrome in Puerto Rico are similar to those previously reported. However, to our knowledge, neither these mutations nor OCT findings have been previously described in patients with the syndrome.

  14. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Edward F.; Burrows, Nilka R.; Barker, Lawrence E.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Boyle, James P.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Kirtland, Karen A.; Thompson, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. METHODS: A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties) in Puert...

  15. Ecophysiology of a Mangrove Forest in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARIEL E. LUGO; ERNESTO MEDINA; ELVIRA CUEVAs; CINTR& #211; GILBERTO N; EDDIE N. LABOY NIEVES; SCH& #196; YARA EFFER NOVELLI

    2007-01-01

    We studied gas exchange, leaf dimensions, litter production, leaf and litterfall chemistry, nutrient flux to the forest floor, retranslocation rates, and nutrient use efficiency of mangroves in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico. The fringe forest had a salinity gradient from the ocean (35‰) to a salt flat (100‰) and a basin (about 80‰). Red (Rhizophora mangle), white (...

  16. Densidad de desarrollo alta y baja en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa demuestra la distribución de terrenos de alta y baja densidad de desarrollo urbano en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). El mapa fue creado mediante el analisis de un mosaico de imagenes de satelite Landsat ETM+ de los años 2000 – 2003. La clasificacion no supervisada ISODATA (“Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique”) (ERDAS 2003) fue utilizada...

  17. Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Serrano, Mayra I.; Foster, David Russell

    2004-01-01

    Puerto Rico is subject to frequent and severe impacts from hurricanes, whose long-term ecological role must be assessed on a scale of centuries. In this study we applied a method for reconstructing hurricane disturbance regimes developed in an earlier study of hurricanes in New England. Patterns of actual wind damage from historical records were analyzed for 85 hurricanes since European settlement in 1508. A simple meteorological model (HURRECON) was used to reconstruct the impacts of 43 hurr...

  18. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  19. Molasses crisis in the Puerto Rico rum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, G

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 the Puerto Rico rum industry provided 85% of the US rum market, returning to the PR treasury $200 million in Federal excise taxes. The diminishing P.R. sugar industry is not able to supply sufficient blackstrap molasses (BSM) to the expanding P.R. rum industry, and at present imports from foreign suppliers amount to 88% of its needs. These imports place the rum industry in jeopardy, as these suppliers can boycott Puerto Rico to protect their own rum production, or they can insist by treaty that all rums claiming geographic origin (i.e., Puerto Rico rum) must be distilled from molasses produced in that country. Possible solutions to improve domestic molasses production are presented to eliminate these threats. The use of high-test molasses (HTM) would answer the present and future needs of the rum industry if produced by the energy cane (or biomass) concept. This is a management concept stressing total growth potential rather than sugar. It would permit doubling cane production per acre and produce sufficient HTM on 70,000 acres for the projected rum industry requirements. Considerations of HTM production show that problems exist with the marketing price rather than in the field or factory. The economics of HTM pricing will have to be worked out by the interested parties: the rum industry, the sugar industry, and the government.

  20. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  1. Community Engagement for Identifying Cancer Education Needs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Ramos, Axel; Ramos-Rivera, Francisco E; Gwede, Clement; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Castro, Eida

    2018-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico, suggesting a need for improved strategies, programs, and resources devoted to cancer prevention. Enhanced prevention needs in Puerto Rico were initially identified in pilot studies conducted by the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM) in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC). In the current study, we used community engagement to identify specific needs in cancer prevention and education and strategies to create culturally attuned, effective cancer prevention education programs. A total of 37 participants attended a community forum and were assigned to one of three discussion groups: patients/survivors (n = 14); family/caregivers (n = 11); or healthcare providers (n = 12). Most participants were women (73 %), over 35 years of age, and a majority were married (58 %) and had a university education (81 %). The sessions were recorded and transcribed and analyzed for key themes. Participants wanted improved awareness of cancer prevention in Puerto Rico and believed cancer prevention education should start early, ideally in elementary school. Participants also stressed the importance of creating partnerships with private and government agencies to coordinate educational efforts. Suggested strategies included outreach to communities with limited resources, incorporating the testimony of cancer survivors, and utilizing social media to disseminate cancer prevention information.

  2. La ciencia del tabaco en Puerto Rico, 1900-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy, Teresita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco became an important export product in Puerto Rico after the American occupation of 1898, in large part, because of investments in the scientific study of tobacco: its efficient cultivation, its economic structure and its marketing. Scientific experimentation and the practical application of research findings in tobacco farms provided an arena for significant collaborative relationships between tobacco growers, scientists in Puerto Rico and the U.S., and the insular and federal governments. The involvement of Puerto Ricans in the science of tobacco, including their support of scientific inquiry, their continued demands for funding and beneficial agricultural legislation, and their adoption of modern agricultural technology, demonstrate that rather than being observers of rapid economic changes, they were activists, using the democratic guarantees available under the U.S. colonial structure to improve their economic situation.El tabaco se convirtió en un importante producto de exportación para Puerto Rico después de la ocupación norteamericana de 1898, debido a las inversiones en su estudio científico: el cultivo eficiente, la estructura económica y el mercadeo. La experimentación científica y la aplicación práctica de los descubrimientos en las fincas tabacaleras ofrecieron un campo de saber para establecer relaciones cooperativas significativas entre los cultivadores, los científicos en Puerto Rico y EEUU, y el gobierno insular y federal. El compromiso de los puertorriqueños en la ciencia del tabaco, incluyendo su apoyo por la investigación, las demandas continuas para fondos y una legislación agrícola beneficiosa, así como la adopción de la tecnología agrícola moderna, demuestra que éstos no eran pasivos frente a los rápidos cambios económicos de entonces. Por el contrario, ellos eran activistas políticos, usando las garantías democráticas disponibles dentro de la estructura colonial de los EEUU para mejorar su

  3. New Heroic Figure: Female Protestors and Precarity in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rebollo Gil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical look on an isolated, failed incident of protest carried out by a young Puerto Rican woman and her two children. In doing so, it explores the possibilities of radical political thought and action on the island. Furthermore, by situating this event within the larger context of danger—physical, social and discursive—that women in Puerto Rico are subjected to, it seeks to question the manner in which female protestors’ vulnerability and agency challenge those on the left to formulate gender-progressive strategies for emancipation. Lastly, it is argued here that this protestor features as new type of radical political subject on the island that could very well serve as a figurehead for large-scale social movements arising from a shared sense of precarity.

  4. Family Assistance for Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Jesús Fericelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global aging is a growing issue in most countries, including Puerto Rico. The well being of the older adult population depends mainly on a collaborative government initiative that uses both public assistance and the engagement of family members. Puerto Rican policymakers are searching for alternatives to care for the expanding elderly population as well as to protect the country’s economy, avoid the financial cliff, and reduce the high cost of public assistance. The purpose of this article is to analyze The Act for the Improvement of the Family Assistance and for the Support of the Elderly, Act No. 193 of 2002, under the criteria-based model (Gallagher & Haskins, 1984 with a value-critical appraisal (Chambers & Wedel, 2009. I suggest Act No. 193 of 2002 as a model for policymakers who are seeking ways to improve assistance for older adults, by promoting the following values: fairness, familism, fraternity, and accountability.

  5. Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

  6. Photonics outreach and education through partnerships in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan S.; Diaz, Andres; Saltares, Roger; Luciano, Sarah; Molina, Nerivette; Martinez, Smailyn; Hernandez, Alejandro; de Jesus, Johan; Rivera, Yesenia; Capeles, Antonio; Alvear, Felipe; Lopez, Jesus; Rivera, Miguel; Saurez, Rey; Trujillo, Elsa

    2015-10-01

    As the only photonics center in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Photonics Institute (PRPI) has developed education and outreach projects, partnering with other institutions and private companies to optimize the use of available resources. We present our experience, challenges, rewards, and results for the following projects: - Tours: K-12 students visit our facilities in a science tour including a presentation on the Arecibo Observatory (AO) and the Digital Planet Geodome. We present optics demonstrations and other information. In the first three months we hosted fifteen schools impacting over 1,400 students. - Outreach: We have newly active outreach and recruiting activities for Puerto Rico (PR) schools. - Teachers: With the PR Math-Science Partnership (MSP) Program, we have given a full-day workshop on optics and photonics experiments for 5th-12th grade teachers, and a master class at the annual MSP Congress. We have impacted over 500 teachers through these initiatives. - Continuing Education: We have given continuing education courses in addition to the MSP workshops. - General Public: We partner with museums in PR, the University of Turabo, and the AO Visitor Center to build optics exhibits, many developed by students. - Video: PRPI is promoting the 2015 International Year of Light, creating: 1. A short video with students and faculty from the Universidad Metropolitana (UMET) Schools of Communication and Business Administration; 2. A longer video with the production company Geoambiente. - Apps: Our website will include ray tracing and wave propagation applications, developed by UMET Computer Science students. - Capstone: Engineering students at the School of Engineering at Universidad del Turabo are developing laser pattern generators.

  7. Political power and health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catherine K; Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between political power and the various pathways to health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico, is explored. The U.S. Navy used the island for 62 years for bombing and other military exercises. The article focuses on the resulting changes to the island's socioeconomic positioning and the health inequalities over six decades. Secondary data analysis of census data using a revised World Health Organization model is used to examine the relationships of political power, labor markets, employment, material deprivation, social and family networks, and health inequalities. Findings are interpreted through a social justice lens and implications suggest the use of political advocacy for social change.

  8. Puerto Rico [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, Frank G.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Marine biology programme (marine biogeochemistry). The programme is designed to provide measurements of the distribution and movements of selected trace elements in a restricted but complete ecological and biogeochemical system. To obtain information on interactions between the marine biosphere and hydrosphere, measurements are being made of biological productivity, amounts of trace elements in the organisms and the environment, biological half-lives of trace elements, characteristics of food webs, and the influence of physical and chemical oceanographic factors upon the distribution patterns of trace elements in the marine waters, organisms and sediments offshore from the west coast of Puerto Rico

  9. The Identity Development and Coming out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhanel, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…

  10. A dendrochronological study of teak (Tectona grandis L. f., Verbenaceae) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, an island in the West Indies, large areas of primary forest have been cut and converted to farmland or to secondary forest; subsequently the farmlands declined in fertility and were abandoned. Various tree species were planted in order to restore the degraded land and to provide timber. Teak is a species with great restoration potential in Puerto Rico...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2723 - EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations. Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution Puerto Rico... Methods 9/28/95 ......do Rule 107—Air Pollution Emergencies 9/28/95 ......do Rule 108—Air Pollution Control Equipment 9/28/95 ......do Rule 109—Notice of Violation 9/28/95 ......do Rule 110—Revision of...

  12. Puerto Rico School Principals: Leadership Perceptions and Practices in Schools in Need of Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jacqueline Bocachica

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of school leadership in Puerto Rico is explored in this study, which was an examination of the perceptions and practices of 12 elementary school principals. Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory that functions within a unique political structure yet is held to the same standards as all U.S. districts. The primary method of data collection…

  13. QUANTIFYING SEDIMENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GUÁNICA BAY PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The island of Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent freshwater and marine ecosystem services. In watersheds feeding Guánica Bay (southwestern Puerto Rico), increased soil erosion and sediment loading to strea...

  14. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 165.758 Section 165.758 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  15. The Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project Volume 1: land cover, vertebrate species distributions, and land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Gould; C. Alarcon; B. Fevold; M.E. Jimenez; S. Martinuzzi; G. Potts; M. Quinones; M. Solórzano; E. Ventosa

    2008-01-01

    Puerto Rico faces a number of problems common to much of the world. Population is increasing while land area is not, and there are reassessments of land use policy and practice to accommodate growing populations, shifting economies, and changing public value systems. Puerto Rico shares similarities with the Eastern United States with its history of agricultural...

  16. Language Policy in Puerto Rico's Higher Education: Opening the Door for Translanguaging Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kevin S.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between meso university language policies in Puerto Rico and their micro instantiations in an undergraduate psychology classroom. We describe a typology of language policies used by 38 universities and campuses in Puerto Rico where their openness allows for flexible implementation of everyday micro policy.…

  17. Is English a Language Barrier to Public Higher Education in Puerto Rico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to address the question, "Have the austerity measures enacted due to the global economic crisis impacted student enrollments at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez?" as Rodríguez (2011. "Social protest and the future of Higher Education in Puerto Rico." "Academe" 97(4).…

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Machismo y educacion en Puerto Rico [Machismo and Education in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Isabel

    This book is the result of a study that investigated the influence of "machismo" (a set of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that perpetuates the myth of male superiority) in elementary education. The study included (1) a content analysis of textbooks used in Spanish and social studies classes in public and private schools in Puerto Rico…

  20. La ensenanza de idiomas en Puerto Rico (Language Teaching in Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Washington

    1976-01-01

    The poor command of Spanish common to many Puerto Ricans is due, not to the teaching of English as a second language, but to the poor instruction of the native language and the lack of emphasis on reading good Spanish literature. The two languages can coexist. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  1. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route.... These samples must be returned to origin or forwarded to a destination outside Hawaii or Puerto Rico in...

  2. 76 FR 1192 - Notice of a Change in Status of an Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Puerto Rico AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Puerto Rico. The following change has occurred since the publication of the last notice regarding the State's EB status: Puerto Rico's 13-week IUR has fallen below the 6% threshold and does not equal or...

  3. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  4. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Tierney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. METHODS: A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties in Puerto Rico. RESULTS: The mean unadjusted estimate for all counties was 14.3% (range by county, 9.9%-18.0%. The average width of the confidence intervals was 6.2%. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed little. CONCLUSIONS: These 78 county estimates are higher on average and showed less variability (i.e., had a smaller range than the previously published estimates of the 2008 diabetes prevalence for all United States counties (mean, 9.9%; range, 3.0%-18.2%.

  5. Hurricane Impact on Seepage Water in Larga Cave, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, Rolf; Warken, Sophie; Winter, Amos; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Hurricane-induced rainfall over Puerto Rico has characteristic δ18O values which are more negative than local rainfall events. Thus, hurricanes may be recorded in speleothems from Larga cave, Puerto Rico, as characteristic oxygen isotope excursions. Samples of 84 local rainfall events between 2012 and 2013 ranged from -6.2 to +0.3‰, whereas nine rainfall samples belonging to a rainband of hurricane Isaac (23-24 August 2012) ranged from -11.8 to -7.1‰. Cave monitoring covered the hurricane season of 2014 and investigated the impact of hurricane rainfall on drip water chemistry. δ18O values were measured in cumulative monthly rainwater samples above the cave. Inside the cave, δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples were analyzed and drip rates were recorded at six drip sites. Most effective recharge appears to occur during the wet months (April-May and August-November). δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples ranged from -3.5 to -2.4‰. In April 2014 and April 2015 some drip sites showed more negative δ18O values than the effective rainfall (-2.9‰), implying an influence of hurricane rainfall reaching the cave via stratified seepage flow months to years after the event. Speleothems from these drip sites in Larga cave have a high potential for paleotempestology studies.

  6. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in milk in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapan, S.; Pedersen, K.B.; Plaza, H.

    1976-01-01

    Milk was collected over a four-month period from three representative sectors of Puerto Rico. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) performed on the samples showed that the mercury concentration was slightly higher than safe upper limit set by the World Health Organization on food products. The values reported here for mercury concentrations are very similar to those found for dairy products in the Toronto area of Canada in 1970, but considerably higher than some reported from the United States in 1964. Mean cadmium concentrations were found to be higher than the values reported in the literature. Some variations in cadmium concentrations were observed areawide as well as a function of time. MURTHY et al reported the cadmium concentration in milk to be 0.018 to 0.03 ppm in the United States in the year 1967; this is about one sixth of the concentrations found in this study for Puerto Rico. In addition to INAA atomic absorption photospectrometry was used on a smaller number of samples to verify the concentration levels of cadmium. For this determination nine milk samples and two blanks were analyzed. The concentrations were found to vary between 0.01 and 0.06 ppm. These values are in better agreement with the values reported for the United States than are the ones obtained from using INAA; however, their spread is much greater. (T.G.)

  7. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  8. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, William R.; Ferguson, Frederick F.; Palmer, Juan R.

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation. PMID:5309511

  9. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Ferguson, F F; Palmer, J R

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation.

  10. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M

    2014-12-01

    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  11. The migratory impact of minimum wage legislation: Puerto Rico, 1970-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C E

    1993-01-01

    "This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living." excerpt

  12. A peripheral artery disease screening study in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Héctor; Franqui-Rivera, Hilton; García-Palmieri, Mario R; Díaz-Santana, Mary V; Alvarez, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) of the lower extremities is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. The results of screening for PAD in adults attending outpatient clinics at different sites in Puerto Rico from 2007 to 2010 are presented. A total of 33 outpatients screening clinics were conducted at different sites throughout the Island. Following the ACC/AHA Guideline recommendations, asymptomatic patients who qualified were screened for PAD using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). An ABI diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are known key factors in development of PAD. Practicing physicians must be aware of the importance of an early diagnosis of PAD, particularly in the asymptomatic patient, so as to institute preventive and management measures.

  13. Ecological review of hydroelectric reservoirs in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobin, W.R.; Ferguson, F.F.; Brown, R.

    1976-10-01

    A review of published literature and available data on the ecology of hydroelectric reservoirs and other lakes in Puerto Rico yielded various studies on unrelated elements in the aquatic ecology, but very few comprehensive investigations. The majority of the island-wide studies pertained to surveys on snails related to the parasitic disease bilharzia. A survey of 28 major lakes in 1976 showed that Biomphalaria glabrata had gradually been displaced from most of the lakes by Marisa cornuarietis and Tarebia granifera, two foreign snails which do not transmit bilharzia. Of the 17 lakes containing B. glabrata in 1956, only 8 remained infested in 1966 and only 5 in 1976, twenty years after the introduction of Marisa cornuarietis. Although the trend indicates that the lakes may be safe from transmission a monitoring system is necessary before the lakes could be used for recreation.

  14. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  15. Potentially hazardous plants of Puerto Rico: preliminary guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, F F; Medina, F R

    1975-08-01

    General information is presented about the kinds of native and imported plants in Puerto Rico (weeds, grasses, vines, cactuses, shrubs, trees and parts thereof) that should be avoided, or not ingested. Small amounts of eaten wild plant materials are usually not likely to be hazardous although large amounts may be dangerous; the striking exception is mushrooms. While a number of Puerto Rican plants are lethal to cattle, only a few are known to cause death to man as, for example, the fruit of the Deadly Manchineel, Hippomane mancinella and the seed of the Rosary Pea, Abrus precatorius. Tourists especially should avoid tasting any green or yellowish apples growing on a medium-sized tree. The Hippomane fruit resembles the Crabapple of temperate zones. It is now unlawful to use the Rosary Pea in the local handicraft industry. An item of special interest is the delicious fruit of Mamey often offered for sale at roadside, the outer coating of which is poisonous. All of the light brown outer covering, including especially all of the inner whitish tunic, must be carefully removed from the golden yellow fruit before eating, or else illness may result. Relatively few of the plants presented here will produce major physical problems if only contacted or chewed, but ingestion of some plant parts produces severe toxic symptoms.

