WorldWideScience

Sample records for santiago periodo 1997-2003

  1. "Surgery For Intractable Epilepsy, Loghman Hakim hospital, 1997-2003 "

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    Haddadian K

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the complications of chronic intractable epilepsy, the presence of respectable lesions in many these patients that can be diagnosed with noninvasive sensitive techniques such as MRI and SPECT and the unrecognized significance of epilepsy surgery in our country, we have decided to review the management of medically intractable epilepsy in patients, who underwent epilepsy surgery in neurosurgery department of Loghman Hakim hospital between 1997-2003. Materials and Methods: In this study we retrospectively review 30 cases of medically intractable epilepsy that had underwent epilepsy surgery. All patients before surgery were investigated with brain MRI, brain SPECT, EEG and IQ test. Type of surgery was determined by MRI, SPECT and EEG findings. Pre - and postoperative seizure frequency and surgery complications studied. Seizure control was measured with Engel criteria. Results: Patients mean age was 22.4 years. Three cases (10% were females that all underwent temporal mesial lobectomy. In 18 cases (60% there were concordant brain lesion with seizure origin that 9 cases (30% underwent mesial temporal lobectomy and remainder 9 cases (30% underwent lesionectomy.other12 cases (40% that have uncertain brain lesion but suffer from drop attack due to one or combination of atonic, tonic, tonic clonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence or clonic underwent anterior callosotomy. patients that underwent mesial temporal lobectomy, anterior callosotomy and lesionectomy were seizure-free in 77.7%, 58.3% and 55.5% of cases respectively. Conclusions: Provided to correct patient selection for epilepsy surgery we can manage intractable epilepsy properly. Regarding to the complication of intractable epilepsy, acceptable epilepsy surgery results and available sensitive noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MRI in our country, epilepsy surgery should be considered seriously in our country and promoted.

  2. Gender Wage Gaps by College Major in Taiwan: Empirical Evidence from the 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey

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    Lin, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the effect of incorporating the fields of study on the explained and unexplained components of the standard Oaxaca decomposition for the gender wage gaps in Taiwan using 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey data. Using several existing and lately developed measures, we inspect the gender wage gap by college major to…

  3. Crime and Sport Participation in Itay: Evidence from Panel Data Regional Analysis over the Period 1997-2003.\\

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    Raul Caruso

    2009-01-01

    What is the broad impact of sport participation and sport activities in a society? The first aim of this paper is tackling this crucial point by studying whether or not there is a relationship between sport participation and crime. A panel dataset have been constructed for the twenty Italian regions over the period 1997-2003. The impact of spot participation on different type of crimes has been studied. Results show that: (i) there is a robust negative association between sport participation ...

  4. Caries risk factors in the permanent dentition of Tanzanian children: a cohort study (1997-2003).

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    Scheutz, Flemming; Matee, Mecky I; Poulsen, Sven; Frydenberg, Morten

    2007-12-01

    The aims of the cohort study were to study the association between permanent dentition caries and malnutrition and other risk factors or indicators in a group of children with little or no access to restorative and preventive dental care. The study was conducted at two primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in the period 1997-2003. One school recruits its children from affluent families and the other school is attended by the children of poor families. The children attended grade 1 at the first examination and had a mean age of 7.6 years (SD = 0.4); when the study was completed, the mean age was 13.3 years. Two-hundred and eighteen children examined in 1997 were re-examined in 1999; 147 of the children were examined in 1997 as well as in 2003, and 122 children were examined in all three years. An age- and sex-based body mass index (BMI) was computed to determine the nutritional status of each child. Each year, the same standard methods were used to determine the count of lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, stimulated flow rate and buffering capacity of saliva, and caries. Risk ratios were computed with generalized linear models using the tooth as the unit of analysis. Mean annual caries increment was 0.27 in the period 1997-1999 and 0.80 in the period 1999-2003 with most children developing no caries at all. Malnutrition at baseline in 1997 was insignificantly predictive for the development of caries, whereas a low stimulated flow rate of saliva ( or =100,000/ml) at baseline in 1997 were significantly associated. However, the generalized linear models for the two time periods 1997-1999 and 1999-2003 presented a confusing picture with different risk ratios and without consistency of the associations between the exposure variables and the development of caries. In accordance with this finding, the consistency of the exposure variables over time for the individuals was very low. The results were inconclusive and left us with more questions than answers. The

  5. [Risky eating behaviors in student population in Mexico City: trends 1997-2003].

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    Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia; Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Villatoro-Velázquez, Jorge; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara; Medina-Mora Icaza, María Elena

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the trends of risky eating behaviors among student population in Mexico City in the period 1997-2003 and its relationship with sex age and family head educational level. Data from the 1997 (N = 9,755), 2000 (N = 3,286) and 2003 (N = 3,062) Drug and Alcohol Prevalence in Student Population of Mexico City Survey's were analyzed. These are representative data of students of junior high, high school and technical schools in Mexico City, with a mean age of 14.5 years (SD = 1.9). Eating behaviors were assessed with a brief questionnaire developed following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Risky eating behaviors and the number of risk indicators were compared by sex, age and family head educational level. The results showed an overall increase in the percentage of males (from 1.3% in 1997 to 3.8% in 2003), and females (3.4% in 1997 to 9.6% in 2003) who showed 3 or more risky eating behaviors. The analysis by age groups showed an increase in all but 16-17 year old males, and in all females, being 12-13 year old males and 18-19 year old females the most affected. Regarding the type of risk indicators in both sexes and across all age groups, an increase in preoccupation towards gaining weight and the use of purging and restrictive methods to loose weight was observed. Body weight overestimation decreased in males, while in females showed an increase along with binges in the 2000 survey but showed a decrease after that (2003 survey). The relationship between the family head educational level and risky eating behaviors did not show a regular pattern among males, while a positive relationship between both variables was found among females. A first overall view of the situation of risky eating behaviors among adolescent students in Mexico City and the changes observed in the period studied. An increase of these behaviors was observed along the period of study, being younger males and older females the most affected, as well as women

  6. Distribución y tendencia de los fallecimientos en el medio hospitalario en España durante el periodo 1997-2003

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    Alberto Jiménez-Puente

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El lugar en que se produce la muerte de una persona depende de circunstancias de naturaleza demográfica, socioeconómica, cultural y asistencial El objetivo del estudio fue describir las variaciones en el porcentaje de muertes en hospitales entre las comunidades autónomas de España, diferenciando las que ocurrieron en urgencias y hospitalización, y explorar su relación con posibles variables explicativas. Métodos: El estudio fue ecológico. Se estudió la tendencia del porcentaje de muertes en hospitales entre 1997 y 2003. Se calcularon los porcentajes de muertes en hospitales de cada comunidad autónoma en los años 2000-2002 a partir del Movimiento Natural de la Población y de la Encuesta de Establecimientos Sanitarios con Régimen de Internado que incluye información de todos los hospitales públicos y privados. Mediante regresión lineal simple se analizó su relación con variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, y asistenciales. Resultados: El 53% de los fallecimientos ocurrieron en hospitales (variando entre 37,3 y 68,4% en las distintas comunidades. El 10,7% de ellos en el área de urgencias (variando entre 6 y 14,5% y el resto en hospitalización. Conclusiones: El porcentaje de muertes en hospitales fue mayor en las comunidades con menos población anciana y rural, más población extranjera y mayor frecuentación de urgencias. El porcentaje de muertes hospitalarias en urgencias fue mayor en las comunidades con peores indicadores socioeconómicos. La tendencia en los 7 años estudiados fue al aumento del porcentaje de muertes en hospitales.

  7. Immigration measures and reproductive health among Hispanic youth: findings from the national longitudinal survey of youth, 1997-2003.

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    McDonald, Jill A; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum N

    2009-01-01

    To explore relationships between immigration measures and risk of reproductive and sexual events among U.S. Hispanic adolescents. We examined generation status, language in the home and country of origin in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and childbearing among 1614 Hispanic adolescents, using nationally representative 1997-2003 longitudinal data. Multivariable analyses controlled for potentially confounding variables. Tests for effect modification by gender and Mexican origin were conducted. Fewer first generation adolescents transitioned to sexual intercourse before age 18 (odds ratio [OR]=.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.66-.98) and fewer first and second generation sexually active teens used contraceptives consistently at age 17 (OR=.32, 95% CI=.17-.60 and OR=.50, 95% CI=.31-.80, respectively) than third-generation teens. Language was similarly associated with the transition to sexual intercourse and contraceptive practices. Versus teens of Mexican origin, teens of Puerto Rican origin and origins other than Cuba and Central/South America had greater odds of becoming sexually active; youth of all origins except Central/South America had fewer multiple live births (OR=.14-.31). Gender modified the effects of generation on consistent use of contraceptives and condoms at age 17. Gender also modified the effect of country of origin on transitioning to sexual intercourse before age 18 years. Results expand on previous observations that generation, language, and country of origin are predictors of reproductive and sexual risks for Hispanic adolescents. These immigration measures may therefore be useful in targeting community and clinical preventive services.

  8. Relational Good at Work! Crime and Sport Participation in Italy. Evidence from Panel Data Regional Analysis over the Period 1997-2003.

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    Raul Caruso

    2009-01-01

    What is the broad impact of sport participation and sport activities in a society? The first aim of this paper is tackling this crucial point by studying whether or not there is a relationship between sport participation and crime. A panel dataset have been constructed for the twenty Italian regions over the period 1997-2003. The impact of spot participation on different type of crimes has been studied. Results show that: (i) there is a robust negative association between sport participation ...

  9. Planeación en la educación superior: La experiencia de la Universidad EAFIT 1997 - 2003

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    Jaramillo, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    La planeación de la educación superior es un proceso importante para el desarrollo de las Instituciones de este tipo. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia de la Universidad EAFIT en este aspecto, durante el periodo comprendido entre 1997 y 2003, a través de la presentación y evaluación del enfoque y el esquema de planeación utilizados actualmente; de la revisión de los objetivos, las estrategias y los resultados obtenidos, y de la consideración de los principales problemas a enfrentar ...

  10. Estacionamientos en Santiago centro

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    Maestrello,Sara

    2006-01-01

    Opuesta a la invención de Chile, esta lectura fotográfica entrega una visión extranjera, desprejuiciada y atenta, de la realidad. Producto de una dinámica urbana que emparenta consolidación y abandono, aparecen rasgos de periferia en el casco antiguo de Santiago.

  11. Santiago de Cali

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    Ana María Sanabria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la prevalencia del tipo de acto delictivo en un grupo de jóvenes infractores de Leyes colombianas. Se estudiaron datos de la Policía Nacional, en la cual se encontraban reportados los jóvenes que presentaron conductas delictivas en el año 2003 en Santiago de Cali, dentro de las categorías tipo o descripción del acto delictivo, edad y sexo. La unidad de análisis estuvo conformada por 3,677 jóvenes infractores, habitantes de diferentes comunas de la ciudad, con edades entre los 10 y los 17 años. La edad media de los jóvenes fue de 15,75 años. El acto delictivo más prevalente en ambos sexos fue el hurto, seguido del tráfico, fabricación o porte de estupefacientes en las mujeres; y, la fabricación, tráfico y porte de armas de fuego o municiones en los hombres. Siendo los últimos quienes, con mayor frecuencia manifiestan actos delictivos en comparación con las mujeres, observados con mayor frecuencia en el grupo de jóvenes entre 16 y 17 años. Los resultados muestran la importancia de variables biológicas y evolutivas, como la edad y el sexo, en la manifestación de este comportamiento; en consecuencia, la importancia de plantear programas de intervención diferenciados con perspectiva de género y edad que puedan generar un impacto relevante en esta población para la prevención y/o disminución de la delincuencia juvenil.

  12. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

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    Margarita Gascón

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  13. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

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    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  14. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

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    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  15. Estudio del norte de Santiago de Chile mediante cartografía histórica: La chimba entre los siglos XVI Y XIX

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    Carolina Quilodrán Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ribera norte del río Mapocho, en Santiago de Chile, existió un área que fue reconocida como La Chimba, el lugar ideal para que se asentaran allí numerosas familias indígenas antes del periodo de fundación de la ciudad. Esta otra banda u otra orilla, –significado en lengua quechua de La Chimba–, durante largo tiempo fue el límite septentrional de Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, con una historia y un desarrollo territorial marcados por las diversas situaciones naturales y culturales de la ciudad. A partir de la documentación histórica, en el presente estudio se analiza la representación de La Chimba entre los siglos XVI y el XIX.

  16. La unidad como componente de la Independencia: precursores de la integración latinoamericana en Santiago de Chile (1810-1813

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    Germán A. de la Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo analizamos los primeros escritos independentistas difundidos en Santiago de Chile entre 1810 y 1813 desde la perspectiva de su aporte a la creación de las bases ideológicas que facilitarán la participación del país en posteriores iniciativas confederales hispanoamericanas. Las conclusiones de nuestra investigación refrendan la importancia de la idea del congreso general durante el periodo de la Patria Vieja y matizan la hipótesis sobre el monopolio del proyecto protonacional defendida por la historiografía mayoritaria.

  17. Santiago Pérez: el dramaturgo

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    Marina Lamus Obregón

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La vida de Santiago Pérez como escritor de poemas y dramas fue muy corta y pertenece a sus años de juventud. En la edad madura esta incursión la consideró un pecado que lo hacía ruborizar: por ello compraba los libros editados por la generosidad de Lorenzo María Lleras y los quemaba. Y es que el "señorito" Santiago Pérez, alumno aventajado del colegio del Espíritu Santo y después profesor de literatura y filosofía, recibió también de su maestro, don Lorenzo María Lleras, influencia política, literaria y teatral.

  18. El color a las puertas de Santiago

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    García Martínez, Alberto

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the Xacobeo 93, within the program of the works carried out to complete the urban infrastructures, Santiago de Compostela decided to undertake the morphological adaptation of the area located in the eastern part of the city, the arrival point of the Pilgrims Road to Santiago. In different parts of Spain, small chromatic actions are being carried out, mostly on the heritage of old buildings; on the contrary, the project which is the object of this article, beside being characteristic for its large scope, also has the peculiarity of referring to a recent architecture, dating from the 60s-70s.

    Dentro del programa de obras realizadas por completar las infraestructuras urbanas, con motivo del Xacobeo 93, Santiago de Compostela decide la adecuación morfológica del barrio situado al Este de la ciudad, llegada del Camino Jacobeo. Si bien en distintos puntos de nuestro país se están produciendo pequeñas actuaciones cromáticas, éstas recaen siempre en el patrimonio edificado antiguo; por el contrario, el proyecto objeto de este artículo, además de la amplitud de su intervención, tiene la particularidad de referirse a una arquitectura reciente, de los años 60-70.

  19. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

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    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  20. Organogénesis durante el periodo larval en peces

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    Zavala-Leal, I; Dumas, Silvie; Peña Martínez, Renato

    2011-01-01

    La presencia de un periodo larval caracteriza a los peces con ontogenia indirecta. Este periodo de desarrollo implica una serie de transformaciones encaminadas a la adquisición de las características biológicas y ecológicas propias de la especie; y en muchos casos culmina con cambios de distribución y hábitos alimenticios. El periodo larval incluye cuatro estadios de desarrollo: larva vitelina, larva pre-flexión, larva flexión y larva post-flexión. Cada estadio de desarrollo presenta caracter...

  1. El periodo de prueba en el contrato de trabajo.

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    Villegas Rodríguez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Definición del periodo de prueba en el contrato laboral y como se ha visto afectado por las reformas laborales de lo últimos años. Análisis de las modificaciones legales, así como de las sentencias más relevantes que hay sobre las mismas, especial mención al periodo de prueba del nuevo contrato indefinido para apoyo a nuevos emprendedores. Estudio de los periodos de prueba establecidos en convenios colectivos, centrándome en el sector del Comercios y Alimentación. Analiza los d...

  2. Emotive movement on the road to Santiago de Compostela

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    Jansen, W.H.M.; Peelen, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the emotions pilgrims experience on the road to Santiago de Compostela in the northwest of Spain. An increasing number of pilgrims take the road (el camino) to Santiago, but for many of them the movement on foot seems to be more important than reaching the tomb of St. James.

  3. Rutas literarias en el Camino de Santiago

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    Octavio Uña Juarez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde los marcos teóricos de la sociología de la literatura y desde la consideración del lenguaje poético se presenta el Camino de Santiago como una gran realización humana y como una construcción simbólica de la sociedad española y europea desde las profundidades de la Edad Media hasta la tardomodernidad. La vía de Santiago ha sido una metáfora viva del encuentro, un signo vertebrador de la conciencia europea. Unas puntuales consideraciones revisan posiciones de filósofos, teólogos, semiólogos y creadores literarios para presentar la característica específica de la peregrinación jacobea y sus itinerarios: la edificación de un sistema de comunicación con lenguajes propios, un constructo significativo de orden religioso. El viaje así aparece como arte y discurso narrado, recreado por mil ejercicios del lenguaje elaborado y en mil juegos de la memoria hasta constituir una inmensa acumulación de significado y sentido.

  4. Os fondos galegos da Biblioteca Universitaria de Santiago

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    Incio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    History and current affairs of the " Catálogo Galicia " of the Biblioteca Universitaria de Santiago, the largest bibliographical database of Galician subjects and the database "Authors Galician na BUSC", the best directory of authors of Galician themes.

  5. Imaginarios urbanos en el Gran Santiago: huellas de una metamorfosis

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    Francisca Márquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una lectura entrelineas del libro Santiago en EURE. Huellas de una metamorfosis metropolitana: 1970/2000, se reflexiona sobre los imaginarios urbanos en Santiago en estos últimos treinta años. Más allá de los objetivos y marcos conceptuales de los autores, se afirma que siempre e inevitablemente, algo de estos imaginarios urbanos se filtra y expresa en cada uno de los textos escogidos. El análisis se detiene en tres grandes relatos imaginarios en torno a la ciudad de Santiago: Uno que persiste y resiste a los tiempos, el imaginario de ciudad/país. Y otros dos que en su metamorfosis incompleta anuncian las contradicciones nunca resueltas de los habitantes de esta ciudad de Santiago: El imaginario de ciudad integrada / ciudad trizada. El imaginario de ciudad aldea / ciudad mundoFrom a reading, between the lines, of the book Santiago en EURE. Huellas de una metamorfosis metropolitana: 1970/2000, this article reflects on the urban imaginaries of Santiago presented over the last thirty years. Beyond the declared objectives and conceptual frameworks of the authors, it can be noted that aspects of these urban imaginaries filter into and are expressed in each of the selected texts. The analysis focuses on three principal imaginary narratives for the city of Santiago: one that persists and resists over time, the imaginary of city/country, and two others that through their incomplete metamorphosis are never resolved by the inhabitants of the city: the imaginary of the integrated city/fractured city and the imaginary of the village city ¡world city

  6. Volatile carbonylic compounds in downtown Santiago, Chile.

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    Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich

    2006-02-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation.

  7. Sobre prejuicios, dependencias e integración. El liberto en la sociedad colonial de Santiago de Cuba, 1780-1803

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    José Luis Belmonte Postigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La figura del liberto ha sido una de los grandes desconocidas en las sociedades afroamericanas caribeñas del periodo colonial dado el vacío historiográfico existente. Buena parte del rol jugado por este sector poblacional estaba determinado por la forma en que obtenía la libertad. En Santiago de Cuba, la mayor parte de estas manumisiones fueron compradas por los propios esclavos, por lo que el grado de dependencia respecto a su antiguo propietario debía ser menor que en aquellas regiones donde la actitud graciosa del propietario dictaba la libertad del esclavo. El liberto, a la hora de integrarse en la sociedad de libres, encontraba una serie de dificultades, que no le impidieron implementar relaciones de dominación sobre la población esclava. Este trabajo pretende realizar una redefinición de las clases propietarias de esclavos por encima de cuestiones raciales

  8. Las aporías fundamentales del periodo novohispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Aspe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A presentation for the research entitled Las Aporías Fundamentales del Periodo Novohispano is realized pointing out the kind of rationality and discourse that characterizes mexican philosophy. Stablished, according to the author, in the 16th century, mexican philosophy can not be understood without appealing to Nahuatl cosmovision, to renacentist humanism, to medieval scholastic –specially the aristotlelic-thomist one– and to the modern and nominalist model of science. The way to approach problems and the attention to details are characteristics of the mexican philosophy, which is presented as an aporetic knowledge that focuses specially in political and juridical problems that arised since the Spanish Conquest.

  9. Tipos de Tiempo en el periodo de Semana Santa Vallisoletana.

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Martín, Javier

    2017-01-01

    El propósito del proyecto es el análisis y la caracterización de ciertos tipos de tiempo a partir de los datos observados de la Base de Datos Climatológica del Observatorio de Valladolid. Los datos analizados corresponden a los ocho días de Semana Santa de un periodo de 37 años que comprenden entre los años 1981 y 2017. Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio

  10. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  11. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  12. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  13. Resumen de eventos atendidos: periodo diciembre 2004 a enero 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Rica. Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias. Contraloría de Unidades Ejecutoras

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un cuadro con datos recolectados por el Departamento de Operaciones de la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias referentes a un resumen de los principales eventos que afectaron a Costa Rica, durante el periodo comprendido entre diciembre 2004 y enero 2005. Comprende la fecha, el tipo de alerta, el tipo de afectación, los lugares afectados, las familias movilizada y los daños principales It presents a chart with data collected by the Operations Department of the National Commission of Risk Prevention and Emergency Response related to a summary of the main events that affected Costa Rica, between December 2004 and January 2005. It includes the date, type of alert, type of damage, places affected, families moved and main damages

  14. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Márquez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  15. Elasticidad precio de la oferta inmobiliaria en el Gran Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Navarro, Francisco-Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to model the housing market in Greater Santiago from a supply perspective, using a Tobin-q equation to explain residential investment and taking into account its fundamentals: house prices, land prices and construction costs. Price elasticity coefficients are estimated and the following hypothesis contrasted: 1) there exist significant differences among areas within the city, which are probably caused by regulation; and 2) areas with more elastic supply present mode...

  16. Dos proyectos de urbanización en Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Franco, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    This article describes two actions of urbanization improvement in the city of Santiago. They are the reclamation of the shores of the Sarela river in the Carmen de Abaixo quarter and the arrangement of the Parque de la Alameda and Paseo de la Herradura Complex in the Santa Susana Reserve. Both actions are produced within the historical part of the city and although they deal with different formal and functional problems, they coincide in the use of traditional materials without the need ...

  17. Nicolae Ceausescu si Santiago Carrillo: Despre reforma internationalismului comunist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cezar Stanciu

    2014-01-01

    ...; Internationalism; Moscow; China Introducere Santiago Carrillo a fost unul dintre veterano räzboiului civil spaniol $i un activist de seamä al Internationalei Comuniste însa dinámica activitätii politice în perioada postbélica l-a îndreptat catre o critica asprä a Moscovei $i a experientelor cominterniste ale trecutului. Aceastä metamorf...

  18. Historias e identidades barriales del Gran Santiago: 1950-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la segregación urbana y social que caracteriza a la ciudad de Santiago; en ella coexisten también identidades territoriales fuertes en su propuesta de integración social y urbana. Esta investigación aborda desde la perspectiva de sus habitantes, los procesos de construcción identitaria en ocho barrios de Santiago, desde los años cincuenta en adelante. La conclusión es que, pese a los enormes cambios experimentados en la sociedad y la persistencia de la segregación territorial, los barrios analizados destacan por la fuerza de sus identidades y la capacidad de diálogo con la ciudad. A diferencia de otros territorios, estos nacieron de proyectos identitarios y urbanos sólidos pensados e implementados por un conjunto de actores sociales diversos. Hoy sus habitantes se identifican con el barrio y lo defienden sin aplicar mecanismos de aislamiento, y en este proceso histórico, construyen y reafirman el derecho a la ciudad.I spite of Santiago, Chile's socioeconomic segregation,two territorially based identities also are present within this metropolitan area that offer strong proposals for social and urban integration. This study examines how inhabitants of eight neighborhoods in Santiago have constructed local identities since the 1950s. The study's findings indicate that in spite of the enormous changes experienced by Chilean society during this period and the persistence of socio-spatial segregation, the neighborhoods studied reveal the strength of their identities and their capacity to engage in a dialogue with the city. In contrast to other areas of the city, these communities initially emerged with solid identity and urban projects conceived and implemented by a diverse group of social actors. Today, residents identify with and defend their neighborhoods without relying on mechanisms designed to isolate themselves; and within this historical process, they construct and reaffirm the right to the city.

  19. [Santiago Ramon y Cajal in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2016-11-16

    The life and work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal has been portrayed in scientific papers, biographical and autobiographical works, comics, films, television series or documentaries that have attempted to reflect upon his life or his contributions to science and to bring him closer to the general public. To analyse the different ways Santiago Ramon y Cajal has been represented in literature, cinema and television, and to become more closely acquainted with this scientist through his fictional writings. A number of biographical works have been written about Santiago Ramon y Cajal, including scientific papers, comics, books for children and youngsters, as well as the autobiographical writings, essays and even science fiction stories, which provide a good introduction to the life of the scientist and his work. His life has also been adapted to film (Leap to fame) or television (Ramon y Cajal, historia de una voluntad; The butterflies of the soul), which have, with varying degrees of success and accuracy, made him better known to the general population. The numerous biographical writings, historical notes, articles, the scientific work itself, the essays and fictional works by Cajal, as well as the portrayals of the Spanish Nobel Prize winner produced for films and television, can be used to obtain some interesting insights into the scientist, teacher, science populariser, humanist physician and, in short, the man who made such important contributions to neuroscience.

  20. Transformaciones del modelo territorial de Santiago de Chile./ Transformations in the territorial model of Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las tendencias morfológicas, como expresiones espaciales del crecimiento físico del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, sirve para reflexionar acerca de las diferentes y variadas contradicciones -negaciones y discontinuidades- que operan eventualmente entre el modelo territorial propuesto por los instrumentos de ordenamiento y la planta final resultante. Junto a ello, esta reflexión nos brinda la oportunidad de identificar las tendencias registradas por una urbanística de escala metropolitana, cuyo signo de los tiempos es el todo urbanizable, dejando de lado otras maneras y modos de encarar el crecimiento físico de la ciudad. En tal sentido, el diseño de una armadura de escala provincial, como factor de reequilibrio entre un débil sistema regional de ciudades y un área metropolitana excedida, constituye la segunda parte del escrito./The urban growth of Santiago, and it morphology, is the starting point in the study of the contradictions between the plans for Santiago and its results. The author also notes that the differences between the scales of planning is also an issue in the attempt to perform a better regional and local planning.

  1. Determinación de la relación clonal de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi recuperados en el programa de vigilancia por el laboratorio de EDA en Colombia durante el período 1997-2003 mediante la electroforesis en campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Marylin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La tipificación molecular de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi es necesaria para complementar los análisis epidemiológicos de las fiebres entéricas en Colombia. El objetivo del trabajo fue establecer la relación genética de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi recuperados durante el período 1997-2003, en varias regiones del país. Se utilizaron 58 aislamientos de S. typhi, tres de S. paratyphi A, dos de S. paratyphi B y 1 de S. paratyphi C, recibidos por el programa de vigilancia de EDA del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS. Para determinar la relación genética se empleó la electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado y se calculó un dendrograma; para evaluar la asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos y las características de los aislamientos, como datos
    demográficos de los pacientes, tipo de muestra, año y procedencia, se utilizó un análisis de correspondencias. Los datos de S. typhi se analizaron en conjunto con 15  islamientos tipificados anteriormente en el INS. Se obtuvieron 36 patrones electroforéticos, 31/36 (86,1%, representados en 68/73 (93,1% aislamientos, estuvieron relacionados genéticamente. Los patrones S.Ty0001 y S.Ty0012 predominaron en el país. En el análisis de correspondencias, no se encontró asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos y las características de los aislamientos. Los aislamientos de S. paratyphi A estuvieron relacionados genéticamente mientras que los de S. paratyphi B no guardaron relación. A pesar de la considerable heterogeneidad de los aislamientos colombianos de Salmonella typhi, definida por el número de patrones electroforéticos, la mayoría de ellos guardan una relación genética, sugiriendo un origen común de los mismos.

  2. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  3. The socioeconomics and management of Santiago de Chile's public urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak; John E. Wagner; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodr& #237; guez; Daniel E. Crane; Jamie Hern& #225; ndez; Hern& #225; Jamie ndez

    2006-01-01

    Santiago, Chile's semi-arid climate and urbanized environment poses a severe limitation for the establishment and maintenance of urban forests. Municipalities, or comunas, are the main stakeholders in the management of Santiago's public urban forests. A tenable hypothesis would be that as the socioeconomic level of a comuna...

  4. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

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    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  5. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  6. Some considerations on the Music Education in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysmara Borlot-Faure

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the distinctive features of music education in Santiago de Cuba, to enhance historical knowledge in professional education (Bachelor's Degree in Art Education and Art Instructor. the historical and pedagogical process of musical education, an essential aspect in order to rescue and preservation of our most genuine traditions in the formation of present and future generations addresses. For education professionals is a conception of learning developer, in order to promote a new content to encourage new knowledge in the educational process taking place in higher education in Cuba.

  7. Dos proyectos de urbanización en Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Franco, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    En el presente artículo se describen dos actuaciones de mejora de la urbanización en la ciudad de Santiago. Se trata de la recuperación de las riberas del río Sarela en el barrio del Carmen de Abaixo y el acondicionamiento del Conjunto del Parque de la Alameda y Paseo de la Herradura en el Coto de Santa Susana. Ambas actuaciones se producen en el ámbito de la ciudad histórica y, si bien abordan problemas formales y funcionales diferentes, coinciden en el empleo de los materiales tradiciona...

  8. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  9. Luis Santiago Lozano, un signo mediático

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Cifuentes, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    El asesinato del niño Luis Santiago Lozano, el 1 de octubre de 2008, a manos de su padre fue un hecho que conmocionó a toda Colombia. Sin embargo, el maltrato infantil no era un acontecimiento sin precedentes, luego ¿qué hizo este suceso tan recordado? El cubrimiento mediático, en especial de los noticieros de televisión, de los canales RCN y Caracol fue más que conmovedor, y es interesante observar cuáles fueron las herramientas utilizadas en esta transmisión y por qué su emisión traspasó lo...

  10. Erecting the new winding tower at Santiago colliery. Montaje de la nueva torre de extraccion del Pozo Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    The modernisation work at Santiago colliery is making good progress without disrupting everyday operations. It is expected to be complete by February of next year. At present, the new winding tower is being erected; it is 60 m high and surrounds the old headgear which was 38 m high. This work is part of a larger project which is already underway and which will involve some 19,200 million pesetas for the Aller Group until the year 2003. Of this, sum, 13,700 million pesetas will be invested between 1986 and 1991. 2 figs.

  11. Management of Tourist Flows. The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xose Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación a finales de la década de 1980 del Camino de Santiago supuso un importante desarrollo turístico de la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. Su crecimiento no ha estado vinculado exclusivamente a la afluencia de peregrinos sino también, y sobre todo, a la llegada de turistas de motivación fundamentalmente cultural. El incremento de los flujos se produce de forma especial en los Años Santos, cuando el 25 de Julio coincide en domingo. El significativo incremento de visitantes que se venía produciendo desde el año jubilar de 1993 hacía prever un volumen muy elevado para el que se celebraría en 2010. Con el fin de evitar una masificación excesiva de la catedral, con todos los efectos negativos que eso generaría, se puso en marcha un estudio del que habrían de salir propuestas de gestión de flujos. En este artículo se explica la metodología de dicho estudio y se analizan los resultados de su puesta en práctica. Destacamos los problemas surgidos no sólo por una aplicación parcial de las medidas sugeridas sino también por la concentración de las acciones en el templo catedralicio y no en el conjunto del destino.

  12. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  13. La situación del arbolado urbano en Santiago./ The state of urban trees in Santiago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hernández Palma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los países desarrollados el concepto de manejo de la vegetación urbana ha evolucionado desde funciones meramente estética a funciones medioambientales, incluyendo los beneficios económicos cuantificables de árboles y espacios verdes. En Santiago se constata una gran diferencia entre los distintos municipios respecto de sus políticas y capacidades técnicas asociadas al manejo ("sustentable" de este recurso. Las diferencias de cobertura arbórea pueden llegar a ser de 10 a 1, entre comunas de estratos socioeconómicos altos y bajos. Por ello los servicios ambientales de la vegetación urbana también presentan una gran variabilidad espacial en la ciudad./ The management of the urban vegetation has evolved in the Developed World, from aesthetics to environmental considerations including the economic evaluation of it. In the developing countries the situation is different; in Santiago de Chile there's a deficit in the politics and technical assistance related to the management of the environment. The inequality between the rich and the poor neighbors in terms of trees in public spaces can be as much as 10 to 1. So, the environmental impact of the urban vegetation is not something to consider locally.

  14. Santiago Sebastián, 1931-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez Jiménez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Con profundo dolor el Anuario registra la muerte del doctor Santiago Sebastián López, acaecida en Valencia (España el pasado año, a la edad de sesenta y cuatro años. Nació en una pequeña población rural del reino de Aragón (Villaquermado, el 25 de marzo de 1931. Licenciado por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ocupó distintas cátedras en las ciudades de Palma de Mallorca, Córdoba y Barcelona. En las últimas dos décadas se había radicado definitivamente en Valencia, en cuya universidad formó a valiosos especialistas en los campos de su interés. Realizó estancias académicas en las universidades de Heiderberg, Yale y en el Fine Arts Institute de Nueva York.

  15. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

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    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  16. Childbirth in Santiago de Chile: stratification, intervention, and child centeredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marjorie

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of ethnographic work with women from different economic and educational backgrounds in Santiago, I describe the experiences of labor and birth from the point of view of women's priorities, socioeconomic constraints, and relationships with the medical system. I specifically focus on their desires expressed during the late prenatal period and their narratives of the actual birth. Class and the differences in opportunities resulting from educational and class inequalities melt down into near invisibility as vulnerability rises and women become increasingly subjected to medical decision making. The long-standing Chilean focus on child centeredness, while shown to benefit bonding, can work to obliterate women's own desires and choices by encouraging them to "sacrifice their all" for the sake of the baby. This kind of sacrifice defines the meaning of the maternal body in Chile. I suggest further analysis of these factors is essential for an understanding of the hypermedicalized Chilean context.

  17. Che in Santiago de Cuba. His Universidad de Oriente visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Corujo-Vallejo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Che Guevara begins his activity in the process of the Cuban Revolution since 1955, stamped by the meeting with Fidel Castro in Mexico. After the triumph, transformed in one of the Revolution´s Commandants for his distinguished attitude, develops a multifaceted and creative activity, in the process of the construction of the new society. For that reason, between 1959 and 1964, in some opportunities he visits the city of Santiago of Cuba. His presence is also felt in the University of Oriente, where he comes on his first visit to the city, checks the construction of the university city, interchanges with students and teachers about the relevance of the application of the scientific knowledge in the development of the new society.

  18. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

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    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  19. Vivienda social periurbana en Santiago de Chile: la exclusión a escala regional del trasurbanita de Santiago de Chile/Peri-urban social housing in Santiago de Chile: the exclusion at regional scale of the trasurbanita of Santiago de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    César Cáceres-Seguel

    2017-01-01

      The location of peri-urban social housing in Santiago de Chile has been broadly studied from political and territorial implications, however, little do we know about the impact of urbanization in the...

  20. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Manuel Peleteiro School in Santiago de Compostela

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this training is to prepare secondary school teachers for a visit with their students to the CERN exhibition that will arrive in Santiago de Compostela on May 2nd, 2013 and stay until May 20th.

  1. El ordenamiento territorial en Santiago del Estero: implicancias jurídicas y ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Zemán, Claudia Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Los temas de la ponencia son los siguientes:1- Del ordenamiento territorial: concepto y principios rectores. 2- El ordenamiento territorial en Argentina. 3- De la situación en Santiago del Estero. 4- Conclusiones. 5- Bibliografía

  2. Performing national identity through Peruvian food migration in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Imilan

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the processes of re-production of national identity based on food-related practices and discourses of Peruvian migrants living in Santiago de Chile. The meeting point of these three fields – migration, national identity and food – is most evidently performed in the celebration of the Peruvian National Holidays in Santiago. The article finds evidence that the performance in this national festivity reinforces a sense of Peruvianness, thus contributing to the study of contem...

  3. Un americanismo léxico de leyenda: Santiago como rayo en lengua de indios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Frago Gracia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A lexical Americanism 'santiago' is documented in this article as 'ray', that apparently has not arrived until our days, although this can only confirm a better knowledge of American Spanish, though it really existed in the Andean world and it is representative of the nativesi adaptation in lexical form of the Hispanic belief in the Santiago ëkill Moorishí.

  4. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  5. Periodo seco corto en ganado de leche (Short dry period in dairy cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A Elizondo Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Resumen Un periodo seco de 60 días ha sido suficiente para permitir que vacas con un considerado por muchos años como una manejo adecuado, buena alimentación y norma de manejo entre lactancias sucesivas condición corporal produzcan, en la siguiente para asegurar una producción óptima de lactancia, cantidades de leche similares a las leche. A pesar de ello, su aplicabilidad ha sido obtenidas con vacas que han tenido un cuestionada en los últimos años, debido a que periodo seco de 60 días. Di...

  6. Actitudes lingüísticas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Santiago, hacia al español de Chile y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes: El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Entre nuestros hallazgos, destacan los siguientes: 1 los santiaguinos muestran seguridad lingüística en comparación con variedades regionales del español de Chile, pero una gran inseguridad cuando se comparan con el habla de otros países; 2 sus actitudes se ven influenciadas tanto por características lingüísticas (modelo ideal de lengua, conservador y de raigambre colonial como por características extralingüísticas (estatus social; 3 el concepto de mayor peso dentro de la ideología lingüística de los santiaguinos es la corrección idiomática, que se articula con otros dos conceptos clave: el de unidad lingüística y el de entendimiento (o comprensión lingüística. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of Spanish speakers from Santiago, towards Spanish spoken in Chile and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 persons based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Our main findings are the following: 1 Santiaguinos show linguistic confidence when they compare their speech to regional varieties of Chilean Spanish, but they show great insecurity when they compare their speech to those of other

  7. Santiago Serrano (1970-1980: Hacia una pintura no aprehensible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Muñoz Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pintura de Santiago Serrano en los años setenta, quizás la fase más brillante de toda su trayectoria, todavía no había sido estudiada desde un enfoque que conjugara la observación directa de su obra y la lectura de sus escritos inéditos. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre su trabajo artístico en aquella década, con el objetivo de averiguar las referencias, motivaciones y procedimientos que le llevaron, ya desde finales de 1970, a un grado tan radical de abstracción que entronca con Malevich, Rothko, Newman o Diebenkorn. Por su particular concepción y uso del color y la materia, Serrano se distinguió claramente de otras tendencias abstractas como el informalismo o las geometrías derivadas del minimalismo, el op art o el cinetismo.  Asimismo, se analiza el desarrollo de su obra en el contexto de la Pintura-Pintura, sobre todo con relación a las aportaciones de Supports/Surfaces, el grupo de Trama y los pintores italianos adscritos a la Pittura Analitica y Pittura-Pittura. Finalmente, se advierte cómo la pintura de Serrano en los setenta se ha proyectado sobre determinadas fases de su obra posterior.The painting of Santiago Serrano in the seventies, perhaps the most brilliant part of his whole production, had not yet been studied using an approach that combines the direct observation of his work and the reading of his unknown writings. This article is the result of the study of the development of his artistic work during that decade (in order to find the references, motivations and procedures which led him to such a radical level of abstraction that is connected with the art of Malevich, Rothko, Newman or Diebenkorn. Due to his particular conception and use of colour and material, Serrano´s work was clearly different from other abstract trends like Informalism or Geometric Art derived from Minimalism, Op Art or Kinetic Art. Furthermore, the development of his work is analysed in the context of Painting

  8. El pueblo de Santiago: un guetto en Lima virreynal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las formas de sometimiento de las masas aborígenes a la dominación española fueron las reducciones de indios. El pueblo de Santiago del Cercado, reducción establecida en los arrabales orientales de la Ciudad de Lima, fundada para residencia de los indios que debían servir a la ciudad y a los encomenderos de Lima, tuvo características peculiares en cuanto a su trazo, a su composición poblacional, organización y servicios. La función de las autoridades españolas descansan en las autoridades nativas, que fueron auxiliares insustituibles para el ejercicio de la dominación y explotación. Los servicios y establecimientos del poblado estuvieron destinados a españolizar e impregnar con la ideología de la dominación: la parroquia, la cárcel, el colegio de caciques, el hospital, etc. La parroquia bajo la conducción de los jesuitas en la mayor parte de la historia del poblado, fue el principal instrumento de captación de la mente de los habitantes nativos sin embargo no fueron pasivos receptores, ni dominados resignados, mostraron su rechazo en forma permanente, ya sea mediante resistencia pasiva o con acciones violentas, y con casi todos los movimientos nativos de envergadura estuvieron conectados. Fue el foco de la resistencia y conspiración nativa en Lima. One of the forms of subjection to Spanish domination of the aboriginal masses were the Indians reductions. The town of Santiago del Cercado, one of the indians settlements established on the eastern outskirts of the city of Lima, founded as living quarters for the indians who were to serve the city and the knights commander of Lima, was endowed with peculiar characteristics with regard to its design, its population component, organization and service. The functions of the Spanish authorities, who in turn were irreplaceable subordinates to carry out the domination and exploitation. The service and establishments of the populated areas were destined to become impregnated with

  9. Aves de paso. Los trabajadores estacionales de Santiago del Estero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasso, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos los años cerca de 40.000 trabajadores de Santiago del Estero se trasladan a otras provincias de Argentina para realizar tareas agrícolas temporarias. En este artículo se indaga en algunas características de tal migración laboral que constituye un fenómeno de larga duración. Para ello se aportan encuadres históricos, demográficos y agroecológicos. Se examinan las condiciones laborales de los trabajadores ‘golondrina’ y su perfil social y cultural. Luego se plantean interrogantes acerca de la calidad de esta ocupación estacional y en qué medida ella reúne, o no, las condiciones de lo que debiera ser un trabajo ‘decente’. Finalmente, se sugiere a partir de los datos presentados, la formulación de políticas y líneas de acción con el propósito del mejoramiento de la situación laboral, productiva y social de los trabajadores rurales migrantes temporarios.

  10. Watershed management program on Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vicente L.; Meyer, John

    1993-01-01

    The Watershed Management Program (WMP) was put into operation in early 1985 on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, with the stated purpose, “to develop and protect the soil and water resources of the Program-designated watersheds … to stabilize the natural environment and increase agricultural production potential in the Program area.” The approach to soil and water conservation in the program has been to build erosion and flood control structures (engineering approach) and plant trees (biological approach) to decrease rill and gully erosion, trap sediment behind control structures, provide flood protection, increase infiltration, increase fuelwood and fodder production, and increase water supplies for irrigation. There have been many successes resulting from specific management activities, but flawed approach or implementation in a few key areas has acted to impede the program's complete success, including lack of a scientific basis for evaluating its impact on soil and water conservation; poor design, placement, and maintenance of some major hydraulic structures; inadequate intervention in stabilizing farmlands or education of farmers and landowners in the need for and benefits of agroforestry; and incomplete integration of engineering and biological approaches.

  11. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  12. Entrevista a Santiago Álvarez de Mon

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    Sergio López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Álvarez de Mon es un profesor de obligada referencia académica y profesional en el ámbito de los valores humanos en la alta dirección empresarial. Doctor en sociología y ciencias políticas por la Universidad de Salamanca (España, es profesor en el Instituto de Estudios Superiores de la Empresa de la Universidad de Navarra (IESE, actualmente considerada como una de las diez escuelas de negocios más prestigiosas del mundo. Álvarez de Mon es autor de varios artículos y libros sobre el liderazgo empresarial, entre los que destacan “El mito del líder” o “Desde la adversidad: liderazgo, cuestión de carácter”, basado en las historias de vida e investigación sobre destacados personajes como Nelson Mandela, Hellen Keller, José Carreras o Lance Armstrong, entre otros. Ha trabajado como directivo en la banca española, así como en el sector de grandes cadenas de distribución, y actualmente combina su labor docente con el asesoramiento a varias compañías en materias de liderazgo y trabajo en equipo.

  13. Familial periodontal disease in the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Orraca, Luis; Kensler, Terry B; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Maldonado, Elizabeth; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial ongoing research continues to explore the contribution of genetics and environment to the onset, extent and severity of periodontal disease(s). Existing evidence supports that periodontal disease appears to have an increased prevalence in family units with a member having aggressive periodontitis. We have been using the nonhuman primate as a model of periodontal disease for over 25 years with these species demonstrating naturally occurring periodontal disease that increases with age. This report details our findings from evaluation of periodontal disease in skulls from 97 animals (5-31 years of age) derived from the skeletons of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Periodontal disease was evaluated by determining the distance from the base of the alveolar bone defect to the cemento-enamel junction on 1st/2nd premolars and 1st/2nd molars from all four quadrants. The results demonstrated an increasing extent and severity of periodontitis with aging across the population of animals beyond only compensatory eruption. Importantly, irrespective of age, extensive heterogeneity in disease expression was observed among the animals. Linking these variations to multi-generational matriarchal family units supported familial susceptibility of periodontitis. As the current generations of animals that are descendants from these matrilines are alive, studies can be conducted to explore an array of underlying factors that could account for susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Estudio del propoleos de Santiago del Estero, Argentina Estudo de própolis de Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Lucía Chaillou

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue determinar las características físico-químicas del propóleos de la provincia de Santiago del Estero. Las muestras se recolectaron de colmenas ubicadas en los departamentos Capital, Banda y Robles. Se determinaron: color, olor, sabor consistencia y aspecto. Las muestras por lo general, se presentaron en trozos irregulares con brillo, de estructura homogénea, consistencia dura. El color fue marrón oscuro, olor resinoso aromático y sabor picante. El porcentaje de impurezas mecánicas, cera y resinas se encuentran de valores normales. El índice de oxidación, las concentraciones de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides y la actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus permiten concluir que la calidad del propóleos de los departamentos estudiados es buena.O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi a determinação das caracteristicas físico-químicas de própolis de Santiago del Estero. As amostras foram coletadas de departamentos Capital, Banda e Robles. A cor, o odor, o sabor, a consistência e a aparência externa foram analisados. As impurezas mecânicas, a cera, a resina, o índice da oxidação, os compostos fenólicos e os flavonóides foram testados. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada. As amostras foram apresentadas com estrutura homogênea, em parcelas irregulares brilhantes e a consistência era dura ou pouco macia na maioria dos casos. A cor era marrom-escura e o aroma resinoso aromático e o sabor picante. Porcentagem das impurezas, das ceras, da resina estavam entre valores normais. O índice de oxidação, as concentrações de compostos fenólicos e de flavonóides e a atividade antimicrobiana na Staphylococcus aureus permitam concluir que a qualidade dos própolis de departamentos Capital, Banda e Robles é boa.

  15. Pilgrimage, Past and Present. Norwegian Perspectives with emphasis on Santiago de Compostela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Jensen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the phenomenon of pilgrimage from a Norwegian perspective, exemplified by the past and present role and significance of Santiago de Compostela as a holy site and destination for pilgrims. By taking a historical view, the transformation of meaning and role is stressed. In the Middle Ages, Santiago was an important pilgrimage destination for people living in Northern Europe. Following the subsequent Protestant Reformation and the era of confessionalization, Santiago came to exemplify all the problems and challenges related to pilgrimage and the name of the city became a derogatory word. From this background, the present-day rediscovery of pilgrimage in Norway and the role of the city of Santiago, as the foremost example of the renaissance of the pilgrimage phenomena in present day postmodern times, are discussed. It is argued that the “rehabilitation” of Santiago and the new interest in pilgrimage in Norway were made possible due to the redefinition of pilgrimage that has taken place on what can be characterized as an ideological level. It is a redefinition that reflects the postmodern renaissance of pilgrimage and which is documented in recent social scientific empirical studies on the Camino.

  16. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-08-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  17. Performing national identity through Peruvian food migration in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Imilan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the processes of re-production of national identity based on food-related practices and discourses of Peruvian migrants living in Santiago de Chile. The meeting point of these three fields – migration, national identity and food – is most evidently performed in the celebration of the Peruvian National Holidays in Santiago. The article finds evidence that the performance in this national festivity reinforces a sense of Peruvianness, thus contributing to the study of contemporary processes of renewal of national identities in transnational contexts. The case study also demonstrates that the ascription of national identity by Peruvian in Santiago is strategic, and it operates as an assemblage of various and locally situated elements.

  18. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-11-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  19. Fortificaciones de altura en el entorno de Santiago de Compostela. Hacia un primer análisis arqueológico comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Sánchez Pardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un trabajo de revisión, prospección y análisis conjunto de diez yacimientos fortificados en el área de Santiago de Compostela caracterizados por su emplazamiento en cotas de altura relativas muy elevadas sobre su entorno. Estos yacimientos, que aquí denominaremos «fortificaciones de altura», se asocian genéricamente al periodo medieval pero han sido objeto de escasos estudios hasta la fecha, y sobre todo, nunca han sido abordados de una manera conjunta y comparativa. Concretamente nos centraremos en la revisión comparativa de cuatro factores que consideramos clave de los mismos: su emplazamiento, morfología, técnicas constructivas y materiales en superficie. Aunque aún son necesarios nuevos trabajos en este ámbito para poder comprender mejor la cronología y función de los mismos, el estudio aquí presentado permite plantear ya algunas ideas sobre su caracterización arqueológica y sus posibles contextos de funcionamiento. El análisis comparativo de estos yacimientos muestra un probable funcionamiento en red, al menos de parte de los mismos, y una cronología de construcción entre los siglos V-X d. C., pese a que algunos hayan tenido pervivencia en períodos posteriores. This paper presents the results of a review, archaeological survey and joint analysis work on ten fortified sites in the area of Santiago de Compostela characterized by their high relative altitude. These sites, called «high fortified sites», are usually linked to the medieval period but the truth is that there are very little studies on this topic to date, and above all, they have never been addressed from a joint and comparative perspective. Specifically we will focus on the comparative review of four key factors in all of them: their location, morphology, building techniques and materials located. Although further studies are still needed to better understand the chronology and functionality of these fortifications, the present work can shed

  20. El poema sacro Melo-dramático de Buono Chiodi (Santiago de Compostela, 1773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alén, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several authors allude in their studies to the existence of an “opera” composed by the teacher of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Buono Chiodi, for the 1773 Holy Year. At this moment it has not been possible to fi nd any track of the music of such a work, consequently we cannot declare on the quality of this one. Despite everything, it’s of supreme interest the libretto appeared recently between the funds of the National Library. For the subject that approaches —the Adjournment of the body of Apostle Santiago at the expense of their disciples, from Jerusalem to the current Compostela—, as well as for the circumstances that surround their premiere in the festivity of the Holy Boss of Spain, supported by the Chapter of Santiago, undoubtedly, it can be considered a manifestation submitted to the cathedral clergy power opposite to other power, civil and religious, of the town.

    Varios autores aluden en sus estudios a la existencia de una “ópera” compuesta por el maestro de la catedral de Santiago de Compostela Buono Chiodi, para el Año Santo de 1773. Hasta la actualidad no ha sido posible hallar ningún rastro de la música de tal obra, por lo que no podemos pronunciarnos sobre la calidad de la misma. Pese a todo, es de sumo interés el libreto, recientemente aparecido entre los fondos de la Biblioteca Nacional. Tanto por la temática que aborda —la Traslación del cuerpo del Apóstol Santiago desde Jerusalén a Compostela— como por haber estado auspiciado su estreno por el Cabildo de Santiago, sin duda, puede considerarse una obra al servicio del poder del clero catedralicio frente a otros poderes, civiles y religiosos, de la ciudad.

  1. Santiago, four Decades and a Half from the University of East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynier Rodríguez-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The text introduces the Taller Literario and the Revista de la Universidad de Oriente as direct antecedent of the Santiago magazine, in that sense it places the magazine in the center of an editorial process generated by the university after the addition to the institution of Nils Castro, a professor from Panama. The text also values the circumstances of the period were the Santiago magazine abandons it printed format and projects the way followed by the institution in the next years. In adittion, the review celebrates the role of the editor of scientific magazines in the communication of science and technological innovation results of universities.

  2. Mérida , clave en la fundación de la Orden de Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2004-01-01

    En este articulo se expone qué la razón por la cual la Orden de los Fratres de Caceras se transformó en la Orden Militar de Santiago, a instancias del obispo de Compostela, radicó en que, a cambio de unos beneficios que éste concedió a Pedro Fernández, el maestre de los cacereños, la nueva Orden, en su avance reconquistador hacia el Sur, no debería reclamar la restauración de la sede arzobispal de Mérida, trasladada interinamente a Santiago mientras su sede emeritense estuviera ocupada por lo...

  3. Pour une vision régionale de Santiago du Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilla-Bravo, Gerardo; Antier, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Description générale du processus de la planification régionale et de l’aménagement depuis ces quarante dernières années dans la Région Métropolitaine de Santiago. De même, nous décrivons l’enjeu du Plan d’aménagement du territoire proposé par le Gouvernement Métropolitain de Santiago, pour dépasser le regard sectoriel actuel des Ministères au Chili.

  4. Television's influence in the Zutujil community of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Caballeros Gálvez, Gabriel Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Television's influence in the Zutujil community of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala Description of the Subject Santiago Atitlán is a town in the province of Sololá in the highlands of Guatemala. It's population is constituted by indígenas of the Mayan-Zutujil-ethnic group. The culture of the Zutujil's is characterized by a well organized social structure that allowed them in 1990, after the military massacre of 13 persons -still within the Civil War period- to be the only indigenous...

  5. Cultural consumption in Santiago de Cuba: an analysis from the social stratification in Enramadas Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la C. Martínez-Tena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, the existence of a close interrelation between the processes of development of the culture, the consumptions and the urban dynamics is evident. In a scenario of intense social relations, such as the city of Santiago de Cuba, being the preferential spaces of localization, they are acquiring a relevance in the studies of cultural consumption, with diverse optics and plural gnoseological frameworks. The objective of this article is to evaluate the emergence of segments of Santiago society, mainly composed of young people, which point to the presence of an idle, non - productive class associated with consumption.

  6. Estructura administrativa de la Provincia de Bogotá durante el periodo comprendido entre 1832- 1857

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Robledo, Luz Marina

    2010-01-01

    El estudio de la estructura administrativa de la provincia de Bogotá en el siglo IX es importante por cuanto se muestra por primera vez cuales fueron los primeros entes administrativos que se crearon durante este periodo, fundamentalmente durante la vigencia de la constitución de 1832. El régimen territorial de las provincias se dividió a su vez en cantones y éstos, en distritos parroquiales.

  7. Inmunofenotipo de leucemias agudas del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, durante el periodo 2011-julio 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Oscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Moore, Carla; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Rojas, John; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Díaz, David; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Peña, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Marangoni, Manuela; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Delgado, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de leucemias agudas, por inmunofenotipo. Diseño: Descriptivo transversal. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo (HNDM). Participantes: Pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas atendidos en el HNDM en el periodo 2011-julio 2012. Intervenciones: A todos los pacientes se realizó hemograma, mielograma, citometría de flujo (sangre medular). Principales medidas de resultados: Prevalencia de...

  8. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  9. Santiago de Chile: antecedentes demográficos, expansión urbana y conflictos./ Santiago de Chile: demographic background for the urban sprawl and its conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferrando Acuña

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuando la expansión de Santiago se efectuó sobre los sectores rurales circundantes y también, en los últimos decenios, en polígonos altos en busca de mejores condiciones ambientales y de calidad de vida, también impensadamente, se efectuó hacia áreas de mayor riesgo. La ciudad ha cuadruplicado su superficie en los últimos 50 años y se acerca al límite de su capacidad de carga, presionado por la ocupación de áreas morfodinámicamente inestables. Son, por lo tanto, motivo de especial preocupación los desastres asociados en parte a procesos naturales, a los que están expuestas ciudades como Santiago, con una expansión asociada a un proceso de desplanificación activado desde 1979 y que dio término a los 50 años del Estado Planificador (1929-1979./When the urban growth of Santiago overlapped its rural environment, it also overlapped risk zones. in the last half century, the city has quadrupled its surface and is getting to the limit of usable land before using morphodynamic unstable zones.