  16. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  17. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  18. Epidemiological Profile of Hispanics Admitted With Acute Myocardial Infarction in Puerto Rico: The Experience of 2007, 2009 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Osterman-Pla, Anthony D; Carrasquillo, Onelys; Aranda, Juan; Baez, Stella; Lopez, Mariel; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J

    2017-06-01

    A limited number of studies have been published about coronary artery disease in Hispanics, particularly among the Puerto Rican population. The aim of this study was to present a clinical epidemiological profile and management practices in patients hospitalized in Puerto Rico with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This secondary data analysis from the Puerto Rico Cardiovascular Surveillance Study included 6,162 patients at 19 hospitals in Puerto Rico, during years 2007, 2009 and 2011. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with AMI was 67 ± 13.6 years old, with women being older than men (P Puerto Rico.

  19. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_001_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  20. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  2. Circulation Modeling for Proposed Port Facility at Ponce and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffner, Norman

    2002-01-01

    ... of Ponce and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. Impacts of the proposed construction were determined by conducting numerical simulations of tidal and storm surge circulation at the project sites using with and without the proposed port facilities...

  3. Program Spotlight: Ground Broken for NCI-supported Cancer Treatment Center in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Sanya A. Springfield represented NCI at the groundbreaking ceremonies for the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) cancer hospital. In her remarks, she acknowledged the driving force behind this development is the UPR and the MD Anderson Cancer Center partnership.

  4. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  5. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  6. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  7. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  8. 40 CFR 131.42 - Antidegradation Implementation Methods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambiental para el Proceso de Presentación, Evaluación y Trámite de Documentos Ambientales (EQB's... Procedimiento Administrativo Uniforme del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (3 LPRA 2165). (d) Implementation...

  9. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  10. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Ground Validation Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  11. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_502736_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  12. Soil As and Pb Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Total and bioaccessible arsenic and lead levels and plant uptake in garden plants from Puerto Rico. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: EPA cannot...

  13. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is based on precipitation data collected between...

  15. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_483895_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  16. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A. E. Lugo

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the result of many analyses conducted at the laboratory of the IITF of Puerto Rico between 1981 and 1990. our objective was to make available the chemical and physical data developed for tropical forest ecosystems.

  17. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  18. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  19. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_004_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  20. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  1. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_012_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  2. 2008 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_255604_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  3. The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. RICARDO GRAU; T. MITCHELL AIDE; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; JOHN R. HELMER THOMLINSON; XIOMING ZOU

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and...

  4. Spatial analysis of Puerto Rico's terrestrial protected areas [1:240 000

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    This research map describes Puerto Rico's terrestrial protected areas based on natural and anthropogenic elements of the landscape. We used geospatial data, i.e., land cover (Gould et al. 2007); urban, suburban, and rural settlements (Martinuzzi et al. 2008); and physiography to illustrate landscape elements and analyze what and how much is protected in Puerto...

  5. Diet of the non-native spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damien Bontemps; Elvira Cuevas; Eileen Ortiz; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; Rafael Joglar

    2016-01-01

    The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) was introduced to Puerto Rico over 50 years ago with the Tortuguero Lagoon Natural Reserve (TLNR) as its epicenter, where it is now established as an apex predator. Although concerns have been raised regarding the potential impact of this naturalized predator on Puerto Rico’s native fauna, little was known of the caiman’s diet...

  6. La erradicación de la malaria en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Franco Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, malaria was a serious public health problem in Puerto Rico. In 1962, that country became the first tropical territory in the Americas, and possibly in the world, to receive certification from WHO for having eradicated malaria and having declared itself free of the disease. This report chronicles the tremendous effort that was dedicated to the eradication campaign in Puerto Rico, which took place in the first part of this century.

  7. Attitudes toward business creation: A comparative study between Catalonia and Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés Aponte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the attitudes towards entrepreneurship of two samples of university students from Catalonia and Puerto Rico are analysed. Perceptions of desirability, feasibility and the intention to start a new firm are studied and compared. Institutional Economic Theory is used as a theoretical framework of the research due to its adequacy to the analysis of the conditioning factors to entrepreneurship. Not relevant differences in the attitudes to entrepreneurship between Catalonia and Puerto Rico are found in the research.

  8. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum

  10. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Ramos-González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by incorporating the use of morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA as a tool to describe the spatial pattern and connectivity of the city's urban green areas. Analysis of a previously developed IKONOS 4-m spatial resolution classification of the city of San Juan from 2002 revealed a larger area of vegetation (green areas or green infrastructure than previously estimated by moderate spatial resolution imagery. The city as a whole had approximately 42% green cover and 55% impervious surfaces. Although the city appeared greener in its southern upland sector compared to the northern coastal section, where most built-up urban areas occurred (66% impervious surfaces, northern San Juan had 677 ha more green area cover dispersed across the city than the southern component. MSPA revealed that most forest cover occurred as edges and cores, and green areas were most commonly forest cores, with larger predominance in the southern sector of the municipality. In dense, built-up, urban land, most of the green areas occurred in private yards as islets. When compared to other cities across the United States, San Juan was most similar in green cover features to Boston, Massachusetts, and Miami, Florida. Per capita green space for San Juan (122.2 m²/inhabitant was also comparable to these two U.S. cities. This study explores the intra-urban vegetation variation in the city of San Juan, which is generally overlooked by moderate spatial resolution classifications in Puerto Rico. It serves as a starting point for green infrastructure mapping and landscape pattern analysis of the urban green spaces

  11. Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-García, F.; García-García, F.; Montero-Martínez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krämer, M.

    2008-03-01

    The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.00±0.14 μg m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0

  12. Land use and water pollution in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbona, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, previous water-quality analyses have indicated that most surface-water bodies, as well as ground water, are polluted with both organic and inorganic substances. Contributions to water-quality deterioration come from point and nonpoint sources. These pose a threat on a densely populated island. Urban and industrial development occurred rapidly with a lag in the required infrastructure for expansion. Water pollution has been a by-product of this process and is regarded as the most serious environmental problem on the island. This study examines water-quality parameters in three hydrological basins. It attempts to determine how extensive a problem it is and how the concentration of pollutants compare in different land-use situations. A total of 33 sampling sites distributed among the three watersheds was chosen. Fifteen water-quality parameters were examined. All of the water bodies in spatial association with the land use considered presented detectable concentrations of the selected water-quality parameters

  13. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the classification of forests by life zones, estimation of carbon density by forest type, assessing carbon storage changes with ecological succession and land use/land cover type, describing the details of the carbon cycle of forests at stand and landscape levels, assessing global land cover by forest type and the complexity of land use change in tropical regions, and assessing the ecological fluxes and storages that contribute to net carbon accumulation in tropical forests. We also review recent work that couples field inventory data, remote sensing technology such as LIDAR, and GIS analysis in order to more accurately determine the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle and point out new avenues of carbon research that address the responses of tropical forests to environmental change.

  14. Alcohol concentration and risk of oral cancer in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Winn, Deborah M; Brown, Linda M; Gridley, Gloria; Bravo-Otero, Eleuterio; Diehl, Scott R; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hayes, Richard B

    2003-05-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (oral cancer), but the differential risks by beverage type are unclear. In this 1992-1995 study, the authors examined oral cancer risk in Puerto Rico, comparing alcohol intake among 286 male cases aged 21-79 years and 417 population-based male controls, frequency matched by age. Heavy consumers of liquor (>/=43 drinks per week) had strongly increased risks of oral cancer (odds ratio = 6.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 16.8); beer/wine showed only modest effects. Among liquor drinkers, risks were consistently greater for those who drank straight (undiluted) liquor than for those who usually drank mixed (diluted) liquor (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 6.7). Risks associated with combined exposure to tobacco were also more pronounced when subjects drank liquor straight. The elevated risks associated with drinking homemade rum were similar to those for other types of liquor. These results suggest that alcohol concentration is a risk factor for oral cancer independent of the total quantity of alcohol consumed.

  15. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  16. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Acevedo-Gonzalez, Jenny P; Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Giray, Tugrul

    2013-08-06

    The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees.To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst = 0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island.

  17. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  18. Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico ─ a new evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dusek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l., the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm, externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm−3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 μm and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m−3 when the winds

  19. Dengue severity in the elderly in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid J. García-Rivera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Severe dengue affects all age groups in the Americas, but little detailed information is available about this disease in the elderly. The objective of this article is to describe the disease in this age group. METHODS: We reviewed suspected dengue-case investigation forms submitted with diagnostic samples as well as clinical reports from infection control nurses in Puerto Rico, for the period of 1994 through 1999. RESULTS: We assigned the laboratory-positive case-patients to four age groups: infants (1 year: 554, youth (2 to 18 years: 6 857, adults (19 to 64 years: 9 433, and elderly (> 65 years: 822. Regardless of infecting serotype, the elderly were more likely to have been hospitalized (48% vs. 33% (P <0.01 and were less likely to show hemorrhage (26% vs. 33% (P <0.01. On multivariate analysis, controlling for gender and the presence of hemorrhage, the elderly had a higher risk for hospitalization and death than did the youths and the adults. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly appear to be more likely than youth and younger adults to develop severe illness when infected with the dengue virus, in a pattern similar to that of infants. The clinical evaluation of elderly patients with dengue must include a careful assessment of increased capillary permeability and occult hemorrhage in order to avoid complications from delayed identification and treatment of severe dengue infection. These findings are of increasing importance for dengue epidemiology and medical care in view of the expanding nature of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a world that also has a growing number and proportion of elderly persons.

  20. The Puerto Rico nuclear center reactor conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Campos, R [Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (Puerto Rico)

    1974-07-01

    For the purpose of upgrading the control and instrumentation system to meet new AEC requirements, to increase the available neutron flux for experimenters and to replace burned out fuel the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center started a modification program on its old MTR type, one megawatt reactor on March 1971. A TRIGA core utilizing the newly developed FLIP fuel, capable of operating at two megawatts with natural convection cooling and with pulsing capabilities was chosen. The major conversion tasks included: 1. Modification of the bridge, tower and grid plate structures, 2. Modification of the water cooling system (inside the reactor pool), 3. Installation of a larger heat exchanger and cooling tower, 4. Installation of a new instrumentation and control console (including neutron detectors and rod drive mechanisms). 5. Installation of a TRIGA FLIP core. Initial criticality was achieved on January 1972. For the chosen operating configuration the critical mass was 11,522 grams of uranium 235. Core excess reactivity was $7.12 and the total (5) rod worth was $12.06. During the early stages of the startup program to determine the basic core parameters and while conducting a stepwise increase in power to the design power level of two megawatts a power fluctuation on all neutron detectors was noticed. It was determined that the power fluctuations started at about 1.4 megawatts and sharply increased as power approached 2 megawatts. Experiments to determine the cause of the problem and to correct the condition were conducted on July and December 1972 and June 1973. Modifications to the core included changing fuel pin pitch and the addition of dummy elements in the central region of the core. Final acceptance by AEC Headquarters was requested on October 1973. (author)

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2016-02-03

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, scientific research, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, landslide mitigation, natural resources conservation, sea level rise and subsidence, coastal zone management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A‒16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. Dengue virus in blood donations, Puerto Rico, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Tomashek, Kay; Foster, Gregory; Broulik, Amy S; Petersen, Lyle; Stramer, Susan L

    2008-07-01

    A single instance of transfusion-transmitted dengue infection has been reported. The high incidence of dengue in endemic countries, the high proportion of asymptomatic infection, and the median 5-day viremia, however, suggest that transfusion-associated dengue transmission may be more widespread than documented. The prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA was determined in all blood donations to the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico from September 20 to December 4, 2005, using a specific type of nucleic acid amplification test called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). TMA-positive donations were defined as those having two repeatedly reactive TMA results. TMA-positive donations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by viral culture. Twelve (0.07%) of 16,521 blood donations tested were TMA-positive. Four were positive by RT-PCR (DENV serotypes 2 and 3). Virus was cultured from 3 of 4 RT-PCR-positive donations. One of the 12 TMA-positive donations was IgM-positive. Only 5 donations remained TMA-positive when diluted 1:16, as is done for routine minipool screening for other transfusion-transmissible viral infections (hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency, West Nile viruses [WNVs]). Nearly 1 in 1000 blood donations contained DENV RNA, and virus could be cultured from TMA-positive donations, suggesting a transfusion transmission risk similar to that which existed in the United States for WNV before universal donation screening. Similar to WNV, IgM antibody screening is likely to be ineffective, and some potentially infectious donations will be missed by minipool screening. Transfusion transmission should be considered in patients with dengue after blood transfusion.

  3. Fogwater Inputs to a Cloud Forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.; Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, S.; Scatena, F. N.; Siegwolf, R.

    2002-12-01

    Fog is highly persistent at upper elevations of humid tropical mountains and is an important pathway for water and nutrient inputs to mountain forest ecosystems. Measurements of fogwater fluxes were performed in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico using the eddy covariance approach and a Caltech-type active strand cloudwater collector. Rainfall and throughfall were collected between 25 June--7 August 2002. Samples of fog, rain, stemflow and throughfall were analyzed for inorganic ion and stable isotope concentrations (δ18O and δD). Initial results indicate that fog inputs can occur during periods without rain and last for up to several days. The isotope ratios in rainwater and fogwater are rather similar, indicative of the proximity of the Carribbean Sea and the close interrelation between the origins of fog and rain at our experimental site. Largest differences in isotope ratios for fog were found between daytime convective and nighttime stable conditions. Throughfall was always exceeding rainfall, indicating (a) the relevance of fogwater inputs and (b) the potentially significant undersampling of rainfall due to relatively high wind speeds (5.7 m/s mean) and the exposition of our field site close to a mountain ridge. Our size-resolved measurements of cloud droplets (40 size bins between 2 and 50 μm aerodynamic diameter) indicate that the liquid water content of fog in the Luquillo mountains is 5 times higher than previously assumed, and thus does not differ from the values reported from other mountain ranges in other climate zones. Average deposition rates are 0.88 mm and 6.5 mm per day for fog and rain, respectively.

  4. Cultural Diversity of Interpersonal Communication Competence: A Study of Puerto Rico Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby C. Vaught

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research and theories of interpersonal communication reflect mainstream U.S. culture. In an attempt to better understand the communication practices of Spanish-speaking cultures, an exploratory study of interpersonal communication was conducted involving Puerto Rican managers. The Index of Interpersonal Communication Competence (IICC was translated into Spanish and administered in two large international pharmaceutical companies in Puerto Rico. The results of the study are discussed in terms of implications for communication theory and applied communication research.

  5. Bankruptcy and loans in Puerto Rico:an exploratory overview of their relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico has been going through a period of economic downturn since 2006, beginning a little before the global economic recession. This paper examines the behavior of loans granted by the commercial banking sector and their relationship with the number of business bankruptcies filed in Puerto Rico between 1999 and 2011. Findings draw attention to the fact that from 2006, there has been a steady decline in the number of personal, commercial and mortgage loans approved by the commercial banking sector, as well as in their value. An increase in the filing of bankruptcy is also observed. The number of loans approved by banks in Puerto Rico show a strong correlation with the economic activity index (EAI and other economic indicators that help to explain the island’s employment situation (total employment, labor force participation rate and unemployment rate.

  6. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  7. 77 FR 74170 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-132-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, PR An application has been..., grantee of FTZ 7, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facility of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico...

  8. 77 FR 70417 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pepsi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-84-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Pepsi...

  9. Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force’s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

  10. The distribution and biology of potential vectors of Xylella fastidiosa on coffee and citrus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Wells et al.) (Xf) surround the Caribbean Basin. Two major commodities of Puerto Rico, coffee and citrus, are highly susceptible to Xf. We surveyed potential vectors of Xf in coffee and citrus farms in western Puerto Rico over an 18 month period. Cicadel...

  11. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a...

  12. 77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-138-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Puerto Rico Trade & Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61...

  13. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implementing the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  14. 78 FR 15338 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    .... 120510052-3174-01] RIN 0648-BC20 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Parrotfish Management Measures in St. Croix AGENCY... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council...

  15. 33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 165.757 Section 165.757... Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. (a) Location. The following areas are... Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. A 100-yard radius surrounding all Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) vessels with...

  16. Hurricanes, climate change and the cholera epidemic in Puerto Rico of 1855-1856.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Hurricanes and global climate changes may affect the environmental factors of cholera dynamics in warm coastal areas, vulnerable to seasonal or sporadic outbreaks. The cholera epidemic of Puerto Rico in 1855-1856 had a profound effect on the Puerto Rican society; but it was not influenced by any climatic events, such as preceding hurricanes or storms based on past documentary sources. Particularly, the environmental non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio Cholerae in Puerto Rican water sources can maintain their pathogenic potential for sporadic or erratic toxigenic cholera outbreaks--if a "perfect storm" ever occurs.

  17. Hofstede cultural indexes and their impact on leadership styles in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Ortiz Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between “national culture” (cultural dimensions and leadership styles displayed by managers in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico. In this study, the independent variable was “national culture” and the national culture index (Geert Hofstede, 1980 served as indicator. In contrast, leadership styles were the dependent variable measured using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 2004. Findings indicate that, overall, “national culture” resulted as a significant variation in transactional and transformational leadership styles employed by managers working in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico.

  18. Fishery population and habitat assessment in Puerto Rico streams: phase 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Smith, William E.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Cooney, Patrick B.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report for research on Puerto Rico stream fishes and their habitat funded by the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, in the form of a grant to the North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. This research was also conducted to meet the thesis requirement for a Master of Science degree granted to Elissa Buttermore (Chapters 3–4) and the dissertation requirement for a Doctor of Philospophy degree granted to William Smith (Chapters 5–8). Formatting differs among chapters, as each was developed to target a specific scientific journal and to conform to journal style.

  19. 19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.1 Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... bonded manufacturing warehouse for shipment in bond to Puerto Rico pursuant to section 311, Tariff Act of...