  10. Size distribution of PM at Cape Verde - Santiago Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Cerqueira, M.; Custodio, D.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    The archipelago of Cape Verde is located on the eastern North Atlantic, about 500 km west of the African coast. Its geographical location, inside the main area of dust transport over tropical Atlantic and near the coast of Africa, is strongly affected by mineral dust from the Sahara and the Sahel regions. In the scope of the CVDust project a surface field station was implemented in the surroundings of Praia City, Santiago Island (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level), where aerosol sampling throughout different samplers was performed during one year. To study the size distribution of aerosol, an optical dust monitor (Grimm 180), from 0.250 to 32 μm in 31 size channels, was running almost continuously from January 2011 to December 2011. The performance of Grimm 180 to quantify PM mass concentration in an area affected by the transport of Saharan dust particles was evaluated throughout the sampling period by comparison with PM10 mass concentrations obtained with the gravimetric reference method (PM10 TSI High-Volume, PM10 Partisol and PM10 TCR-Tecora). PM10 mass concentration estimated with the Grimm 180 dust monitor, an optical counter, showed a good correlation with the reference gravimetric method, with R2= 0.94 and a linear regression equation of PM10Grimm = 0.81PM10TCR- 5.34. The number and mass size distribution of PM at ground level together with meteorological and back trajectories were analyzed and compared for different conditions aiming at identifying different signatures related to sources and dust transport. January and February, the months when most Saharan dust events occurred, showed the highest concentrations, with PM10 daily average of 66.6±60.2 μg m-3 and 91.6±97.4 μg m-3, respectively. During these months PM1 and PM2.5 accounted for less than 11% and 47% of PM10 respectively, and the contribution of fine fractions (PM1 and PM2.5) to PM mass concentrations tended to increase for the other months. During Saharan dust events, the PM2

  11. Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Elshorbany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation capacity of the highly polluted urban area of Santiago, Chile has been evaluated during a summer measurement campaign carried out from 8–20 March 2005. The hydroxyl (OH radical budget was evaluated employing a simple quasi-photostationary-state model (PSS constrained with simultaneous measurements of HONO, HCHO, O3, NO, NO2, j(O1D, j(NO2, 13 alkenes and meteorological parameters. In addition, a zero dimensional photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1 has been used to estimate production rates and total free radical budgets, including OH, HO2 and RO2. Besides the above parameters, the MCM model has been constrained by the measured CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs including alkanes and aromatics. Both models simulate the same OH concentration during daytime indicating that the primary OH sources and sinks included in the simple PSS model predominate. Mixing ratios of the main OH radical precursors were found to be in the range 0.8–7 ppbv (HONO, 0.9–11 ppbv (HCHO and 0–125 ppbv (O3. The alkenes average mixing ratio was ~58 ppbC accounting for ~12% of the total identified non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. During the daytime (08:00 h–19:00 h, HONO photolysis was shown to be the most important primary OH radical source comprising alone ~55% of the total initial production rate, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~24% and photolysis of HCHO (~16% and O3 (~5%. The calculated average and maximum daytime OH production rates from HONO photolysis was 1.7 ppbv h−1 and 3.1 ppbv h−1, respectively. Based on the experimental results a strong photochemical daytime source of HONO is proposed. A detailed analysis of the sources of OH radical precursors has also been carried out.

  12. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  13. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo A. Garcia-Chevesich; Sergio Alvarado; Daniel G. Neary; Rodrigo Valdes; Juan Valdes; Juan Jose Aguirre; Marcelo Mena; Roberto Pizarro; Paolo Jofre; Mauricio Vera; Claudio Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of...

  14. Drawing into abstraction. Practices of observation and visualisation in the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rijcke, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Santiago Ramon y Cajal's neurohistological work marked a turning point in ongoing debates on the morphology of the nervous system. From 1888 onwards, he published extensively on the anatomic unity of the nerve cell. His experiments with the chrome silver stain resulted in highly particular ways of

  15. Os fantasmas pornô de Santiago Nazarian e seus adolescentes bizarros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen El-Kadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the book of short stories Pornofantasma (Record, 2011 by Santiago Nazarian. The focus of this analysis is the connections between the text and the genre of pornography and pop culture, as well as the way the author ques- tions centers and margins of power using the aforementioned genres.

  16. Mérida, clave en la fundación de la Orden de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se expone qué la razón por la cual la Orden de los Fratres de Caceras se transformó en la Orden Militar de Santiago, a instancias del obispo de Compostela, radicó en que, a cambio de unos beneficios que éste concedió a Pedro Fernández, el maestre de los cacereños, la nueva Orden, en su avance reconquistador hacia el Sur, no debería reclamar la restauración de la sede arzobispal de Mérida, trasladada interinamente a Santiago mientras su sede emeritense estuviera ocupada por los musulmanes.In this article we are golng to expose that the reason for which the Order of the Fratres of Cáceres was transformed into the Military Order of Santiago at the request of the bishop of Compostela was possible because in exchange for some benefits that he gave Pedro fernández, the Knight of the cecereños, the new Orden in its reconquest advance to the South, shouldn't reclaim the retornatlon of the archiepiscopal see of Mérida, moved temporally to Santiago while it was occupied by the Moslem.

  17. El turismo cultural como factor estratégico de desarrollo: el Camino de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precedo Ledo, Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study one of the strategies of territorial marketing of greater success: the promotion of the Way of Santiago and the mark of the Xacobeo. The approach of the study attack from the perspective of its contribution to the territorial, as much rural development (the Galician section of the Way like urban (the city of Santiago de Compostela. The departure hypothesis is that, in both cases, the cultural tourism has worked like a complementary factor of development being necessary to insert it in a model of integrated development to optimize its potential of share capital.

    El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar una de las estrategias de marketing territorial de mayor éxito: la promoción del Camino de Santiago y la marca del Xacobeo. El enfoque del estudio se aborda desde la perspectiva de su contribución al desarrollo territorial, tanto rural (el tramo gallego del Camino como urbano (la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. La hipótesis de partida es que, en ambos casos, el turismo cultural ha funcionado como un factor complementario de desarrollo siendo necesario insertarlo en un modelo de desarrollo integrado para optimizar su potencial de capital social.

  18. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  19. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  20. Parental Attitude and Practice Regarding Physical Punishment of School Children in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nelson A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Attitudes and practices regarding child physical punishment were surveyed in Santiago (Chile) with 423 parents from 2 public schools and 104 parents from a private Catholic school, 98 private school students in grades 7 and 8, and 84 state school students. Results showed a high prevalence of physical punishment and a high proportion of students…

  1. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely

  2. The many arts in Santiago, by João Moreira Salles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Fux

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the documentary Santiago, by João Moreira Salles, exploring the many arts of the main character Santiago. Besides being very rich in its autobiographic approach, the film allows us to establish some connections with literature and some characters of Borges and Flaubert, as it relates to performance and documentary theories. Santiago, disguised as a butler for over four decades, began to accumulate delusions. While working at the residence of the Moreira Salles, he typed 30,000 cards, classified and cataloged his own story and the “history of great men”. His notes are the record of his passage through Literature and History. The film by João Moreira Salles ensures Santiago’s posterity, in the same way that reports of Dante and the creations and inventions of Borges ensure the existence of their characters. Santiago, as a Flaubert’s copyist, lives and is reinvented on the screen through his testimony, memory, art and through the auto fictional documentary by Salles.

  3. Development of methods for evaluating options for improving air quality in Santiago, Chile and its environs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Brown, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Santiago, Chile has a serious air pollution problem. Aerosols reach very high levels and ozone exceeds US ambient standards on over 100 days a year. Chileans are very concerned about the poor air quality of Santiago and the effect of emissions from their copper smelters both near Santiago and at other sites. Officials from both the Santiago metropolitan air quality commission (La Comision Especial de Descontaminacion de le Region Metropolitana) and a government owned copper development company (La Empress Nacional de Mineria (ENAMI)) have asked for assistance to deal with the air quality problems in the city and associated with smelter emissions. This report describes the first steps in that effort. Santiago lies in a valley between a small coastal range to the west and the towering Andes to the cast. Air motion is greatly affected by the major topographical features which include the Pacific Ocean, the coastal range, and the Andes. In this first year of work the authors concentrated on gathering information on the meteorology, topography, and air quality of the metropolitan region. They examined two smelter sites and applied models to them to help their understanding and to provide assistance to ENAMI. One smelter, Ventanas, was located on the Pacific coast to the northwest of Santiago, while the other, Paipote, was located several hundred kilometers to the north. The Ventanas emissions may potentially affect Santiago air quality. Several advantages of working with the smelters in the first phase of the project are: (1) there is more monitoring in the vicinity of the smelters, (2) the development of a useful emission inventory is easier, (3) they pose a simpler problem of immediate interest whose resolution will provide an early benefit to the Chilean colleagues, and (4) the authors gain important experience as they prepare to delve deeper into Santiago`s air pollution problems.

  4. Evolution of aerosol loading in Santiago de Chile between 1997 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Gallardo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    While aerosols produced by major cities are a significant component of anthropogenic climate forcing as well as an important factor in public health, many South American cities have not been a major focus of aerosol studies due in part to relatively few long-term observations in the region. Here we present a synthesis of the available data for the emerging megacity of Santiago, Chile. We report new results from a recent NASA AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) site in the Santiago basin, combining these with previous AERONET observations in Santiago as well as with a new assessment of the 11-station air quality monitoring network currently administered by the Chilean Environment Ministry (MMA, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente) to assess changes in aerosol composition since 1997. While the average surface concentration of pollution components (specifically PM2.5 and PM10) has decreased, no significant change in total aerosol optical depth was observed. However, changes in aerosol size and composition are suggested by the proxy measurements. Previous studies have revealed limitations in purely satellite-based studies over Santiago due to biases from high surface reflection in the region, particularly in summer months (e.g. Escribano et al 2014). To overcome this difficulty and certain limitations in the air quality data, we next incorporate analysis of aerosol products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument along with those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, both on NASA's Terra satellite, to better quantify the high bias of MODIS. Thus incorporating these complementary datasets, we characterize the aerosol over Santiago over the period 1997 to 2014, including the evolution of aerosol properties over time and seasonal dependencies in the observed trends. References: Escribano et al (2014), "Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth over a Subtropical Urban Area: The Role of Stratification and Surface

  5. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    ...) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW...

  6. Determinantes y perfiles de la participacion laboral en Colombia en el periodo 2002-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor Ivan Gonzalez-Quintero; Nancy Aireth Daza Baez

    2015-01-01

    Para establecer los determinantes de la participación laboral en Colombia, sobre una muestra de individuos con representatividad nacional, así como el aporte de cada uno de estos determinantes a la dinámica de la tasa de participación en el periodo 2002-2013, se estiman modelos tipo probit y se establecen perfiles de participación, a partir de las probabilidades estimadas, condicionadas para cuatro grupos de mujeres y hombres en diferentes rangos de edad. Se concluye que alcanzar niveles de e...

  7. Estereotipos sobre el envejecimiento seg?n el periodo del desarrollo y el g?nero

    OpenAIRE

    Sandino Forero, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta el dr?stico aumento en Colombia y el mundo de la poblaci?n adulta mayor la pir?mide poblacional se ha invertido. Lo que ha generado que cada vez haya m?s adultos mayores y la esperanza de vida sea mayor. Motivo por el cual surge la importancia de conocer diversos aspectos del envejecimiento, entre ellos los estereotipos. Adicionalmente hay muy poca investigaci?n relacionada con los estereotipos sobre el envejecimiento seg?n el g?nero y el periodo de desarrollo. Levy (2009)...

  8. Elección de fluidos en el periodo perioperatorio del trasplante renal

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Gonzalez-Castro; María Ortiz-Lasa; Yhivian Peñasco; Camilo González; Carmen Blanco; Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Borregan

    2017-01-01

    El suero salino normal (SSN) ha sido clásicamente el fluido de resucitación elegido en el periodo perioperatorio del trasplante renal frente a aquellas soluciones balanceadas con potasio. Sin embargo, los problemas derivados de la hipercloremia desencadenada por la infusión de SSN han llevado a la realización de estudios que comparaban esta solución con los fluidos equilibrados. Mediante la presente revisión narrativa se deduce que el uso de cristaloides balanceados con contenido de potasio e...

  9. Prevalencia de tumores odontogénicos en el Hospital Base Valdivia: periodo 1989-2008

    OpenAIRE

    L.C. Thiers; C.C. Sotomayor; F.I. Peters; P.C. Lantaño; L.S. Thiers

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Este artículo corresponde a un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal, tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de tumores odontogénicos en la población atendida en el Hospital Base Valdivia, en un periodo de 20 años (1989-2008), según la nueva clasificación de lesiones tumorales de la WHO, 2005. Metodología: Se revisaron 2.078 informes de biopsias correspondientes a lesiones de la cavidad oral de los archivos de informes del servicio de Anatomía Patológ...

  10. Promotional cultural poster: Major features of the sociocultural peak in Santiago de Cuba city, between 1970-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    During 70´s and 80´s of the last century, the promotional cultural poster in Santiago de Cuba gained a remarkable peak, due to historical and culturals conditions. Many important institutions were founded, that promote graphic design and sociocultural actions in the city, expressed in a lot of cultural events in that period. Nonetheless is impossible deny the education that acquired artists and designers, who with their creations increased the graphic arts movement in Santiago de Cuba, becaus...

  11. Santiago de Chile: Metropolización, globalización, desigualdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodríguez

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo describe cómo la pobreza y la exclusión dentro de Santiago ha sido pasada por alto en parte debido al fuerte desempeño económico y al positivo conjunto de indicadores sociales que la ciudad exhibe. Enfatiza cuán segregada se ha vuelto la ciudad, subrayando la fragmentación política y las grandes diferencias entre las 34 municipalidades que conforman el Gran Santiago en lo que se refiere a ingreso per cápita, calidad de la educación, cobertura de la inversión en edificación y los niveles de ingreso y gasto de las autoridades municipales. También describe la pérdida de espacio social y físico para la interacción pública y el crecimiento de una percepción de inseguridad. Sugiere que tales problemas en parte se relacionan con una falta de estructuras democráticas en Santiago ya que la ciudad carece de un gobierno metropolitano representativo y además el poder, los recursos y la toma de decisiones permanecen en un plano nacionalThe paper describes how poverty and exclusion within Santiago has been overlooked, in part, because of the city’s strong economic performance and impressive aggregate social indicators. It highlights how segregated the city has become -for instance the political fragmentation and the difference between the 34 municipalities that conform Santiago in terms of their per capita income, quality of education, extent of new building investment, and municipal authority levels of income and expenditure. It also describes the loss of social and physical space for public interaction and the rising perception of insecurity. It suggests that such problems are in part linked to the lack of democratic structures within Santiago since it lacks a democratic metropolitan government. Power, resources and decisions remain within national ministries

  12. COLECCIÓN DE GERMOPLASMA DE ESPECIES DE LA FAMILIA Orchidaceae DEL CANTÓN SANTIAGO DE MÉNDEZ - MORONA SANTIAGO, ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cerna, Marco; Cárdenas, Silvana; Cruz, Andrea; Jácome, Ivonne

    2014-01-01

    Las amenazas antrópicas que reciben diversos hábitats de las orquídeas, han promovido iniciativas en pro de su conservación; por consiguiente, el almacenamiento de semillas de orquídeas en un banco de germoplasma, constituye una herramienta biotecnológica útil para la conservación de las especies amenazadas de este grupo taxonómico. El presente estudio tuvo dos fases: una en campo y otra en laboratorio. La recolección en campo, se realizó en tres zonas del cantón Santiago de Méndez: Copal, Tr...

  13. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Homosexual Discretion and Good Taste: Two Rules That Govern Homosexual Sociability Space in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, Pablo Astudillo

    2015-01-01

    Homosexual sociability space in Santiago is not socially homogenous. Beyond non-heterosexual identities segmentation (gay, lesbian, queer, BDSM, etc.), the present article proposes a reflection observing certain social distinctions or differences that come into play to create a hierarchy among gay and lesbian individuals within that space. Using a qualitative approximation, we analyze the discourse of homosexual men and women about ways to display homosexuality in different places in the city, as well as some sociability practices used in homosexual venues. The resulting social hierarchy is understood through two central subjective rules: discretion and good taste, dynamic mechanisms that perpetuate the distance among groups within the same sociability space, and to some extent reproduce the city's class structure. Given that material means to privatize and sophisticate homosexual expression are unequally distributed in Santiago, the resulting differentiated social networks end up configuring the visibility strategies of homosexual identity played out in the city in the last years.

  15. Pilgrimage and Pilgrim Hierarchies in Vernacular Discourse: Comparative Notes from the Camino de Santiago and Glastonbury

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    Tiina Sepp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false This article is based on my fieldwork conducted in two important destinations in the spiritual landscape of European vernacular religion – the Camino de Santiago (pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain, and Glastonbury in southwest England. In this comparison between modern expressions of pilgrimage, I look into the power relationships that exist on the pilgrimage, describe how hierarchies of pilgrims are created and maintained, and reflect on the meaning of the words pilgrim and pilgrimage. The co-existence of the different belief systems of Christianity and New Age and the conflicts and tension between them will be explored. I will also examine discourse around competing male and female energies. 

  16. Precisiones sobre un altar de la iglesia madrileña de las Comendadoras de Santiago

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    Jesús Ángel Sánchez Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el altar del Santísimo Sacramento que se localiza en la iglesia de las Comendadoras de Santiago (Madrid, en cuya realización participaron diversos artistas: el arquitecto José Fernández Piedra, el pintor Jacinto Gómez Pastor y, acaso, uno de los hermanos Michel (Roberto y Pedro, o algún escultor de su círculo.We analyse the altar of the Saint Sacrament that it`s located in the church of the Comendadoras of Santiago (Madrid, in whose realisation several artists participated: the architect José Fernández Piedra, the painter Jacinto Gómez Pastor and, maybe, one of the Michel brothers (Roberto and Pedro, or some sculptor of his circle.

  17. Congenital Chagas disease of second generation in Santiago, Chile. Report of two cases

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    SCHENONE Hugo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease (CChD has been reported in different countries, mostly in Latin America. In 1987 a fatal case of CChD of second generation (CChDSG was published. Within a period of six months - 1989-1990 - two cases of CChDSG were diagnosed and studied in the city of Santiago. Two premature newborns, sons of two sisters, with moderate liver and spleen enlargement, were found to have positive serology for Chagas disease and xenodiagnoses. The mothers, urban residents all their lives, without antecedents of triatomine bugs contact or blood transfusions, showed positive serology and xenodiagnoses. Their mother (grandmother of the infants, lived 20 years in a Northern rural Chagas disease endemic locality, in a triatomine infested house. Afterwards, she moved to Santiago, where she married and has resided up to now. Serology and xenodiagnoses were also positive. All the Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals were successfully treated with nifurtimox.

  18. Linguistic characterization of handwritten documents, century XVII in Santiago de Cuba

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    Irina Bidot-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the description from the lexical-semantic-phonic chart and morphosyntactic levels of 40 handwritten documents (baptismal records and notarial protocols located in the provincial and Historical Archive of the Archbishopric of Santiago de Cuba, to contribute to the study of the history of the Cuban variant of the language. This work provides the linguistic description, the paleographic transcription and rescue of the documents under consideration and determination of its formulaic structure that responds generally to the scheme: dating, provision of the Act, references to the participants and signatures of witness. These results are inserted into the line “Documentary sources in eastern of Cuba and its contribution to the rescue, preservation and promotion of heritage” VLIR Project “Social, humanities and architecture: Facing the Challenges of Local Development in Santiago de Cuba. The Enhancement of Heritage Preservation”.

  19. The Telephony in the City of Santiago of Cuba (1893 - 1959

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    Maithe Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial advantages which it specifically contributed the restoration of the telephone in Cuba and in the oriental locality, like an element of modernity that contributed to improve the form of life of the population, as well as the quality of mass media, the subject from its arrival to Santiago of Cuba is very little disclosed and/or not known, to grief that with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution considerably spread the use of the same one and some writings were published on the matter. The present research shows an analysis of the historical evolution of the telephony in the Island, but having like attention center the city of Santiago of Cuba. For it the antecedents of this phenomenon consider, the political, economic-social and cultural circumstances that influenced in their evolution and development, as well as their within the framework local incidence.

  20. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

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    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.Terms like "global city", "diffuse city", "dual city", among others, deserve to be discussed and contrasted with urban processes that are been taking part in Santiago de Chile in the last decades. This article attempts to discuss the convenience of grant to Chile’s capital city these and others adjectives, commonly used in the urban literature

  1. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

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    Jose Luis Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  2. Precordillera Andina de Santiago: Percepciones, actitudes y preferencias en visitantes urbanos

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    Gonzalo De La Fuente-de Val

    2015-04-01

    A partir de los resultados se sugiere desarrollar una gestión activa del paisaje, que involucre las expectativas y necesidades de la población y, un desarrollo urbanístico basado en el desarrollo ambiental sostenible, lo que debería tender a recuperar los paisajes naturales de la precordillera de Santiago como un proyecto común de todos los ciudadanos.

  3. Piezas muebles bajomedievales pertenecientes a la iglesia parroquial de Santiago de La Coruña

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    Barral Rivadulla, María Dolores

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este trabajo tiene como intención fundamental rescatar parte del patrimonio perteneciente a la iglesia parroquial de Santiago de La Coruña, producción artística, tradicionalmente omitida, pero de gran importancia si se intenta analizar a través de la misma la religiosidad y el mundo que las rodea, como piezas manifestación de determinada devoción o creencia.

  4. Posicionamiento de las mujeres como locutoras en las transmisiones de programas radiales en Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Dodds.; Amor, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo busca describir el rol de las mujeres en las radios de Frecuencia Modulada que transmiten en Santiago de Chile. Para ello levanta información respecto a la cantidad de mujeres que ocupan roles de locución y observa a través de la categorización de los programas qué espacios se les han

  5. Inducing visibilities: an attempt at Santiago Ramón y Cajal's aesthetic epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Erna

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, I consider Santiago Ramón y Cajal's strategy of histological observation and imaging in terms of what I call "induction of visibility" (Fiorentini, 2011). Cajal's strategy of visibility induction drew upon both rational and aesthetic visual sensibility, and considered this interplay to be a constitutive element of knowledge production. I propose to describe Cajal's fundamental attitude towards visually inferred knowledge in terms of an "aesthetic epistemology". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Precordillera de Santiago de Chile: Percepciones, actitudes y preferencias de visitantes urbanos

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    Gonzalo De la Fuente-De Val

    2015-03-01

    A partir de los resultados se sugiere desarrollar una gestión activa del paisaje, que involucre las expectativas y necesidades de la población y, un desarrollo urbanístico basado en el desarrollo ambiental sostenible, lo que debería tender a recuperar los paisajes naturales de la precordillera de Santiago como un proyecto común de todos los ciudadanos.

  7. [Causes of blindness and disability pensions in the eastern metropolitan area of Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikart, A; Charlin, R; Stoppel, J; Jara, R; Maul de la Puente, E

    1991-05-01

    Between June 1983 and September 1987, 2799 disability pensions were given in the East Santiago Area, population 676,269. Of them, 222 (7.9%) were due to ophthalmological causes. Blindness as defined by the WHO was present in 57 cases. It was caused by myopia (33%), glaucoma (21%), diabetic retinopathy (9.8%), retinal detachment, cataract and optic atrophy (5.2%) and ocular trauma (3.5%).

  8. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

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    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  9. The obligation to rescue captives and the Order of Santiago (1517-1535

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    Pedro Andrés Porras Arboledas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the reign of the Emperor Carlos V the Order of Santiago contributed, so much of passive as active form, to the rescue of captive Christians retained in the north of Africa; for this intention it relied on a bottom of eventual income that it tried to attend to his obligations as redeeming institution, since it receives documents specially in 1525 and 1535.

  10. Nueva instalación de telecomunicaciones. Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, España

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    Foster and Partners, Sir Norman

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of Sir Norman Foster and Partners for the Telecommunications Center of Monte Pedroso in Santiago Compostela departs from the conventional type of tall telecommunications tower, which has been consolidated in the last third of the XX century. The architecture of this kind of facilities, conditioned technologically and functionally, undergoes continuous evolution in accordance with the extremely rapid progress of the telecommunication systems. The article explains the fundamentals of the novel typological approach of the Santiago Telecommunications Center, inducing the reader to reflect on the importance that the considerations relative to the site, function and construction have in the process of generating an architectural form.

    La propuesta de Sir Norman Foster and Partners para el Centro de Telecomunicaciones del Monte Pedroso en Santiago de Compostela, se aleja del tipo convencional de torre de telecomunicaciones desarrollada en altura que se ha consolidado durante el último tercio del siglo XX. La arquitectura de esta clase de instalaciones, tan condicionada tecnológicamente y funcionalmente, está sometida a una continua evolución en consonancia con el vertiginoso progreso de los sistemas de telecomunicación. El artículo expone los fundamentos del novedoso planteamiento tipológico del Centro de Telecomunicaciones de Santiago, invitando a la reflexión sobre la trascendencia que las consideraciones relativas al lugar, la función y la construcción tienen en el proceso de generación de la forma arquitectónica.

  11. Cultural Identity and Citizenship in Poverty–Stricken Areas in Santiago, Chile

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    Cristian Cabalin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a qualitative study in La Victoria, a shantytown in Santiago de Chile with a long history of urban mobilization that goes back to the 50's, this paper examines how cultural identities shape political representation and contribute to social exclusion. The results suggest that the origins of the shantytown left an important imprint on its residents delineating their cultural identity in ways that limit their political and social integration.

  12. Ecological factors and adolescent marijuana use: results of a prospective study in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-03-21

    Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16-1.66), even after controlling for the study's covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. The findings suggest that "poverty", "crime", and "drug problems" may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the "substance abuse environment".

  13. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

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    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  14. PRECORDILLERA DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE: PERCEPCIONES, ACTITUDES Y PREFERENCIAS de VISITANTES URBANOS

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    Gonzalo De la Fuente-De Val

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue conocer las actitudes, percepciones y preferencias de visitantes por los paisajes precordilleranos de Santiago. Se construyó y aplicó un cuestionario a visitantes y se realizaron entrevistas en distintos sitios de la precordillera. Los resultados muestran que los visitantes perciben la precordillera de Santiago como un paisaje deteriorado, debido a la expansión urbana. Concuerdan en que es importante generar una relación armoniosa entre la ciudad y su entorno natural, a través de una ordenación coherente del paisaje; como crear programas de educación ambiental para que la gente conozca y proteja este ecosistema. Además, se constató que la mayoría de los visitantes prefiere paisajes boscosos, poco alterados, y la vegetación natural incide en la valoración positiva de los individuos. A partir de los resultados se sugiere desarrollar una gestión activa del paisaje, que involucre las expectativas y necesidades de la población y, un desarrollo urbanístico basado en el desarrollo ambiental sostenible, lo que debería tender a recuperar los paisajes naturales de la precordillera de Santiago como un proyecto común de todos los ciudadanos.

  15. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

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    Claudio Vásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Claudio Vásquez, School of Architecture, Catholic University of Chile. 1916 El Comendador str. Providencia, Santiago, ZIP: 7530091, Chile. Tel.: +56 9 92826305; E-mail: clvasque@uc.cl This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception. Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed. Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace. The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  16. Eficiencia en el sector financiero colombiano en el periodo 1995-2008

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    ALEJANDRO RAMÍREZ VIGOYA

    2010-01-01

    los años 1995 y 2008. La eficiencia se mide a través de los retornos de los factores de producción, en este caso de los préstamos y los salarios sobre los ingresos de los bancos. Como modelo teórico se utilizan funciones Cobb-Douglas y como modelo econométrico se utilizan datos panel. Se analizan los retornos en modelos de efectos fijos, ya que la muestra es toda la población de bancos comerciales en Colombia. Los modelos que se analizan se corren con efectos por año y con efectos por banco. Uno de los resultados interesantes es que el sector bancario en el periodo analizado presenta rendimientos constantes de escala. Se presenta menor eficiencia de todos los bancos en los años siguientes a la recesión de 1999.

  17. SIN TIERRAS NI LETRAS... HISTORIA DE LA EDUCACION MAPUCHE EN EL PERIODO REDUCCIONAL (1880-1930)

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Este es un estudio que analiza históricamente la educación entregada a los mapuches durante los años reduccionales. Dicho periodo ha sido determinado por la historiografía nacional como el tiempo que transcurrió desde la entrega del primer título de merced en 1884 –un año tras el término de la ocupación de la Araucanía- hasta 1929, cuando se concedió el último de aquellos títulos. Nuestro objetivo principal fue conocer con certeza el número total de niños mapuches que asistieron a la escuela ...

  18. Determinantes y perfiles de la participacion laboral en Colombia en el periodo 2002-2013

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    Nestor Ivan Gonzalez-Quintero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Para establecer los determinantes de la participación laboral en Colombia, sobre una muestra de individuos con representatividad nacional, así como el aporte de cada uno de estos determinantes a la dinámica de la tasa de participación en el periodo 2002-2013, se estiman modelos tipo probit y se establecen perfiles de participación, a partir de las probabilidades estimadas, condicionadas para cuatro grupos de mujeres y hombres en diferentes rangos de edad. Se concluye que alcanzar niveles de educación superior, contar con un ingreso por pensión y la presencia de menores en el hogar son factores importantes para explicar tal dinámica.

  19. Empleo y salarios en argentina en el periodo de la Post-Convertibilidad

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    Nilson Javier Ibagón Martín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Articulo analiza los procesos de precarización laboral que se han dado en Argentina a la largo de los últimos 25 años, haciendo  especial énfasis en el llamado periodo de “post-convertibilidad” o “dólar alto”. En este sentido, se estudia para dicho periodo, la existencia de una serie de continuidades económicas y sociales  heredadas de la década del noventa, las cuales, ponen de manifiesto una serie de estrategias y políticas empleadas por parte de los sectores económicos dominantes, que les han permitido en buena parte, por un lado, transferir a las trabajadores los costos de las crisis económicas, y por otro, frenar el acceso de estos últimos a una             redistribución de la riqueza en tiempos de bonanza y crecimiento.Palabras clave: Empleo; Salarios bajos; Política Monetaria; Desindustrialización; Política Industrial. Employment and wages in argentina in the period of Post-ConvertibilityAbstract Article analyzes the processes of labor precariousness that have occurred in Argentina during the last 25 years, with particular emphasis in the period of “post-convertibility” or “high dollar”. In this direction, the existence of a number of inherited continuities of the nineties is studied. These legacies reveal a series of strategies and policies used by the dominant economic sectors, that have allowed them, on the one hand, transfer the costs of the economic crisis on workers, and secondly, curb the access of this group to a redistribution of wealth in good times and growth.Keywords: Employment; Low Wage; Monetary Policy; Deindustrialization; Industrial Policy.

  20. PERIODO DE INTERNACIONALIZACIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL. ESPECIAL MENCIÓN AL DERECHO A LA VIDA

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    Juan Manuel Valcárcel Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulta indispensable, a la hora de efectuar el análisis de la evolución de los derechos humanos en el bicentenario constitucional colombiano, afrontar el estudio de una de las etapas después de un periodo histórico y nosotros lo llamamos la internacionalización constitucional, como resultado de la suscripción y ratificación de una serie de convenios internacionales. El Estado tiene claras obligaciones en múltiples sentidos, uno de ellos es obviamente el deber de protección y garantía. Ahora bien, no se debe perder de vista el realce de varias figuras jurídicas, tales como el principio del pacta sunt servanda, el bloque de constitucionalidad, y el fenómeno de globalización. Es importante considerar la problemática jurídica del respeto de los derechos humanos. No es un problema del régimen interno de cada Estado, en el sentido de tener que respetar únicamente las previsiones constitucionales, sino que, de manera mucho más extensa, se trata de integrar, complementar y compatibilizar el ordenamiento interno con las obligaciones adquiridas por vía de la firma y ratificación de tratados internacionales, máxime cuando se trata de temas referidos a los derechos humanos. La aproximación que se efectúa en el presente escrito comienza por el derecho primario de la vida, sin duda el más importante de todos los derechos humanos, y su tratamiento en su periodo de internacionalización constitucional, con especial reflexión en torno al Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, como escenario de protección que por excelencia vincula a Colombia.

  1. Planificación urbana-regional y paisaje: impronta de los planes 1960-1994 para Santiago de Chile. / Urban-regional planning and landscape: his mark on the plans for Santiago de Chile 1960-1994.

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    Pavez Reyes, M. Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en el potencial paisajístico del espacio intersticial público incorporado en los planes de ordenamiento territorial para la Región e Intercomuna de Santiago, aprobados técnicamente en 1958 y oficialmente desde 1960, dando la capacidad de soporte fundamental para la transformación de la ciudad tradicional de Santiago en una Metrópoli. / This reflection is referred to the landscaping potential of the interceding public space incorporated into the territorial regulatory plans for the Region and for inter-local authority coordination. These were technically approved in 1958 and officially in 1960, giving the capacity for a fundamental support for the transformation of the traditional city of Santiago into a metropolis.

  2. Vivienda social periurbana en Santiago de Chile: la exclusión a escala regional del trasurbanita de Santiago de Chile

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    César Cáceres-Seguel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La localización periurbana de vivienda social en Santiago de Chile ha sido am-pliamente estudiada desde sus implicancias territoriales y políticas, sin embargo,poco sabemos del impacto de estas urbanizaciones en la calidad de vida delhabitante. Mediante entrevistas con residentes de proyectos localizados en Lampase sugiere el surgimiento detrasurbanitas, para ellos, el acceso a un bienestarbásico depende de habitar cotidianamente territorios fragmentados entre lavivienda periurbana y comunas centrales que albergan servicios urbanos elemen-tales. El subsidio de vivienda desencadena la exclusión a escala regional congrupos habitando bordes periurbanos carentes de transporte público eficiente yservicios básicos.

  3. Tensiones de una triple vocación urbana: San Bernardo en su proceso de absorción por Santiago de Chile / Tensions of a triple urban vocation: San Bernardo and its absorption process from Santiago de Chile

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    Daniela Boccardo Apablaza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl fenómeno expansivo de una metrópoli muchas veces va incorporando a su tejido urbano centralidades preexistentes. Entender los efectos de la absorción metropolitana sobre la centralidad menor, es el objetivo de esta investigación sobre San Bernardo y Santiago de Chile. San Bernardo en su proceso de absorción se ha visto enfrentado a nuevas demandas, que lo tensionan a desempeñarse como periferia o subcentro de Santiago, mientras debe seguir respondiendo como centro y capital de una provincia rural. Se intentará demostrar como paulatinamente las demandas metropolitanas se sobreponen a las demandas locales, alterando la estructura física y social de San Bernardo.Palabras claveÁrea Metropolitana de Santiago, conurbación, expansión urbana, periferia, policentrismo.AbstractThe phenomenon of urban sprawl in a metropolis often adds pre-existing towns to its urban fabric. The aim of this research is to understand the effects of absorption on smaller centralities through the cases of San Bernardo and the metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. San Bernardo in itsabsorption process has been faced new demands, which stress it to responds as either peripheral area or sub-centre of Santiago. Meanwhile, San Bernardo must continue responding as both centre and capital of a rural province. It will attempt to show how gradually overlapping metropolitan demands to local demands, altering the physical and social structure of San Bernardo.KeywordsSantiago Metropolitan Area, conurbation, urban sprawl, periphery, polycentrism.

  4. Transferencia de Tecnología Universidad-Industria en los Estados Unidos, 1997-2003

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    Mario Gómez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una primera aproximación a los procesos de transferencia de tecnología universidad-industria en los Estados Unidos. La puesta en vigor de la Bayh-Dole Act (1980 y de algunas otras leyes relacionadas con la propiedad intelectual, modificaron el régimen de propiedad intelectual estadounidense, facilitado la explotación comercial de los resultados de las investigaciones desarrolladas en las universidades y laboratorios públicos que son financiadas con fondos gubernamentales. Un resultado importante derivado de estos procesos ha sido el surgimiento y desarrollo de los spin-offs y start-ups, empresas que surgen al interior de las mismas universidades y que tienen un gran impacto económico a nivel regional. Se presentan algunos modelos teóricos que estudian los procesos de transferencia de tecnología universidad-industria y la creación y desarrollo de los spin-offs. El trabajo también analiza algunas cifras que ponen de relieve la importancia de esta forma de transferir tecnología en las universidades estadounidenses.

  5. Esquistossomose mansônica no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, 1997-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Patrícia Diniz Cantanhede

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência da esquistossomose mansônica no Maranhão, Brasil, no período de 1997 a 2003, segundo as regionais de saúde contempladas pelo Programa de Controle da Esquistossomose (PCE. O método estatístico utilizado foi a regressão polinomial. Bacabal e São Luís apresentaram tendência decrescente e constante. Colinas demonstrou tendência de incremento até o ano de 2002, com posterior diminuição. Em Imperatriz, observou-se tendência crescente e constante. Concluiu-se que as questões relativas às características socioeconômicas são bastante expressivas no Maranhão e, seguramente, possuem relação com os resultados encontrados. Acredita-se, ainda, que o registro de dados referente às regionais de saúde do estado tenha sido afetado pelas modificações ocorridas por conta da descentralização do PCE. Os resultados deste estudo apontam aspectos que transcendem a análise do padrão de ocorrência de casos de esquistossomose mansônica no Estado do Maranhão, ficando demonstrada, sobretudo, a necessidade de melhorias relacionadas às condições de vida da população.

  6. Spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas in dogs. A retrospective study of 17 cases (1997-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranen, Eyal; Lavy, Eran; Aizenberg, Izhac; Perl, Shmuel; Harrus, Shimon

    2004-01-30

    Seventeen client-owned dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas were retrospectively reviewed. The most common clinical signs noticed were vomiting and/or regurgitation (94%), lethargy and depression (59%), pyrexia and anorexia (41% each). Leukocytosis (82%) and microcytic hypochromic anemia (30%) were the most common hematological abnormalities. Caudal thoracic masses were demonstrated on survey radiographs of 13/15 of the dogs and thoracic spondylitis was detected in 12/15 dogs. Spirocerca lupi eggs were detected in 2/8 patients and worms were demonstrated on 1/11 at necropsy. Ten cases underwent surgical attempt to remove the tumors. In six of them partial esophagectomy (PE) was performed and all of them survived the immediate postoperative hospitalization. Five of the cases that underwent PE also received chemotherapy after surgery (doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Upjohn)) with an average survival time of 267 days. The histopathological results of the esophageal tumors were osteosarcoma (9), fibrosarcoma (5) and undifferentiated sarcoma (1). In areas endemic to spirocercosis, regurgitation or vomiting in dogs and microcytic hypochromic anemia and neutrophilia warrant ruling out esophageal sarcomas. Proper surgical treatment could prolong the dogs' lifespan for months, and improve their quality of life.

  7. Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

    2006-07-31

    This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article.

  8. Changes in French people's misconceptions about hepatitis C, 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, María Teresa Muñoz; Monsirmen, Sandie; Morin, Gabrielle; Presutto, Emilie; Séguéla, Laurence; Vinel, Jean-Pierre; Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul Clay

    2006-02-01

    The French health authorities instituted in 1999 a campaign to educate physicians, high-risk populations, and the public about hepatitis C (HC). To what extent has knowledge about HC increased among members of the French public? A convenience sample of 706 French adults, aged 18 to 87, completed in 2003 a questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge of HC. Their responses were compared to those in 1997 of a different group of French adults on an identical questionnaire. Between 1997 and 2003, knowledge significantly improved on 13 of the 26 items for which strong expert-public differences were found in 1997 and significantly worsened on 3 items. France's public education campaign led to only a limited increase in knowledge about HC. Further public education is needed.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Oklahoma: 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Anne; Buriak, Susan

    2008-11-01

    To describe the incidence of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Oklahoma residents. Case data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry for Oklahomans diagnosed between 1997 and 2003. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for four racial and ethnic groups as well as four histological subtypes. 3,687 cases were diagnosed between 1997 and 2003, which was an average age-adjusted incidence rate of 14.9 cases per 100,000 Oklahomans. A 23% increase occurred in the AAIR between 1997 and 2003. A non-significantly elevated SIR was found among American Indians (AI) when compared to Whites: 1.12 (0.78-1.18). African Americans had a significantly lower SIR when compared to Whites: 0.72 (0.44-0.79). AI males were found to have increasing incidence throughout their lifetime, with the highest rate occurring in the oldest age group. This differs from the other racial/ethnic groups analyzed whose rates decreased in this age group. Further research is warranted to identify factors that may increase risk of development of NHL for American Indians in Oklahoma.

  10. Diffuse CO2 fluxes from Santiago and Congro volcanic lakes (São Miguel, Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Cruz, José; Viveiros, Fátima; Branco, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse CO2 degassing occurring in Santiago and Congro lakes, both located in depressions associated to maars from São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), was studied through detailed flux measurements. Four sampling campaigns were developed between 2013 and 2016 in each water body, split by the cold and wet seasons. São Miguel has an area of 744.6 km2, being the largest island of the archipelago. The geology of the island is dominated by three quiescent central volcanoes (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas), linked by volcanic fissural zones (Picos and Congro Fissural Volcanic systems). The oldest volcanic systems of the island are located in its eastern part (Povoação-Nordeste). Santiago lake, with a surface area of 0.26 km2 and a depth of 30.5 m, is located inside a maar crater in the Sete Cidades volcano at an altitude of 355 m. The watershed of the lake has an area of 0.97 km2 and a surface flow estimated as 1.54x10 m3/a. A total of 1612 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method were made at Santiago lake, 253 in the first campaign (November 2013), and 462, 475 and 422 in the three other campaigns, respectively, in April 2014, September 2016 and December 2016. The total CO2 flux estimated for this lake varies between 0.4 t d-1 and 0.59 t d-1, for the surveys performed, respectively, in November 2013 and September 2016; higher CO2 outputs of 1.57 and 5.87 t d-1 were calculated for the surveys carried out in April 2014 and December 2016. These higher CO2 emissions were associated with a period without water column stratification. Similarly to Santiago lake, Congro lake is located inside a maar, in the Congro Fissural Volcanic system, and has a surface area of 0.04 km2 with 18.5 m depth and a storage of about 2.4x105 m3/a. The lake, located at an altitude of 420 m, is fed by a watershed with an area of 0.33 km2 and a runoff estimated as about 8x104 m3/a. In Congro lake a total of 713 CO2 flux measurements were performed during four surveys from

  11. Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health effects of particulate air pollution are widely recognized and there is some evidence that the magnitude of these effects vary by particle component. We studied the effects of ambient fine particles (aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and their components on cause-specific mortality in Santiago, Chile, where particulate pollution is a major public health concern. Methods Air pollution was collected in a residential area in the center of Santiago. Daily mortality counts were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic. The associations between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality were studied by time series analysis controlling for time trends, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity. We then included an interaction term between PM2.5 and the monthly averages of the mean ratios of individual elements to PM2.5 mass. Results We found significant effects of PM2.5 on all the causes analyzed, with a 1.33% increase (95% CI: 0.87-1.78 in cardiovascular mortality per 10μg/m3 increase in the two days average of PM2.5. We found that zinc was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. Particles with high content of chromium, copper and sulfur showed stronger associations with respiratory and COPD mortality, while high zinc and sodium content of PM2.5 amplified the association with cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PM2.5 with high zinc, chromium, copper, sodium, and sulfur content have stronger associations with mortality than PM2.5 mass alone in Santiago, Chile. The sources of particles containing these elements need to be determined to better control their emissions.

  12. Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be

  13. Eficiencia energética en escuela rural de Pellegrini, Santiago del Estero

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Gabriela; Garzón, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objeto estudiar el rediseño arquitectónico para la adecuación térmico-energética de una escuela rural en Santiago del Estero, Argentina; con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar las condiciones de confort de los usuarios de este hábitat educativo, a través del empleo racional de la energía convencional. Los resultados alcanzados fueron: 1) Definición de condicionantes geográficas y climáticas, 2) Determinación de estrategias y selección de pautas bioambientales,...

  14. En el Camino de Santiago. Huellas y memoria del Camino en Burgos.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Navarro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Por la provincia de Burgos transita un tramo del Camino de Santiago lleno de vestigios de la ruta medieval, tanto en la documentación y los estudios académicos, como sobre el terreno físico que recorre. Este trabajo pretende reconocer dichos vestigios, en todos sus ámbitos, y así confrontar lo analizado sobre el papel -la labor investigadora sobre el Camino es inmensa, y a día de hoy aún continúa- con lo analizado al pie de la vía jacobea. Recorreremos, los casi 120 km que el c...

  15. Del cine documental de Santiago Alvarez al audiovisual cubano contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Damas, Maribel

    2017-01-01

    El 1960 se funda en Noticiero ICAIC latinoamericano como parte del cine que se fomentó en Cuba posterior a 1959. Este noticiero, dirigido por el gran documentalista cubano Santiago Álvarez, significó una radical transformación estética y ética del cine y dio lugar a un singular fenómeno de empatía entre el público y la emisión del noticiero de cada semana. Asimismo tuvo una notable influencia en el surgimiento noticieros similares en Latinoamérica y de un cine guerrilla de gran ascendencia ...

  16. Protección civil, población, vulnerabilidad y riesgo en Santiago Miltepec, Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Toscana Aparicio

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo fue analizar la forma en que el nivel de gobierno municipal actúa frente a los “pequeños desastres” asociados a fenómenos naturales, entendiendo por “pequeños desastres” aquéllos que impactan en la escala local pero sus consecuencias no trascienden del ámbito municipal. Se toma como punto de partida el evento ocurrido el 30 de junio de 2006 en la delegación Santiago Miltepec de la ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México, en el que durante una intensa precipitación pluvial, grandes bloq...

  17. Narcocultura y signos de transfronterización en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ganter Solis, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo busca explorar las interacciones entre narcocultura, las dinámicas de apropiación local de dicho estilo de vida y los procesos de transfronterización que se ponen en juego en este campo de relaciones. Se indaga, además, en las posibles confluencias entre dicho estilo y la configuración del Chile actual. Para este propósito, se analiza el caso de una población histórica ubicada en el centro de la ciudad de Santiago y fuertemente ocupada por bandas de narcotraficantes. Con el objeto...

  18. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  19. Susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti from Santiago Island, Cabo Verde, to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hélio Daniel Ribeiro; Paiva, Marcelo Henrique Santos; Silva, Norma Machado; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Camacho, Denise dos Reis da Rosa de Azevedo; Moura, Aires Januário Fernandes da; Gómez, Lara Ferrero; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, Cabo Verde diagnosed the first dengue cases, with 21,137 cases reported and Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector. Since the outbreak, chemical insecticides and source reduction were used to control the mosquito population. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of A. aegypti populations from Santiago, Cabo Verde to insecticides and identify the mechanisms of resistance. Samples of A. aegypti eggs were obtained at two different time periods (2012 and 2014), using ovitraps in different locations in Santiago Island to establish the parental population. F1 larvae were exposed to different concentrations of insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti), diflubenzuron and temephos) to estimate the lethal concentrations (LC90) and calculate the respective rate of resistance (RR90). Semi-field tests using temephos-ABATE(®) were performed to evaluate the persistence of the product. Bottle tests using female mosquitoes were carried out to determine the susceptibility to the adulticides malathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Biochemical and molecular tests were performed to investigate the presence of metabolic resistance mechanisms, associated with the enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), esterases and mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and to detect mutations or alterations in the sodium channel and acetylcholinesterase genes. A. aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago exhibited resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin (mortality<80%) and temephos (RR90=4.4) but susceptibility to malathion (mortality≥98%), Bti and diflubenzuron. The low level of resistance to temephos did not affect the effectiveness of Abate(®). The enzymatic analysis conducted in 2012 revealed slight changes in the activities of GST (25%), MFO (18%), α-esterase (19%) and β-esterase (17%), but no significant changes in 2014. Target site resistance mutations were not detected. Our results suggest that the A. aegypti population from Santiago is resistant to two major

  20. Las Colecciones de Arte de la Catedral de Santiago. Estudio museológico

    OpenAIRE

    Yzquierdo Peiró, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de casi mil doscientos años de historia, se han venido configurando las colecciones artísticas de la Catedral de Santiago, sumando diferentes formas de ingreso, tipologías, procedencia, estilos artísticos, usos y funciones; configurándose, de este modo, el principal fondo patrimonial de Galicia. La presente tesis afronta el estudio integral de estas colecciones a través de una perspectiva museológica; centrada particularmente en el papel del Museo Catedral, presta...

  1. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and three-dimensional cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarén, Juan Fernández

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present and comment on two unpublished letters written by the Spanish engineer Carlos Mendizábal Brunet to Santiago Ramón y Cajal informing him of the development of a new device for three-dimensional cinema and asking for his approval. Fortunately, the answers given by Cajal to these two letters have also been preserved, and they reveal his interest in three-dimensional cinema; in the letters, he reported that he himself had designed a prototype capable of creating on a screen a feeling of 3-D relief, a subject about which he was always passionate.

  2. El rol de la ciudad infiltrada en la reconfiguración de la periferia metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Ramírez, Gloria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The DL 3.516/80 allows the division of rustic properties up to 0,5 hectares. Its application in the outskirts of Santiago has generated the urbanization of the countryside not considering the existing territorial planning instruments, which only regulate urban spaces.

    Santiago suffered a strong expansion until 1994 when the Metropolitan Regulation Plan of Santiago (PRMS in Spanish, fixed the urban boundary. Its appearance generated the subdivision of fields and the speculation of land, under the DL 3.516/80.

    This investigation studies the territorial impact of the DL 3.516/80 and its relation with the PRMS on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. Through a bibliographic and cartographic analysis, interviews to key local agents and using GIS, the area affected by the DL 3.516/80 is determined, the quality of its soils and the area lost by agriculture due to the urbanization of the countryside, which generates the “infiltrated city”.

    El DL 3.516/80 permite la división de predios rústicos hasta 0,5 hectárea. Su aplicación en la periferia de Santiago ha generado la urbanización del campo al margen de los instrumentos de ordenamiento territorial, que regulan solo los espacios urbanos.

    Santiago sufrió una fuerte expansión hasta que en 1994, el Plan Regulador Metropolitano de Santiago (PRMS, fija el límite urbano. Su aparición genera procesos de subdivisión predial y de especulación sobre la tierra, al amparo del DL 3.516/80.

    Esta investigación estudia el Impacto territorial del DL 3.516/80 y su relación con el PRMS en la periferia de Santiago de Chile. Mediante un análisis bibliográfico y cartográfico, entrevistas a agentes locales claves y el uso del SIG, se determina la superficie afectada por el DL 3.516, la calidad de sus suelos y la superficie perdida para la agricultura por la urbanización del campo, con lo que se constituye la “ciudad infiltrada”.

  3. Promotional cultural poster: Major features of the sociocultural peak in Santiago de Cuba city, between 1970-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During 70´s and 80´s of the last century, the promotional cultural poster in Santiago de Cuba gained a remarkable peak, due to historical and culturals conditions. Many important institutions were founded, that promote graphic design and sociocultural actions in the city, expressed in a lot of cultural events in that period. Nonetheless is impossible deny the education that acquired artists and designers, who with their creations increased the graphic arts movement in Santiago de Cuba, because they had a unique style. Because they had developed a unique style, apart of the Havana´s art movement.

  4. Farmers or rural workers? A current social characterization of rural families of Atamisqui Department, Santiago del Estero

    OpenAIRE

    Desalvo, Agustina

    2011-01-01

    Suele afirmarse que Santiago del Estero concentra un elevado número de campesinos. En este artículo presentamos una primera aproximación al tema con el propósito de comenzar a desmitificar dicha idea. Para ello, recurrimos a datos arrojados por el Formulario de Caracterización Familiar del PROINDER, año 2009 -ejecutado desde la Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Rural y Agricultura Familiar de Santiago del Estero- y entrevistas realizadas en parajes rurales del departamento de Atamisqui en abril del...

  5. Modeling study of biomass burning plumes and their impact on urban air quality; a case study of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Rappenglück, B.; Rubio, M. A.; Lissi, E.; Gramsch, E.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    On January 4, 2014, during the summer period in South America, an intense forest and dry pasture wildfire occurred nearby the city of Santiago de Chile. On that day the biomass-burning plume was transported by low-intensity winds towards the metropolitan area of Santiago and impacted the concentration of pollutants in this region. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) is implemented to investigate the biomass-burning plume associated with these wildfires nearby Santiago, which impacted the ground-level ozone concentration and exacerbated Santiago's air quality. Meteorological variables simulated by WRF/Chem are compared against surface and radiosonde observations, and the results show that the model reproduces fairly well the observed wind speed, wind direction air temperature and relative humidity for the case studied. Based on an analysis of the transport of an inert tracer released over the locations, and at the time the wildfires were captured by the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the model reproduced reasonably well the transport of biomass burning plume towards the city of Santiago de Chile within a time delay of two hours as observed in ceilometer data. A six day air quality simulation was performed: the first three days were used to validate the anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and the last three days (during and after the wildfire event) to analyze the performance of WRF/Chem plume-rise model within FINNv1 fire emission estimations. The model presented a satisfactory performance on the first days of the simulation when contrasted against data from the well-established air quality network over the city of Santiago de Chile. These days represent the urban air quality base case for Santiago de Chile unimpacted by fire emissions. However, for the last three simulation days, which were impacted by the fire emissions, the statistical indices showed a decrease in

  6. El universo material de la vida domestica de la elite de Santiago de Cuba entre 1830 y 1868

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morales Tejeda, Aida

    2009-01-01

    ... y de otros llegados directamente desde Francia, que conformaron una pujante colonia en la ciudad. De tal manera se procura revelar cómo el universo material del patriciado santiaguero se transformó a partir de la influencia de modos de hacer traídos por los franceses asentados en la ciudad. PALABRAS CLAVE Santiago de Cuba, vivienda, símbolos, cultura francesa, mobiliario. ABSTRACT This article explores the material and domestic world of the elite from Santiago de Cuba from the perspective of the Arts. In p...

  7. Factores asociados a satisfacción vital en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Albala, Cecilia; Dangour, Alan D.; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre satisfacción vital con el nivel socioeconómico y el autorreporte del estado de salud en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago de Chile en los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó 2002 sujetos entre 65 y 67,9 años de edad, registrados en 20 centros de salud primaria del Gran Santiago, autovalentes, sin deterioro cognitivo, sospecha de cáncer ni enfermedad terminal. Se evaluó la satisfacción vital mediante la adaptación abreviada ...

  8. La descentralización y la competencia municipal en el periodo 1999/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Peraza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo, mostrar la evolución del proceso de descentralización y la competencia de los municipios,en el periodo 1999/2011, en cuyo análisis se observa a partir del 99, las intenciones de continuar con el proceso descentralizador que emerge a raíz de la constitución de 1961 y reafirmados en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela 1999. No obstante, la posición política imperante basada en el socialismo del siglo XXI, genera las motivaciones para crear y modificar todo un cuerpo de leyes, incluyendo las relativas a los Consejos Comunales, que lejos de consolidar la descentralización municipal,frenan este proceso, creando desconcierto e incertidumbre. La investigación se abordó en un contexto documental-bibliográfico, se concluye, con algunas reflexiones sobre la incidencia que tiene para la comunidad y el municipio, la centralización del poder y la prestación del servicio a la comunidad.

  9. Paul Flandrin, sur nature. Dipinti sconosciuti del periodo italiano (1834-1838

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    Elena Marchetti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Flandrin (Lione 1811- Parigi 1902 è un pittore dalla lunga carriera, i cui inizi si snodano tra la formazione presso l’Académie des Beaux Arts di Lione e l’atelier di Ingres a Parigi. Sarà però durante il viaggio in Italia (1834-1838 che il pittore individuerà la sua precisa vocazione di pittore di paesaggio. Il periodo trascorso a Roma, non pensionnaire di Villa Medici ma assiduo frequentatore della Accademia di Francia, all’epoca diretta dal suo maestro, è significativo per individuare le prime prove di un artista che si pone tra l’influenza di Corot e l’insegnamento di Ingres. Per un pittore di educazione neoclassica, quanto conta l’esperienza italiana? Per un allievo di Ingres, cosa significa la scelta del paesaggio? Per un paysagiste che arriva a Roma negli anni Trenta, in cosa consiste l’eredità di Corot? L’articolo tenta di dare risposta a queste domande attraverso l’individuazione di alcune tappe fondamentali della produzione grafica e pittorica di Paul Flandrin compresa negli anni del soggiorno italiano. L’indagine si concentra sulla comprensione del metodo di lavoro dell’artista, dalla percezione della natura vista e studiata dal vero alla ricomposizione in atelier. Dall’analisi emerge la figura complessa di un pittore di formazione neoclassica che opera nel XIX secolo inoltrato.

  10. El poder del discurso del Gobierno de Corrientes en la prensa durante el periodo preelectoral 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Noemí Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo brinda algunas conclusiones preliminares de una investigación en curso sobre los efectos del discurso del Gobierno de la Provincia de Corrientes en la prensa. El análisis interdiscursivo incluye gacetillas despachadas por la Dirección de Información Pública (DIP, órgano oficial de difusión de los actos de gobierno, y las tapas y noticias de primera plana publicadas por los diarios El Litoral, Época y Norte de Corrientes durante el periodo preelectoral 2013. Para este trabajo se abordó la categoría poder del discurso desarrollada por Eliseo Verón. También se propone articular herramientas teórico metodológicas de autores de tradición sociosemiótica como Patrick Charaudeau y Lucrecia Escudero, con nociones de los estudios de rutinas periodísticas de diarios en contexto de periferia.

  11. Considerazioni sulla crscita economica nel lungo periodo. (Ideas and concepts of long run growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. STEINDL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con l'eccezione di Marx e Schumpeter , gli argomenti di " lungo periodo " e il progresso tecnico sono taciuti dai classici fino alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale . Da allora , la curiosità è stata nuovamente suscitata o su due fronti . Il primo è quello delle ex colonie in via di sviluppo e il secondo viene da un rinnovato ottimismo nei paesi industriali maturi . In particolare , l'autore considera il lavoro di Harrod e Kalecki . With the exception of Marx and Schumpeter, the subjects of “long run” and technical progress have lain dormant from the Classics to the end of World War II. Since then, curiosity has again been aroused on two fronts. The first is from former colonies in development and the second is from a renewed optimism in mature industrial countries. The present article deals with the theory and literature that came about with regards to the latter area. In particular, the author considers the work of Harrod and Kalecki.JEL: O41, O42, E12

  12. Al andar se hace turismo: nuevas ruralidades en torno al Camino de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montes Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro trabajo analiza las nuevas formas turísticas que han surgido en la comarca leonesa del Bierzo, en la provincia de León, y su relación con el Camino de Santiago. Desde la Edad Media el Camino de Santiago ha sido un lugar de tránsito y de peregrinación con un claro y principal sentido religioso. Sin embargo, desde los años noventa del pasado siglo, ha aumentado enormemente su conocimiento y difusión por otros países del mundo, con el consiguiente incremento de peregrinos y visitantes. Esta masiva presencia ha resignificado al propio camino y lo ha convertido en un fenómeno turístico decisivo para la vida de los lugares por donde transita. A través del análisis de una empresa turística proponemos la relación entre nuevos sentidos del camino y nuevas formas de turismo.