  20. Underuse of Radiation Therapy After Breast Conservation Surgery in Puerto Rico: A Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry–Health Insurance Linkage Database Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Chance

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify rates of postoperative radiation therapy (RT after breast conservation surgery (BCS in women with stage I or II invasive breast cancer treated in Puerto Rico and to examine the sociodemographic and health services characteristics associated with variations in receipt of RT. Methods: The Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry–Health Insurance Linkage Database was used to identify patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2008 and 2012 in Puerto Rico. Claims codes identified the type of surgery and the use of RT. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent association between sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Results: Among women who received BCS as their primary definitive treatment, 64% received adjuvant RT. Significant predictors of RT after BCS included enrollment in Medicare (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.13; P ≤ .01 and dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.27; P 2.0 cm and ≤ 5.0 cm (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.93; P = .02 and those with tumor size > 5.0 cm (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.92; P = .03 were found to be significantly less likely to receive RT. Conclusion: Underuse of RT after BCS was identified in Puerto Rico. Patients enrolled in Medicare and those who were dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare were more likely to receive RT after BCS compared with patients with Medicaid alone. There were geographic variations in the receipt of RT on the island.

  1. Profiling of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer's disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico. Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer's disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico. Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer's disease. The differential profile of Alzheimer's disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and healthy living practices as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    basis would voters select the status quo option during the second plebiscite? Second, could the inclusion of the commonwealth option on the second...Values and Institutions (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969), p. 262. C. Arthur Borg, “The Problem of Puerto Rico’s Political Status, Revista ...University Press of Kansas, 1975), p. 185.] See also Roberta A. Johnson, “The 1967 Puerto Rican Plebiscite: The People Decide,” Revista /Review

  3. The shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico El estado de la epidemia de VIH/SIDA en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Gomez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information on AIDS patients in Puerto Rico, including their general sociodemographic profile, some risk-related parameters, characteristics of vulnerable groups, and elements of the clinical spectrum of the disease. Data were analyzed from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and available studies about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico. A total of 23 089 AIDS cases was reported to the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program from January 1981 through February 1999. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has affected mostly males and females between the ages of 30 and 49, though cases have also been reported for other age groups. The cumulative proportion of persons with AIDS who are women has increased tremendously, from 11.4% for the 1981-1986 period to 21.6% for the entire 1981-1999 period. In Puerto Rico the category of injecting drug users (IDUs accounts for the majority of the AIDS cases (52%, followed by heterosexual contact (22%, and men who have sex with men (17%. The three main diagnoses for AIDS on the island are wasting syndrome (30.7%; esophageal, bronchial, and lung candidiasis (29.4%; and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (26.8%. According to 1994 vital statistics for Puerto Rico, AIDS was the fourth-leading cause of death. The overall reported AIDS mortality rate was 42.0 per 100 000 persons, with the rate for males, 67.8, much higher than it was for females, 17.4. AIDS is the first cause of death among persons between 30 and 39 years old. Intense efforts are needed to better understand the epidemic in Puerto Rico and its biology, social and family impacts, and financial costs.Este estudio presenta información sobre los pacientes con sida en Puerto Rico, como su perfil sociodemográfico general, los factores de riesgo, las características de los grupos vulnerables y los elementos del espectro clínico de la enfermedad. Los datos analizados procedían del Programa de Vigilancia del sida en Puerto Rico y de estudios sobre

  4. The white band disease type II pathogen in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L Gil-Agudelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The white band disease type I (WBD-I epizootic event of the early 1980’s resulted in significant changes in the structure and composition of coral communities throughout the wider Caribbean. The disease decimated populations of acroporid corals throughout their geographic distribution and it is still affecting the surviving and recovering populations of these corals in a number of localities in the wider Caribbean. The putative pathogen for this syndrome (WBD-I was never identified. A second pattern of white band was described later as white band type II (WBD-II. A potential pathogen named Vibrio charchariae was identified but Koch’s postulates were never fulfilled. In this work, we present results of a preliminary approach to confirm the identity of the pathogen of WBD-II. During the fall months of 2004, samples of Acropora cervicornis with signs of WBD-II were collected from a small population in Mario reef, an isolated patch reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Bacteria extracted from these samples were isolated in TCBS agar, grown in Glycerol Seawater agar, and then used to inoculate separated, healthy-looking colonies of the same population in the same reef. Isolation, culture, and inoculations of bacteria were conducted under controlled conditions within hours of collection, and no microorganisms that were not already in the reef community were introduced with these experiments. Some of the newly inoculated colonies developed the disease signs within 24 hr. These were subsequently sampled and bacterial re-isolated to be identified, thus complying with the first steps to fulfill Koch ’s postulates for this disease. Rates of advance of the disease signs varied between 0.5 and 2 cm/day. Preliminary analyses indicated that the potential cause of WBD-II is a Vibrio species very close to Vibrio harveyi, a synonymy of V. charchariae. All inoculated coral colonies that developed the signs of WBD-II, behaved as the naturally

  5. Increasing prevalence of diagnosed diabetes--United States and Puerto Rico, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    In 2010, an estimated 18.8 million persons in the United States had diagnosed diabetes mellitus and another 7.0 million had undiagnosed diabetes. Since 1990, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States has risen sharply among all age groups, both sexes, and all racial/ethnic groups for which data are available. To learn whether the increase has been greater in some regions of the United States than in others, data on self-reported diabetes in adults collected during 1995-2010 by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. The analysis showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased during the interval in every state, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico. In 1995, age-adjusted prevalence was ≥6% in only three states, DC, and Puerto Rico, but by 2010 it was ≥6% in every state, DC, and Puerto Rico, and ≥10.0% in six states and Puerto Rico. Strategies to prevent diabetes and its preventable risk factors are needed, especially for those at highest risk for diabetes, to slow the rise in diabetes prevalence across the United States. Continued surveillance of diabetes prevalence and incidence, its risk factors, and prevention efforts is important to measure progress of prevention efforts.

  6. Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.; Scatena, F.N.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Wickel, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent surveys of tropical forest water use suggest that rainfall interception by the canopy is largest in wet maritime locations. To investigate the underlying processes at one such location-the Luquillo Experimental Forest in eastern Puerto Rico-66 days of detailed throughfall and above-canopy

  7. Cacao genetic resources research at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current USDA ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station’s (TARS) cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, consists of 262 clonally propagated accessions. Each accession is represented by six individual trees grafted onto a common ‘Amelonado’ seedling rootstock and planted ...

  8. Prevalence and Genetic Profile of Duchene and Becker Muscular Dystrophy in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Edwardo; Conde, José G; Berrios, Rafael Arias; Pardo, Sherly; Gómez, Omar; Mas Rodríguez, Manuel F

    2016-05-27

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and BMD, respectively), are common forms of inherited muscle disease. Information regarding the epidemiology of these conditions, including genotype, is still sparse. To establish the prevalence and genetic profile of DMD and BMD in Puerto Rico. We collected data from medical records in all Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) clinics in Puerto Rico in order to estimate the prevalence of DMD and BMD and to describe the genotypic profile of these patients. Patients selected for data analysis matched "definite", "probable" and "possible" case definitions as established by MD STARnet. A total of 141 patients matched the inclusion criteria, with 64.5% and 35.5% being categorized into DMD and BMD, respectively. DMD and BMD prevalence in Puerto Rico was estimated at 5.18 and 2.84 per 100,000 males, respectively. Deletion was the most common form of mutation (66.7%) in the dystrophin gene, with exons in segment 45 to 47 being the most frequently affected. This is the first report of the prevalence and genetic profile characteristics of DMD and BMD in Puerto Rico. Prevalence of DMD was similar to that reported worldwide, while prevalence of BMD was higher. Genetic profile was consistent with that reported in the literature.

  9. 27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands. 17.5 Section 17.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which...

  10. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie T. Lenart; D.A. Falk; F.N. Scatena; W.R. Osterkamp

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or...

  11. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  12. Seven-year responses of trees to experimental hurricane effects in a tropical rainforest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess K. Zimmerman; James Aaron Hogan; Aaron B. Shiels; John E. Bithorn; Samuel Matta Carmona; Nicholas Brokaw

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally manipulated key components of severe hurricane disturbance, canopy openness and detritus deposition, to determine the independent and interactive effects of these components on tree recruitment, forest structure, and diversity in a wet tropical forest in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Canopy openness was increased by trimming branches...

  13. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  14. Hydrologic regimes of forested, mountainous, headwater basins in New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oregon, and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Post; Julia A. Jones

    2001-01-01

    This study characterized the hydrologic regimes at four forested, mountainous long-term ecological research (LTER) sites: H.J. Andrews (Oregon), Coweeta (North Carolina), Hubbard Brook (New Hampshire), and Luquillo (Puerto Rico). Over 600 basinyears of daily streadow records were examined from 18 basins that have not experienced human disturbances since at least the...

  15. Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

  16. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  17. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by— (1) Adjusting for variations in case mix among hospitals; (2) Excluding an estimate of indirect... rates for Federal fiscal year 1988. (a) General rule. CMS determines the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG...) Geographic classification. (1) For purposes of this paragraph (e) of this section, the following definitions...

  18. SalHUD—A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G. Ortiz-Zuazaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL. Methods: The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. Results: YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. Discussion: This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  19. Hepatitis C serosorting among people who inject drugs in rural Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ian; Curtis, Ric; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Abadie, Roberto; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high cost of treatment, preventative measures to limit Hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) are encouraged by many public health officials. A key one of these is serosorting, where PWID select risk partners based on concordant HCV status. Research on the general U.S. population by Smith et al. (2013) found that knowledge of one's own HCV status facilitated serosorting behaviors among PWID, such that respondents with knowledge of their own status were more likely to ask potential partners about their status prior to sharing risk. Our objective was to see if this held true in rural Puerto Rico. We replicate this study using a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico to draw comparisons. We used respondent driven sampling to survey 315 participants, and have a final analytic sample of 154. The survey was heavily modeled after the National HIV Behavioral Survey, which was the dataset used by the previous researchers. We found that among PWID in rural Puerto Rico, unlike in the general population, knowledge of one's own HCV status had no significant effect on the selection of one's most recent injection partner, based on his/her HCV status. We conclude that PWID in rural Puerto Rico differ from the general U.S. population when it comes to serosorting behaviors, and that these differences should be taken into account in future outreaches and intervention strategies.

  20. Demonstration of a Graywater Management Project at a Community Level on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housing development practices in Puerto Rico, especially in rural areas, have often not considered the proper treatment and disposal of wastewater or the collection and treatment of stormwater. These practices have created a legacy of communities without proper sewage disposal in...

  1. First report of multiple races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rice nursery located in the Lajas Valley, in the southwestern corner of Puerto Rico has been used by US rice breeders for the past 43 years to produce one to two extra generations per year. In April, 2015, blast disease lesions were observed on rice breeding lines belonging to the USDA ARS DB NR...

  2. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  3. SalHUD--A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto G; Arce-Corretjer, Roberto; Solá-Sloan, Juan M; Conde, José G

    2015-12-22

    This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL). The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  4. Modeling College Graduation GPA Considering Equity in Admissions: Evidence from the University of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Díaz, Horacio; García, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Over concerns about private school students' advantages in standardized tests, beginning in 1995-96 the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) implemented a new admissions formula that reduced the weight they previously had in the General Admissions Index (GAI), on which its admissions decisions are based. This study seeks to determine the possible…

  5. The Work of US Public Health Service Officers in Puerto Rico, 1898-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, Jose G

    2017-09-01

    The history of the US Public Health Service (PHS) is usually presented in terms of diseases or discoveries; this article examines twenty years' activity in one location. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the Marine Hospital Service (now PHS) took responsibility for foreign quarantine, inspection of immigrants, and medical care for merchant seamen. Its officers evaluated the sanitary conditions of port cities, helped reorganize local disease surveillance and control, and investigated endemic diseases (e.g., hookworm-related anemia) and epidemics (e.g., bubonic plague). After World War I and pandemic influenza, and the greater self-government allowed Puerto Rico by Congress in 1917, PHS officers withdrew from routine local sanitary actions. A narrow geographic focus (Puerto Rico), to examine PHS activity over time (1898 to 1919) provides a richer picture of the agency's impact, and reveals how the sum of disease control activities affected the development of an area's health status and institutions. The duties and, importantly, the personal initiatives of PHS officers in Puerto Rico, such as WW King, produced lasting impact on scientific institutions and administrative, professional, and health care practices.

  6. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National

  7. Authorship Policies for the Conduct of Graduate Research in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Bonet-Rivera, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Authorship credit is one of the areas addressed by research integrity. Policies established by graduate academic programs and academic institutions in Puerto Rico are analyzed by describing authorship principles included. Twenty-six percent of the policies specify that students are authors of their research work. Four percent of the policies…

  8. Illegal drug use and its correlates in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-04-01

    Data on the prevalence and correlates of illegal drug use in Puerto Rico are now almost 20 years old. This study sought to estimate the 12-month prevalence of illegal and non-prescribed medical drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico and identify sociodemographic correlates of use. Data are from a random household sample of 1510 individuals, 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The 12-month prevalence of any illegal or non-prescribed drug use was 16.5%. Prevalence among men (20.7%) was higher than among women (12.9%; chi 2  = 16.308; df = 1; p  .05) were negatively associated with drug use compared to annual income up to $10,000. As in many other places in the U.S., drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico is high, affecting about 1 in 6 adults in the population. The highest prevalence is for marijuana use, which cannot be medically prescribed and of which recreational use is illegal on the island. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of

  10. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  11. A Decision Framework to Protect Coral Reefs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Watershed Management Plan (WMP) for Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, was introduced in 2008 by a nonprofit organization, the Center for Watershed Protection, with the intent of protecting coral reefs from damage related to watershed discharges. The plan was initially generated with th...

  12. Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Are R; Johnson, Shylo R; Gilbert, Amy T; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-10-01

    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to several Caribbean Islands to control rat (Rattus spp.) damage to sugarcane plantations. Mongooses failed at suppressing rat populations and are now considered pests throughout most of their introduced range. Importantly, mongooses are rabies reservoirs on several Caribbean Islands. In Puerto Rico, mongooses have been implicated in up to 70% of reported animal rabies cases. There is no rabies vaccination program for wildlife in Puerto Rico, and data on rabies in mongooses are limited. We conducted a serosurvey of mongooses in two different ecologic environments in Puerto Rico: El Yunque National Forest and Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. We collected 119 serum samples from 112 mongooses, 44 (39.3%) of which were positive for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. We also collected oral swabs from 147 mongooses, including 88 from which we also collected serum. No oral swabs were positive for rabies virus RNA. Our data support previous research suggesting rabies virus is circulating within the mongoose population on Puerto Rico.

  13. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  14. Linking Decisions to Stakeholder Values in the Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation lays the foundation for the session by introducing the Structured Decision-Making (SDM) approach that is being used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Guánica Bay watershed of southwestern Puerto Rico. EPA is working with other agencies i...

  15. Decision scenario analysis for addressing sediment accumulation in Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was used to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on water storage capacity of a reservoir (Lago Lucchetti) in southwest Puerto Rico and the potential of different management options to increase reservoir life expectancy. Water and sedi...

  16. The effects of changing land cover on streamflow simulation in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Van Beusekom; L.E. Hay; R.J. Viger; W.A. Gould; J.A. Collazo; A. Henareh Khalyani

    2014-01-01

    This study quantitatively explores whether land cover changes have a substantive impact on simulated streamflow within the tropical island setting of Puerto Rico. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to compare streamflow simulations based on five static parameterizations of land cover with those based on dynamically varying parameters derived from...

  17. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  18. Monitoreo del Aire en Puerto Rico a través de la Ciencia Ciudadana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunidad de Tallaboa/Encarnación en Peñuelas, Puerto Rico es un ejemplo de una comunidad comprometida con mejorar la calidad de aire para sus residentes que han sufrido el impacto acumulativo de la contaminacion en su localidad.

  19. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.F. Murphy; R.F. Stallard; M.C. Larsen; W.A. Gould

    2012-01-01

    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather...

  20. Invasion by native tree species prevents biotic homogenization in novel forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that secondary forests dominated by introduced species, known as novel forests, increase taxonomical similarity between localities and lead to biotic homogenization in human dominated landscapes. In Puerto Rico, agricultural abandonment has given way to novel forests dominated by the introduced African tulip tree Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (...

  1. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  2. Non-PRASA Drinking Water Research on UV Disinfection in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA and InterAmerican University of San German worked with water treatment operators from Patillas, Puerto Rico on the installation, training and testing of pretreatment/UV disinfection systems in the communities of La Sofia and Apeadero. This presentation provides path...

  3. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of surface soil carbon in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongqing Wang; Joseph D. Cornell; Charles A.S. Hall; David P. Marley

    2002-01-01

    We developed a spatially-explicit version of the CENTURY soil model to characterize the storage and flux of soil organic carbon (SOC, 0–30 cm depth) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico as a function of climate, vegetation, and soils. The model was driven by monthly estimates of average air temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration...

  4. Distribution and dispersal of Xylaria endophytes in two tree species in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Bayman; D. J. Lodge; P. Angulo-Sandoval; Z. Baez-Ortiz

    1998-01-01

    Xylaria species are common endophytes in tropical plants. It is not known, however, whether transmission of Xylaria occurs horizontally or vertically, whether individual Xylaria strains have wide host ranges or are host-specific, or how they are dispersed. We compared frequency of Xylaria endophytes in leaves and seeds of two tree species in Puerto Rico, Casuarina...

  5. New and interesting ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orson K. Miller; D. Jean Lodge; Timothy J. Baroni

    2000-01-01

    A report of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Island in the Greater Antilles includes four species of Amanita, three of which are new species; two Lactarius, one is new, and two species of Boletus, one new. In addition, new distribution records of Phlebopus beniensis, Russula littoralis, Lactarius ferrugineus, a new small spored...

  6. Language Officialization in Puerto Rico: Group-Making Discourses of Protectionism and Receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This article applies social constructionism and groupism theory to discourses on language officialization in Puerto Rico. It examines three argumentative texts presented prior to the passage of Law #4 in 1991 making Spanish the sole official language of the island. Grounded critical discourse theory maintains that language form and content are…

  7. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  8. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A.E. Lugo

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the results of analyses conducted at the chemistry laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico from 1981 to 2000. The data set includes 109,177 plant analyses and 70,729 soil analyses. We report vegetation chemical data by plant part, species, life zone, soil order, geology, or parent material. Soil data are...

  9. Brainstorming transformative solutions - Sustainable Puerto Rico in 2080 - a focus on energy and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This narrative scenario depicts one of many possible futures for the island of Puerto Rico in which the goals of energy and food supply resilience have been met. Set in the year 2080, the narrative describes a series of hypothetical (but possible) events, a set of proactive gover...

  10. Differences in knowledge about birds and their conservation between rural and urban residents of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar O. Vazquez-Plass; Joseph M. Wunderle

    2010-01-01

    People’s knowledge of birds and the opinions and perceptions about specific issues related to the conservation of birds were quantified in rural and urban communities in northeastern Puerto Rico. Data were collected using questionnaires in interviews with 131 citizens haphazardly selected within the study site. Our results indicate that urban residents had a...