  13. A typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Julieta; Stuardo, Valeria; Folch, Cinta; Carvajal, Bielka; Clunes, Maria José; Montoliu, Alexandra; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-11

    In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile. These venues and locations include: cafés con piernas (coffee with legs); nightclubs, topless bars and cabarets; brothels; hotels; street and highway soliciting; massage parlours; and private residences. Formative research methods were helpful in identifying and characterising the venues and locations in which sex work occurred. Barriers to accessing and mapping specific locations were also identified. Recommendations for addressing these barriers include working with non-governmental organisations to map venues and initiate contact with the populations of interest. A comprehensive typology of sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, is an essential element for future time-location sampling and bio-behavioural research in the context of second-generation surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Chile.

  14. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Harvey Cushing: two forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Berridi, Grettel J; Pendleton, Courtney; Ruiz, Gabriel; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-11-01

    To summarize the extraordinary accomplishments, and the commonalities, between Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing. Existing literature describing the lives and achievements of Ramón y Cajal and Cushing, as well as personal communication, and the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912, were reviewed. Both Ramón y Cajal and Cushing were men of unusually broad interests and talents, and these shared characteristics undoubtedly influenced the career paths and scientific investigations they pursued. Although Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing never directly interacted, the links between them can be traced through some of their disciples, including Pío del Río Hortega, Wilder Penfield, and Percival Bailey. Ramón y Cajal and Cushing are widely considered the forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery, respectively, and their discoveries have made lasting impressions on both the scientific and medical communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. La gobernabilidad metropolitana de Santiago: la dispar relación de poder de los municipios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO ORELLANA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En ausencia de un gobierno metropolitano, las grandes ciudades que sostienen la problemática de una gestión multinivel, es decir, donde se sobrepone la acción del gobierno central, regional y de un conjunto significativo de municipios, generan un escenario complejo para la gobernabilidad en pro de un desarrollo urbano y territorial equilibrado. Desde esta perspectiva, la gran disparidad en la configuración socioterritorial que muestra el Área Metropolitana de Santiago constituye un reflejo de la estructura de poder sobre el espacio metropolitano, donde las comunas del cono oriente muestran un mejor posicionamiento para orientar las acciones públicas y privadas a favor del interés público de su población residenteIn the absence of metropolitan level government, large cities retain the problems associated with multilevel management whereby the activities of central government, regional government and numerous municipal governments overlap, generating in turn a complex scenario for governance in favour of balanced urban and regional development. From this perspective, the significant disparity in socio-spatial configuration within the Santiago Metropolitan Area reflects the structure of power within this metropolitan space, whereby municipalities in the eastern cone are better able to shape public and private actions in support of the public interests of their resident populations.

  16. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vásquez Záldivar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception.  Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed.  Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace.The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  17. El proyecto de estructuras en el Museo de las Peregrinaciones (Santiago de Compostela

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    Estévez, J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the structural design of the Museum of Pilgrimage (Santiago de Compostela, projected by the renowned architect Manuel Gallego Jorreto. It is a rehabilitation work in a monumental environment, subjected to multiple external and internal constraints. Among others: open exhibition areas, spatial complexity, management of the natural light, limitations of transport and supply, preservation and stabilization of facades with different levels of degradation, and discovery of archaeological remains. Several steel solutions are described, capable of resolving noticeable spans with low weight. In all cases, these structures were built and transported in fractions for reassembly in the construction site.El artículo describe el diseño estructural del Museo de las Peregrinaciones (Santiago de Compostela, proyectado por el reconocido arquitecto Manuel Gallego Jorreto. Se trata de una obra de rehabilitación en un entorno monumental, sometida a múltiples condicionantes externos e internos. Entre otros: áreas expositivas diáfanas, complejidad espacial, gestión de la luz natural, limitaciones de transporte y suministro, preservación y estabilización de fachadas con diferentes niveles de degradación, y hallazgo de restos arqueológicos. Se describen las soluciones metálicas empleadas a fin de resolver luces importantes con reducido peso. En todos los casos, estas estructuras fueron fabricadas y transportadas en fracciones para su posterior ensamblaje en obra.

  18. A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how primates understand the behavior of others. One open question concerns whether nonhuman primates think about others' behavior in psychological terms, that is, whether they have a theory of mind. Over the last ten years, experiments conducted on the free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living on Cayo Santiago have provided important insights into this question. In this review, we highlight what we think are some of the most exciting results of this body of work. Specifically we describe experiments suggesting that rhesus monkeys may understand some psychological states, such as what others see, hear, and know, but that they fail to demonstrate an understanding of others' beliefs. Thus, while some aspects of theory of mind may be shared between humans and other primates, others capacities are likely to be uniquely human. We also discuss some of the broader debates surrounding comparative theory of mind research, as well as what we think may be productive lines for future research with the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Outdoor gyms in Santiago: urban distribution and effects on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To put together a registry of the location of all existing outdoor gyms (OGs in Santiago, Chile, and establish a profile of the users of these gyms. Methods All OGs in Santiago located in public spaces were identified and geo-referenced, and an accessibility analysis of them was carried out. A total of 1,023 users of OGs were surveyed (71% men, average age 31.5 years old, SD =16.6, about the frequency of use of OGs, amount of time spent using them, transportation habits, motivation for usage, and their perceptions regarding their own health, among other questions. In addition, each person's neck circumference was measured. Results There are 1,981 OGs in the city squares, sidewalks and parks, mostly located in poorest areas of the city. Most OG users live less than one kilometer away from an OG. Discussion In line with international studies, this research demonstrates that OGs have positive collateral effects, as they not only contribute to users to increase their physical activity, but also because they attract people with sedentary lifestyles to make physical activity. This, in turn, might contribute to make urban areas more livable and safer, for they bring new "eyes to the street" and permit to use cities' under-occupied public spaces. Conclusion The proliferation of outdoor gyms should be regarded as an opportunity for public health policies aimed at tackling the obesity problem and increasing the physical activity of people.

  20. Santiago de Chile de cara a la globalización: ?(spanishotra ciudad?

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    Mattos Carlos A. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe-se a identificar e caracterizar a "outra cidade" resultante das transformações que afetaram a área metropolitana de Santiago do Chile em função da assunção, a partir de meados de 1975, de uma nova estratégia macroeconômica, onde tanto uma crescente liberalização econômica, como uma ampla abertura externa, favoreceram a progressiva globalização da economia nacional. Nesse contexto, observa-se como junto a importantes modificações na base econômica metropolitana começou a processar-se na grande Santiago uma radical reestruturação de seu mercado de trabalho e uma maior dispersão territorial das atividades produtivas e da população. Nesse novo cenário, analisa-se como as transformações que afetaram a cidade emergente incidiram na afirmação, de um lado, de uma morfologia social donde persiste a polarização social e a segregação residencial e, de outra, de uma morfologia territorial onde impera a periurbanização e a policentralidade, transformações essas que correspondem às tendências que atualmente se observam nas grandes áreas metropolitanas tanto dos países centrais como das economias emergentes.

  1. Gender Equality and Women Empowerment Gleaned in the Selected Speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and the resulting discrimination of women are deeply rooted in history, culture and tradition. It is said to be detrimental to the mental health of women and persists as a debilitating stigma which lowers their dignity and sense of self-worth. Thus, this qualitative research was conducted to underscore the issue of gender equality and women empowerment as core topics in selected speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Findings of the analysis showed that the issue of gender gap in the Philippines was manifested and discussed forthrightly by the senator in her speeches in terms of educational attainment, health and survival, economic participation and opportunity, and political empowerment, all being effectively touched by the senator with the signature wit, eloquence, astuteness and passion she was widely known for; that gender equality and women empowerment were likewise gleaned in the selected speeches, all of which were delivered by Miriam Defensor Santiago with the motive of persuading her audience to espouse the same advocacy, and this she achieved through her unique and distinct style of utilizing the persuasive ability of literature; and, that the implications of the author's advocacy on gender equality and gender empowerment delegated the monumental task upon the shoulders of the Filipino youth, in ways that their thinking will be directly influenced by her advocacy and thus promote within them a sense of urgency to embrace and espouse the same advocacies in order for them to be able to contribute to nation building.

  2. Nutritional profile of schoolchildren from different socio-economic levels in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.

  3. Determinants of compliance in the emissions compensation program in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Milagros [Universidad de Concepcion, Master Program in Natural Resources and Environmental Economics, Concepcion (Chile); Chavez, Carlos [Universidad de Concepcion, Dept. of Economics, Concepcion (Chile)

    2005-08-01

    The Emissions Compensation (EC) Program in Santiago, Chile, has been affected from the beginning by the incidence of individual violations of maximum-emission capacity permits. Based on information at the individual source level, in this paper we develop and estimate a model explaining the individual compliance decision with emission capacity permits. Our results indicate that the compliance behavior of sources during the period 1993-1999 do in fact depend on their individual characteristics. Among other factors, type of equipment used, industrial sector to which the source belongs, fuel type used, the initial allocation of emission capacity permits to the source, and population density as well as average income in the area where the source is located, turn out to be relevant. Furthermore, the evidence does not allow us to reject the presence of structural change in the individual decision to comply with permit holdings because of the introduction of natural gas in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago at the end of 1997. (Author)

  4. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in elderly people in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, I; Rojas, R; Aranda, W; Gamonal, J

    2003-11-01

    Oral prevalence studies are important to know the state of health and the needs of treatment. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and associated factors among aging Chileans. A random sample by age, gender, and socioeconomic status was obtained, comprising 889 individuals older than 65 years. Individuals were interviewed and examined in Santiago, the capital of Chile, according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The prevalence of one or more oral mucosal lesions in the sample was 53%. Logistic regression model revealed that denture use increased the probability of one or more oral mucosal lesions by threefold, while age, gender, smoking, medication use, xerostomia, and social or cultural factors had no effect. The most common lesion was denture stomatitis (22.3%), followed by irritative hyperplasia (9.4%), oral mucosal varicosities (9%), solitary pigmented lesions (4%), traumatic ulcer (3.5%), angular cheilitis (2.9%), multiple pigmented lesions (2.8%), hemangioma (2.3%), lichen planus (2.1%), leukoplakia (1.7%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (1.4%), nicotine stomatitis (1.3%), median rhomboid glossitis (0.9%), actinic cheilitis (0.9%), pyogenic granuloma (0.7%), oral squamous papiloma (0.6%), and mucocele (0.2%). One case of oral cancer was observed. Different factors increased the probability of specific oral mucosal pathologies. We can conclude that oral mucosal lesions are common in elderly people in Santiago, suggesting the necessity for improved standards of prevention, and diagnostic and opportune treatment of these lesions.

  5. Rentabilidades anormales y estrategias de inversión en periodos de crisis: el caso español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Miralles-Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los periodos de crisis que se han desarrollado en los últimos tiempos en los mercados bursátiles han conducido a la existencia de un interés cada vez mayor en analizar el comportamiento de dichos mercados tras estos periodos y, de esta forma, conocer qué tipo de estrategias se han de aplicar para obtener una mayor rentabilidad. A partir del análisis de las rentabilidades anormales tras los shocks bursátiles sucedidos en los índices de referencia de las mayores, medias y pequeñas empresas del mercado español, el presente trabajo demuestra que la mejor estrategia en términos generales tras un shock bursátil es ponerse a corto, y que los mejores resultados de rentabilidades extraordinarias se obtienen a partir de la inversión en las medias y pequeñas empresas

  6. Antes de la ciudad agonal: Vía chilena, socialismo y vida citadina en el Santiago de Allende 1/Before the Agonal City: The Chilean Road to Socialism and Urban Culture in the Santiago de Allende

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalo Cáceres

    2015-01-01

    ... contencioso. Palabras-clave: Vía chilena al Socialismo, Santiago, Salvador Allende, Unidad Popular. Abstract The article analyzes some of the urban processes that precede and succeed the installation of the Allende government, under the premise concerning that there are no politics without space to which they are referable, space or sp...

  7. Efectos de la tributación en el comercio electrónico de Lima Metropolitana, periodo 2007- 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva Castro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Aborda los efectos de la tributación en el comercio electrónico de Lima Metropolitana (periodo 2007-2012), cuya información se recopiló por intermedio de los gerentes de empresas de ventas corporativas que trabajan en estas organizaciones, quienes respondieron una encuesta con el fin de establecer cuál es la importancia que tiene la tributación en cuanto al comercio electrónico.

  8. Auditoría financiera y tributaria a la empresa Fideos Paraíso, periodo fiscal 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cusco Quinde, Ana Jackeline

    2014-01-01

    El documento consiste en una Auditoría Financiera y Tributaria a la Empresa Fideos Paraíso, periodo fiscal 2013; obteniendo como resultado, luego del análisis, un informe de auditoría con salvedades en la parte contable-financiera y tributaria. The document is a Financial and Tax Audit Company Fideos Paraíso, fiscal year 2013; resulting in, after the analysis, a qualified audit report on the financial and tax accounting part.

  9. Expectativas hacia la jubilación del personal de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Retirement expectations of the staff of the University of Santiago de Compostela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Cal Crespo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Involucrados en la importancia que el fenómeno jubilación tiene en la actualidad, hemos llevado a cabo un estudio sobre las expectativas hacia la misma de un grupo de trabajadores de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC, cuestionando parámetros como edad de jubilación, sostenibilidad del Sistema de Pensiones, y motivados especialmente en la repercusión subjetiva sobre los individuos, a través de la administración de un cuestionario que mide actividad, vinculación social, expectativas hacia la jubilación y satisfacción laboral y vital, junto con variables de identificación personal (edad, sexo, estado civil, etc. A través del programa estadístico SPSS realizamos un análisis descriptivo entre las variables de estudio, lo que nos ha llevado a concluir que las actitudes hacia la jubilación son de esperanza e ilusión, con un interés manifiesto por seguir en la vida activa, donde el mayor temor suscitado es ver limitado el poder adquisitivo.Since we are involved in the importance of the retirement nowadays, questioning parameters as age of retirement, sustainability of pension systems, and we pay special attention on the subjective impact on individuals, we have carried out an study about the expectations on retirement, among a group of workers in the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC. In order to do so, we have made a survey, measuring activity, social link, expectations on retirement and labour and vital satisfaction, as well as personal identification variables (age, sex, marital status, etc. By using the SPSS software, we made a descritpive analysis among the variables of study. This lead us to conclude that the attitude about retirement is hope. We also found a stated interest to continue the active life. The biggest fear is to see a restriction of the purchasing power.

  10. Del espectáculo cultural y sus efectos: arte y políticas culturales en Santiago de Compostela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez González, Miguel Anxo

    2015-01-01

    En los años noventa Santiago de Compostela se convirtió en un ejemplo destacado de aplicación de políticas culturales a gran escala. Con una generosa financiación se llevaron a cabo proyectos arquitectónicos y programaciones culturales ambiciosas. A

  11. Periodo de interferencia de arvenses en el cultivo de berenjena (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramendiz-Tatis Hermes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Dada la importancia de la berenjena en la horticultura del Caribe colombiano, el presente trabajo buscó establecer las bases de un manejo sustentable e integrado de malezas en este cultivo, basado en el período de máxima interferencia de aquellas sobre este. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad de Córdoba, ubicada en Montería (8°39’ N; 75°58’ W. El diseño experimental consistió en bloques completamente aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos relacionados con periodos crecientes de control de arvenses, seguidos por ausencia de control. Los resultados muestran que las arvenses con mayor presencia fueron paja mona (Leptochloa filiformis [Lam.] Beauv., caminadora (Rottboellia cochinchinensis [Lour.] W.D. Clayton, liendre de puerco (Echinochloa colona [L.] Link., coquito (Cyperus rotundus L. y bledo (Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Las arvenses afectaron la altura de la planta, el diámetro del tallo, y el rendimiento y calidad del fruto. Este último parámetro no se ve afectado cuando el cultivar lila se mantiene limpio durante los primeros 40 días. Al considerar el tipo de productor de esta hortaliza en el valle del Sinú, se sugiere utilizar: i para áreas pequeñas, métodos físicos, como el arranque manual o corte con machete u otra herramienta, y prácticas culturales; ii para áreas grandes, la combinación de herbicidas de presiembra con métodos físicos y culturales.

  12. Muerte fetal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza durante el periodo agosto 2003-noviembre 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Milla Vera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar las causas de los casos de muerte fetal, así como sus características sociodemográficas, clínicas, patológicas, y la tasa. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo. Se buscaron los casos de muerte fetal en el libro de registros del servicio de obstetricia del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza entre agosto 2003 y noviembre 2004. Se buscaron las historias clínicas e informes anatomopatológicos correspondientes recopilándose los hallazgos. Resultados: Se encontraron 61 casos de muerte fetal, 47 se incluyeron en el estudio. Se registraron 4 524 nacidos vivos. La tasa de muerte fetal fue 13,48 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Edad gestacional promedio fue de 28,29 semanas y peso promedio de 1 277,86 g. La edad menor a 35 años (76,59%, ausencia de control prenatal o control prenatal inadecuado (66,66%, paridad menor a 4 (86,96%, antecedente de aborto (21,73%, pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG (28,26%, hemorragia del tercer trimestre (HTT (17,39%, preeclampsia (8,69% y hallazgos anormales placentarios (23,28% fueron las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y patológicas más frecuentes. El 59,27% de los casos presentaba informe de patología. No se logró inferir causa alguna en 36,2%. Conclusiones: Los casos de muerte fetal durante el periodo de estudio no contenían los datos tanto clínicos como patológicos suficientes para identificar claramente las causas de muerte fetal. (Rev Med Hered 2005;16:260-265.

  13. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

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    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  14. Las leches infantiles durante el periodo 1955–1975 en España: años de transición e innovaciones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boatella, Josep; Bou, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    ... del cáncer Necesidades proteicas de los deportistas y pautas dietético-nutricionales para la ganancia de masa muscular Artículo especial Las leches infantiles durante el periodo 1955-19...

  15. Indicadores energeticos de vacas lecheras a pastoreo en periodo de transicion y lactancia temprana con alta o moderada condicion corporal preparto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strieder Barboza, Clarissa; Gabriel Cucunubo, Luis; Pablo Smulders, Juan; Wittwer, Fernando; Noro, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Se determino las variaciones en indicadores sanguineos y productivos y la presentacion de resistencia a insulina y cetosis en vacas lecheras a pastoreo durante los periodos de transicion y lactancia...

  16. [Resistance to organophosphorus insecticides found in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba, 1997-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Bisset, Juan A; Ricardo, Yanelys; Pérez, Omayda; Montada, Domingo; Figueredo, Daisy; Fuentes, Ilario

    2010-01-01

    resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0.7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program.

  17. Diversidad de especies vegetales en fincas de la agricultura suburbana en Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyani Vargas Batis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo lugar con el objetivo evaluar el comportamiento de la diversidad de especies arvenses y arbóreas y arbustivas en cuatro fincas de la agricultura suburbana de Santiago de Cuba. Se delimitaron parcelas de 100 m2 para el conteo de las especies presentes en el área. Identificadas las especies se elaboró un listado florístico y se calcularon los indicadores de diversidad Alfa Riqueza de especies (S, Dominancia (Simpson D y Diversidad general (Shannon H´. En el caso de la diversidad Beta se tuvieron en cuenta los índices de Jaccard (Ij, Morisita-Horn (IM-H y Subordinación Ecológica (SE. Se registraron62 509 individuos pertenecientes a 65 familias, 154 géneros y 183 especies. Para ambos grupos de especies los indicadores de diversidad Alfa mostraron una tendencia al aumento de un período al otro con valores dentro del rango establecido para cada indicador, excepto para la finca La Caballería donde el índice de Shannon H´ no estuvo dentro del establecido para una correcta diversidad y abundancia en la época poco lluviosa. Los indicadores de la diversidad Beta arrojaron disimilitud entre las muestras que se comparan lo que evidencia la presencia de especies específicas adaptadas a las condiciones ambientales del lugar. Plant diversity on farm of sub urban agriculture in Santiago de Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of the diversity of weeds and tree and shrub species in four farms of suburban agriculture Santiago de Cuba. Plots of 100 m2 were sampled for counting the species. Identified plant species list was developed and diversity indicators were calculated alfa (α species richness (S, Dominance (Simpson D and General Diversity (Shannon H'. In the case of the beta (β diversity indices Jaccard (Ij, Morisita-Horn (IM-H and Subordination Environment (SE were taken into account. 62 509 individuals belonging to 65 families, 154 genera and 183 species were recorded. For

  18. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Francisco; Lambert, Fabrice; Jorquera, Héctor; María Villalobos, Ana; Gallardo, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0) that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %), industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %), copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %), wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %), coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 %) and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %). Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the mitigation expected from the above regulations has been partially

  19. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88 and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents.

  20. Energy Study on the UEB Central Paquito Rosales of Santiago de Cuba Province

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    Ing. José A. Motito-Legrá

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An integral evaluation of energy behavior in UEB Central Paquito Rosales of Santiago de Cuba province is presented, applying in detail the methodology based on performing mass and energy balances in all sections of the industry, from the mills to the cans, including the steam generators. To carry out these balance data must be known in most of the cases or if they are not available, can be estimated with high reliability. The calculation equations are fully informed raised in the relevant theoretical foundations and only in essential cases are approximations or considerations entirely justified and validated by practical experience. Be obtained the necessary informationwhich allowed to know the behavior of the parameters that are necessary to take into account in the overall assessment of the energy efficiency of the process and therefore take appropriatetechnical decisions to solve problems.

  1. Santiago Ramón y Cajal: Cien años de un premio Nobel.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Chuaire

    2009-01-01

    “Mi atención perseguía, en el vergel de la sustancia gris, células de formas delicadas y elegantes, las misteriosas mariposas del alma, cuyo batir de alas quién sabe si esclarecerá algún día el secreto de la vida mental” Con estas cortas y ensoñadoras líneas quiso Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) explicar en sus “Recuerdos de mi vida” las motivaciones internas que lo llevaron a dedicarse, de manera exclusiva, a la exploración del sistema nervioso hacia 1887, cuando contaba con 35 años de...

  2. Procedure for the Formulation of Comercial Strategies in a Receptive Travel Agency of Santiago de Cuba

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    Damaris Valdés–Ferrer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out in the travel Agency Cubatur Santiago de Cuba with the objective of proposing strategies in order to contribute to the improvement of its commercial administration. It was carried out it an internal and external diagnosis, a DAFO analysis and a scenario analysis which they were defined the objectives, strategies and commercials actions. In this paper were employed different methods, technical and tools such as: the Method of Analysis - Synthesis, the Method ABC and the surveys. Computer programs were also used as the statistical package SPSS version 15.0, the software “Decisions” and the software package MIC-MAC, MACTOR y SMIC-PROB-EXPERT. The research provide a procedure that allows to identify the fundamental problems that affect the commercial activity in the company, as well as the formulation of objectives, strategies and actions in order to improve the making decisions process and to increase the competitiveness. 

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

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    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  4. The Reengineering of Processes a Tool in the Administration of Business: Case Cereales "Santiago"

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    Roberto René Moreno-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research result on the application of the Reengineering of processes in the company Cereales Santiago and the introduction of the information sciences through the PesajeVoz software. In the research it is characterized the main deficiencies of the strategic process of commercialization that affect the economic result of the company and the satisfaction of their clients, by the losses and delays when receiving their raw materials. A study is also realized on the evolution of the reengineering of processes concept from its initial formulation and a characterization of some of the methodologies for its application, reference is made to an own methodology generic for the application of the reengineering of processes in the Cuban system of companies, that have been validated it in the company study object, allowed obtaining of results of impacts in quantitative and qualitative benefits for the company and its clients. 

  5. Seismic microzoning of Santiago de Cuba An approach by SH waves modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, L; Femandez, B; García, J; González, B; Panza, G F; Pico, R; Reyes, C; Vaccari, F; Zapata, R J A

    2002-01-01

    The expected ground motion in Santiago de Cuba basin from earthquakes which occurred in the Oriente fault zone is studied. Synthetic SH-waves seismograms have been calculated along four profiles in the basin by the hybrid approach (modal summation for the path source-profile and finite differences for the profile) for a maximum frequency of 1 Hz. The response spectra ratio (RSR) has been determined in 49 sites, distributed along all considered profiles with a spacing of 900 m. The corresponding RSR versus frequency curves have been classified using a logical-combinatorial algorithm. The results of the classification, in combination with the uppermost geological setting (geotechnical information and geological geometry of the subsoil) are used for the seismic microzoning of the city. Three different main zones are identified, and a small sector characterised by big resonance effects, due to the particular structural conditions. Each zone is characterized in terms of its expected ground motion parameters for th...

  6. Characterization of the bean production in Santiago from Cuba in the period 2009-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marina Castellanos-Dorado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to characterize bean production in the province of Santiago de Cuba in the period 2009-2015. The method followed included three steps: analysis of the strategic framework of production, determination of the legal and institutional framework and assessment of the behavior of the main indicators of production. The study showed that the Integral Grain Development Program in the province is an important platform to promote this production, although it has some shortcomings that limit the fulfillment of the goals. The actors have adequate levels of convergence between their objectives, which shows their involvement and mobilization in the production of beans. Although bean production has increased, (2 509.8 tons / 2009, up to 4 446.75 tons / 2015, 77.8% increase, even the production levels are below the national average and does not meet demand in the province.

  7. Prospective Diagnosis of the Cruise Reception Services. A challenge to Santiago de Cuba

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    Sonia Caridad Ruiz-Quesada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A prospective diagnosis of the cruise reception services in Santiago de Cuba will be made in this paper. To conduct this diagnosis, the methodology followed is the one established by the French2 Prospective School. This study will allow determining the key variables of the analyzed system, the actors involved and their role, and also the possible future scenarios. A key factor is the work with experts, who will provide the information needed for the study. Scientific methods such as MICMAC, MACTOR and SMIC-PROB-EXPERT are used, supported by professional software. As a result of this diagnosis, are estimated profits for the destine under scenario $ 74 361 024,00 USD. The decision-makers of the region will be able to set the objectives and strategies aimed at reaching the desired optimal scenario. 

  8. A teoria neuronal de Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rômulo Monte Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    A teoria neuronal prerroga a existência da unidade básica do sistema nervoso, o neurônio. A teoria neuronal foi proposta e formulada nas últimas décadas do século XIX. Ela é comumente associada ao nome de Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), que a formulou em oposição à proposta de que o tecido nervoso é constituído por redes contínuas formadas por células nervosas. Os trabalhos de Ramón y Cajal são, portanto, considerados ponto de inflexão nas pesquisas em Neurociência. Este trabalho objetiva...

  9. Scenarios Susceptible to Induced Liquefaction Caused by High Magnitude Earthquakes in Santiago de Cuba

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    Liuska Fernández-Diéguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to define the zoning of soil liquefaction potential for the Guillermón Moncada Popular Council in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba. The engineering and geological conditions and seismic peculiarities favoring a seism to take place were assessed. The safety factor was re-calculated after determining possible maximum intensity values based on seismic magnitudes that can trigger the soil of the investigated area to liquefy. A scheme of the area´s soil susceptibility to liquefaction was obtained. Based on this result, it was concluded that the sectors that are most likely to experience soil liquefaction if an earthquake of magnitudes ranging between 7,75 and 8 occurs are located towards the center-east of the Popular Council with sandy-clayey soils being predominant. This information is very useful for the location and planning of engineering construction works in the area.

  10. Los significados culturales sobre la naturaleza en el asentamiento poblacional Siboney. Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Roxana Cruz-Doimeadios

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio sobre los significados otorgados a la naturaleza después del evento meteorológico Sandy que azotó el país en el mes de octubre del año 2012 en el asentamiento poblacional Siboney, ubicado en el municipio Santiago de Cuba. Con anterioridad, los significados estaban asociados a percepciones de seguridad, tanto de nesecidades materiales como espirituales. Los resultados muestran la diversidad que caracteriza los significados culturales, los que se diferencian entre los actores individuales y los grupos, estas diferencias se reflejan en las acciones que desarrollan a través de las estrategias para el manejo de la naturaleza en el asentamiento.

  11. Peligrosidad sísmica de la región de Santiago de Cuba

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    Tomás J. Chuy-Rodríguez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracteriza la peligrosidad sísmica de la provincia y ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, en términos de intensidad, aceleración, velocidad y desplazamiento. Los parámetros de peligrosidad sísmica se presentan en forma de mapas independientes utilizando períodos de recurrencia para cada valor de los parámetros de la amenaza; a tiempo que, de forma probabilística para diferentes tiempos de vida útil y probabilidad de ocurrencia para una red de cuadrículas de 1 km2 en toda la cuenca de Santiago de Cuba, se definen para cada una de ellas, las correspondientes curvas de nivel de amenaza. Los parámetros de peligrosidad sísmica están preparados como Bases de Datos Digitales, para su implementación en Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG con fines de prevención y manejo de desastres sismológicos, por ser imprescindibles para la planificación, proyección y diseño del desarrollo socioeconómico de estos territorios, ya que permiten la valoración del nivel de riesgo que se quiera asumir en áreas de interés. En la actualidad son la base de referencia y consulta para el establecimiento de definiciones de planeamiento urbano y de uso de suelos, así como para proyectos ubicados en estos territorios. Constituyen, igualmente, un elemento de consulta por la Defensa Civil en los planes de medidas para caso de terremotos

  12. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina

    2016-11-01

    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, 238 U is readily immobilized, while 234 U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) 234 U/ 238 U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of 239+240 Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 1.32 kg -1 for 234 U and 2.78 Bq kg -1 for 239+240 Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR 234 U/ 238 U (≈1) were found, with traces of 239+240 Pu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

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    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876, a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as her personal and professional dignity, facing attacks which aimed to discredit her. Henceforth, her accusers (her husband and the Board of Public Instruction in Cuba would turn her attributes as inappropriate for the female gender situation, as a wife and schoolteacher, being thus Baldomera an impossible exception.