  11. Allometry, biomass, and chemical content of novel African Tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata) forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; Oscar J. Abelleira; Alexander Collado; Christian A. Viera; Cynthia Santiago; Diego O. Velez; Emilio Soto; Giovanni Amaro; Graciela Charon; Jr. Colon; Jennifer Santana; Jose L. Morales; Katherine Rivera; Luis Ortiz; Luis Rivera; Mianel Maldonado; Natalia Rivera; Norelis J. Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, the most common tree in Puerto Rico, forms novel forest types with mixtures of native and other introduced tree species. Novel forests increase in area in response to human activity and there is no information about their biomass accumulation and nutrient cycling. We established allometric relationships and chemically...

  12. Habitat use of the Louisiana Waterthrush during the non-breeding season in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Hallworth; L.R. Reitsma; K. Parent

    2011-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to quantify habitat and spatial use patterns of neighboring Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) along two streams in the Caribbean National Forest in Puerto Rico during 2005–2007. Home range sizes varied with younger birds having larger home ranges and core areas than older birds. All birds occupied some length of stream but a wide range...

  13. Traffic tech: Examination of changes to the motorcycle law in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Puerto Rico enacted a comprehensive motorcycle safety law in 2007 to address the rise in fatal motorcycle crashes. Prior to the enactment of the law, the popularity of motorcycle riding increased rapidly from 47,920 registrations in 2000, to 89,379 i...

  14. INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFIE A. GREATHOUSE; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; WILLIAM H. MCDOWELL; JEFF G. HOLMQUIST

    2006-01-01

    Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In...

  15. Landscape units of Puerto Rico: influence of climate, substrate, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones

    2008-01-01

    The landscape units map of Puerto Rico represents climatic, substrate, and topographic variation by integrating six climatic zones (Ewel and Whitmore 1973), six distinct substrates (Bawiec 2001, USGS 2005), five topographic positions or landforms (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), and prominent lakes and rivers (USGS 2005). Substrates were a simplified set of Bawiec’s (2001)...

  16. Dwarf forest recovery after disturbances in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf forest in Puerto Rico’s Luquillo Mountains varies according to substrate and topography with very short, dense forest growing on exposed, rocky sites. High elevation level sites suffered considerable damage during past hurricanes whereas the trees on certain lower slopes were protected by ridges or spurs. Post-disturbance recovery of dwarf forest on two types of...

  17. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  18. Four new species of Coenogonium (Ascomycota: Ostropales) from vulnerable forest ecosystems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Mercado-Diaz; W.A. Gould; G. Gonzalez; R. Lucking

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Coenogonium are described from the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico—C. aurantiacum Mercado-Díaz & Lucking, C. borinquense Mercado-Díaz & Lucking, C. dimorphicum Mercado-Díaz & Lucking and C. portoricense Mercado-Díaz & Lucking. All were discovered in small and highly fragmented forest remnants of...

  19. Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams" examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ahmad; F.N. Scatena; A Gupta

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary description of the morphology, sedimentation, and behaviour of the montane streams of eastern Jamaica and eastern Puerto Rico. The area is located within a 200 km wide seismically active zone of Neogene left-lateral strike-slip deformation which defines the plate boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates. Tropical storms,...

  20. Short-term precipitation and temperature trends along an elevation gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Van Beusekom; Grizelle Gonzalez; Maria Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Corrigendum published on April 20, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-15-0044.1. Incorporated to the original PDF. As is true of many tropical regions, northeastern Puerto Rico is an ecologically sensitive area with biological life that is highly...

  1. Issues for an Evaluation of Freire-Inspired Programs in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facundo, Blanca

    Paulo Freire is a Brazilian educator whose theories link educational processes with revolutionary political aims. This report describes attempts by predominantly Latino proponents of his theories to develop "liberating education" (educacion liberadora) in the United States and in Puerto Rico. Section 1 describes the national, political,…

  2. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  3. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  4. Fungal diversity associated with rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is an exotic tropical fruit of increasing importance in international markets, and that has awakened great interest from farmers in Puerto Rico. During 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on leaves, branches, and flowers were observed in rambutan orchards through t...

  5. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  6. Commercial potential of rambutan cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signif...

  7. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  8. 42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Geographic classifications. (1) For purposes of this section, the definitions set forth in § 412.208(f)(1... of final standards for classification of MSAs published in the Federal Register on January 3, 1980... discharge classified within a DRG, CMS establishes for the fiscal year a Puerto Rico prospective payment...

  9. Geomorphology, disturbance, and the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo F.N. Scatena

    1995-01-01

    Relationships between landforms, soil nutrients, forest structure, and the relative importance of different disturbances were quantified in two subtropical wet steepland watersheds in Puerto Rico. Ridges had fewer landslides and treefall gaps, more above-ground biomass, older aged stands, and greater species richness than other landscape positions. Ridge soils had...

  10. Lithological and fluvial controls on the geomorphology of tropical montane stream channels in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew S. Pike; F.N. Scatena; Ellen E. Wohl

    2010-01-01

    An extensive survey and topographic analysis of fi ve watersheds draining the Luquillo Mountains in north-eastern Puerto Rico was conducted to decouple the relative infl uences of lithologic and hydraulic forces in shaping the morphology of tropical montane stream channels. The Luquillo Mountains are a steep landscape composed of volcaniclastic and igneous rocks that...

  11. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  12. International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) in Puerto Rico: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Atschuler, D. R.; Lebrón, M. E.; Alonso, J. L.

    2010-08-01

    The IYA2009 inauguration in Puerto Rico was in January 2009. The local organizing committee includes members from the NASA Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Arecibo Observatory, the two astronomical societies of the island, private and public universities, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in science education. The events are throughout the island, taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from disadvantaged communities. All the activities emphasize the value of personal effort to achieve your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected eight core activities for Puerto Rico. Three of them have been completed (Inauguration, Theatrical performance of "La Vida en Marte y otras Crueles Realidades", 40th Anniversary of the first human on the Moon), three of them are underway (star parties, conference series, "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) exhibition) and the other two are under plan for the fall of 2009. A group of volunteer students ("Starry Messengers") are assisting in the activities. We present a project plan for the rest of 2009. The details of the Puerto Rico IYA events may be found at \\url{http://www.astronomy2009pr.org}.

  13. A Quantitative Analysis of "Ataque de Nervios" in Puerto Rico: Further Examination of a Cultural Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo San Miguel, Vivian E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa J.; Ramirez, Rafael R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative analysis and assessment of the symptoms of "ataque de nervios." A sample of 121 individuals living in Puerto Rico provided qualitative and structured data on "ataques de nervios" and psychiatric correlates. A total of 77 participants reported having an "ataque de nervios" during…

  14. Initial Public Health Laboratory Response After Hurricane Maria - Puerto Rico, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Patel, Anita; Luna-Pinto, Carolina; Peña, Rafael González; Cuevas Ruiz, Rosa Ivette; Arbolay, Héctor Rivera; Toro, Mayra; Deseda, Carmen; De Jesus, Victor R; Ribot, Efrain; Gonzalez, Jennifer-Quiñones; Rao, Gouthami; De Leon Salazar, Alfonsina; Ansbro, Marisela; White, Brunilís B; Hardy, Margaret C; Georgi, Joaudimir Castro; Stinnett, Rita; Mercante, Alexandra M; Lowe, David; Martin, Haley; Starks, Angela; Metchock, Beverly; Johnston, Stephanie; Dalton, Tracy; Joglar, Olga; Stafford, Cortney; Youngblood, Monica; Klein, Katherine; Lindstrom, Stephen; Berman, LaShondra; Galloway, Renee; Schafer, Ilana J; Walke, Henry; Stoddard, Robyn; Connelly, Robin; McCaffery, Elaine; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Soroka, Stephen; Tranquillo, Darin T; Gaynor, Anne; Mangal, Chris; Wroblewski, Kelly; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Salerno, Reynolds M; Lozier, Matthew; Sunshine, Brittany; Shapiro, Craig; Rose, Dale; Funk, Renee; Pillai, Satish K; O'Neill, Eduardo

    2018-03-23

    Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, causing major damage to infrastructure and severely limiting access to potable water, electric power, transportation, and communications. Public services that were affected included operations of the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH), which provides critical laboratory testing and surveillance for diseases and other health hazards. PRDOH requested assistance from CDC for the restoration of laboratory infrastructure, surveillance capacity, and diagnostic testing for selected priority diseases, including influenza, rabies, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and tuberculosis. PRDOH, CDC, and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) collaborated to conduct rapid needs assessments and, with assistance from the CDC Foundation, implement a temporary transport system for shipping samples from Puerto Rico to the continental United States for surveillance and diagnostic and confirmatory testing. This report describes the initial laboratory emergency response and engagement efforts among federal, state, and nongovernmental partners to reestablish public health laboratory services severely affected by Hurricane Maria. The implementation of a sample transport system allowed Puerto Rico to reinitiate priority infectious disease surveillance and laboratory testing for patient and public health interventions, while awaiting the rebuilding and reinstatement of PRDOH laboratory services.

  15. The relation between land-cover and the urban heat island in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J.R. Murphy; Myrna Hall; Charles Hall; Gordon Heisler; Steve Stehman

    2007-01-01

    As development continues in Puerto Rico, forests and grasslands are being converted to impervious cover, changing the magnitude and geographic range of the Urban Heat Island (UHI). As part of the U.S. National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research Program, this study aims to quantify the various meteorological effects that urbanization may be imparting on...

  16. Puerto Rico: gateway to landscape” from an ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    The exhibit Puerto Rico: Gateway to Landscape proposes to explore various ways in which citizens approach the landscape, or construct it – inside and outside the city – and considers city planning, the creation of parks and natural reserves, and their interpretation. From a perspective of citizen involvement, this thematic scaffolding related to landscape and the...

  17. The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Larsen; Angel J. Torres-Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Landslides are common in steep mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Average population density is high, 422 peoplerkm2, and is increasing. This increase in population density is accompanied by growing...

  18. Maps showing characteristics of the Cabo Rojo West offshore sand deposit, southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, James V.A.; Trias, Juan L.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on a deposit of well-sorted coarse calcareous sand in water depths of 10-20 m in an area between 1 and 6 km west and southwest fo the promontory of Cabo Rojo, the southwesternmost corner of Puerto Rico

  19. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-R-2010-N277; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Cabo Rojo National...

  20. Hourly laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal aspects of egg deposition are important factors governing avian reproductive success. I report hourly egg-laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico during 1979–2000. Initiatory eggs were laid by early morning (median 5 0642 hrs, AST) and almost half of the eggs were laid by...

  1. Long-term decline of a winter-resident bird community in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Faaborg; W. J. Arendt; J. D. Toms; K. M. Dugger; W. A. Cox; M. Canals Mora

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern expressed two decades ago, there has been little recent discussion about continuing declines of migrant bird populations. Monitoring efforts have been focused almost exclusively on the breeding grounds. We describe the long-term decline of a winter-resident bird population in Guanica Commonwealth Forest, Puerto Rico, one of the last remaining tracts of...

  2. Hurricane recovery at Cabezas de San Juan, Puerto Rico, and research opportunities at Conservation Trust Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver; Elizabeth Padilla Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    The Cabezas de San Juan Natural Reserve (El Faro), an exposed peninsular area located in the Subtropical dry forest of northeastern Puerto Rico, was impacted by hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Georges (1998). From 1998 to 2008, a 0.10 ha plot was used to assess forest structure, species composition, and stem growth. During post-hurricane recovery, stem density, tree height...

  3. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  4. Observations on the fauna that visit African Tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata Beauv.) forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal field observations in secondary forests dominated by the introduced African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) in Puerto Rico show a faunal assemblage that consists mostly of native species (81.1 percent). The most abundant species were common birds and reptiles, yet some uncommon fauna appear to be visiting or residing in these forests. The observations...

  5. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  6. Geomorphic Proxies to Test Strain Accommodation in Southwestern Puerto Rico from Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Galindez, I. M.; Xue, L.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Puerto Rico and the Virgin Island microplate is located in at the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate boundary with North America is placed within an oblique subduction zone in which strain patterns remain unresolved. Seismic hazard is a major concern in the region as seen from the seismic history of the Caribbean-North America plate boundary zone. Most of the tectonic models of the microplate show the accommodation of strain occurring offshore, despite evidence from seismic activity, trench studies, and geodetic studies suggesting the existence of strain accomodation in southwest Puerto Rico. These studies also suggest active faulting specially in the western part of the island, but limited work has been done regarding their mechanism. Therefore, this work aims to define and map these active faults in western Puerto Rico by integrating data from analysis of fluvial terrains, and detailed mapping using digital elevation model (DEM) extracted from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and LIDAR data. The goal is to (1) identify structural features such as surface lineaments and fault scarps for the Cerro Goden fault, South Lajas fault, and other active faults in the western of Puerto Rico, (2) correlate these information with the distribution pattern and values of the geomorphic proxies, including Chi integral (χ), normalized steepness (ksn) and Asymmetric factor (AF). Our preliminary results from geomorphic proxies and Lidar data provide some insight of the displacement and stage of activities of these faults (e.g. Boqueron-Punta Malva Fault and Cerro Goden fault). Also, the anomaly of the geomorphic proxies generally correlate with the locations of the landslides in the southwestern Puerto Rico. The geomorphic model of this work include new information of active faulting fundamental to produce better seismic hazards maps. Additionally, active tectonics studies are vital to issue and adjust construction buildings codes and zonification codes.

  7. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tourism and climate conditions in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Méndez-Lázaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general behavior of the tourism sector in Puerto Rico, with its marked seasonality, hints at a close relationship between tourism activities and climate conditions. Even if weather condition is only one of many variables considered by travelling tourists, climate conditions weigh heavily in the majority of the decisions. The effect of climate variability on the environment could be manifested in warmer temperature, heat waves, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events, such as severe storms and hurricanes, floods, and sea level rise. These conditions affect different sectors of society, among them public health and the economy. Therefore, our research has two main objectives: to establish a tourism climate index (TCI for Puerto Rico and to analyze if occupancy rates in hotels correspond to local weather conditions. Even though there are many other variables that could have positive or negative effects on tourism activities, results showed a significant association between occupancy rate in Puerto Rico and climate indexes. According to both TCI and the mean historical climate for tourism indexes, the most favorable months for tourism in Puerto Rico were February and March (winter, whereas the worst season was the end of August and the beginning of September (summer-fall. Although winter represents dry conditions and lower temperatures in San Juan, it also represents the highest occupancy rate during the years examined. In summer and fall, data showed high occupancy rates, yet climate conditions were not suitable; these months also correspond to the hurricane season. During this season, high relative occupancy rates responded to internal and local tourism patterns. It can therefore be assumed that until the climate-tourism relationship is well characterized, there is little hope of fully understanding the potential economic effects, detrimental or beneficial, of global climate change, not only on tourism in Puerto Rico, but on

  9. Rayleigh wave group-velocity across the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern North America-Caribbean (NA-CAR) plate boundary near the islands of Hispaniola (which is comprised of the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico is a complex transition zone in which strain is accommodated by two transform fault systems and oblique subduction. In 2013, scientists from Baylor University, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network deployed 16 broadband stations on the Dominican Republic to expand the local permanent network. The goal of the Greater Antilles Seismic Program (GrASP) is to combine its data with that from permanent networks in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica to develop a better understanding of the crust and upper mantle structure in the Northeastern Caribbean (Greater Antilles). One important goal of GrASP is to develop robust velocity models that can be used to improve earthquake location and seismic hazard efforts. In this study, we focus on obtaining Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from ambient noise tomography. By cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at 53 stations between 2010 to present, we obtain Green's functions between 1165 pairs of stations. From these, we obtain dispersion curves by the application of FTAN methods with phase-matched filtering. Selection criteria depend on the signal-to-noise ratio and seasonal variability, with further filtering done by rejecting velocities incompatible with maps produced from overdamped tomographic inversions. Preliminary dispersion maps show strong correlations with large-scale geological and tectonic features for periods between 5 - 20 s, such as the Cordillera Central in both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Mona Passage, and the NA-CAR subduction zone. Ongoing efforts focus on including shorter periods in Puerto Rico as its denser station distribution could allow us to retrieve higher resolution group velocity maps.

  10. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Zegarra, Diego E; López-Charneco, Magdalena; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Rodriguez, José F; Conte-Miller, María

    2012-11-01

    To raise awareness of the impact of homicides in Puerto Rico based on the findings of the spatial and temporal distribution of homicides and the use of firearms, by age and gender, using reports of interpersonal violent deaths from the Institute of Forensic Science (IFS) headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This was a descriptive study of all homicide incidents in Puerto Rico reported by the IFS for the period 2001-2010. For each of the 8 542 cases, data analyzed included age, sex, municipality of incident, date of death, and mechanism. Crude sex- and age-specific mortality rates for Puerto Rico and for each municipality per year and for the 10-year period were calculated. Cumulative rate and cumulative risks were estimated and defined as lifetime risk. The relative distribution of cumulative rates for each municipality was categorized into quartiles of highest to lowest risk and displayed as a map. The risk of homicide death among males is 13 times greater than among females. The highest rates were observed among males 20-24 years of age (198.4 homicides per 100 000). In any given year, firearms were used in at least 80% of homicides. The average lifetime risk of homicide death for males is 1 in 34. Young adult males with access to firearms are at greatest risk of homicide in Puerto Rico. Also, highly urbanized municipalities are at highest risk; however, certain non-urban municipalities along the coast also have a very high homicide risk. Top priorities should be applying the WHO "ecological model" for violent injury prevention and establishing a surveillance system that will assist in identifying the role that socioeconomics, illegal firearms trade, and drug trafficking are playing.

  11. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-10-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico`s north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  12. Cutover tropical forest productivity potential merits assessment, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Brynne Bryan; Julio Figueroa-Colón

    2010-01-01

    Timber extraction continues to add to vast cutover tropical forests. They are unattractive economically because of the loss of merchantable timber and the long delay foreseen for recovery. Despite this, wood in cutover tropical forests is in line to become more marketable as demand continues and old-growth forests become less accessible. In a cutover forest in Puerto...

  13. Understanding Suicidal Ideation in Latino/a Adolescents Living in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Jones, Richard N; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-05

    Puerto Rican adolescents, as well as other Latinos/as, have been identified at higher risk for suicidal ideation and attempts compared to other ethnic groups. However, research designed to better understand suicidality among Puerto Rican adolescents is rare. A socio-cognitive vulnerability model of suicidal ideation was tested in adolescents living in Puerto Rico. Multiple group path analyses were performed to assess the effect of self-reported socio-environmental and vulnerability factors on suicidal ideation, by sex, in 233 students from the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Overall, the model explained a large amount of the variance in suicidal ideation (r 2  = .59 for females and r2 = .48 for males). Depressive symptoms had the strongest total effect on suicidal ideation for both sexes (r = .69 for females and r = .53 for males) and negative life events were the most salient socio-environmental factor. Hopelessness had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for males only. Externalizing behaviors had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for both males and females, but it was particularly strong for females. Results support the mediating role of vulnerability factors and the differential importance of socio-environmental and vulnerability factors in understanding suicidal ideation among Puerto Rican adolescents. The relevance of exploring different developmental paths to suicidal ideation, separately by sex, is discussed.

  14. Hydrogeology of Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The availability of hydrogeologic maps for Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona are important to hydrogeologists, groundwater specialists, and water resource managers and planners. These maps, in combination with the report, serve as a source of information to all users by providing basic hydrogeologic and hydrologic knowledge in a concise illustrated format. Puerto Rico and the outlying islands cover a total area of 8,927 square kilometers (km2). Of this total area, about 3,500 km2 are underlain by hydrogeologic units that are classified as intergranular or fissured. These hydrogeologic units form the principal aquifer systems throughout Puerto Rico and the outlying islands. In Puerto Rico, the most extensive and intensely developed aquifers are the North Coast Limestone aquifer system and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system. Withdrawals from these two aquifer systems constitute nearly 70 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn in Puerto Rico. The spatial extent of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system is about 2,000 km2. Within this aquifer system, groundwater development is greatest in the 800-km2 area between the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río de la Plata. This also is the area for which concern is the highest regarding the future use of groundwater as a primary source of water for domestic and industrial use. With an estimated withdrawal of 280,000 cubic meters per day (m3/d), groundwater constituted the principal source of water within this area providing 100 percent of the water for self-supplied industries and about 85 percent for public water supplies in 1985. By 2005, groundwater withdrawals decreased to 150,000 m3/d. The spatial extent of the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system is about 470 km2. The estimated consumptive groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer system was 190,000 m3/d in 1980 and 170,000 m3/d in 2005. About 60 percent and 40 percent of the groundwater withdrawal from the South

  15. Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher

  16. Atmospheric inputs to watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter D in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of precipitation-chemistry data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program site at El Verde, Puerto Rico, demonstrate that three major sources control the composition of solutes in rain in eastern Puerto Rico. In order of importance, these sources are marine salts, temperate contamination from the Northern Hemisphere, and Sahara Desert dust. Marine salts are a source of roughly 82 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; marine salt inputs are greatest in January. Evaluation of 15 years of U.S. Geological Survey data for four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico suggests that large storms, including hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Some of these storms were missed in sampling by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, and therefore its data on the marine contribution likely underestimate chloride. The marine contribution is a weak source of acidity. Temperate contamination contributes about 10 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; contaminants are primarily nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate derived from various manmade and natural sources. Peak deposition of temperate contaminants is during January, April, and May, months in which strong weather fronts arrive from the north. Temperate contamination, a strong source of acidity, is the only component that is increasing through time. Sahara Desert dust provides 5 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; it is strongly seasonal, peaking in June and July during times of maximum dust transport from the Sahara and sub-Saharan regions. This dust contributes, on average, enough alkalinity to neutralize the acidity in June and July rains.

  17. Multibeam Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicle Exploration of the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Armstrong, R.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    During October 2013, an ocean exploration project took place off the coast of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This project, a collaborative effort between the Ocean Exploration Trust, the US Geological Survey, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, the University of Rhode Island, and NOAA, was aimed at exploring regions of the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) south of the Puerto Rico Trench axis, and north of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the US and British Virgin Islands, and portions of the Anegada Passage. The research vessel E/V Nautilus and the Hercules/Argus ROV system were used to expand the multibeam sonar bathymetric data coverage of the region, collect high definition video footage of seafloor features, and to collect biological and geological samples along selected transects. Particular areas of interest for targeted ROV dives included: the region where a large M7.2 1918 earthquake produced a tsunami that struck northwestern corner of Puerto Rico; a transect up the vertical wall of the Mona Rift (4000 to 1500 m depth); transects along the Septentrional fault system; dives in areas of suspected fluid flow through faults, fissures, and offshore Karst systems associated with the tilted carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico; dives in the Anegada Passage at the entry points for surface Atlantic waters that circulate into the Caribbean; and in regions to investigate and date sedimentary features offset by fault motion and potential tsunamigenic landslides. Biological sampling of many deep-sea benthic organisms (including deep water corals) have never been attempted before in this area. These samples are being used to understand more about the diversity, population dynamics, genetics, and habitat connectivity of these communities, and to provide an age constraint for disturbed sedimentary features. Until this cruise, the location and distribution of deep coral habitats in the US Caribbean was largely unknown. The available information on benthic

  18. Coral-based Proxy Records of Ocean Acidification: A Pilot Study at the Puerto Rico Test-bed Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral cores collected nearby the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-bed (AOAT) at La Parguera, Puerto Rico were used to characterize the relationship between...

  19. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCFHR, in...

  20. High Resolution Aerial Photography of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1965-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were acquired for the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Benthic Mapping Project in 1999 by NOAA Aircraft Operation Centers aircraft and National...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types) / RSI (Reach Sensitivity Index River and Stream Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

  3. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a selected portion of seafloor south of Isla de Vieques in Puerto Rico,...

  4. An annotated list of the flora of the Bisley Area Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Renee J. Beymer; Carlos Rivera; Ines Sastre de Jeses; F.N. Scatena

    1993-01-01

    Known species of plants, including bryophytes and ferns, are listed for the area of the Bisley experimental watershed area, a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico.

  5. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a selected portion of seafloor south of Isla de Vieques in Puerto Rico,...

  6. Sistema de Vigilancia de Influenza de Puerto Rico |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral Salud por Poblaciones Salud Sexual Suicidio Tabaquismo Vacunación Violación/Agresión Sexual Rico VIH Publicaciones sobre la Salud Otras Publicaciones Registros Suicidio Tuberculosis Centro de Suicidio Tuberculosis Recent Ávisos Públicos Reglamentación Informe de Casos del Síndrome de Guillain

  7. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  8. Preventive-care practices among adults with diabetes--Puerto Rico, 2000-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-12

    Preventive-care practices among persons with diabetes can prevent or delay complications such as eye disease, kidney disease, or nerve damage that is a precursor to disabling foot disease. However, the level of diabetes-related preventive care is inadequate in the United States, and little has been reported about preventive care in Puerto Rico, where an estimated 10% of adults have diagnosed diabetes. CDC analyzed data from 2000, 2001, and 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys to assess the percentage of adults with diabetes in Puerto Rico who engaged in five selected preventive-care practices. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, with the exception of hemoglobin A1c testing, the percentages of adults engaging in preventive-care practices were lower than the target percentages set by U.S. national health objectives for 2010.

  9. Francisco Guerra (1916-2011), medical historian for the world and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2012-06-01

    This brief celebration of the work of Francisco Guerra (1916-2011) highlights his role as mentor for an international community, his study of local events in the context of global developments, and his contributions to the understanding of the medical history of Puerto Rico. A selective review of Francisco Guerra's methods and publications shows that his principal works are characterized by their vast scope and exhaustive coverage of ancient and modern published sources, coupled with clarity and conciseness of exposition. At least eight of his books (presented here) provide important information on events and personalities in Puerto Rico up to about 1940. Guerra, through his clinical experience, profound scholarship, and personal contacts, recovered the local medical developments of peripheral areas and incorporated them to a global context.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-03-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  11. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  12. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  13. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-07-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  14. Experiences of Violence Among Transgender Women in Puerto Rico: An Underestimated Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla L; Padilla, Mark; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten; Vasques Guzzi, Ana C; Florenciani, Ericka J; Ramos-Pibernus, Alíxida

    2017-01-01

    Violence is a public health concern faced on a daily basis by transgender women. Literature has documented how it adversely affects quality of life and health and in some instances leads to homicide. Considering the lack of research documenting the experiences of violence among transgender women, the objective of this article was to explore manifestations of violence among this population in Puerto Rico. The data presented in this article are part of a larger study on transgender/transsexual health in Puerto Rico. For the purpose of this article we focus on the quantitative data analysis. Participants (N = 59 transgender women) were recruited via respondent driven sampling. Implications and specific recommendations are discussed in light of these findings.

  15. ``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit “From Earth to the Solar System” (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

  16. New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Bunkley-Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that a well-known culture facility in Florida would assure parasite-free stocks. Subsequent examinations of stocked juveniles surprisingly found parasites new to this fish. An outbreak of Slime-blotch disease, Brooklynella hostilis Lom & Nigrilli, 1970 (Dysteriida: Hartmannulidae occurred in juvenile Cobia after they were shipped from Florida and stocked. This apparently represents a local parasite that took advantage of the weakened and/or crowded fish. The universal aquarium and culture superparasite, Marine Ich, Cryptocaryon irritans Brown, 1951 (Colpodia: Ichthyophthiriidae was introduced with a shipment of juvenile Cobia from Florida. This may not be serious, since the parasite occurs worldwide, unless it represents a new strain to Puerto Rico. Marine Costia, Ichthyobodo sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae was introduced into Puerto Rico with juvenile Cobia shipped from Florida. This parasite has caused some severe problems in aquaculture hatcheries in Hawaii and Texas after it was introduced with cultured organisms. Thus far, it has not caused any problems locally, but Puerto Rico lacks the marine hatchery facilities where such outbreaks would occur. The question of whether it is established locally will have to wait the development of similar facilities in Puerto Rico. These three species of parasites represent new host records for Cobia. The non-indigenous Ichthyobodo sp. represents new locality records for the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean, and Florida and Puerto Rico. Cobia mature more quickly in culture than in the wild and thus female Cobia

  17. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  18. Core data from offshore Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Shannon K.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, as a collaborative effort between Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey, 20 giant gravity cores were collected from areas surrounding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The regions sampled have had many large earthquake and landslide events, some of which are believed to have triggered tsunamis. The objective of this coring cruise, carried out aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research vessel Seward Johnson, was to determine the age of several substantial slope failures and seismite layers near Puerto Rico in an effort to map their temporal distribution. Data gathered from the cores collected in 2008 and 11 archive cores from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory are included in this report. These data include lithologic logs, core summary sheets, x-ray fluorescence, wet-bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, grain-size analyses, radiographs, and radiocarbon age dates.

  19. El estudio de las psicopatologías en Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Martínez Taboas

    1995-01-01

    El estudio de las psicopatologías en Puerto Rico fue un campo poco productivo durante las primeras siete décadas de este siglo. Durante este término de tiempo las publicaciones profesionales fueron exiguas y mayormente anecdóticas. Sin embargo, la década de los años ochenta fue una muy productiva en términos de publicaciones profesionales y estudios de corte empírico. Principalmente se destacan una serie programática de estudios epidemiológicos que abarcan poblaciones de niñ...

  20. The experiences of ataques de nervios: towards an anthropology of emotions in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rivera, M; Franco, F; Neighbors, C

    1996-09-01

    Ataques de nervios are an idiom of distress used by Puerto Ricans and other Latinos to express dislocations in the social world of the family. This paper contributes to the growing study of the "anthropology of the emotions". Through detailed interviews with 121 people in Puerto Rico, 78 of whom had had an ataque de nervios, we are developing a thick description of both the prototypical models for ataques de nervios and the varied individual experiences of ataques. The interview used in this study is a version of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue specifically adapted for use in a community study of ataques de nervios in Puerto Rico. Responses to questions on the experience of ataque de nervios were analyzed using a team of reviewers who represented differing knowledge and experience with Puerto Rican culture and mental health practice. The experience of ataques de nervios involves a loss of control in several important domains of experience: emotional expressions, bodily sensations, action dimensions and alterations in consciousness. That loss of control is closely linked to important social contexts relating to major life problems and the experience of suffering.

  1. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Employment Status, Depression, Drinking, and Alcohol Use Disorder in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between employment status, depression, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. Data are from a 2013 to 2014 household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Bivariate analyses showed that depression was 5 times higher among unemployed males than among those employed full time (21% vs. 4%) and 2 times higher among unemployed females compared to those employed part time or full time (18% vs. 7% and 9%). Employment status was not associated with weekly volume of drinking, but nonparticipation in the workforce was protective against drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 4.57; p gender was a factor of risk for being a current drinker (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.6; p gender was protective against depression (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.73; p employed only part time were almost 5 times more likely than females employed full time to be depressed (OR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.25 to 17.38; p Employment status in Puerto Rico is associated with depression and with current drinking, but not with other alcohol-related outcomes. Perhaps Puerto Rico is a "wet" environment, where drinking is already at a relatively high level that is not affected by employment status. Perhaps the chronic high rate of unemployment in the island has also created familial (e.g., support) and personal level accommodations (e.g., participation in the informal economy) that do not include increased drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Attitudes toward business creation: A comparative study between Catalonia and Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Marinés Aponte; David Urbano; Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    In this research the attitudes towards entrepreneurship of two samples of university students from Catalonia and Puerto Rico are analysed. Perceptions of desirability, feasibility and the intention to start a new firm are studied and compared. Institutional Economic Theory is used as a theoretical framework of the research due to its adequacy to the analysis of the conditioning factors to entrepreneurship. Not relevant differences in the attitudes to entrepreneurship between Catalonia and Pue...

  4. Characterizing the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Earthquake Swarms in the Puerto Rico - Virgin Island Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, F. J.; Lopez, A. M.; Vanacore, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of earthquake swarms and clusters in the north and northeast of the island of Puerto Rico in the northeastern Caribbean have been recorded by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) since it started operations in 1974. Although clusters in the Puerto Rico-Virgin Island (PRVI) block have been observed for over forty years, the nature of their enigmatic occurrence is still poorly understood. In this study, the entire seismic catalog of the PRSN, of approximately 31,000 seismic events, has been limited to a sub-set of 18,000 events located all along north of Puerto Rico in an effort to characterize and understand the underlying mechanism of these clusters. This research uses two de-clustering methods to identify cluster events in the PRVI block. The first method, known as Model Independent Stochastic Declustering (MISD), filters the catalog sub-set into cluster and background seismic events, while the second method uses a spatio-temporal algorithm applied to the catalog in order to link the separate seismic events into clusters. After using these two methods, identified clusters were classified into either earthquake swarms or seismic sequences. Once identified, each cluster was analyzed to identify correlations against other clusters in their geographic region. Results from this research seek to : (1) unravel their earthquake clustering behavior through the use of different statistical methods and (2) better understand the mechanism for these clustering of earthquakes. Preliminary results have allowed to identify and classify 128 clusters categorized in 11 distinctive regions based on their centers, and their spatio-temporal distribution have been used to determine intra- and interplate dynamics.

  5. Economic Impact and Trade Implications of the Introduction of Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella figiensis) into Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Alamo, Carmen I.; Evans, Edward A.; Brugueras, Alba; Nalampang, Sikavas

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of the potential impacts of the introduction of black sigatoka into Puerto Rico under situations in which the government assists growers in managing the spread of the disease, with and without prohibitions on imports of plantains and bananas. An equilibrium displacement model is used to quantify the impact of black sigatoka. The results indicate that under both scenarios the net economic benefits to society were negative. Over the long term, the government wo...

  6. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Gould; S. Martinuzzi; I.K. Páres-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land...

  7. Correlation between earthworms and plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Dechainea; Honghua Ruanb; Yaniria Sanchez-de Leon; Xiaoming Zou

    2005-01-01

    Earthworms are recognized to play an important role in the decomposition of organic materials. To test the use of earthworms as an indicator of plant litter decomposition, we examined the abundance and biomass of earthworms in relation to plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. We collected earthworms at 0–0.1m and 0.1–0.25m soil depths from...

  8. Population decline of the Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; S.S. Qian; K. Mineard

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the population density of the globally threatened Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae within two forest types at different elevations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in north-eastern Puerto Rico. Population densities ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.06–0.26 individuals/ha in palo colorado forest in 2006, with average...

  9. Differences in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi among Three Coffee Cultivars in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrón, Ligia; Lodge, D. Jean; Bayman, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbón, at three farms in Puerto Rico. Caturra had significantly lower total extraradical AM hyphal length than Pacas and Borbón at all locations. P content did not differ a...

  10. Nueva especie del quitón Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae de Puerto Rico

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 tiene dos especies en el Caribe: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901 y L. rosea Kaas, 1972. Se describe una tercera especie: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. de Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi difiere de ambas por tener un tegumento finamente granuloso, menor tamaño, una rádula con dientes centrales muy finos, la forma de la valva anal y el color diferentes. También difiere de L. liozonis por tener espículas marginales más largas.A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae from Puerto Rico. The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901 and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 635-644. Epub 2010 June 02.

  11. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power generation at Patillas Reservoir, Puerto Rico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, J.J. Jr.

    1979-02-01

    The overall feasibility of retrofit for hydroelectric power generation at the Patillas Reservoir, an existing impoundment located near the town of Patillas, Puerto Rico, was studied. The scope of work and project intent is limited to establishing valid acceptance or non-acceptance criteria for this specific site as an example of power generation potential at existing dams of relatively low head (less than or equal to 20 m) in the United States. Information is included on hydrologic conditions at the site, retrofit plant design, economic analysis, environmental, legal, social and institutional aspects, and availability of plant equipment. It is concluded that generation of hydropower at Patillas is entirely practical and uncomplicated from an engineering viewpoint, has no adverse environmental effects and is economically justifiable for the island of Puerto Rico. The final agency or contractor roles for development are reasonably well-established. There are no prohibitory laws or regulations concerning this development. In fact, according to Puerto Rico legislation, such hydropower developments appear to be mandated. The installed capacity of the site ranges from 665 kW to approximately 1500 kW depending on extent of development of the available options. (LCL)

  12. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  13. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus among youth in Puerto Rico, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Allende-Vigo, Myriam; Rivera-Rodríguez, Mariam I; Rodríguez-Lugo, Luis A

    2005-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, and estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Puerto Rican youth, 1995-2003. All patients aged less than 20 years with a confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were identified from pediatric endocrinologists' medical practices. Medical records of each patient were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, classify the type of diabetes, and gather sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. From 1995 to 2003 a total of 32,444 records were reviewed. A total of 2,800 children with diabetes were identified, of which 2,702 were type 1 and 93 type 2; typel/type 2 ratio was 29:1. Frequency distributions were obtained for categorical variables, and summary measures (mean +/- standard deviation) for quantitative measure were computed. Mean age at first visit was 14 years. The majority of cases were females (69%), for a female/ male ratio of 2.2:1. 78.5% had a family history of the disease, 74.2% were overweight, and 48% had acanthosis nigricans. 64.5% of the cases were receiving some type of hypoglycemic therapy. 18.5% of the cases had severe hypertension while 17.5% had cholesterol levels considered at increased risk (e"200). The overall prevalence was 13.5 per 100,000 population. This study is the first that describes the frequency and clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in a sample of Puerto Ricans. Further investigations must be conducted to obtain a more precise estimate of the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and to raise awareness of this condition among health care professionals.