    Este trabajo aborda un tema complejo: la construcción de la identidad genérica femenina y lo hace al hilo de una paradigmática mujer. Ella es Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba, 1807-1876, culta, ilustrada, maestra, casada y divorciada, caminos vitales e intelectuales que supo andar desde la excepcionalidad posible que marcaban los discursos genéricos, salvo cuando usó su ingenio e inteligencia, a través de la palabra y la escritura, para defender su autonomía y dignidad personal y profesional, frente a ataques que pretendían desprestigiarla. A partir de ese momento, sus acusadores (marido y Junta de Instrucción Pública de Cuba convertirán esos atributos en impropios del espacio genérico femenino, de esposa y maestra, pasando a ser Baldomera una excepción imposible.

  14. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ninive; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela; Delva, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    to examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male) from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. seventy (9.14%) youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74) for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40) for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97), but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38) and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36), after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80%) of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.

  15. Peregrinação, turismo e nova era: caminhos de Santiago de Compostela no Brasil

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    Carlos Alberto Steil

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde o início dos anos 2000 o panorama das peregrinações realizadas no Brasil vem sendo incrementado com a entrada em cena das novas rotas que têm por inspiração o Caminho de Santiago de Compostela, na Espanha. Entre estas rotas, destacam-se as conhecidas como Caminho da Luz (Minas Gerais, Caminho do Sol (São Paulo, Passos de Anchieta (Espírito Santo, Caminho da Fé (Minas Gerais e São Paulo e Caminho das Missões (Rio Grande do Sul. Neste artigo analisamos essas cinco rotas que passaram a integrar roteiros turísticos, com intuito comparativo e buscamos compreender tanto os aspectos recorrentes e as tendências gerais desses eventos na atualidade quanto as singularidades e modalidades que adquirem em cada contexto específico.Since the years 2000 the panorama of pilgrimage in Brazil has been increased with the addition of new routes of pilgrimage which are inspired in the Route of Santiago of Compostela, in Spain. Amongst these routes, five became quite known as Caminho da Luz (Light Path, Minas Gerais, Caminho do Sol (Sun Path, São Paulo, Passos de Anchieta (Anchieta Path, Espírito Santo, Caminho da Fé (Faith Path, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and Caminho das Missões (Missions Path, Rio Grande do Sul. In this article we analyze these five routes, which have become part of touristic programs, from a comparative perspective while trying to understand the longstanding aspects and general tendencies of these events in present time as well as their peculiarities and modalities within each specific context.

  16. Climas urbanos y contaminación atmosférica en Santiago de Chile

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    Hugo Romero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las relaciones existentes entre temperaturas urbanas y concentraciones de material particulado a una escala que representa la totalidad de la ciudad, destacando su división en dos zonas bien delimitadas, que ubicadas al oriente y poniente de la misma, durante los días de ocurrencia de las peores condiciones de contaminación atmosférica. A escala más detallada, que representa a tipos característicos de morfología urbana, se correlacionan los usos y coberturas de suelos con los niveles de vegetación y las temperaturas de las llamadas "subzonas climáticas", en las comunas de Peñalolén, Santiago Centro y Cerrillos, que representan diversas localizaciones en los espacios naturales y socioeconómicos de la ciudad, concluyéndose que existen áreas de condiciones adversas para la población y configuraciones que resaltan su heterogeneidad y diversidad.Current relationships between urban temperatures and particulate matter concentrations at a scale that is representative of the whole city have been analyzed, highlighting a clear division in two zones, the eastern and western part of the city during the days that register the worst air pollution. On a more detailed scale, based on characteristic urban morphology types, land uses and extensions are correlated with vegetation cover and surface temperatures in so-called climatic sub-zones, in the municipalities of Peñalolén, Santiago Centro and Cerrillos, that represent different urban locations, natural cover and socioeconomic variables across the city. The article concludes that there are areas with adverse conditions for the population and configurations that highlight the heterogeneity and diversity of these municipalities.

  17. Avenida Xoan XXIII, Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, España

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    Viaplana, A.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The hills surrounding Santiago show that their smooth rounded shapes are not too well hidden under the stones of the old city, if we go into the town through Xoan XXIII Avenue, we can see them crop up, not without effort, between Nova and Vella Streets, and descend, with more than one bump, down to the river at the bottom. The project reduces itself to regain the former natural shapes. At the very edge of the historic perimeter, the ancient space has been recovered, now in stone, to make it a place of arrival and welcoming. It also serves for vehicles to go through and stop, but now, not only that. It may well simply be an abstract space, standing still, prior to the promise announced by the disturbing towers in the back.

    Los montes que circundan Santiago nos enseñan que sus formas, leves y romas, se encuentran mal ocultas bajo las piedras de la vieja ciudad. Si entramos por Xoan XXIII las vemos asomar, no sin esfuerzo, entre las rúas Nova y Vella, y bajar, con más de un tropiezo, hasta el río del fondo. El proyecto se ha limitado a recuperar las naturales formas de siempre. En el mismo borde del histórico perímetro se ha rehecho un espacio anterior, ahora de piedra, para convertirlo en lugar de acogida y entrada. Sirve, por añadidura, de paso y deparada de vehículos; pero lo esencial ya no es esto. Quizás se trata, sin más, de un espacio abstracto, quieto, previo a las promesas que ofrecen las inquietas torres del fondo.

  18. Policentrismo en el Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile: reestructuración comercial, movilidad y tipificación de subcentros1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricardo Truffello; Rodrigo Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    .... This phenomenon has been approached in the case of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, through the analysis of commercial density and land price data, applying parametric modeling in the analysis...

  19. Determinantes sociales de la salud y discapacidad: caso Santiago de Cali / Social determinants of health and disability: the Santiago de Cali case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Vélez A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la relación entre los determinantes sociales de la salud y la discapacidad en Santiago de Cali. Metodología: estudio descriptivo correlacional. Se incluyeron para el análisis 38.071 personas registradas en la base de datos del Dane (Cali; la información se procesó en SPSS 19.0: determinantes estructurales, género, edad, nivel educativo, raza, zona de residencia, estrato y determinantes intermedios como trabajo y vivienda; se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado empleando la prueba de x2 . Resultados: el 52% de las personas pertenecía al género femenino; el promedio de la edad fue de 48 años +/– 24,1 años y la raza predominante, la mestiza. El 28% de las personas registradas no tenía ningún nivel de estudio; un 76% de las personas pertenecen a estratos 1 y 2. El 100% tienen al menos una deficiencia y una discapacidad y el 25% presentan restricción en la participación. El género femenino presenta menos restricción en la participación, comparado con el masculino (71,2% y 66,8% respectivamente. Se encontró asociación entre los determinantes sociales estructurales e intermedios y la restricción en la participación p < 0,05. Conclusiones: existe interacción de los determinantes sociales de la salud, como género, educación, empleo, barreras arquitectónicas y servicios de salud, entre otros, con la restricción en la participación Objective: to establish the relationship between the social determinants of health and disability in Santiago de Cali. Methodology: a correlational descriptive study. The analysis included a total of 38,071 people who had been registered in the dane database (Cali, and the data was processed using the spss 19.0 software. Structural Determinants: gender, age, education level, race, area of residence, and intermediate determinants such as job and housing information. In addition, univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using the x2 test. Results: of the participants

  20. Conversión y perspectivas del sector agrícola mexicano en el periodo 1980-2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Pérez, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    En México se están dando cambios en la demanda de productos alimenticios con características específicas de acuerdo a la condición y circunstancia de los consumidores, lo cual, genera una reestructuración en la producción del sector agropecuario, si no hay restricciones o limitantes se espera que se produzca más de lo que más vale. En este trabajo se cuantifica el grado de conversión productiva para el sector agrícola mexicano en el periodo 1980-2004. El estudio abarca 110...

  1. El paisaje en el ordenamiento territorial prehispánico durante el periodo Medio, valle de Azapa, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Iván; Zalaquett,Francisca

    2015-01-01

    El presente manuscrito es resultado de una extensa y detallada prospección arqueológica realizada en el valle de Azapa, Arica, Chile. Se hallaron 36 sitios arqueológicos correspondientes al periodo Medio, la gran mayoría cementerios, en deficiente estado de conservación. Esta información ha sido fundamental para analizar la relación espacial entre los asentamientos humanos prehispánicos y los recursos naturales, como las vertientes, en el contexto del ordenamiento territorial en el sector baj...

  2. Crecimiento económico y desigualdad distributiva en el Sector Educación: Periodo (2002 – 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino Silva, Julio Andrés; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Durante el periodo 2002 – 2013 el Perú experimentó un importante crecimiento económico, con excelentes indicadores macroeconómicos y estabilidad financiera. Este crecimiento económico se debió fundamentalmente, a un magnífico contexto internacional donde confluyeron el incremento de la demanda de los minerales que exportamos y los altos precios de los minerales de los mismos. Esta situación ha permitido que el Estado disponga de una gran cantidad de recursos; tanto el presupuesto general de l...

  3. Papeleros urbanos vs aseo del centro de Santiago de Chile.Impacto de las variables formales de los papeleros urbanos existentes en los paseos peatonales Ahumada y Huérfanos. /Waste containers vs. cleaning in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Peralta, Osvaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El diseño que presentan los papeleros urbanos de los paseos peatonales del centro de Santiago no facilita su uso adecuado, lo que contribuye a la suciedad de sus calles peatonales. Como elementos de mobiliario urbano en el espacio público, deberían tener un mejor diseño en orden a mejorar su función y facilitar su uso. /The urban trash cans design, on pedestrian walks in Santiago downtown, doesn't facilitate its appropriate use, what contributes to the dirt of its pedestrian streets. As part of urban furniture in public space, they should have a better design in order to improve their function and to facilitate their use.

  4. A Propósito de un Edificio en el Barrio Cívico de Santiago: La Ex Caja de Crédito Agrario / A building in the Civic Center in Santiago, Chile: Former Caja Agraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahady Villanueva, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en uno de los edificios del Barrio Cívico, obra de René Aránguiz Saravia y Luis Muñoz Maluschka. Este último contribuyó al Barrio Cívico no sólo para efectos del mejor cumplimiento de las ideas de Karl Brunner y Carlos Vera, en su calidad de Jefe de la Sección de Urbanismo de la D.G.O.P., sino también desde algunas obra de arquitectura integrada al megaproyecto de diseño urbano del Barrio Cívico de Santiago en los años 1930./This article is about one of the buildings in the Civic Center of Santiago. This building was designed by René Aránguiz and Luis Muñoz. Muñoz was also the Chief of the Urbanism Department of the D. G. O. P. and contributed to the realization of the ideas of Karl Brunner and Carlos Vera, since this particular building is part of the Santiago Civic Center Mega project of 1930.

  5. [Validation of the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in vulnerable users of health care services in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel, Juan Carlos; Vargas, Salvador; Mella, Camila; Páez, Darío

    2015-09-01

    Personal well-being calculates quality of life in terms of the necessary conditions required to live well. To validate the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a representative sample of vulnerable users of the public health system in Santiago, Chile. A probabilistic and multistage sample consisting of 400 individuals aged 44 ± 18 years (61% females) belonging to the lower income group of the National Health Fund (FONASA), residents of Gran Santiago was surveyed. Internal consistency and correlation between items and scale were examined. Structure was analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-item PWI is a good indicator of subjective well-being in the population under study, considering internal consistency, factor loadings, relation with overall life satisfaction and goodness of fit. The indicators mostly associated with personal well-being are the socioeconomic level followed by relationships with the community, health conditions and achievements. The 7-item version of the PWI is suitable for application in vulnerable health service users.

  6. La recuperación urbana y residencial del centro de Santiago: Nuevos habitantes, cambios socioespaciales significativos

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    Yasna Contreras Gatica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available De forma paralela al proceso de expansión suburbana en las ciudades latinoamericanas y, en especial, en Santiago de Chile, se observa un movimiento residencial y espacial centrípeto, que pone en valor los atributos de localización de sus espacios centrales y que lleva a plantear la tesis del regreso a la ciudad consolidada. Dicho movimiento se inicia en los años noventa, cuando el municipio de Santiago lleva a cabo el Plan de Repoblamiento cuyos objetivos se orientaron a la generación de una oferta de vivienda nueva en zonas de deterioro y en barrios consolidados y bien conectados al resto del sistema metropolitano. A esto último, se sumaron obras de mejoramiento vial y urbano, el arribo de oferta cultural y comercial y, por sobre todo, la llegada de nuevos habitantes urbanos, específicamente jóvenes y adultos profesionales y técnicos que posicionaron y consolidaron al centro como uno de los espacios residenciales más dinámicos.Parallel to the process of suburban expansion in the Latin American cities and especially in Santiago of Chile a centrifugal residential and spatial movement is observed. This movement values the attributes of location of central spaces, thus raising the thesis of the return of the consolidated city. This movement begins in the nineties, when the municipality of Santiago carries out a Repopulation Plan that was oriented to the generation of a supply of new housing in of deteriorated zones and in consolidated and well connected districts. Works of road and urban improvement, the arrival of cultural and commercial supply and the arrival of new urban inhabitants --specifically young and adult professionals and technicians, who positioned and consolidated the downtown area as one of the more dynamic residential spaces-were added.

  7. Indicadores de desempeño del sistema de riego del Rio Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto, D.; Angella, G.; Angueira, M.C.; Pérez Carrera, A.; Moscuzza, C.

    2005-01-01

    Mucha atención se ha puesto en el estudio del desempeño de los sistemas de riego a partir de la década de 1990, al tomarse conciencia de los bajos resultados de muchos de ellos, y su impacto ambiental negativo. El Sistema de Riego del Río Dulce en Santiago del Estero (PRD), no es la excepción,

  8. That Corporate Social Responsibility in the “José Mercerón Allen” Cement Factory, Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Vilnia Galán-Rivas; Elena M. Stewart-Santos; Milagros Morales-Pérez

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the problems that limit Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the José Mercerón Allen Cement Factory, Santiago de Cuba, in order to trace the corresponding actions to improve the situation. To achieve the proposed objective, initially the themes of CSR that will be evaluated based on Rule 26000 are selected, the problems that limit it are identified and the corresponding objectives and actions are defined. The research showed that the fundamenta...

  9. Midface fractures surgically treated in Instituto Traumatológico of Santiago (Chile): A 10 years review.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Pacheco; Sebastián Zapata; Cristián Núñez

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Me...

  10. The ´70th to ´90th carnival poster: a highest contribution to graphic design of Santiago de Cuba

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    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 70th´s and 80th´s of the last century in Santiago de Cuba, the promotional carnival poster, as an essentially popular fact, was endowed of particulars characteristics in the national context, which was determining for its concepts. In these poster is undeniable its remarkable identifying value, related with local and caribbean cultural traditions, quiet clear in this city.

  11. Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Jaime E.; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...

  12. The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Valdés Cobos; Anayelit Cruz Galicia

    2013-01-01

    The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a question...

  13. Características y vulnerabilidades del sector exportador cubano en el periodo revolucionario (1959-2013

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    Francisco García-Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las transformaciones del sector exterior cubano a través de la evolución de un grupo de indicadores seleccionados en el periodo revolucionario entre 1959 y 2013 para identificar las principales vulnerabilidades que enfrenta en el corto y mediano plazos. Se siguió un enfoque histórico descriptivo basado en la evolución de variables económicas en el tiempo (1959-2013. Se observó que el sector exportador cubano ha sufrido cambios importantes, aunque ha mantenido debilidades estructurales, a lo largo del periodo considerado. A partir de 1989, Cuba tuvo que ajustar sus relaciones comerciales frente a la inesperada caída de los regímenes socialistas europeos con los cuales tenía relaciones privilegiadas. En la etapa sucesiva el comercio se ha diversificado, pero ha conservado la relación de dependencia con países ideológicamente afines, y con eso las debilidades mencionadas que en el corto plazo vislumbran un panorama poco alentador.

  14. [Sociodemographic and clinical characteristic of the population attended in the Instituto Teletón de Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García P, Daniela; San Martín P, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The Institutos Teletón care for 85% of the Chilean child population with neuromusculoskeletal disability, the large percentage concentrating in this population. However, there are no registers that enable a profile to be determined on this population. To determine the profile of patients attending the Instituto Teletón de Santiago during the year 2012. The sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed from the computerised records of the Instituto Teletón de Santiago on active patients who were seen during the year 2012. A total of 8,959 patients were seen during the study year in the Instituto Teletón de Santiago. As regards socioeconomic level, 33.3% were in extreme poverty, 28.7% to low-middle level. The main clinical diagnoses were cerebral palsy and other encephalopathies that also lead to motor disability, and accounted for 55.4% of the cases. As a result of determining this profile, it would be appropriate to encourage the need for a national register of the child population with disability, as well as their particular characteristics in order to make decisions on public policy, as a destination for funds or support programs. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Assessment of urban vulnerability towards floods using an indicator-based approach – a case study for Santiago de Chile

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    A. Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularly occurring flood events do have a history in Santiago de Chile, the capital city of Chile and study area for this research. The analysis of flood events, the resulting damage and its causes are crucial prerequisites for the development of risk prevention measures. The goal of this research is to empirically investigate the vulnerability towards floods in Santiago de Chile as one component of flood risk. The analysis and assessment of vulnerability is based on the application of a multi-scale (individual, household, municipal level set of indicators and the use of a broad range of data. The case-specific set of indicators developed in this study shows the relevant variables and their interrelations influencing the flood vulnerability in the study area. It provides a decision support tool for stakeholders and allows for monitoring and evaluating changes over time. The paper outlines how GIS, census, and remote sensing data as well as household surveys and expert interviews are used as an information base for the derivation of a vulnerability map for two municipalities located in the eastern part of Santiago de Chile. The generation of vulnerability maps representing the two different perspectives of local decision makers (experts and affected households is exemplified and discussed using the developed methodology.

  16. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  17. Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción

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    Luz Ángela Silva Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El libro Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción surge en el marco de la alianza entre dos grupos de investigación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia: el Grupo de Estudios sobre la Problemática Urbano-Regional en Colombia (Geourbe del Departamento de Geografía, sede Bogotá; y el de Dinámicas Urbano-Regionales de la Facultad de Arquitectura, sede Medellín. Posteriormente, la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se sumó a la alianza con la organización del seminario Dinámicas Metropolitanas Colombia-Chile, diálogo entre Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción, en noviembre de 2012 en la ciudad de Santiago. Los trabajos allí presentados fueron la base para la edición y materialización de esta interesante obra que contiene diecisiete textos, en los que se examina el proceso de metropolización en cuatro ciudades de Colombia y Chile desde diferentes perspectivas, donde el término ‘metropolizaciones’, en plural, sugiere la riqueza de aportes y enfoques tanto teóricos como metodológicos, expuestos para estudiar las metrópolis en cuanto a sus particularidades, formas y dinámicas resultantes.

  18. La Victoria de Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas para una renovación urbana sin gentrificación para Santiago./ La Victoria of Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas for an urban renewal without gentrification in Santiago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de renovación urbana en altura de Santiago, en expansión hacia áreas populares del pericentro, es una forma de acumulación de renta de suelo, con efectos de desplazamiento social, es decir, gentrificación. Sin embargo, el pericentro de Santiago es un espacio donde coexisten amplias necesidades y capacidades de densificación urbana sin desplazamiento. Tomando como caso de estudio el desarrollo urbano histórico y actual de la población La Victoria, en Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, se plantea una investigación enfocada en dos perspectivas: histórica, definiendo este espacio desde la dialéctica entre movimientos sociales urbanos y producción espacial específica; y normativa, como una propuesta espacial que combina aspectos claves de mejoramiento barrial y densificación inclusiva y autosustentable. Se evidencia de esta forma la alta complejidad espacial del pericentro de Santiago de Chile, así como la existencia de alternativas de renovación residencial pericentral que sean social y políticamente inclusivas y de bajo impacto en términos de expulsión./ The model of high-rise urban renewal sprawls towards Santiago de Chile’s inner city. This model can be understood as a form of gentrification based on considerable accumulation of the rent gap, while its externalities generate social displacement and physical dilapidation. Notwithstanding, Santiago’s inner city is also a lived space where both needs and capacities of urban regeneration (without displacement coexist. Focusing on the case of La Victoria población, located in the southern municipality of Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, this article seeks to address the following two topics: historically, the inner city responds to a dialectic of urban social movements and specific spatial production; normatively, as an ongoing research project shows, it is feasible to combine neighbourhood regeneration, urban density increase, and citizen participation. The article substantiates the

  19. Tres miradas sobre paisaje, identidad regional y cultura folclórica en Santiago del Estero

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    Judith Farberman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora las relaciones entre paisaje, identidad y cultura popular en algunas obras de Ricardo Rojas, Bernardo Canal Feijóo y Orestes Di Lullo sobre Santiago del Estero. Consideramos que Canal Feijóo y Di Lullo regresaron en sus trabajos de las décadas de 1930 y 1940 a tres cuestiones tratadas por Rojas en El país de la selva (1907, aunque en un contexto ya irremediablemente cambiado de destrucción del bosque chaqueño. La primera de ellas consiste en la búsqueda de los orígenes de la cultura folclórica santiagueña en el período colonial. En ausencia de flujos consistentes de inmigración europea, los autores se remitieron a la conquista y a los mestizajes biológicos y culturales posteriores como punto de partida para la formación de una cultura local que ambos estimaban aún vigorosa y original. La segunda es la identidad entre paisaje y cultura folclórica. Di Lullo y Canal compartían con Rojas la idea de que la imaginación popular nacía de la naturaleza o, mejor dicho, de la sensibilidad de sujetos íntimamente consustanciados con ella. En consecuencia, la destrucción del paisaje sólo podía conducir a la del folclore, al que encontraban ya irremediablemente degradado. En tercer lugar, se hallaba la elevación del folclore santiagueño a marca de origen, a sello identitario. El componente indígena, hispano o mestizo se encontraba presente, en diferentes medidas, en aquel patrimonio ancestral que, como Rojas lo había hecho antes, Canal y Di Lullo describieron e interpretaron a la luz de sus personales lecturas de la historia santiagueña.This article explores the relationship between landscape, identity and popular culture of Santiago del Estero in the works of Ricardo Rojas, Bernardo Canal Feijóo and Orestes Di Lullo. In my opinion, Di Lullo and Canal Feijóo revisited El país de la selva (1907 in some of their works, especially in those written in the 30's and 40's. Three issues are analyzed here. The first

  20. Santiago: territorios, anhelos y temores. Efectos sociales y espaciales de la expansión urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ducci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone examinar cuáles son los tipos de espacios que se generan en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, centrando su interés en aquellas áreas que se despliegan en los límites de la urbe. La periferia se ha ido desarrollando a través de la fuerte expansión experimentada por la ciudad durante las últimas décadas, surgiendo en ella nuevos desarrollos que comienzan a modificar la forma de habitar el territorio. Entre estos identificar zonas residenciales de nivel medio y alto, áreas de vivienda social, "artefactos de la globalización" y nuevas zonas industriales. Dada la importancia de los cambios, se analiza cómo dicho crecimiento desigual, está afectando la vida de los habitantes urbanos y cómo resulta vivir en cada uno de estos fragmentos yuxtapuestos. Adicionalmente se examinan las dinámicas que subyacen a las formas urbanas contemporáneas, las políticas de localización de las personas y actividades, el síndrome de la casa propia, el estatus y el estigma en la ciudad, la ciudad que decimos querer para vivir y el miedo a la violencia y al crimenThe article proposes to examine the types of space being generated in Santiago, Chile, focusing on those areas that spread out on the edges of the city. The periphery has been developing through the strong expansion experienced by the city during the last decades, and new developments are beginning to modify the way in which territory is ocuppied. Among these developments are residential areas of middle and upper social levels, areas of public housing, "artifacts of globalization" and new industrial areas. Given the importance of these changes, the paper analyzes how this unequal growth is affecting the life of city-dwellers and what it is like to live in each one of these juxtaposed fragments. Additionally, the dynamics that underlie contemporary urban forms, the politics of people’s location and activities, the syndrome of ownership , urban status and stigma, the city

  1. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  2. Capitalización anticipada del metro de Santiago en el precio de las viviendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Agostini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En general, las viviendas que por su ubicación muestran mejores accesos tienen un valor de mercado superior respecto a viviendas de características similares con peores accesos. Esta diferencia se debe a los menores costos de transporte hacia los principales mercados laborales y comerciales de una ciudad. Por esta razón, las inversiones en infraestructura pública de transporte, como por ejemplo la construcción de una nueva línea de metro, se capitalizan total o parcialmente en el precio de los terrenos y de las viviendas. Este trabajo estudia empíricamente el grado de capitalización en el precio de las viviendas que tuvo la construcción de la nueva línea 4 del metro en la ciudad de Santiago. En particular, dado que la nueva línea entra en operación en diciembre de 2005, se estima el grado de capitalización anticipada en el precio de las viviendas ocurrido en el momento del anuncio de la construcción de la nueva línea 4 y en el momento del anuncio de la ingeniería básica que determinó la ubicación de las estaciones. Con una base de datos única, que contiene todas las transacciones de compra y venta de viviendas realizadas en el Gran Santiago entre Diciembre de 2000 y Marzo de 2004. Los resultados muestran que el valor promedio de los departamentos aumentó entre 3.3% y 4.4% en consecuencia del anuncio de construcción y entre 4.5% y 5.7% después del conocimiento de la ubicación de las estaciones. Este aumento no se distribuye en forma uniforme, sino que depende de la distancia a la estación de metro más cercana. Un efecto indirecto de esta capitalización es que la recaudación del impuesto a las propiedades aumentaría si se reavalúan las propiedades de acuerdo a su aumento de valor. Este efecto no es despreciable en magnitud y podría representar al menos entre 14 y 20% de la inversión de la nueva línea de metro, lo cual abre una discusión interesante respecto a la forma de financiar la expansión de la red de metro.

  3. La Hermandad de Santiago de Gáldar, ejemplo de fundación ilustrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Héctor Alemán González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El siglo XVIII, fue clave en el desarro­llo de la estructura social que regiría los des­tinos de las islas en las centurias siguientes. La aparición de la Ilustración, no sólo motivo la confrontación entre lo religioso y lo racio­nal (si acudimos a los extremos del debate nacido en la época sino que hizo posible el nacimiento de un movimiento intermedio me­diante el cual la propia iglesia sería promotora de muchos cambios. Para ello fue preciso y necesario reestructurar sus sistemas de intervención social. Debido a ello, fueron las cofradías y las hermandades las primeras afectadas, acabando con sus costumbres in­memoriales y dándoles valores mas acorde con la mentalidad que se quería imponer. La hermandad de Santiago de Gáldar se con­vierte en un testigo conciso y claro de aque­lla laboriosa tarea, el obispo Tavira y Almazán en el principal protagonista y Gáldar en el es­cenario de experimentación.The 18th century, was key in the de­velopment of the social structure that would govern the destinies of the Islands in the fo­llowing centuries. The emergence of the En­lightenment, not only reason the confrontation between the religious and the rational (if we went to the ends of the debate born at the time but which made possible the birth of an intermediate movement through which own church would be many changes promoter. This was precise and need to restructure their systems of social intervention. For this reason, the guilds and the Guild were the affected first, busting their immemorial customs and giving them values more consistent with the mentality that was intended to impose. The brotherho­od of Santiago Gáldar becomes a concise and clear witness that laborious task, Bishop Ta­vira and Almazán in the main protagonist and Gáldar on the stage of experimentation.

  4. Incidence rate and spatio-temporal clustering of type 1 diabetes in Santiago, Chile, from 1997 to 1998 Taxa de incidência e agrupamento espaço-temporal de diabetes tipo 1 em Santiago, Chile, de 1997 a 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JL Santos; E Carrasco; AL Moore; F Pérez-Bravo; C Albala

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in the urban area of Santiago, Chile, from March 21, 1997 to March 20, 1998, and to assess the spatio-temporal clustering of cases during that period. METHODS...

  5. Niveles de actividad física en los periodos de recreo de niños y adolescentes en un colegio distrital de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Zambrano, Gustavo; Ferreira Hino, Adriano Akira

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar los niveles de actividad física (AF) de niños y adolescentes entre 10 y 17 años durante los periodos de recreo escolar en un colegio distrital de Bogotá. Método: estudio de corte transversal en un colegio distrital de la localidad de Puente Aranda en Bogotá. Fueron observados a través del sistema de observación de juego y de actividad en el tiempo libre en jóvenes (SOPLAY) los niveles y tipos de AF de niños y adolescentes en los periodos de recreo durante tres s...