  15. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  16. Puerto Rico Seismic Network Operations During and After the Hurricane Maria: Response, Continuity of Operations, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Baez-Sanchez, G.; Huerfano, V.; Lopez, A. M.; Lugo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is an integral part of earthquake and tsunami monitoring in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The PRSN conducts scientific research as part of the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez, conducts the earthquake monitoring for the region, runs extensive earthquake and tsunami education and outreach programs, and acts as a Tsunami Warning Focal Point Alternate for Puerto Rico. During and in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Maria, the PRSN duties and responsibilities evolved from a seismic network to a major information and communications center for the western side of Puerto Rico. Hurricane Maria effectively destroyed most communications on island, critically between the eastern side of the island where Puerto Rico's Emergency Management's (PREMA) main office and the National Weather Service (NWS) is based and the western side of the island. Additionally, many local emergency management agencies on the western side of the island lost a satellite based emergency management information system called EMWIN which provides critical tsunami and weather information. PRSN's EMWIN system remained functional and consequently via this system and radio communications PRSN became the only information source for NWS warnings and bulletins, tsunami alerts, and earthquake information for western Puerto Rico. Additionally, given the functional radio and geographic location of the PRSN, the network became a critical communications relay for local emergency management. Here we will present the PRSN response in relation to Hurricane Maria including the activation of the PRSN devolution plan, adoption of duties, experiences and lessons learned for continuity of operations and adoption of responsibilities during future catastrophic events.

  17. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  18. Predictors of school dropout among adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.

  19. Impact of Secondary Prevention on Mortality after a First Ischemic Stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maria E; Marsh, Wallace; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Rodríguez-Benitez, Rosa J; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the prescription of secondary prevention therapies on mortality in Puerto Rican patients hospitalized with a first ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective secondary data analysis of the 2007 and 2009 Puerto Rico Stroke Registry electronic database. Information was obtained from the medical charts of patients discharged with ICD-9 codes 434 and 436 from 20 hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Descriptive analyses were conducted for demographics and comorbidities. Chi2 statistics compared the proportion of patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy and the proportion of patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy. Lastly, survival rates were calculated from 2007 up to and including December 2010. The mean age of the 3,965 patients was 70 (±14) years. Secondary prevention therapy was prescribed to only 1% of the patients. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (85%), diabetes (52%), and hyperlipidemia (25%). The case fatality rate for patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy was 16%, compared to 26% for patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p<0.01). The mean survival for stroke patients prescribed secondary preventions was 450 days (95% CI;182−718), compared to 266 days (95% CI; 244−287) for those not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p = 0.175). A low percentage of patients with a first ischemic stroke were prescribed secondary prevention therapy. While not statistically significant, survival analysis suggests that secondary prevention therapy decreased mortality in patients with a stroke.

  20. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B. However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945 were obtained from our “HIV Genotyping” test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001–2014. REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%, B-like (3%, B/D recombinant (6%, and D/B recombinant (0.6%. Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions: A1B (0.3%, BF1 (0.2%, subtype A (01-AE (0.1%, subtype A (A2 (0.1%, subtype F (12BF (0.1%, CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%, and others (0.1%. Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  1. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Nayra; Vargas, Freddie; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-23

    HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001-2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  2. Direct and indirect impact of federal transfer to individuals and to the government of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Ruiz Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico Planning Board classifies individual transfer payments into two categories: “earned transfers” and “granted” transfers. The purpose of this work is to estimate the direct and indirect economic effects of federal and other transfer payments to Puerto Rico using two input-output models and two vectors of employment and income coefficients base on tables for years 1992 and 2002. The economic impacts were estimated for three economic indicators namely, gross output, direct and indirect employment and direct and indirect wage income. The results presented in this work shows that the argument that Puerto Ricans enjoy relatively generous income supplements and retirement benefits without imposing heavy tax burdens on highly compensated workers failed to distinguish that most of the transfer payments to individuals were in the category of earned transfers. It is doubtful that this type of transfer “imposeheavy tax burdens” to American taxpayers. Since we are an open economy mostof the income generated by transfer to individuals is spent of goods and servicesa substantial amount of which comes from United States. It is also doubtful thatearned transfer to individuals (especially transfers in the form of pensions andpayments to veterans have any significant impact on the labor force participation rate or the incentives to work.

  3. Seismic and tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rodriguez, Rafael W.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    1999-01-01

    Executive SummaryPuerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are located at an active plate boundary between the North American plate and the northeast corner of the Caribbean plate. The region was subject in historical times to large magnitude earthquakes and devastating tsunamis. A major downward tilt of the sea floor north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, large submarine rockslides, and an unusually large negative gravity anomaly are also indicative of a tectonically active region. Scientists have so far failed to explain the deformation of this region in a coherent and predictable picture, such as in California, and this has hampered their ability to assess seismic and tsunami hazards in the region. The NE corner of the Caribbean is unique among the seismically-active regions of the United States in that it is mostly covered by water. This fact presents an additional challenge for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation.The workshop, convened in San Juan on March 23-24, 1999, was "historic" in that it brought together for the first time a broad spectrum of scientists, engineers, and public and private sector officials who deal with such diverse questions as tectonic models, probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, prediction of tsunami runup, strong ground motion, building codes, stability of man-made structures, and the public’s preparedness for natural disasters. It was an opportunity for all the participants to find out how their own activity fit into the broad picture of science and how it aids society in hazard assessment and mitigation. In addition, the workshop was offered as a continuing education course at the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico, which assured a rapid dissemination of the results to the local community. A news conference which took place during the workshop alerted the public to the efforts of the USGS, other Federal agencies, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, universities and the private sector.During the

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pregnant women receiving health services at the Puerto Rico University Hospital, Puerto Rico, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, I; Aponte, Z; de-Jesús, Z; de-León, A; González, M C; Hernández, J; Martínez, P; Santos, E R; Pérez-Perdomo, R

    2001-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence and to describe the clinical characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women receiving health care services at the Puerto Rico University Hospital from 1997 to 1998. The study design was cross-sectional. All medical records available of pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions and summary measures (mean and standard deviation) were used. Annual and 18-month period prevalences of GDM were calculated. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. A total of 78 medical records were available during the 18-month study period (June 1997 to December 1998). The estimated prevalence of GDM was 2% for the total study period (18-month) as well as for the year 1998. The highest proportion (52.3%) of GDM cases was found in the 30 years or less age group. Forty-eight percent had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 m/kg2 (obese) before pregnancy; however, the weight gained during the last pregnancy was higher than 15 pounds (57%). Sixty-four percent of the cases had a family history of diabetes, meanwhile, 34.7% reported a history of GDM during previous pregnancies. During the first prenatal visit, 80.5% reflected glucose levels higher than 110 mg/ml. Preeclampsia (6.4%) and macrosomia (14%) were the most frequent complications for the mother and the fetus, respectively. More epidemiological studies about GMD in Puerto Rico need to be performed to better describe the prevalence of the condition in the island.

  5. Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico Creencias y prácticas comunitarias relacionadas con el dengue en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Pérez-Guerra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention remains a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by respondents' gender and whether they had a prior dengue infection. Findings may be used to develop messages to promote Aedes aegypti control practices. METHODS: From September to October 2003, 11 focus groups were conducted in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Fifty-nine persons (35 women, 24 men, > 18 years of age, who had been identified through the Puerto Rico dengue surveillance system participated in the focus groups. Analysis was based on grounded theory. RESULTS: Women considered dengue important because of its economic, emotional, and health impact, and they were concerned more often than men about insufficient garbage removal and water disposal. Participants with a previous dengue diagnosis were more concerned about risk of the disease, were more knowledgeable about dengue and its prevention, and recommended use of repellents more often than their counterparts without a previous dengue diagnosis. Barriers to sustained dengue prevention included misconceptions from outdated educational materials, " invisibility" of dengue compared with chronic diseases, and lack of acceptance of responsibility for dengue prevention. CONCLUSION: Suggested strategies to motivate residents' actions included working with government agencies to address structural problems that increase mosquito populations, improving access to information on garbage collection and water disposal through telephone hotlines, increasing publicity and information about dengue by mass media campaigns, and educating health professionals.OBJETIVO: A pesar de la prolongada endemia y los reiterados esfuerzos gubernamentales y privados, la participación efectiva y sostenida de la comunidad

  6. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, M.T.; Falk, D.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or the proportion of uprooted basal area explained 84-85% of the variation in hurricane-created mound area. These same variables explain 79-85% of the variation in mound volume. The study indicates that the soil turnover period from tree uprooting by Puerto Rican hurricanes is between 1600 and 4800 years. These rates are faster than soil turnover by landslides and background treefall in the same area and provide a useful age constraint on soil profile development and soil carbon sequestration in these dynamic landscapes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Clinic Population from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Neisha M; Aguilar, Stephanie

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable or treatable cause of blindness in the adult population. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Puerto Ricans is the highest among Hispanics. This study evaluated the prevalence of DR in a screening program of DM subjects in a clinic system in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional health records study of DM patients referred by primary care physicians for dilated retinal evaluation to the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Juana Diaz Eye Institute Clinic between 2001 and 2009 was performed. All subjects underwent a complete eye evaluation including fundus photography. Photographs were graded following the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocols. A total of 411 randomly selected health records of DM subjects older than 30 years were included. The estimated prevalence of DR among all subjects is 37.7%. DR was more common in males (47.2%) than females (33.7%). The age range with higher frequency of DR is among ages 60 to 69 (34.8%) and the lowest between ages 30 and 39 (3.9%). The average number of years since initial DM diagnosis was 12.48. Probability of developing DR increases with longer duration of DM (p Puerto Ricans. Mild stage retinopathy was most prevalent and there exists an increase in probability to develop DR with duration of DM. The prevalence of DR in total population may be different than the findings presented in this paper. Comprehensive studies are needed to understand and estimate the progression and impact of DR in this population.

  8. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10−6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10−4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10−6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  9. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroushka Ballester

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10-6 and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10-4. The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10-6. Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.

  10. Una mirada hacia las actitudes lingüísticas en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Mojica De León

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de San Juan de Puerto Rico hacia al español del país y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se presentan los resultados que revelan las actitudes lingüísticas de los puertorriqueños hacia su español, las diversas creencias cognitivas y afectivas que las motivan y la percepción que muestran hacia el resto de las variedades del español. Nuestros hallazgos revelan que los puertorriqueños presentan una actitud positiva hacia su variedad y la variante peninsular, aunque rechazan algunos fenómenos lingüísticos de ambos dialectos. Se constata, además, que el habla de los grupos migratorios, representada en nuestro caso por la variedad dominicana, se percibe con menos prestigio. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Juan de Puerto Rico towards Spanish spoken in the country and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results of the study reveal the linguistic attitudes of Puerto Ricans toward their variety of Spanish, their cognitive and affective beliefs, and the perception they have of the other varieties of the Spanish language. Our findings confirm that Puerto Ricans have positive attitudes towards their own variety and the

  11. Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and associated comorbidities in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, María J; Mayor, Angel M; Franco, Alejandro E; Morell, Carlos A; López, Miguel A; Vilá, Luis M

    2007-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its associated comorbidities in patients from Puerto Rico using a database from a health insurance company. The insurance claims submitted by physicians in 2003 to a health insurance company of Puerto Rico were examined. Of 552,733 insured people, 877 had a diagnosis of SLE (code 710.0) per the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). Demographic parameters and selected comorbidities were determined. The diagnosis of comorbities was ascertained using the ICD-9 code, the Current Procedural Terminology-4 code (for disease-specific procedures) and/or the Medi-Span Therapeutic Classification System (for disease-specific pharmacologic treatment). Fisher exact test and chi were used to evaluate differences between SLE patients groups. The mean age was 42.0 +/- 13.5, and the female-to-male ratio was 12.5:1. The overall prevalence of SLE was 159 per 100,000 individuals. The prevalence for females was 277 per 100,000 women and for males it was 25 per 100,000 men. The most common comorbidities were high blood pressure (33.7%), osteopenia/osteoporosis (22.2%), hypothyroidism (19.0%), diabetes mellitus (11.6%), and hypercholesterolemia (11.6%). Overall, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease were more prevalent in SLE patients older than 54 years. Osteopenia/osteoporosis was more prevalent in women than in men. The prevalence of SLE in Puerto Rico is very high. High blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism, and osteopenia/osteoporosis are common comorbidities in these patients. Identification and management of these comorbidities are critical for optimal medical care to this population.

  12. Open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy at the Puerto Rico Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-lñigo, Yousef; Izquierdo, Natalio J; García, Omar; Pérez, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with diabetes mellitus remains controversial. We report on the frequency of open-angle glaucoma in patients having diabetic retinopathy in a population of the Puerto Rico Medical Center. A cross-sectional study of 1,442 patients was done. Only the chart of patients 40 years-of-age and older, with a diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and/or open-angle glaucoma were included. Descriptive analysis was done. Unadjusted and gender-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate risk of developing open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy for each subsequent decade. 1,040 patients were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy from July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2009. Also, 402 patients were diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2009. Of the 1,040 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 64 patients (6.15%) also had OAG. According to our gender-adjusted logistic regression analysis the estimated risk of developing open-angle glaucoma for patients 40 years-of-age with diabetic retinopathy increased for each subsequent decade until the seventh decade, odds ratio = 5.07 (95% confidence interval: 1.62-15.86). Thereafter, it decreased, odds ratio = 2.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.36-11.82). Our findings suggest that Puerto Rico patients between 40 to 79 years of age with diabetic retinopathy have an increased risk of developing open-angle glaucoma with each subsequent decade. Screening for open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy is of utmost importance in the aging Puerto Rico population to prevent blindness.

  13. Effect of a Dengue Clinical Case Management Course on Physician Practices in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, George S; Gregory, Christopher J; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Perez-Guerra, Carmen; Soto-Gomez, Eunice; Matos, Desiree; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-11-15

     Prior to 2010, the clinical management of dengue in Puerto Rico was inconsistent with World Health Organization guidelines. A 4-hour classroom-style course on dengue clinical management was developed in 2009 and mandated for Puerto Rico medical licensure in 2010. Fifty physicians were trained as "master trainers" and gave this course to 7638 physicians. This study evaluated the effect of the course on the clinical management of hospitalized dengue patients.  Pre- and post-course test responses were compared. Changes in physician practices were assessed by reviewing medical records of 430 adult and 1075 pediatric dengue patients at the 12 hospitals in Puerto Rico that reported the most cases during 2008-2009 (pre-intervention) and 2011 (post-intervention). Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare key indicators of dengue management.  Physician test scores increased from 48% to 72% correct. Chart reviews showed that the percentage of adult patients who did not receive corticosteroids increased from 30% to 68% (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-9.5) and from 91% to 96% in pediatric patients (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9). Usage of isotonic intravenous saline during the critical period increased from 57% to 90% in adult patients (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4) and from 25% to 44% in pediatric patients (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.2-5.3).  Management of dengue inpatients significantly improved following implementation of a classroom-style course taught by master trainers. An online version of the course was launched in 2014 to expand its reach and sustainability. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Late HIV Testing in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F; Mayor, Angel M; Fernández-Santos, Diana M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    Late HIV testing (LT), defined as receiving an AIDS diagnosis within a year of one's first positive HIV test, is associated with higher HIV transmission, lower HAART effectiveness, and worse outcomes. Latinos represent 36% of LT in the US, yet research concerning LT among HIV cases in Puerto Rico is scarce. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with LT, and a Cochran‒Armitage test was used to determine LT trends in an HIV-infected cohort followed at a clinic in Puerto Rico specialized in the management and treatment of HIV. From 2000 to 2011, 47% of eligible patients were late testers, with lower median CD4 counts (54 vs. 420 cells/mm3) and higher median HIV viral load counts (253,680 vs. 23,700 copies/mL) than non-LT patients. LT prevalence decreased significantly, from 47% in 2000 to 37% in 2011. In a mutually adjusted logistic regression model, males, older age at enrollment and past history of IDU significantly increased LT odds, whereas having a history of amphetamine use decreased LT odds. When the data were stratified by mode of transmission, it became apparent that only the category men who have sex with men (MSM) saw a significant reduction in the proportion of LT, falling from 67% in 2000 to 33% in 2011. These results suggest a gap in early HIV detection in Puerto Rico, a gap that decreased only among MSM. An evaluation of the manner in which current HIV-testing guidelines are implemented on the island is needed.

  15. Job Satisfaction and Relocation Desire among Pediatric Dentists in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Tabares, Miguel; Hernández, Ana; Sanders-Ward, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    To determine the levels of satisfaction, license status, and desire to relocate of pediatric dentists in Puerto Rico. Pediatric dentists in Puerto Rico were surveyed via telephone interviews. Data were collected through a 34-item questionnaire that explored satisfaction as related to income, continuing education, professional goals, and participation in the Mi Salud program. Frequencies, chi-square analysis, and Fisher's exact 2-tailed t-test were utilized to determine the relationships between satisfaction and the demographics of the pediatric dentists. Sixty pediatric dentists participated in our survey-77% of the total number of pediatric dentists practicing in Puerto Rico. Overall, 65% of the participating pediatric dentists expressed dissatisfaction. Male pediatric dentists were more dissatisfied than their female colleagues were. Most pediatric dentists participating in Mi Salud expressed dissatisfaction. When asked about whether or not they had considered migrating to the mainland, those who were dissatisfied were more likely to have considered that idea than were those who were satisfied. Overall, 57% of the pediatric dentists comprising our sample had considered relocating to the continental United States. In general, the pediatric dentists who participated in our study expressed dissatisfaction in most areas except when asked about their ability to reach professional goals. Determining the levels of satisfaction of health care providers is important in the maintaining of an adequate workforce. As current levels of dissatisfaction are high, it is important to determine what variables are related to satisfaction so that corrective measures can be taken to ensure that retention rates improve, thereby maintaining an adequate pediatric dental workforce.

  16. Assessing biomass accumulation in second growth forests of Puerto Rico using airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, S.; Cook, B.; Corp, L. A.; Morton, D. C.; Helmer, E.; Keller, M.