  6. Biocultural Homogenization in Urban Settings: Public Knowledge of Birds in City Parks of Santiago, Chile

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    Juan L. Celis-Diez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An understudied consequence of growing urbanization is the rapid and concurrent loss of native biological and cultural diversity. Here, we measured the concordance between avian species richness in public green areas of the city of Santiago, Chile, and the corresponding knowledge of local citizens of this avian diversity. To assess this correspondence, we sampled avian species richness in 10 representative city parks and surveyed the awareness of avian diversity by park visitors as well as their ability to identify bird species. We found no significant relationship between estimated bird diversity from field sampling and their perception by park visitors, suggesting that visitors underestimate avian diversity in city parks because they perceive only a small fraction of the overall diversity, with their awareness especially biased towards the most abundant species. Exotic bird species comprise the majority of the latter group. This result was observed regardless of whether the city park had high or low bird diversity. Public knowledge of birds did not relate to the species richness present at city parks, and was strongly biased towards the most abundant, widely distributed, and primarily exotic species. This result agrees with the biocultural homogenization hypothesis, documenting the role of urban areas in this global process.

  7. [Smoking and student survival at Universidad Santiago de Cali, 2004-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Calderón, Luis A; Millán-Estupiñan, Juan C; Zapata-Ossa, Helmer; Ordoñez-Arana, Gustavo A; Varela, Jesús M

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the results of monitoring students who enrolled at Universidad Santiago de Cali (USC) during the second half of 2004. Its purpose was to determine the influence of smoking, the academic programme and the cost of enrollment on student survival over a three-year period (2004-2007). The study involved a prospective cohort of 970 students who entered the university in 2004. Cox regression was used for survival analysis to determine the relationship between independent variables and university stay. The results of this model established associations between smoking and department with survival in the university, but discarded association with the cost of enrollment. The risk of university desertion was higher amongst students from the Health faculty adjusted for smoking (RR = 1.277 (1.121-1.455)). Similarly, the risk of desertion was higher in smokers adjusted by faculty (RR = 1.194 (1.026-1.390). It was found that habitual smokers had shorter university stay than nonsmokers. University stay was longer in students enrolled in academic programmes other than health.

  8. Protección civil, población, vulnerabilidad y riesgo en Santiago Miltepec, Toluca

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    Alejandra Toscana Aparicio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la forma en que el nivel de gobierno municipal actúa frente a los “pequeños desastres” asociados a fenómenos naturales, entendiendo por “pequeños desastres” aquéllos que impactan en la escala local pero sus consecuencias no trascienden del ámbito municipal. Se toma como punto de partida el evento ocurrido el 30 de junio de 2006 en la delegación Santiago Miltepec de la ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México, en el que durante una intensa precipitación pluvial, grandes bloques de roca se desprendieron de las laderas del cerro El Barrigón y rodaron hasta el piedemonte del cerro afectando algunas de las viviendas ahí construidas. Este caso, como otros similares, permite observar el distanciamiento que existe entre la población y el Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil en sus diferentes niveles organizativos, así como el distanciamiento entre las diferentes instancias gubernamentales que inciden en la organización del territorio y en la prevención de desastres.

  9. NUEVOS PRECEPTOS PARA REGULACIONES URBANAS DEL REPARTO VISTA ALEGRE EN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

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    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El reparto Vista Alegre constituye un sitio de significativos valores patrimoniales de Santiago de Cuba. Desde su génesis, en 1907, desarrolló particularidades urbano-arquitectónicas que revelaron su trascendencia como un proyecto vanguardista para su tiempo y lugar cuya praxis lo convirtió en la experiencia urbanística más importante del siglo XX en la ciudad. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha observado un creciente deterioro de la imagen urbana en Vista Alegre que ha puesto en peligro su integridad como conjunto residencial de altos valores ambientales. El presente artículo ofrece una mirada diferente a esta problemática, a partir de la formulación de nuevas regulaciones urbanas para el reparto Vista Alegre, enfocado hacia la protección de su patrimonio construido. La actualización y reformulación de las mismas constituyó el principal aporte de esta investigación urbana.

  10. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Social capital and mental health in low income urban communities in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando C; Sapag, Jaime C; Bossert, Thomas J

    2008-02-01

    Many studies suggest that social capital, defined as those intangible resources of a society or community (trust, participation and reciprocity), that might facilitate collective action, can be associated with positive health effects. To explore the relationship between social capital an the level of mental health, in urban communities of Santiago, Chile. In a qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional design, two low income neighborhoods in the municipality of Puente Alto were selected. Interviews to key agents and focus groups, as well as surveys (407) to adults from a representative random sample of households, were conducted, measuring social capital, using a locally devised questionnaire and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 instrument). A qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory and a quantitative analysis through correlations and simple and logistic regression models were applied. The quantitative analysis found an association between female gender, education and having a chronic disease, with low levels of mental health. At the same time, the trust component of social capital might be associated with a better mental health status. Qualitatively, all the components of social capital were identified as important for a better mental health. This study suggests the existence of a positive relationship between social capital and mental health. Developing trust in a community might be a useful tool to work in mental health at the community level.

  12. Camino de Santiago – Places Names as Border Posts in Collective Memory (I

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    Ion Nicolae

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An important subject of interest for human geographers has been, since at least Friedrich Ratzel’s time, the link between geographical reality and the place-names. These ‘fossils of human geography’ (cf. Raoul Blanchard have become nowadays increasingly attractive for the cultural geographers interested, among other issues, in explaning the impact of some political actions (for instance giving names with political connotations to different places, especially streets and other public places on the collective memory. Authors’ pedestrian trip (of almost 800 km through the northern Spain along the St. James’ Way has been both, an experience, of meeting special people from all around the world and, an opportunity to discover the Spanish ‘place names envelope’ – at home. In addition it created the right occasion for the author to reflect on the impact of recent law on ‘Historic Memory’ (La Ley de la Memoria Historica of the street names. This paper analyses the places names and the street names of some settlements of St James’ Way (Camino de Santiago emphasysing the sources of places names (historical, natural, economical, religious ones and the actions of the local authorities to implement the central decisions in the field of street names. There are used limited amount of examples as the work is at its beginning.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014

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    Francisco J. Escobedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes.

  14. [Latent tuberculosis infection screening in healthcare workers in four large hospitals in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mariluz; Casar, Carlos; García, Patricia; Morales, Verónica; Mamani, Nora; Gómez-Cofré, Natalia; Pizarro, Patricia; Balcells, M Elvira

    2014-06-01

    It is currently unknown which is the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in Chile, but this group has been described as at higher risk of developing active tuberculosis than general population. To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in a sample of healthcare workers from at risk areas. A cross-sectional, descriptive study, conducted in health care workers from clinical laboratories or respiratory care areas in four hospitals in Santiago. Latent tuberculosis infection detection was determined by Quantiferon® TB Gold In Tube testing (QFT). QFT resulted positive in 20 of 76 (26.3%) of the individuals tested. Test positivity reached 62.5% among the personnel that reported history of past TB contact in the community, 50% among the personnel who belonged to the national tuberculosis control program and 38% among those doing induced sputum, acid fast smear or mycobacterial cultures. The proportion of individuals with positive QFT was significantly lower in those personnel who had no such risk factors (15.7%, p = 0.03). The proportion of latent tuberculosis infection also increased in direct relation to the age of the subject. Latent tuberculosis infection as detected by QFT testing was highly prevalent in healthcare workers included in the present study. Further exploring the limitations and possible scenarios for this new diagnostic tool is needed, with emphasis on health personnel at higher-risk and younger individuals.

  15. Inmigrantes en territorios de frontera: La ciudad de los otros. Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Márquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la construcción y génesis de territorios de frontera por parte de inmigrantes en Santiago de Chile, específicamente en La Chimba, al norte del río Mapocho. Se analiza este habitar de frontera desde evidencias de la historia, la sociología, georreferenciación y etnografía. La tesis central dice que el habitar de frontera se crea y se transforma en fuente de poder y ejercicio ciudadano, cuando la configuración de los territorios que cobijan a los inmigrantes es capaz de alimentar y ensanchar el campo de lo posible, más allá de la sobrevivencia. Se concluye que en La Chimba, la realización de la vita activa en los migrantes se levanta sobre una paradoja: cobijo y arraigo (condición de comunidad y redes de protección; itinerancia y movimiento (condición de translocalidad y conectividad. Esta paradoja resguarda la identidad de los habitantes en la multiculturalidad, pero a su vez abre la conectividad más allá de las fronteras del barrio, de la ciudad y la nación.

  16. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. La entonación neutra en el habla de Santiago de Cuba

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    Lic. Alex Muñoz-Alvarado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La prosodia ha sido escasamente investigada en la variante cubana del español. En el presente artículo se dan a conocer las características principales encontradas en Santiago de Cuba en relación con la entonación neutra, la que está desprovista de marca fonológica y que suele acompañar a oraciones declarativas, aunque también se usa en oraciones interrogativas parciales. La caracterización del fenómeno se hace desde una perspectivafonológica estructural, muy poco extendida en el campo de los estudios de entonación, y con el apoyo de instrumentos digitales. Los datos aportados son de gran utilidad técnica y práctica para el conocimiento efectivo de la variación regional de la pronunciación en el mundo de habla hispana, y para la enseñanza del español como lengua materna y como lengua extranjera.

  18. [Liver transplantation in adults: a caseload from Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Juan; Ríos, Horacio; Suárez, Leopoldo; Zaror, Mónica; Quiroga, Marta; Rodríguez, Gabriela; Valderrama, Rodrigo; Humeres, Roberto; Innocenti, Franco; Sanhueza, Edgar; Zapata, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Rubén; Palacios, José M; Abarca, Juan; Montalván, Carlos; Noriega, Luis M; Videla, Domingo; Reynolds, Enrique; Espinoza, Ricardo; Sandoval, Renato; Rius, Montserrat

    2002-07-01

    The success of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has resulted in its widespread use for different liver diseases. To report our 8 years experience with adult OLT at Clinica Alemana de Santiago. In all transplantations done at the center, we recorded patient's overall data and survival, postoperative medical and surgical complications and causes of death. Between November 1993 and September 2001, 51 consecutive OLT were performed in 44 patients (22 females, median age 45 years old). Thirty eight patients presented with chronic and 6 with acute or sub-acute liver failure. Cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatitis C infection were the most common causes for OLT. Postoperative bleeding and extrahepatic biliary complications were seen in 17.6 and 21.5% of cases respectively. Acute rejection, bacterial infections, CMV infection or disease and post OLT hemodialysis were the most common medical complications (51, 31, 19.6 and 19.6% of cases respectively). The overall 1 and 5 years survival rates were 80% and 73% respectively. Considering exclusively the last 22 OLT performed since January 1999, the 1 year survival rate has improved to 91%. Liver transplantation in Chile provides a good long term survival with acceptable morbidity, due to a multidisciplinary approach management. The survival rates have improved over the last few years probably due to better surgical techniques, ICU care and immunosuppression. These overall results are comparable with those from other Centers in developed countries.

  19. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the Santiago de Compostela area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, D; Durán, I; Llerena, J J

    2008-10-01

    Galician soils are among those with the highest 222Rn exhalation rates in Spain. A year-round study of the indoor 222Rn concentration in buildings in the Santiago de Compostela area (Galicia, Northwest of Spain) was performed. The study is based on systematic samplings with active charcoal canisters, following a modified EPA 520/5-87-005 protocol. These measurements were complemented by others obtained using etched track dosimeters. Each data set follows a log-normal distribution, with a geometric mean of (253+/-3) Bq m(-3) for charcoal canisters and (285+/-2.5) Bq m(-3) for etched track detectors. After correcting for the different measuring conditions, the mean value of both methods differed by only 2%. A careful analysis of the seasonal dependence of our measurements did not reveal any significant seasonal variations in the 222Rn concentration. Parallel to these measurements, different meteorological parameters were recorded, which revealed a direct correlation between the indoor radon concentration and the outdoor temperature derivative with respect to time.

  20. The geodynamic polygon of Santiago de cuba: A scientific and socio-economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués, M. E.; Hernández, J. R.; Chuy, T.; Venereo, A.

    1983-09-01

    Since 1971 the Cuban Institute of Geodesy and Cartography and the Institutes of Geography corresponding to the Academy of Sciences from Cuba and the U.S.S.R. have been investigating recent geodynamic processes in Cuban territory, applying geodesy, geologic and geomorphologic methods. In the eastern region the correlation of morpho-structural characteristics with the velocities of recent vertical crustal movements, the results of seismologic observations and the socio-economic importance of the region Santiago de Cuba, led to the necessity for the establishment of a geodynamic polygon, for the study in complex and integral form of the relation between recent vertical movements and seismicity, to assist in the prediction of earthquakes. This paper shows the results in the preliminary profiles corresponding to relative velocities of vertical crustal movements for the most important first and second order nivelation routed in the studied area, the territorial distribution of the seismological events in the southeastern region, as well as judgments in the density of epicentral distribution; it explains the proposed altimetric observation net for a geodynamic polygon and the complex system of geoscientific investigations which must be carried out.

  1. GORDURA, DISCRIMINACIÓN Y CLASISMO: UN ESTUDIO EN JÓVENES DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE

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    María Alejandra Energici Sprovera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El estudio de la obesidad desde la psicología social se ha realizado principalmente desde una aproximación cognitivo conductual omitiendo los contextos sociales en que se realizan juicios discriminadores. Con el objetivo de comprender los significados con que se construye la gordura y su interacción con otras formas de exclusión social, hemos realizado un estudio cualitativo de jóvenes de Santiago de Chile. Trabajamos con tres grupos de discusión, que analizamos siguiendo las directrices de la teoría fundada. Presentamos los resultados relativos a la construcción de la gordura y su vinculación con las clases sociales. La gordura se constituye como una condición que define a la persona como ansioso/a, perezoso/a y deforme, lo que justifica la acción de discriminación. Los atributos por los que son excluidos las personas gordas coinciden con los utilizados históricamente para discriminar a los/as pobres, de ahí que concluimos que se constituye como una nueva forma de clasismo.

  2. METROPOLIZACION Y POLITICAS DE PLANIFICACION. UN DESAFIO PARA SANTIAGO DE CHILE

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Area Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo, el AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. El propósito de este trabajo, es analizar la situación del AMS, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. Se pretende contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, las orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que experimentan las ciudades.

  3. FORECAST PRODUCTION COSTS SUGAR IN THE PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA THROUGH ECONOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

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    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conformation at the present time, of an economic model renovated in Cuba, it should be based in the efficient use of the productive factors which it counts the country, with emphasis in the substitution of imports. In the chapter VII, article 184 of the Limits of the Economic and Social Politics of the Party and the Revolution it can be read: "To prioritize, in short term, the substitution of imports of those foods that can be produced efficiently in the country; also it will owe to multiply the application of the results of the science and the technique."1 In fact the objective of the present investigation, using econometrics technical to carry out presage of the cost of sugar production, using factors in the productive process: days of harvest, use of the potential, recovered capacity and industrial yield. The results indicate  that the factor with more influences in the decrease of the costs is the industrial yield. It is also obtained a cost presage for the county Santiago de Cuba in different harvest stages that oscillates between $372,45 and 517,52 and it stops extreme values of $ 303,21 and $ 777,6. 

  4. Child mental hygiene and psychoanalysis at the clinic of conduct, Santiago de Chile, 1936-1938

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    Silvana Vetö

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking stance in a situated perspective, this article looks into one of the first Chilean state initiatives aimed at the study and care of child psyche. This institution that has not yet been explored by specialized literature: the Clinic of Conduct, founded in the city of Santiago in 1936 as part of the Special School of Development, which was created in the context of a the Educational Reform of 1928. The Clinic of Conduct launched a state managed mental hygiene programme that included psychoanalysis as its main reference at a time when psychoanalysis was not yet a regular reference in the local medical world. We are thus interested in analysing context in which this initiatives were created and the ways in which mental hygiene and psychoanalysis were appropriated and used in an institution in which the principal interest was not the defence or legitimation of a singular theory, but the approach to specific social problems such as child delinquency and education. Some characteristics of the history of psy knowledges in Chile emerge from this study, showing how they unfold on the scenario of social problems and how they relate to other disciplines and practices such as criminology and pedagogy.

  5. Understanding Density in an Uneven City, Santiago de Chile: Implications for Social and Environmental Sustainability

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    Felipe Livert Aquino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote infill development and to raise densities are growing in many cities around the world as a way to encourage urban sustainability. However, in cities polarized along socio-economic lines, the benefits of densification are not so evident. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the contradictions of densification in Santiago de Chile, a city characterized by socio-spatial disparities. To that end, we first use regression analysis to explain differences in density rates within the city. The regression analysis shows that dwelling density depends on the distance from the city center, socioeconomic conditions, and the availability of urban attributes in the area. After understanding the density profile, we discuss the implications for travel and the distribution of social infrastructures and the environmental services provided by green areas. While, at the metropolitan scale, densification may favor a more sustainable travel pattern, it should be achieved by balancing density rates and addressing spatial differences in the provision of social services and environmental amenities. We believe a metropolitan approach is essential to correct these spatial imbalances and to promote a more sustainable and socially cohesive growth pattern.

  6. Diversity of plant species on suburban farms in Santiago de Cuba

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    Belayni Vargas Batis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of arborescent and shrub-like activity on four suburban farms in the province of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. 100 m2 plots were created for species count. A flower list was made after species identification, then the alpha (α diversity indicators were calculated (Species abundance (S, Dominance (Simpson D, and General Diversity (Shannon, H. The indicators for the beta diversity were Jaccard (Ij, Morisita-Horn (IM-H, and Ecological Subordination (ES. The data collected included 62 509 individuals from 65 families, 154 genders, and 183 species. For both groups, the alpha indicators showed an increasing trend between periods, with values ranging within the parameters for each indicator. La Caballería farm was the exception, where the Shannon diversity index (H was not within the set range for proper diversity and abundance during the dry season. The beta diversity indicators showed differing values among the samples studied, which prove the existence of specific species adapted to the environmental conditions of the place.1

  7. Experiencias, magia y colonialidad. Reflexiones sobre estudiantes y brujas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Lucas Gabriel Díaz Ledesma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo realizamos un análisis basado en narrativas en torno a las experiencias cotidianas de sujetos que viven en Santiago del Estero, Argentina, mediadas por un registro mítico: uno religioso y otro sexo-genérico. En esta ocasión, trabajamos la figura del estudiante de magia y su relación con la figura de la bruja, articulando así inscripciones míticas con la imaginería sexo-genérica que contornea el ejercicio de las sexualidades. De este modo, entender cómo operan las tramas culturales, cuya inteligibilidad se produce en diálogo con los procesos coloniales santiagueños y la conformación de los mestizajes. Desde la comunicación y los estudios decoloniales buscamos producir conocimientos situados y críticos que permitan desfloclorizar y repolitizar estas temáticas.

  8. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, L; Pico, R; Vaccari, F

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of M sub S = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, I sub A R etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio E sub I R(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorith...

  9. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  10. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p related life increases as there are fewer children in the household, the person's expenditure on food increases, the person consumes some Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Santiago de Querétaro city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho Díaz, J. G.; González Sosa, E.; García Martínez, R.; Mondragón Olguín, V.; Miranda Castañeda, G.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution and environment are one of the main problems around the planet. That's the reason which is important to understand the way pollution interact with weather. This work researches the contamination process from biological organisms or bio-indicators to identify and quantify those elements which are dangerous for humans. On one hand, because bio-indicators reduce cost for in situ monitoring systems and sample methods, and by the other hand because they can combine with isotopic analysis. Tilandsia Recurvata Liquens (Bromeliaceae) were collected in urban zone from Santiago de Querétaro, establishing 2 sample periods, which are April - June 2011 and March - April 2012. Total number of samples was 190 from 14 sites, 100 corresponding for first period and 90 for the second. Also, reference samples were collected from a place located at 30 km from metropolitan area. Element concentrations were determined through isotopy for 13C y 15N and metal elements by using and ICP-MS. Maps were drawn to explain distribution and deposition in the city to distinguish natural contribution and anthropogenic deposition. 13C y 15N results showed that distribution of carbon and nitrogen compound is conditioned due vehicular traffic activity, wind frequency and rain patterns. Key Words: Bio-monitoring, bio-indicator, liquen, atmospheric pollution, isotopy, ICP-MS Analysis.

  12. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the Santiago de Compostela area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, D.; Duran, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Grupo Experimental de Nucleos y Particulas (GENP), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Llerena, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Grupo Experimental de Nucleos y Particulas (GENP), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jjllerena@usc.es

    2008-10-15

    Galician soils are among those with the highest {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in Spain. A year-round study of the indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration in buildings in the Santiago de Compostela area (Galicia, Northwest of Spain) was performed. The study is based on systematic samplings with active charcoal canisters, following a modified EPA 520/5-87-005 protocol. These measurements were complemented by others obtained using etched track dosimeters. Each data set follows a log-normal distribution, with a geometric mean of (253 {+-} 3) Bq m{sup -3} for charcoal canisters and (285 {+-} 2.5) Bq m{sup -3} for etched track detectors. After correcting for the different measuring conditions, the mean value of both methods differed by only 2%. A careful analysis of the seasonal dependence of our measurements did not reveal any significant seasonal variations in the {sup 222}Rn concentration. Parallel to these measurements, different meteorological parameters were recorded, which revealed a direct correlation between the indoor radon concentration and the outdoor temperature derivative with respect to time.

  13. Among Compasses: Polifonic of Youth Study of musical consumption of young people in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Lavielle Pullés

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many rythms, melodies and harmonies spread out by private, public, phisical and virtual spaces.  However, musical industry can´t work without consumers, they are the other essential part of this creational music world, and young people are one of its most devote public. The present study is about that, the musical consumption of young people in Santiago de Cuba city. Musical consumption is the main cause to they share music or in contrast they stand unnployed among themselves, that`s why it is the main concept in the study. Frequently sociologists of music have concerned abou this social and cultural process, however, it have not been present many times in social theories or - why not- even in art theories. Precisely, the main constribution aim to highligh the consumption concept into the musical world. The proccess have been explored and interpreted through quantitative and qualitative methodologies, but, mostly in the second one´s prespective. Thaks to that, the following question can be ansewerd: what is the place of musical consumption among others, where is music in young people´s daily life, why can it speak about an involuntary musical consumption. Sociology of music and consumption studies are two essential bases of this analysis. 

  14. Impresiones sobre el Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile, U.I.A. 1972”, y sobre nuestro funcionamiento. / Impressions relating to the International Competition: “Redevelopment Area in Down Town Santiago – Chile –U.I.A. 1972”, and our performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Winograd [agosto de 1972

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El autor relata sus impresiones y participación en el Concurso internacional “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile, U.I.A. 1972” como miembro del jurado. /The author recounts his impressions of and participation in the International Competition: “Redevelopment Area in Down Town Santiago – Chile –U.I.A. 1972”, as a juror.

  15. Farmers or rural workers? A current social characterization of rural families of Atamisqui Department, Santiago del Estero ¿Campesinos o asalariados rurales? Una caracterización social actual de las familias rurales del Departamento de Atamisqui, Santiago del Estero

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Desalvo

    2011-01-01

    It is often said that Santiago del Estero concentrates a large number of farmers. In this paper, we present a first approach to the subject in order to begin to demystify the idea. To do this, we use data obtained from the Familiar Characterization Form prepared by PROINDER in 2009 - implemented by the Secretariat for Family Agriculture and Rural Development, Delegation Santiago del Estero- and interviews conducted in villages of Atamisqui department in April 2010. The form used allows us, am...

  16. Study on the electrical impact of the additional eolic production integration on the networks of Cabo Verde Republic - the Santiago case; Estudos de impacto electrico da integracao de producao eolica adicional nas redes electricas da Republica de Cabo Verde - Caso de Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.A. Pecas [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia. E-mail: jpl@riff.fe.up.pt; Vasconcelos, Helena [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: hvasconcelos@inescn.pt; Santos, Ruy Lopes dos; Fonseca, Joao D. [Empresa de Electricidade e Agua (ELECTRA). S.A.R.L., Sao Vicente (Cabo Verde). E-mail: dg-electra@mail.cvtelecom.cv

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology adopted for the studies on stationary and dynamic behaviour for evaluation the impact on the S. Vicente, Santiago and Sal islands networks resulting from the increasing of the eolic production capacity, considering a scenery corresponding to the year of 1998. The increasing influenced the expansion of the eolic parks being explored since the year 1994. The describe case study refers to the Santiago island, and the results obtained for this particular network are presented.

  17. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  18. Alquimia, Química y Filosofía Alquímica en la obra del extremeño Diego de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixidó Gómez, Francisco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study is made on the work Arte separatoria by Diego de Santiago, royal distiller at Felipe II court. The study proves his ability as an investigator and his thorough knowledge on the elaboration of materials and the remedies to heal diseases, undoubtedly under the influence of Paracelso. It is pointed out that De Santiago defends romance language versus latin in order to spread his achievements.

    En este trabajo se hace un estudio sobre la obra Arte separatoria de Diego de Santiago, destilador real en la corte de Felipe II El estudio pone de manifiesto la actividad investigadora de Santiago, así como el conocimiento detallado que tiene sobre la elaboración de los materiales y los remedios para sanar las distintas enfermedades, sin duda bajo la influencia de Paracelso. Se hacer notar que De Santiago defiende la lengua vulgar, frente al latín, para difundir sus conocimientos.

  19. Reinventando el imaginario médico japonés : la experiencia occidentalizadora durante el periodo Meiji

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Carlos Hugo

    2010-01-01

    El propósito fundamental de este texto es presentar el contexto histórico y sociocultural de la introducción de la medicina occidental en Japón durante las primeras décadas del periodo Meiji. En esta fase pre-bacteriológica, la occidentalización en materia médica alentó una política de confrontación a diferentes niveles con el imaginario tradicional japonés que desembocó, no sólo en una la pugna por espacios estratégicos de legitimidad, sino que también, de modo transitorio efímero, alumbró u...

  20. Consideraciones teórico-críticas para el estudio de la literatura cubana del Periodo Especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Sánchez Becerril

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La transformación de la literatura cubana en el marco del Periodo especial en tiempos de paz está vinculada con la detonación de las tensiones acumuladas. El presente ensayo postula que la emergencia de una serie de poéticas narrativas es indisociable de un complejo contexto socio-histórico marcado por un cambio de referentes, la ruptura con el modelo literario impuesto y la formulación de conceptos particulares de la literatura desde los textos de creación. Para ello se resumen las coordenadas culturales, las influencias teóricas, la función de la crítica literaria y la avidez las casas editoriales extranjeras como principales promotores literarios, así como la adaptación de la censura a las nuevas condiciones.

  1. EFECTO DEL ESTRADIOL EN EL PERIODO DE RECONOCIMIENTO MATERNAL DE LA PREÑEZ SOBRE LA SUPERVIVENCIA EMBRIONARIA EN ALPACAS

    OpenAIRE

    Chipayo G., Ysaac; Práctica privada; Leyva V., Víctor; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Obstetricia Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; García V., Wilber; Estación Experimental del Centro de Investigación IVITA-Maranganí, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    El efecto del estradiol (E2 ) durante el periodo de reconocimiento maternal de la preñez (días 9-11 post-ovulación) fue estudiado en 44 alpacas con descanso postparto > 20 días. Los animales fueron sometidos a una monta controlada con macho entero (>15 minutos) y se les aplicó 500 UI de gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG) vía i.m. Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos: El grupo G1 (n=14) recibió 0.2 ml de una solución de vitaminas A, D y E vía i.m. los días 8 y 9 post-ovulación. El...