    2017-12-01

    Degraded and second growth tropical forests provide important ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and soil stabilization. Lidar data measure the three-dimensional structure of forest canopies and are commonly used to quantify aboveground biomass in temperate forest landscapes. However, the ability of lidar data to quantify second growth forest biomass in complex, tropical landscapes is less understood. Our goal was to evaluate the use of airborne lidar data to quantify aboveground biomass in a complex tropical landscape, the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico provides an ideal place for studying biomass accumulation because of the abundance of second growth forests in different stages of recovery, and the high ecological heterogeneity. Puerto Rico was almost entirely deforested for agriculture until the 1930s. Thereafter, agricultural abandonment resulted in a mosaic of second growth forests that have recovered naturally under different types of climate, land use, topography, and soil fertility. We integrated forest plot data from the US Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program with recent lidar data from NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral, and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager to quantify forest biomass across the island's landscape. The G-LiHT data consisted on targeted acquisitions over the FIA plots and other forested areas representing the environmental heterogeneity of the island. To fully assess the potential of the lidar data, we compared the ability of lidar-derived canopy metrics to quantify biomass alone, and in combination with intensity and topographic metrics. The results presented here are a key step for improving our understanding of the patterns and drivers of biomass accumulation in tropical forests.

  17. Physician Survey to Determine How Dengue Is Diagnosed, Treated and Reported in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Ramos, Mary M.; Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training

  18. Physician survey to determine how dengue is diagnosed, treated and reported in puerto rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Ramos, Mary M; Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L; Garcia Rivera, Enid J; Sun, Wellington

    2014-10-01

    Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training

  19. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M.C.; Webb, R.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the earth's tropical oceans. To contribute to improved understanding of this problem, the potential relation between river sediment and nutrient discharges and degradation of coral reefs surrounding Puerto Rico was studied using streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data. Mean annual runoff for the 8711 km2 island is 911 mm, about 57% of mean annual precipitation (1600 mm). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico to coastal waters is estimated at 2.7-9.0 million metric tonnes. Storm runoff transports a substantial part of sediment: the highest recorded daily sediment discharge is 1-3.6 times the mean annual sediment discharge. Hurricane Georges (1998) distributed an average of 300 mm of rain across the island, equivalent to a volume of about 2.6 billion m3. Runoff of more than 1.0 billion m3 of water and as much as 5 to 10 million metric tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast and shelf. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are as much as 10 times the estimated presettlement levels. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations in many Puerto Rico rivers are near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharges, which are predominantly episodic and intense, river-borne nutrient and fecal discharge is a less-intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs found near the mouths of rivers. Negative effects of riverderived sediment and nutrient discharge on coral reefs are especially pronounced on the north, southwest, and west coasts.

  1. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens, yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed national survey data from 2011 to 2012 and found that despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of health care coverage and access to care. While the ACA significantly increases federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing federal restrictions on Medicaid funding and premium tax credits in Puerto Rico pose substantial health policy challenges in the territory. Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico's health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: -12.0%, p Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening

  2. An Initial Review of the Characteristics and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico Características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico: una mirada inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Santiago Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the characteristics and determinants of Puerto Rican female entrepreneurs in 2007.  This study utilizes data from the Adult Population Survey (APS for 2007 from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Project.  We find that female entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico are most likely sole owners of their business establishment, face many local competitors, and do not generally export their goods or services outside of the Island. The primary motivation for business start-up was business opportunism along with a personal goal of greater independence at the workplace.  Education serves as a fundamental determinant of female entrepreneurship. Este artículo describe las características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico para el 2007. El estudio utiliza los datos de la Encuesta de la Población Adulta del Proyecto de Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, por sus siglas en inglés. Se encontró que las mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico tienden a ser dueñas únicas de sus negocios, tienen muchos competidores locales, y usualmente no exportan sus bienes o servicios fuera de la Isla. La motivación primaria para empezar el negocio fue tener una oportunidad de negocio junto a una meta personal de mayor independencia en el lugar de trabajo. La educación es un determinante fundamental de ser empresaria en Puerto Rico.

  3. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

    2012-12-01

    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to

  4. Comparison of x-ray diagnosis associated radiation exposures in Puerto Rico: 1973 vs. 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gileadi, M.; Gileadi, A.E.; Musalem, A.

    1975-01-01

    In general, it can be concluded that comparison of 1973 results obtained to date with parallel values for 1968 show a significant improvement in radiation protection practices in Puerto Rico. This improvement, which concerns the whole of society, is not only a result of technical upgrading of the diagnostic equipment, but also and perhaps more significantly, a result of the utmost efforts of professionals: doctors, radiologists and those in radiation protection, to use diagnostic x-rays judiciously, and to reduce the unavoidable doses to a minimum compatible with the diagnostic objective. (U.S.)

  5. The Record of Tsunamis and Storms in a Coastal Mangrove Pond, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M. L.; Watt, S. G.; Moya, J. C.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; La Selle, S.

    2017-12-01

    The written record of tsunamis in the Caribbean extends back over 500 years, yet, is incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether great earthquakes or submarine landslides near the Puerto Rico Trench have generated large tsunamis that impact the north coast of Puerto Rico. We cored a coastal mangrove pond in NW Puerto Rico to search for tsunami deposits. The pond extends from 150 to 350 m from the shoreline, and is 0.5 m above sea level. The area between the pond and the ocean presently has a high of 3 m above sea level, but had dunes up to 10 m high before they were mined for sand beginning in the 1960s. Pond sediments are predominately mud or mangrove peat and contain prominent sand layers. At the sediment surface, a tabular sandy overwash deposit up to 40 cm thick extends inland approximately 30 m from the pond's seaward edge and abruptly ends. This sand layer contains no evidence of vertical grading and was likely formed by one or more recent hurricanes, which with the removal of coastal dunes in the 1960s are able to flood the pond. In contrast, underlying the overwash deposit and mangrove peat at a depth of approximately 60 cm is a thin (1 - 7 cm thick) sand layer extending to the landward limit of the pond. This layer has features of a tsunami deposit, including suspension grading, which is a specific type of normal grading where the entire grain-size distribution shifts to finer sizes upward that is created when sediment settles out of suspension as a high-speed flow wanes, an erosive basal contact, and an organic cap. In addition, couplets or triplets of sand inter-layered with mud are present within the thin sandy layer at some locations. Alternation of sand and mud layers at this scale is a signature of series of tsunami waves. Radiocarbon dates from organic material above and below the thin sand layer constrain deposition as occurring sometime from 1446 to 1919 AD. We present the features of the coastal mangrove pond deposits and evaluate whether

  6. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura; Bello-Pagan, Melissa; Lozier, Matthew; Ryff, Kyle R; Espinet, Carla; Torres, Jomil; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Febo, Mitchelle Flores; Dirlikov, Emilio; Martinez, Alma; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Rivera, Aidsa; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Rosinger, Asher; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Chung, Koo-Whang; Pate, Lisa L; Harris, Angela; Hemme, Ryan R; Lenhart, Audrey; Aquino, Gustavo; Zaki, Sherif; Read, Jennifer S; Waterman, Stephen H; Alvarado, Luisa I; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Thomas, Dana; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection. This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico (6,7). A confirmed case of Zika virus infection is defined as a positive result for Zika virus testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus in a blood or urine specimen. A presumptive case is defined as a positive result by Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)* and a negative result by dengue virus IgM ELISA, or a positive test result by Zika IgM MAC-ELISA in a pregnant woman. An unspecified flavivirus case is defined as positive or equivocal results for both Zika and dengue virus by IgM ELISA. During November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016, a total of 23,487 persons were evaluated by PRDH and CDC Dengue Branch for Zika virus infection, including asymptomatic pregnant women and persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease or suspected GBS; 5,582 (24%) confirmed and presumptive Zika virus cases were identified. Persons with Zika virus infection were residents of 77 (99%) of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities. During 2016, the percentage of positive Zika virus infection cases among symptomatic males and nonpregnant females who were tested increased from 14% in February to 64% in June. Among 9,343 pregnant women tested, 672 had confirmed or presumptive Zika virus infection, including 441 (66%) symptomatic women and 231 (34%) asymptomatic

  7. Estimados del costo de reconstrucción de edificios en Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Jorge; Lluch, José

    2005-01-01

    Las metodologías para estimar la pérdida máxima probable (PML) se componen de dos partes, el modelo de daño y el costo de reparación o reemplazo. Este trabajo se enfoca en la segunda parte y tiene como objetivo determinar estos costos para Puerto Rico. Se hizo una encuesta entre contratistas, diseñadores y propietarios y se obtuvieron costos por pie cuadrado, costos por unidades de servicio, costos por parámetros, costo por componentes, salarios de mano de obra y la distribución de la misma e...

  8. Historical analysis of the human resources profession in Puerto Rico from 1960 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rivera Aponte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the labor force behavior in human resources career between 1960 through 2000 in Puerto Rico. The study includes tendencies of the labor force by gender, occupational systems, gap wage salary, and the quantity of academic programs offered in the higher education level. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the human resource field is in continuous development between executives, administrator and managers, and suggest the need of promoting studies related to major as well as to determine gender gap salary factors, and bring integration strategies between demand and offer.

  9. Characterization of Landslide Sites in Puerto Rico after Hurricanes Irma and María

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K. S.; Morales Vélez, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of landslides in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were triggered by the passage of Hurricanes Irma (Sep. 6) and María (Sep. 20) in 2017. Both were classified as Category 5 hurricanes on the Saffir-Simpson scale before making landfall. Most of the mass wasting occurred in the rugged mountainous regions of Puerto Rico and—along with bridge collapse, flooding, and the threat of dam failure—left many communities isolated for up to a month or longer. Aerial photography collected by FEMA and the Civil Air Patrol have allowed for the rapid inventory of landslide sites across the archipelago by the USGS and other groups. Using this dataset and other local information, we identified a list of priority sites that were documented in detail as part of a NSF-GEER (Geotechnical Extreme Event Reconnaissance) mission. The juvenile landscape and short-wavelength topography in most of Puerto Rico present considerable landslide risk that is exaggerated during heavy rainfall events like Hurricane María. Our preliminary work shows that natural escarpments, de-vegetated pastureland in mountainous areas, and road cuts along incised river valleys were areas of concentrated failures during these storms. Notably, the northern karst area suffered fewer failures than the arc basement rocks exposed elsewhere in the island. In addition to previously active landslides at specific sites on the island, new landslides along PR-143 in the municipality of Barranquitas, PR-431 in the municipality of Lares, and PR-109 in the municipality of Añasco are among important mass wasting events that were a focus of the GEER team and remain important in our ongoing research. A team of undergraduate and graduate students led by faculty at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez are working to characterize the complete inventory of landslides in terms of underlying geology, soil type, slope, curvature, rain fall amounts during both atmospheric events, and other local geomorphic and

  10. El cabotaje marítimo en la cadena de suministros agrícola de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio examina el efecto multidimensional del cabotaje marítimo que regula el transporte marítimo entre los mercados de Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Puerto Rico. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos que esta medida no tarifaria tiene sobre el sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico. La metodología de investigación consistió de entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios de los rubros agrícolas de mayor importación. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que es la interacción de medidas no tarifarias inherentes a la relación comercial entre ambos países que incide en la eficiencia y competitividad del sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico.

  11. El cabotaje marítimo en la cadena de suministros agrícola de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez-Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio examina el efecto multidimensional del cabotaje marítimo que regula el transporte marítimo entre los mercados de Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Puerto Rico. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos que esta medida no tarifaria tiene sobre el sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico. La metodología de investigación consistió de entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios de los rubros agrícolas de mayor importación. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que es la interacción de medidas no tarifarias inherentes a la relación comercial entre ambos países que incide en la eficiencia y competitividad del sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico.

  12. [Blood derivatives in Puerto Rico: History of the transfusion services and estimate of the consumption of blood units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Borges, Raúl H

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico has eight hospital blood banks and three community blood banks for a population around four million. The Red Cross has been in existence in Puerto Rico since 1893 under the Spanish Governance but it was not until 1907 which became the American Red Cross (ARC). Since then it has been serving Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. About 171.222 blood components, which 45% are of the ARC, are used. There are a number of variations in utilization and a number of factors that are influencing us at the national and local level and that is why collaboration is required in the management plan of blood components at each hospital and implementation of maximum units required for each case of surgery.

  13. La EPA ayuda a restaurar el laboratorio de ciencias de Puerto Rico y las capacidades de monitorear la calidad del aire

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA continúa ayudando a Puerto Rico a responder tras los daños causados por los huracanes Irma y María. La EPA, conforme a una misión asignada por FEMA, y en estrecha cooperación con el gobierno de Puerto Rico, se encuentra apoya

  14. Trends in incidence of end-stage renal disease among persons with diagnosed diabetes--Puerto Rico, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nilka Rios; Hora, Israel; Williams, Desmond E; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-03-07

    During 2010, approximately 6,091 persons aged ≥18 years in Puerto Rico were living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (i.e., kidney failure that requires regular dialysis or kidney transplantation for survival). This included 1,462 persons who began treatment for ESRD in 2010. Diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD in Puerto Rico, accounting for 66% of new cases in adults, followed by hypertension, which accounts for 15% of the cases. Although the number of adults initiating ESRD treatment (i.e., dialysis or kidney transplantation) in Puerto Rico each year who have diabetes listed as a primary cause (ESRD-D) has increased since 1996, ESRD-D incidence among adults with diagnosed diabetes has not shown a consistent trend. To assess recent trends in ESRD-D incidence among adults aged ≥18 years in Puerto Rico with diagnosed diabetes and to further examine trends by age group and sex, CDC analyzed 1996-2010 data from the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). After increasing in the late 1990s, ESRD-D incidence decreased during the 2000s among adult men and among persons aged 18-44 years with diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico. Throughout the period, ESRD-D incidence among adult women and among persons aged 45-64 and ≥75 years with diagnosed diabetes did not show a consistent trend, and ESRD-D incidence among persons aged 65-74 years with diagnosed diabetes increased. Increased awareness of the risk factors for kidney disease and implementation of effective interventions to prevent or delay kidney disease among persons with diagnosed diabetes might decrease ESRD incidence in Puerto Rico, particularly among women and older persons.

  15. Quality of Care for White and Hispanic Medicare Advantage Enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Leyva, Bryan; Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N

    2016-06-01

    Geographic, racial, and ethnic variations in quality of care and outcomes have been well documented among the Medicare population. Few data exist on beneficiaries living in Puerto Rico, three-quarters of whom enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA). To determine the quality of care provided to white and Hispanic MA enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study of MA enrollees in 2011 was conducted, including white enrollees in the United States (n = 6 289 374), Hispanic enrollees in the United States (n = 795 039), and Hispanic enrollees in Puerto Rico (n = 267 016). The study was conducted from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011; data analysis took place from January 19, 2015, to January 2, 2016. Seventeen performance measures related to diabetes mellitus (including hemoglobin A1c control, retinal eye examination, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control, nephropathy screening, and blood pressure control), cardiovascular disease (including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control, blood pressure control, and use of a β-blocker after myocardial infarction), cancer screening (colorectal and breast), and appropriate medications (including systemic corticosteroids and bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs). Of the 7.35 million MA enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico in our study, 1.06 million (14.4%) were Hispanic. Approximately 25.1% of all Hispanic MA enrollees resided in Puerto Rico, which was more than those residing in any state. For 15 of the 17 measures assessed, Hispanic MA enrollees in Puerto Rico received worse care compared with Hispanics in the United States, with absolute differences in performance rates ranging from 2.2 percentage points for blood pressure control in diabetes mellitus (P = .03) to 31.3 percentage points for use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy (P Puerto Rico and Hispanic MA enrollees in the

  16. Lags from Money to Inflation in a Monetary Integrated Economy: Evidence from the Extreme Case of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the time-lenght of money growth's long and short run effect in affecting the rate of inflation in the context of an economy of extreme monetary integration. Money growth is measured as the rate of growth of Puerto Rico's consumer price index. By analyzing the case of Puerto Rico, we find that a dynamic expansion of money is reflected on prices immediately, but the unitary effect occurs approximately within ten quarters. In addition, the results show that local inflation is significantly influenced by its own past history and monetary policy, with the second having the greater effect.

  17. Effects of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Trade: Predictions for Puerto Rico in the face of CAFTA-DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Signoret

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional free trade agreements on international trade activity. The analysis estimates gravity models of trade that serve to assess the likely impact of CAFTA-DR on Puerto Rico and United States’ foreign trade. The estimated effects of CAFTA-DR on the US are invariably modest. For the case of Puerto Rico, the effects are of considerably larger importance, albeit still somewhat small. The inclusion of the Dominican Republic into the Agreement, however, is critical for these latter results.

  18. Public perception of climate change in a period of economic crisis in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Santos-Corrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis is performed to measure Puerto Rican citizens’ perceptions of environmental issues and global climate change (GCC. Puerto Rico (PR is presently facing an economic crisis that began in 2010. In addition, the island has faced many extreme weather events that have greatly impacted the economy, including a dry period that lasted from the beginning of 2014 until the end of 2015 [1]. By replicating a study done in Greece (GR, [2] found that the citizens of PR are more informed about GCC (43% than Greeks (34%. However, only 29% of Puerto Ricans said they knew about the effects of greenhouse gases, as compared to 44% of Greeks. The citizens of PR (67% and GR (91% claim they do not have confidence that their respective governments and agencies will be able to face GCC. In both cases, they have a higher confidence level in environmental organizations than in the scientific community. In PR, 89% of the citizens are concerned about the degradation of natural resources. At 64%, this concern is also significant in the case of GR, although the figure has decreased from previous years. Both countries place more responsibility in the hands of those in government and industry to take action on GCC. That being said, the people of GR have made it known they are willing to perform individual actions as well.

  19. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  20. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p < 0.001). In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  1. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  2. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fargas-Berríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM. We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL, glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate’s hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  3. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Berríos, N; García-Fragoso, L; García-García, I; Valcárcel, M

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL), glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate's hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  4. Brief report: self-care behaviors of children with type 1 diabetes living in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streisand, Randi; Respess, Deedrah; Overstreet, Stacy; Gonzalez de Pijem, Lilliam; Chen, Ru San; Holmes, Clarissa

    2002-12-01

    To examine self-care behaviors among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes living in Puerto Rico, to determine the relationship between self-care and demographic variables, and to investigate the utility of the 24-hour recall interview within a Hispanic population. Forty-one children (M age = 12.6 years) with type 1 diabetes, and their mothers, were administered the 24-hour recall interview on three separate occasions to assess diabetes-related self-care behaviors. Children reported self-care behaviors that included daily administration of an average of two insulin injections and two blood glucose tests, and consumption of 5.5 meals a day comprised of 52% carbohydrates and 29% fat. Younger age, female gender, longer illness duration, and better metabolic control were associated with higher rates of several self-care behaviors. Data provide a first look at self-care behaviors of children with type 1 diabetes living in Puerto Rico and suggest the utility of the 24-hour recall interview within this population.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katharine B.; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J.; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A.; Mai, Cara T.; Korhonen, Lauren C.; Frey, Meghan T.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus–related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus–associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs. PMID:27805547

  6. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Simmons, Katharine B; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A; Mai, Cara T; Korhonen, Lauren C; Frey, Meghan T; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus-related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus-associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs.

  7. Compliance audits in the federal funds programs of the municipalities of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M. López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are eligible to receive funds from the federal government of the United States. This study presents a descriptive discussion of the federal funding received by these municipalities during fiscal years 2005 to 2009. The findings of the audits performed in connection with these funds are also discussed. The results indicate that the municipalities in the sample received an average of $8.2 million a year in federal funding. The municipality of San Juan, the capital city of Puerto Rico, received an average of $126.5 million a year and was largest recipient of federal funds during the sample period. The results also indicate that 72.99 percent of the audits disclosed reportable conditions and 31.02 percent disclosed material weaknesses. In addition,auditors issued a qualified opinion report on 33.69 percent of the conducted audits. Lastly, 53.15 percent of all audited funds are associated with programs that disclosed audit findings.

  8. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,'' and to ''outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.'' The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ''unique vulnerabilities'' were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas' experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry

  9. Sociodemographic patterns of household water-use costs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Padilla, Ingrid; Meeker, John D; Cordero, Jose F; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-08-15

    Variability of household water-use costs across different sociodemographic groups in Puerto Rico is evaluated using census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Multivariate analyses such as multiple linear regression (MLR) and factor analysis (FA) are used to classify, extract and interpret the household water-use costs. The FA results suggest two principal varifactors in explaining the variability of household water-use costs (64% in 2000 and 50% in 2010), which are grouped into a soft coefficient (social, economic and demographic characteristics of household residents, i.e., age, size, income, education) and a hard coefficient (dwelling conditions, i.e., number of rooms, units in the building, building age). The demographic profile of a high water-use household in Puerto Rico tends to be that of renters, people who live in larger or older buildings, people living in metro areas, or those with higher education level and higher income. The findings and discussions from this study will help decision makers to plan holistic and integrated water management to achieve water sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Virus-Specific Differences in Rates of Disease during the 2010 Dengue Epidemic in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Santiago, Luis M.; Rivera, Aidsa; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L.; Gonzalez Feliciano, Lorenzo; Margolis, Harold S.; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness (AFI) caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4) that are endemic in Puerto Rico. In January 2010, the number of suspected dengue cases reported to the passive dengue surveillance system exceeded the epidemic threshold and an epidemic was declared soon after. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the epidemic, surveillance and laboratory diagnostic data were compiled. A suspected case was a dengue-like AFI in a person reported by a health care provider with or without a specimen submitted for diagnostic testing. Laboratory-positive cases had: (i) DENV nucleic acid detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in an acute serum specimen; (ii) anti-DENV IgM antibody detected by ELISA in any serum specimen; or (iii) DENV antigen or nucleic acid detected in an autopsy-tissue specimen. In 2010, a total of 26,766 suspected dengue cases (7.2 per 1,000 residents) were identified, of which 46.6% were laboratory-positive. Of 7,426 RT-PCR-positive specimens, DENV-1 (69.0%) and DENV-4 (23.6%) were detected more frequently than DENV-2 (7.3%) and DENV-3 (Puerto Rico in the late 1960's. This epidemic re-emphasizes the need for more effective primary prevention interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of dengue. PMID:23593526

  11. Asthma-related health services and asthma control among women in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivera, María Calixta

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates social, behavioral, and environmental determinants to differentiate between active and inactive asthma and how predisposing, enabling, and need factors elucidate asthma-related health services and asthma control among women in Puerto Rico. Methods: This study analyzed secondary cross-sectional data from a subsample of 625 adult females who participated in the Asthma Call Back Survey in Puerto Rico. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between explanatory variables and asthma outcomes. Results: In total, 63% of women reported active asthma, from which 37.9% have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma. Women with active asthma were significantly more likely to be out of work, have middle income (US$25,000–

  12. Assessing the Decrease in the Surgical Population of the University of Puerto Rico-Affiliated Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Norma I; Santiago, Elvis; Luque, César

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of the decrease in the surgical population of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR)-affiliated hospitals. We examined all the surgical cases that were entered into the Surgical Database from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. This database collects patient and procedural information from the surgical services of the UPR-affiliated hospitals. Thus, the number of surgical patients for the 3-year study period was determined and their characteristics recorded. The group was subdivided into 3 subgroups, according to year: 2013, 2014, and 2015. All the variables studied were tabulated for the 3 subgroups and the values compared. The differences between subgroups were evaluated using the chi2 test or ANOVA, whichever was appropriate, with a p-value of less than 0.05 being considered significant. During the 3-year period, the Surgical Database collected information on 14,626 cases. The mean age of the group was 48 (±23) years. The gender distribution indicated that 55% of the sample members were women and 45% were men. A 14% decline in the number of surgical cases occurred from 2013 through 2015. The changes were not limited to a decline in numbers; the patients were sicker, as evidenced by a statistically significant (pPuerto Rico.

  13. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Hugo in eastern Puerto Rico, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.

    1992-01-01

    On the morning of September 18, 1989, a category-four hurricane struck eastern Puerto Rico with a sustained wind speed in excess of 46 m/s. The 24-h rainfall accumulation from the hurricane ranged from 100 to 339 mm. Average rainfall intensities ranging from 34 to 39 mm/h were calculated for 4 and 6 h periods, respectively, at a rain gage equipped with satellite telemetry, and at an observer station. The hurricane rainfall triggered more than 400 landslides in the steeply sloping, highly dissected mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Of these landslides, 285 were mapped from aerial photography which covered 6474 ha. Many of the mapped landslides were on northeast- and northwest-facing slopes at the eastern terminus of the mountains, nearest the hurricane path. The surface area of individual landslides ranged from 18 m2 to 4500 m2, with a median size of 148 m2. The 285 landslides disturbed 0.11% of the land surface in the area covered by aerial photographs. An approximate denudation rate of 164 mm/1000 y was calculated from the volume of material eroded by landsliding and the 10-y rainfall recurrence interval.

  14. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  15. Red-tailed Hawk movements and use of habitat in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Francisco; Nimitz, Wyatt F.

    2012-01-01

    The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a top predator of upland ecosystems in the Greater Antilles. Little information exists on the ecology of the insular forms of this widely distributed species. We studied movements and resource use of the Red-tailed Hawk from 2000 to 2002 in the montane forests of northeastern Puerto Rico. We captured 32 and used 21 radio-marked Red-tailed Hawks to delineate home range, core area shifts, and macrohabitat use in the Luquillo Mountains. Red-tailed Hawks in the Luquillo Mountains frequently perched near the top of canopy emergent trees and were characterized by wide-ranging capabilities and extensive spatial overlap. Home range size averaged 5,022.6 6 832.1 ha (305–11,288 ha) and core areas averaged 564.8 6 90.7 ha (150–1,230 ha). This species had large mean weekly movements (3,286.2 6 348.5 m) and a preference for roadside habitats. Our findings suggest fragmentation of contiguous forest outside protected areas in Puerto Rico may benefit the Red-tailed Hawk

  16. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  17. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  18. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  19. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  20. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Johnson, Melissa; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Myers, Roxana; Bayman, Paul; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. PMID:29135952

  1. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pstressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Genetic ancestry, social classification, and racial inequalities in blood pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence C Gravlee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of race in human genetics and biomedical research is among the most contested issues in science. Much debate centers on the relative importance of genetic versus sociocultural factors in explaining racial inequalities in health. However, few studies integrate genetic and sociocultural data to test competing explanations directly.We draw on ethnographic, epidemiologic, and genetic data collected in Southeastern Puerto Rico to isolate two distinct variables for which race is often used as a proxy: genetic ancestry versus social classification. We show that color, an aspect of social classification based on the culturally defined meaning of race in Puerto Rico, better predicts blood pressure than does a genetic-based estimate of continental ancestry. We also find that incorporating sociocultural variables reveals a new and significant association between a candidate gene polymorphism for hypertension (alpha(2C adrenergic receptor deletion and blood pressure.This study addresses the recognized need to measure both genetic and sociocultural factors in research on racial inequalities in health. Our preliminary results provide the most direct evidence to date that previously reported associations between genetic ancestry and health may be attributable to sociocultural factors related to race and racism, rather than to functional genetic differences between racially defined groups. Our results also imply that including sociocultural variables in future research may improve our ability to detect significant allele-phenotype associations. Thus, measuring sociocultural factors related to race may both empower future genetic association studies and help to clarify the biological consequences of social inequalities.

  3. Zika virus epidemic in Puerto Rico: Health justice too long delayed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Rodríguez-Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of 16 months, more than 35 400 cases of Zika virus infection have been confirmed in Puerto Rico. This represents 85% of all cases reported in the USA and its territories. The Zika epidemic is exposing the profound failure of socioeconomic policies, as well as the failure to protect sexual and reproductive health rights in Puerto Rico. Considering the high poverty rates, high levels of sexuality-related stigma, poor quality sex education, limited access to contraception, and limited participation in the allocation of resources for prevention, it is unreasonable to focus public health efforts to prevent Zika virus infection on vector control. The allocation and equitable management of resources for research and intervention are required in order to understand and address the barriers to and facilitators of prevention at the individual, social, and structural levels. Further, the impact of efforts to tackle the social determinants of the Zika virus epidemic on the island should be assessed.

  4. El otro es uno: Puerto Rico en la mirada norteamericana de 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Gervasio Luis

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking «98» in Puerto Rico requires giving up «victimized» perspectives whereby the Porto Rican people are set free of all responsibility. Focusing on 1898 as a year of both liberation and domination, this article weighs up the positive and negative aspects of Northamerican imperialism, while analyzing the unbalanced and particular struggles of the Porto Ricans in the social, economical, cultural and political fields. This process is partly followed through the writhings of Elihu Root and Salvador Brau.

    Repesar el 98 en Puerto Rico supone alejarse de planteamientos victimistas que eximen de toda responsabilidad al pueblo puertorriqueño. El 98 es abordado en este trabajo como un año de liberación y dominación, en el que se valoran los aspectos positivos y negativos del imperialismo norteamericano, a la vez que se analizan críticamente las luchas, desiguales y singulares, de este pueblo por la justicia social y económica, la cultura y las libertades políticas. El pensamiento de Elihu Root y Salvador Brau ilustran parte de este proceso.

  5. Zika virus epidemic in Puerto Rico: Health justice too long delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Garriga-López, Adriana; Malavé-Rivera, Souhail M; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of 16 months, more than 35400 cases of Zika virus infection have been confirmed in Puerto Rico. This represents 85% of all cases reported in the USA and its territories. The Zika epidemic is exposing the profound failure of socioeconomic policies, as well as the failure to protect sexual and reproductive health rights in Puerto Rico. Considering the high poverty rates, high levels of sexuality-related stigma, poor quality sex education, limited access to contraception, and limited participation in the allocation of resources for prevention, it is unreasonable to focus public health efforts to prevent Zika virus infection on vector control. The allocation and equitable management of resources for research and intervention are required in order to understand and address the barriers to and facilitators of prevention at the individual, social, and structural levels. Further, the impact of efforts to tackle the social determinants of the Zika virus epidemic on the island should be assessed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient profiles and their relationship with the CES-D scale at the Diabetes Center for Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José R; Rodríguez, Rosa Janet; Disdier, Orville M

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Puerto Ricans has been identified and reported as being disproportionately higher as compared to other metabolic pathologies. Recently, diabetes has been identified as the third cause of mortality in Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico Health Department, Vital Statistics Annual Report, 1999-2001). The Research Center, Education and Medical Services for Diabetes in Puerto Rico (also known as the "Centro de Diabetes para Puerto Rico" [CDPR]) is a public corporation in the island created by the government to reduce diabetes prevalence, mortality and morbidity. The CDPR offers Diabetes Self Management Educational Training Program Schools for patients (DSMETPS) island wide. The research design was an ex-post facto. As part of the process, patients are administered an extensive sociodemographic and health information questionnaire, which also includes the CES-D (a symptomatology depressive scale). This study pretends to describe the diabetic patient profiles (n=27) using information from the DSMETPS of the CDPR and explore the association with the CES-D. Variables such as patients' needs, knowledge and understanding of the condition (i.e., pathology management, type and medications utilized and exercise and nutritional patterns), patient attitudes to diabetes and their relations with the CES-D were explored. Results show a negative association, controlling for age and gender, between patients diabetic education/knowledge and CES-D score. Diabetes educators in Puerto Rico need to identify depressive symptomatology in order to prevent mental health complications in their patients since this may affect their future treatment and prognosis. An interdisciplinary team is recommended to improve the effectivity of the intervention.

  7. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Camacho-Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region and high (Northwest-Central Region mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of

  8. Warfarin Anticoagulation Therapy in Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico: A Candidate Gene Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Labastida, Aurora; Ramos, Alga; Gaedigk, Andrea; Renta-Torres, Jessicca; Padilla, Dariana; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Scott, Stuart A; Ruaño, Gualberto; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge-Soler, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Existing algorithms account for ~50% of observed variance in warfarin dose requirements after including common polymorphisms. However, they do not perform as well in populations other than Caucasians, in part because some ethno-specific genetic variants are overlooked. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can explain variability in warfarin dose requirements among Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico. Next-Generation Sequencing of candidate genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and genotyping by DMET® Plus Assay of cardiovascular patients were performed. We also aimed at characterizing the genomic structure and admixture pattern of this study cohort. Our study used the Extreme Discordant Phenotype approach to perform a case-control association analysis. The CYP2C9 variant rs2860905, which was found in all the major haplotypes occurring in the Puerto Rican population, showed stronger association with warfarin sensitivity (A; CYP2C9 rs1856908; ABCB1 c.IVS9-44A>G/ rs10276036; CES2 c.269-965A>G/ rs4783745) and non-genetic factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes and age) showed better prediction of warfarin dose requirements than CYP2C9 * 2 and CYP2C9 * 3 combined (partial R 2 = 0.132 vs. 0.023 and 0.007, respectively, p Puerto Ricans in the study cohort showed a tri-hybrid admixture pattern, with a slightly higher than expected contribution of Native American ancestry (25%). The genomic diversity of Puerto Ricans is highlighted by the presence of four different major haplotype blocks in the CYP2C9 locus. Although, our findings need further replication, this study contributes to the field by identifying novel genetic variants that increase predictability of stable warfarin dosing among Caribbean Hispanics.

  9. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, Craig G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  10. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  11. Coffee intake and risk of incident diabetes in Puerto Rican men: results from the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, B J; Smit, E; Crespo, C J; Garcia-Palmieri, M R

    2009-06-01

    To study prospectively the association of coffee intake with incident diabetes in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program cohort, comprising 9824 middle-aged men (aged 35-79 years). Of 9824 men, 3869 did not provide a fasting blood sample at baseline, 1095 had prevalent diabetes and 131 were not given fasting glucose tests at any subsequent study visit. Thus, the present analysis includes 4685 participants. Diabetes was ascertained at baseline and at two study visits between 1968 and 1975 using fasting glucose tests and self-reports of physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of insulin or hypoglycaemic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of coffee intake with risk of incident diabetes while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, intakes of milk and sugar). Five hundred and nineteen participants met the criteria for incident diabetes. Compared with those reporting intake of 1-2 servings of coffee/d, coffee abstainers were at reduced risk (OR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.94). Among coffee drinkers, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk by intake (P = 0.02); intake of >/=4 servings/d was associated with an odds ratio of 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.97). Study findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on diabetes risk, while also suggesting that abstainers may be at reduced risk.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes in Puerto Rico concerning dengue prevention Conocimientos y actitudes en Puerto Rico en torno a la prevención del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Pérez-Guerra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for three decades. Multiple educational and community-based efforts have been developed to inform the population about dengue prevention. We undertook this study to understand the community members' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to dengue prevention and to elicit their ideas for future prevention campaigns. METHODS: A qualitative study based on grounded theory analysis was conducted between February and May of 2001. The study involved a total of 34 participants in four group interviews who had been identified through the Puerto Rico dengue surveillance system. RESULTS: In general, participants had correct knowledge about dengue prevention, but they did not associate the mosquitoes inside their houses with Aedes aegypti. Participants insisted that "neighbors" needed to control larval habitats, and the participants also asked the Government to fumigate. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of knowledge and opinion that emerged in the discussions can be arranged along an axis going from high levels of correct knowledge to low levels of correct knowledge about dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever and related practices. There were few participants at either extreme. Three themes explained these patterns: misconceptions about dengue (based on previously delivered information, the "invisibility" of dengue (as compared to other diseases, and responsibility (individual and Government. Four strategies for preventive behaviors were recommended: developing community groups to identify community priorities on prevention, developing volunteer groups to deliver prevention messages, making house visits to demonstrate specific control measures, and conducting a complementary media campaign to support these strategies.OBJETIVO: El dengue ha sido endémico en Puerto Rico durante tres decenios, y varias iniciativas educativas y comunitarias se han puesto en marcha con objeto de informar a la población sobre la

  13. Migration Patterns, Densities, and Growth of Neritina punctulata Snails in Rio Espiritu Santo and Rio Mameyes, Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARK PYRON; ALAN P. COVICH

    2003-01-01

    Snail size-frequency distributions in Rios Espiritu Santo and Mameyes, which drain the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, showed that Neritina punctulata with shell lengths greater than 30 mm were the most abundant size class at upstream sites. The highest densities for all size classes were at the downstream sites. Growth rates were 0.015 mm/day for a large...

  14. Effects of post-hurricane fertilization and debris removal on earthworm abundance and biomass in subtropical forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Y. Li; X. Zou

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes are a common disturbance in the Caribbean, striking the island of Puerto Rico on average every 21 years. Hurricane Hugo (1989) distributed the canopy litter onto the forest floor changing the chemistry and quantity of litter inputs to the soil. In this study, we determined the effect of inorganic fertilization on earthworm abundance, biomass, and species...

  15. Long-term changes in structure and composition following hurricanes in a primary lower montane rain forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver

    2013-01-01

    Ridges within the lower montane rain forests (sensu Beard) of the Caribbean Basin are dominated by Dacryodes excelsa, a tree species known as tabonuco in Puerto Rico and gommier in the Lesser Antilles. Periodially, hurricanes traverse the islands causing changes in structure, species composition, and dynamics of forests. The chronology of post-hurricane vegetation...

  16. Leaching Behavior of “AGREMAX” Collected from a Coal-Fired Power Plant in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides results using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to illustrate how pH-dependence and percolation are related for a material being widely used in Puerto Rico for structural fill, road base, and other applications. Eluate concentrations from...

  17. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  18. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the regio...

  19. Tree species distribution and forest structure along environmental gradients in the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    Eleven groups of three plots stratified by aspect (windward vs. leeward) and topography (ridge, slope, and ravine) and varying in elevation from 880 to about 1,000 metres were used to sample forest structure and species composition within the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Stem density to windward was significantly greater on slopes, andf or all...

  20. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...