  2. Factores asociados a satisfacción vital en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago, Chile Factors associated with life satisfaction in a cohort of older people in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Castillo-Carniglia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre satisfacción vital con el nivel socioeconómico y el autorreporte del estado de salud en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago de Chile en los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó 2002 sujetos entre 65 y 67,9 años de edad, registrados en 20 centros de salud primaria del Gran Santiago, autovalentes, sin deterioro cognitivo, sospecha de cáncer ni enfermedad terminal. Se evaluó la satisfacción vital mediante la adaptación abreviada de una escala de satisfacción con la vida (de 0 a 11, además de los ingresos económicos, el nivel de educación, el apoyo social y autorreporte del estado de salud y la memoria. Se utilizó un modelo log-binomial para analizar la asociación entre las variables evaluadas y los extremos del puntaje de satisfacción vital (cuartil 4 frente a 1. Resultados: Se observó una asociación significativa (análisis bivariado y multivariado entre satisfacción vital e ingresos económicos en los hombres, y en ambos sexos con el apoyo social, el autorreporte de salud, la memoria y los diagnósticos de problemas articulares, diabetes e hipertensión. Conclusión: La situación económica, el apoyo social y el estado de salud se asocian de forma independiente con la satisfacción vital en los adultos mayores de Santiago. Se requieren nuevos estudios para evaluar la dirección temporal del efecto, así como las implicaciones de estos hallazgos en las políticas públicas de salud en esta población.Objective: To evaluate the association between life satisfaction and socioeconomic status and self-reported health in a cohort of older people in Santiago, Chile, in 2005 and 2006. Methods: We interviewed 2002 individuals aged 65 to 67.9 years registered in 20 primary care centers in the city of Santiago. Participants were living independently with no cognitive impairment, suspected cancer or terminal diseases. We assessed life satisfaction using an abbreviated

  3. Prevalence and correlates of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia e correlaciones de la lucha física entre adolescentes escolares en Santiago de Chile, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is a growing interest in injury as a public health issue across the world. There is paucity of data on the prevalence and social correlates of non-fatal interpersonal violence in low- and middle-income income nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and associated factors for physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile. METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Chilean Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2004 in Santiago. We aimed to assess the prevalence and social correlates of having been involved in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 2111 respondents, 40.7% (54.3% males and 26.6% females reported having been in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females [OR = 3.89, 95% CI (3.11, 4.85]. Substance use (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting [OR = 3.05, 95% CI (2.40, 3.87 for substance use, and OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.32, 2.05 for bullying]. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting [OR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.50, 0.78]. CONCLUSION: We have estimated the prevalence of having engaged in a physical fight among in-school adolescents in Santiago, Chile. We have found that the prevalence is similar to what has been reported in diverse settings in Africa, Europe and North America.OBJETIVO: Existe un creciente interés en el daño como un asunto de salud pública a través del mundo. Hay escasez de datos en la prevalencia y correlaciones sociales de violencia interpersonal no fatal, en naciones con bajos y medianos ingresos. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia y el factor asociado a lucha física entre estudiantes adolescentes en Santiago, Chile. MÉTODO: Hemos conducido un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Global Chilena de Salud Basada en Escuelas

  4. Condiciones de trabajo y bienestar/malestar docente en profesores de enseñanza media de Santiago de Chile Secondary school teachers' working conditions and well-being/discomfort in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cornejo Chávez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación busca analizar conjuntamente las condiciones de trabajo docente (materiales y psicosociales y el bienestar/malestar de los profesores de enseñanza secundaria de Santiago, Chile. Su diseño es multivariado, descriptivo/transversal, correlacional y explicativo (siendo bienestar/malestar la variable dependiente para la construcción del modelo de regresión múltiple. La información fue recogida durante el año 2008, en una muestra representativa para los establecimientos educacionales con subvención estatal de Santiago. Se concluye que los docentes perciben condiciones de trabajo precarias y altos niveles de demanda laboral (intensificación del trabajo. Se construye un modelo explicativo del bienestar/malestar de los docentes, que consta de siete variables, de las cuales dos se destacan por su alto poder explicativo: la "significatividad en el trabajo" y las "demandas laborales".This research analyzes teachers' material and psychosocial working conditions and well-being/discomfort in Chilean secondary school. It has a multivariate, descriptive/cross-sectional, correlational and explanatory design-wellness/discomfort being the dependent variable in the construction of this multiple regression model. Information was collected along 2008 from a representative sample of educational establishments funded by the State of Santiago. It concludes that teachers perceive the precariousness of their working conditions and the high levels of labor demand (work intensification. An explanatory model of teachers' well-being/discomfort is constructed, which consists of seven variables, two of which are outlined for their high explanatory power: "meaningfulness in work" and "labor demands".

  5. Sustainable solar construction in the university buildings. The University of Santiago of Compostela: experiences, successes and errors; Edificacion solar sostenible en los edificios universitarios. La Universidad de Santiago de compostela: experiencias, aciertos y errores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabernero, F. M.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes some of the most remarkable facts about the building history in the University of Santiago de Compostela, particularly in their campus, attending to the design in relation with the Solar energy. sometimes, Urban Planning has helped, but another times professionals didn't know od didn't want to take advantage of the opportunities given. As a conclusion, it can be said that a good Urban Planning can help a lot to obtain a good Bio-climatic Architecture, but only the decision of the promoter and the knowledge of the architect will make them effective, with or without the help of the Urban Planning. (Author)

  6. Especialización y concentración espacial de barrios comerciales: evidencias en base al caso de la comuna de Santiago./ Specialization and spatial concentration of commercial neighborhoods: evidence based on the Santiago central area case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sandoval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es analizar y comprender las causas y dinámicas de la especialización de los barrios comerciales de la comuna de Santiago, asumiendo la pregunta: ¿Por qué y cómo, algunos barrios comerciales de la comuna de Santiago se especializan en la venta de ciertos bienes y/o servicios, concentrando su oferta con un patrón espacial definido, siendo que su localización podría presentarse diversificada sectorialmente y/o diseminada dentro de la ciudad? La investigación utiliza un conjunto de métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos, para proponer una metodología de análisis de la actividad comercial, considerando su nivel de especialización y arreglo espacial, al mismo tiempo que se identifican un conjunto de barrios concentrados, los cuales que se presentan en dos formas específicas: de manera polarizada (caso de los barrios Brasil y Diez de Julio y como un sistema de barrios especializados (casos de los barrios de San Diego en sus segmentos de libros, bicicletas y de cueros y calzados. La principal contribución de la investigación, es la aplicación de una metodología de identificación de barrios que permite proponer un conjunto de causas posibles para explicar el origen de la especialización comercial al interior de la ciudad./ This article focuses on analyzing the Santiago district, in order to understanding the causes specialization of commercial neighborhoods and their dynamics, by addressing the following question: Why and how does commercial specialization occur in some neighborhoods of the Central Santiago district, concentrating their in a defined spatial pattern, instead of spreading through the urban fabric?Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to develop an in depth analysis of commercial activities, taking into consideration their specialization level and spatial arrangement. Through this study, a series of specialized commercial neighborhoods where identified and classified, revealing two specific

  7. 36 Annual Meeting of Spanish Nuclear Society, Oct. 6-9 2010 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 36 Reunion Anual Sociedad Nuclear Espanola, 6-8 de Octubre de 2010, Santiago de Compostela, Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) is a non-profit association, made up of professionals and institutions in order to promote awareness and dissemination of science and nuclear technology. The 36th meeting of the SNE was held in Santiago de Compostela between 6 and 8 October 2010. Participants discussed the situation of nuclear energy and its challenges, the development of electric cars and their distributional implications, and the study of nuclear advertising on other countries and their potential application to the case of Spain.

  8. Camino de Santiago y Xacobeo 2010 en los portales turísticos de las Comunidades Autónomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mª-Dolores Fernández-Poyatos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los portales web turísticos de las comunidades autónomas españolas por donde cruzan rutas históricas jacobeas. Considerando que tanto el Camino de Santiago como la celebración del Xacobeo 2010 son oportunidades turísticas para estas comunidades, esta investigación se ha planteado como objetivo principal determinar el tratamiento que de ellos han realizado en sus portales web dichas autonomías; para ello, se valora, primero, el grado de calidad de las webs y, segundo, se comprueba si en los portales web se ha considerado el año jacobeo y el producto turístico Camino de Santiago para promocionar sus propios territorios autonómicos. En la investigación, se ha revisado la bibliografía y definido los conceptos utilizados; se han seleccionado las variables para medir los parámetros de calidad web y se ha realizado un análisis del contenido y diseño de las webs turísticas. Como conclusión, se constata que el portal web de Galicia es el que más exhaustivamente trata el Xacobeo 2010 y el Camino de Santiago. El resto de autonomías ofrece en sus portales turísticos información sobre el Xacobeo 2010 y el Camino dispar, que varía de unas a otras. Por la trascendencia del acontecimiento turístico del Xacobeo 2010 y la importancia de Internet como herramienta de comunicación, el grupo de investigación tiene como objetivo realizar un nuevo análisis de los portales institucionales una vez finalice el año 2010.

  9. Vivienda social en Santiago de Chile. Análisis de su comportamiento locacional, período 1980- 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tapia Zarricueta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo revela antecedentes acerca de la instalación y emplazamiento de la vivienda social en la modalidad de conjuntos o proyectos de vivienda, en Santiago de Chile, detectando en ese proceso tendencias locacionales, causas y factores explicativos de tales tendencias y relación con la estructura socio espacial. Se presentan las políticas habitacionales y urbanas del período, aspectos normativos y principales modificaciones que estuvieron impactando en el Gran Santiago. La información primaria se obtuvo de archivos del Servicio de Vivienda y Urbanización del Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, y otras de fuentes secundarias para luego proceder a su análisis, georeferenciamiento y obtención de conclusiones. Es además, la primera etapa de dos en total, en que se levantarán los datos de los conjuntos de vivienda social, período 2003-2009, para obtener el comportamiento de la vivienda social 1980-2010. Los resultados aportan evidencias más detalladas acerca de que la tendencia locacional fue consecuente con los cambios radicales a las políticas públicas en vivienda social y consecuente con el modelo económico que se iniciaba en Chile en ese momento. Con este proceso se inició una nueva etapa que llevó a Santiago de Chile a ser una metrópolis más segregada y no inclusiva.

  10. [Etiology of febrile neutropenia episodes among cancer patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Catolica, Santiago-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati B, Ricardo; Fuentes L, Gino; Orellana U, Eric; Oporto C, Jorge; Domínguez M, Isabel; Benítez G, Rosana; Aedo C, Igor; Ramos G, Germán; Garrido S, Marcelo; García C, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    The surveillance of febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes in every center allows adapt the antibiotic therapy guidelines to local epidemiology. To characterize clinical features and compare the FN etiology between hematological cancer (HC) and solid organ cancer (SOC) in our center. Surveillance study in adult patients with FN admitted to Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, in Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to August 2007. 154 FN episodes corresponding to 87 patients were included. Mean age: 47 +/- 6 years-old; 71% had HC and 29% SOC. A clinical and/or microbiologically documented infection was recognized in 76%. Gastrointestinal 31.5%, upper respiratory 30.3% and lower respiratory 16.9% were the more frequent clinical focus. In 30.5% blood culture resulted positive: gram negative rods 51%, gram positive cocci 41% and yeasts 8%; being Escherichia coli 22%, S. coagulase negative (SCoN) 20% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 12% most frequent bacteria; 22.2% Enterobacteriaceae were ESBL producers and 55.6% 5CoN were methicillin resistant. In 18.3% of FN episodes the etiology was not established. Highest mortality was observed in episodes with microbiologically documented infection (14.5% vs 1.3%, p < 0.005). A clinical observed focus and positive blood cultures were more frequently obtamed among HC than SOC associated episodes: 37.3% vs 13.6%; (p < 0.01) and 67.2% vs 50%; (p = 0.045), respectively. The etiological profile of FN in our center and the necessity to continue the surveillance was described. Future studies are needed regarding risk factors of invasive infection that have worst prognosis.

  11. Santiago Ramón y Cajal: The Cajal Institute and the Spanish Histological School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlos, Juan A; Pedraza, MarÍa

    2014-10-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was a self-taught researcher. He almost always worked alone, usually in the solitude of his private laboratory installed at his home. He was also a university professor and therefore taught histology and pathology to many students. But because research laboratories were scarce and poorly equipped, he preferred to organize courses and tutor at home as well. For this reason, Cajal left a faint trace of disciples in the three academic chairs that he came to occupy. It may be argued that Cajal formed the histological school when the Spanish government decided to support his investigations and created a scientific laboratory for him, with funding to cover the cost of journals, instruments, materials, personnel, and so forth. This support occurred in the year 1902, after Cajal received the Moscow Prize. Some of his former students accompanied Cajal to the new laboratory. Upon receipt of new awards, including the Gold Medal of von Helmholtz (1905) and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1906), Cajal's popularity increased and a large number of students wanted to learn about the laboratory and work with the great Cajal. This review tells this history. But we realize that this is not an easy task because to be fair to all the people that formed the Spanish Histological School, we would need to write a book. This is not practical. Instead, selection of contributors to the formation of the Spanish Histological School is provided. At the same time, some brushstrokes of the story extend to and include the Cajal Institute, which ran in parallel with the Spanish Histological School. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pesticides in water sources from the East of Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inés Mas, Laura; Aparicio, Virginia; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Occurrence of pesticides in water, specially when it comes to drinking water, is a topic of great concern for local communities of agricultural areas. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor the presence of pesticides in water samples from different sources and to determine if the values found represent a risk for the population that consumes it. Samplings took place between April 2014 and July 2016 and were carried out in times when sprays are normally made in the crops of the areas surrounding the cities of Sachayoj and Bandera, in the province of Santiago del Estero. Samples belonged to groundwater, surface water and tanks in which the rainwater is collected. 48 compounds, between pesticides and secondary metabolites, were analyzed by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography (UHPLC) combined with an MS / MS detector. Preliminary results indicate that almost half of the active substances were absent or had a very low occurrence (<15%). Those with higher frequency but below 50% generally had a significant number of cases below the limit of quantification. Finally, the molecules of higher prevalence correspond to the most commonly used pesticides, and they are mainly herbicides. For example, atrazina was present in 100% of the samples, and glyphosate appeared in 80% of the samples, with a frequency similar to its secondary metabolite, AMPA. These three molecules were also the ones that showed the highest concentrations. In all cases the measured values are below the limits of the EPA and WHO, but when compared with the limits established by the EU, although only 7% of the data obtained for the individual molecules exceeds the limit of 0.1 μg L-1, adding all the molecules for each site and sampling date 87% exceeds the limit of 0.5 μg L-1.

  13. Help-seeking behavior, use, and satisfaction among frequent primary care users in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, J L

    1988-09-01

    A survey of 140 low-income, urban consumers of primary health care services provided by the public sector at Santiago, Chile's Villa O'Higgins Clinic suggested that organizational factors are more significant predictors of frequency of clinic use and patient satisfaction than demographic characteristics of the clinic population. 73% of respondents interviewed were female; the mean family size was 5, most were from families that fell well below the official poverty level, and 76% of household income went toward food. 29% of the households represented lacked adult men or had unemployed male workers. 66% were acute care patients; the remainder were receiving treatment for chronic conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and alcoholism. 70% had been attending the clinic for the past few years; the mean number of visits per year was 6.4. 53% indicated a preference for a public rather than a private doctor, even if the latter were affordable. Only 51% expressed a dislike of any aspect of the clinic (long waits, 24%; discourteous staff, 19%; and lack of cleanliness, 5%). 84% perceived the quality of the care they received as good; this perception was strongly associated with satisfaction with the physician and receipt of prescription drugs. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 4 organizational variables (travel time to clinic, distance from home to clinic, waiting time at clinic, and travel time-travel distance) and 3 demographic factors (mother bringing child for care, presence of children under 5 years of age, and acute rather than chronic illness) were the best predictors of the frequency of clinic visits. Changes in clinic management by Chile's military government may jeopardize this pattern of high satisfaction with public health services by the poor.

  14. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro A

    Full Text Available Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009-2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74% is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies.

  15. [Changes in processed food expenditure in the population of Metropolitan Santiago in the last twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    During recent decades household incomes have increased steadily, leading to changes in dietary habits and food expenditure. To report changes in household food expenditure focusing on trends in processed food across income quintiles in Metropolitan Santiago. Information obtained from the Fourth (1986-1987), Fifth (1996-1997) and Sixth National Institute of Statistics (INE) Surveys (2006-2007) were used. Food expenditure data over the study periods was extracted from household expenditure surveys (HES) after verifying and adjusting food prices registered by the INE to current 2007 prices. Absolute food expenditure over the study period increased for all groups; the largest increase was found in lowest income quintiles; however, the proportion of total family budget spent on food decreased in all groups. The largest increases in food expenditure corresponded to sweetened beverages, processed fruit juices, alcoholic drinks, ready meals and "eating out". Expenditure on fish rose slightly whereas the absolute spending on legumes, eggs and oils decreased. Expenditure in processed food as percentage of total food expenditure increased from 42% to 57% of total for mean household. For the 2nd quintile it rose from 31% to 48% and for the lowest quintile increased from 53% to 68% over the three decades (1987-2007). Changes were greatest in energy rich processed foods such as bread, pastries, confectioneries and granulated sugar. These particular foods are of high energy density and contain high amounts of saturated fat, sodium and added sugars. These results confirm that food consumption patterns over the past decades have progressively departed from the recommended dietary guidelines given by national and international health organizations.

  16. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making. PMID:27606592

  17. [Breastfeeding indicators produced at time of vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in southern Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisser, Mario Boris; Barragán, Tatiana del Carmen; Weisstaub, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare official breastfeeding (BF) data with those obtained by interviews conducted during regular vaccination visits. A pilot descriptive study with convenience sampling was conducted by interviewing guardians of children attending vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in south Santiago. BF prevalence indicators were calculated and stratified by age and education of mothers. A comparison was made between the results and the official ones reported by each Centre. Chi-squared (X2) was calculated to evaluate differences (P<.05) RESULTS: A total of 1990 cases were analysed, in which exclusive BF prevalence was 43.4%, 34.2% and 8.8%, at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively. At the sixth month, official data (41%) was significantly higher (P<.001). Mothers with less than 12 years of schooling have a lower prevalence of exclusive BF at the 4th month than those with higher education (28.4% vs. 37.8%, respectively, P<.05). Even considering the small size of the sample studied, exclusive BF prevalence obtained is surprisingly lower than official reported data. That difference might be explained by: (a) children brought to vaccinations are roughly two fold the number brought to well-child clinics and, (b) potential bias in official data obtained by staff in charge of promotion and education on BF practices, which could distort the results. Further studies are needed to improve the methodology for collecting and analysis BF data. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. VIOLENCIAS EN LA PERIFERIA DE SANTIAGO. LA POBLACIÓN JOSE MARIA CARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ruiz Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la violencia en Latinoamérica se registra en paralelo al regreso a la democracia en la mayoría de los países de la región y a profundas reestructuraciones neoliberales que han conducido hacia cambios sociales y el aumento de la desigualdad. A su vez, la marginalidad avanzada jerarquiza los barrios al interior de las ciudades y construye zonas críticas y estigmatizadas. El artículo analiza las características que tienen las violencias que ocurren en el espacio público de la periferia de Santiago, en particular en la Población José María Caro. Se profundiza en el desarrollo histórico de las condiciones espaciales que se relacionan con la violencia (estigma, segregación, servicios urbanos y las percepciones que los vecinos y vecinas tienen respecto de la policía. Si bien hoy en día la población tiene una situación urbana consolidada, de alguna forma sigue situándose en la periferia simbólica de la ciudad, debido al estigma de población "violenta" y peligrosa. Se rastrean y cartografían diversas violencias institucionales, políticas, económicas, sociales y estructurales que se expresan en la población. Finalmente es posible reconocer en la población una heterogeneidad de patrones culturales, a veces diversos y a veces contrapuestos, que conviven para configurar la situación actual del sector.

  19. LA FARMACIA EN EL CAMINO DE SANTIAGO DE CASTILLA Y LEON: AÑO SANTO XACOBEO 2010.

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    De la Nogal B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las previsiones del número de peregrinos que se esperanen la ruta llamada "Camino de Santiago" durante el año 2010 son muy elevadas, del orden de decenas de miles, teniendo en cuenta los antecedentes de otros años similares, y el imparable crecimiento de caminantes que transitan por esta ruta en los últimos años. Esta revisión repasa someramente los recursos sanitarios en la región central de la ruta principal.

  20. ANÁLISIS DE LA INTERACCIÓN HUMANO-ESTRUCTURA EN PUENTES PEATONALES DE SANTIAGO DE CALI

    OpenAIRE

    JHON ANDERSON SÁNCHEZ; DANIEL GÓMEZ; PETER THOMSON

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, el incremento de la resistencia en nuevos materiales y las mayores luces entre apoyos hacen que los puentes peatonales sean más susceptibles a problemas de vibraciones excesivas. Infortunadamente las provisiones de las normas colombianas son limitadas para el diseño o rehabilitación de estas estructuras. En este artículo se presenta una clasificación de los puentes peatonales en Santiago de Cali que permite comparar efectos de la Interacción Humano-Estructura, aceleraciones ...

  1. Photography in the boundaries of the visible. From Santiago Ramón y Cajal to Cecil Frank Powell

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    Francisco López-Cantos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the use of photographic technologies of two renowned researchers whose investigation results would have been impossible to carry out, as occurs in Galileo a few centuries before with the use of imaging techniques, without the use of photography: Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Cecil Frank Powell, Nobel Prize winners in medicine in 1906 and in physics in 1950, respectively. These researchers were selected, first, because of their close relation with photography and, second, to clearly illustrate the gradual transgression of scientific photographic representation starting in the late nineteenth century from the visible to the invisible.

  2. Ecological economics of North American integration: the reshaping of the economic landscape in the Santiago river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Peniche Camps

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Economics studies social metabolism; that is, the material and energy flow into and out of the economy. Using the ecological economics perspective, we analyse the transformation of the economic landscape of the Santiago river basin, Mexico. We discuss why the appropriation of water resources is one of the most important drivers of North American economic integration. We argue that the theoretical model of neo-extractivism can explain the dynamics of social metabolism behind the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.

  3. Hechicería, cultura folclórica y justicia capitular. El proceso de Tuama (Santiago del Estero, 1761

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    Judith Faberman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de un proceso criminal contra hechiceros se analizan el proceso de aculturación y las formas de resistencia que gradualmente fueron tomando cuerpo en el interior de los pueblos de indios de Santiago del Estero. En particular, nos detenemos en el estereotipo de la salamanca, que presenta algunas similitudes formales con el sabbat europeo y que surge de las confesiones de las reas. Nuestra hipótesis es que las salamancas son un exponente más de la cultura híbrida, fruto de más de dos siglos de sujeción colonial

  4. El discurso de El Mercurio de Santiago en la elección presidencial chilena 1999-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Chiumimatto Ortego, Magglio

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Desde la perspectiva teórica del análisis del discurso, esta tesis estudia la participación de uno de los centros intelectuales más importantes de la derecha chilena, el diario El Mercurio de Santiago, en la campaña para las elecciones presidenciales efectuadas, en este caso, en dos etapas, el 12 diciembre de 1999 y el 16 de enero de 2000. Después de un período de recopilación de artículos realizado al mismo tiempo que l...

  5. Resonancias murcianas de los "Voto de Santiago"y de "San Millán de la Cogolla"

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Fontes, Juan

    2001-01-01

    In the 12th century two myths were created: The Privilege of the “Voto de Santiago”, and shortly after the one of “San Millán de la Cogolla”. It was a plot of a marked economic interest, being both privileges based on the presumed intervention of apostle Santiago in assistance of Ramiro I and Count Fernán Gonzalez. The Compostelan Church and the Cogollan Monastery managed to obtain royal allowances which confirmed these plotted privileges, and also managed to spread their money-collecting urg...

  6. PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS COMPLIANCE WITH QUALITY STANDARDS OFFER OF THE BUFFET RESTAURANT CASONA MELIA SANTIAGO DE CUBA

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    Oscar Parada-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The company hotel Cuban faces the challenge of the competitiveness and the client’s satisfaction in an environment that demands of actions that they assure the quality. This article has as objective to show the application of a procedure for the evaluation of the standards of quality of the offer in the restaurant buffet La Casona of the Hotel Meliá Santiago de Cuba. The results achieved by the application of the procedure allow to perfect the process of taking of decisions and it contributes to the efficiency of the hotel and the elevation of the quality of the service. 

  7. GLOBALIZACION, VULNERABILIDAD Y RIESGO EN LA NUEVA CONFIGURACION SOCIO-TERRITORIAL DEL TRABAJO EN EL AREA METROPOLITANA DE SANTIAGO

    OpenAIRE

    LINK ; FELIPE; LINK ; FELIPE

    2010-01-01

    La tesis aborda los impactos de la globalización sobre la estructura urbana y social del área metropolitana de Santiago. Específicamente, estudia la transformación de la configuración socio-territorial del trabajo en los últimos 30 años, a través del análisis de datos censales en el período 1982-2002 y la presentación de relatos de sujetos particulares. Se propone que los cambios en el mercado de trabajo y los procesos de desarrollo urbano, en sus diferentes dimensiones, han...

  8. GLOBALIZACION, VULNERABILIDAD Y RIESGO EN LA NUEVA CONFIGURACION SOCIO-TERRITORIAL DEL TRABAJO EN EL AREA METROPOLITANA DE SANTIAGO

    OpenAIRE

    LINK, FELIPE

    2010-01-01

    La tesis aborda los impactos de la globalización sobre la estructura urbana y social del área metropolitana de Santiago. Específicamente, estudia la transformación de la configuración socio-territorial del trabajo en los últimos 30 años, a través del análisis de datos censales en el período 1982-2002 y la presentación de relatos de sujetos particulares. Se propone que los cambios en el mercado de trabajo y los procesos de desarrollo urbano, en sus diferentes dimensiones, han modificado ...

  9. La localización de la villa de Santiago del príncipe, panamá.

    OpenAIRE

    Laviña, Javier; Piqueras Céspedes, Ricardo; Hidalgo Pérez, Marta; Tous i Mata, Meritxell; Tresserras, Jordi; Mendizábal, Tomás; de Gracia, Guillermina I.

    2015-01-01

    En este ensayo se presentan los estudios, llevados a cabo desde la historia, que han servido para desarrollar una campaña arqueológica con el fin de ubicar la Villa de Santiago del Príncipe; primer pueblo de negros libres en América. Para este trabajo, se consultaron las distintas fuentes bibliográficas sobre cimarronaje en Panamá; en paralelo, se llevó a cabo la compilación de fuentes manuscritas complementadas con fuentes cartográficas de la época, muy escasas y de poca utilidad exceptuando...

  10. Cuerpo y demencia. La fisonomía de la incapacidad en Santiago de Chile (1855-1900

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    María José Correa Gómez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking the fact that Chilean medicine saw human appearance as an indicator of what happened inside the body, this article problematizes individual corporal signs as a diagnostics tool. It approaches corporal aspects in the field of civil justice, and the uses of the body in legally and medically identifying insanity. It is based on the expert reports completed in processes of interdiction by reason of dementia during the second half of the 19th century in Santiago de Chile, with the purpose of describing the corporal base that contributed to the interpretation of mental illness and individual capacity.

  11. Las Fábricas de la charla en Santiago de Chile: materialidad y subjetividad del trabajo en los call centers

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Salazar, Areli Patricia

    2013-01-01

    El escenario laboral chileno se caracteriza en las últimas décadas por la profundización de la flexibilidad y la precariedad del trabajo generada por las políticas neoliberales. En este contexto se propuso analizar la organización del trabajo y la configuración de la subjetividad laboral en los call centers subcontratistas en Santiago de Chile, considerando las relaciones de género como una categoría central. Como procedimiento metodológico se utilizó la etnografía crítica y un enfoque histór...

  12. La Real Casa de Santiago y convento de Uclés. Construcciones militares y monásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Sánchez, María Ángeles

    2002-01-01

    El monasterio de Uclés sigue siendo uno de los grandes desconocidos de la historia de la arquitectura y ello quizá sea debido a su especial y múltiple condición de sede prioral de la orden de Santiago, casa real y lugar de residencia de los freires santiaguistas sujetos a la regla de los agustinos. Tal y como lo conocemos hoy, el monasterio vuelve a nacer en el tiempo del gran imperio carolino y sus dependencias siguen ampliándose y remodelándose, bajo patronato real, has...

  13. Políticas de vivienda social en el Gran Santiago: proletarización de los sectores populares urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Pérez, Rodrigo; Antilef Osorio, Patricio; Villarroel de la Sotta, José

    2007-01-01

    La sumatoria de los procesos productivos, migraciones y pobreza que ha afectado a Santiago de Chile durante el siglo XX ha configurado un cuadro de déficit de viviendas entre los sectores populares como consecuencia del fuerte crecimiento poblacional, la falta de infraestructura urbana y la inestabilidad laboral de los sectores más desposeídos. Es en la segunda mitad del siglo citado cuando el Estado redefine sus políticas habitacionales enfatizando en la resolución de las necesidades primor...

  14. José Martí in Actioning of Nationalist Intellectuals of Santiago de Cuba in the 1920 Decade

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    Yamil Sánchez-Castellanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the decade of 1920 a group of advanced of the intellectuality of Santiago from Cuba appealed to the ideario and José's personality Martí to argue its position antinjerencista and to prosecute in a critical way the main problems of happening political national. Presently work the author studies the main addresses of the activity deployed by the nationalist intellectuals associated to the periodic publications, the creation of civic organizations and, the creation of a political party; and inside them it analyzes the meaning attributed to the Apostle like relating ideological in their political civic projections. 

  15. El Congreso de Estudiantes Latinoamericanos de Santiago. Antimperialismo e indoamericanismo en el movimiento estudiantil chileno (1935-1940

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    Fabio Moraga Valle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Latin-American Student Conference was held in Santiago de Chile in October of 1937. During this event, the communist proposals of the "proletarian internationalism" and the "indoamericanism" of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (apra were confronted. Our hypothesis is that in Chile the most intense debates regarding these projects took place more through the student movement than through the formal political system. To do this we analyze the political and ideological discourse appearing in national student magazines and newspapers regarding this congress.

  16. Un nuevo y peculiar Odontophrynus de la sierra de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Cei, José M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Un examen crítico de la morfología y cariotipo de los Odontophrynus de las poblaciones de la Sierra de Guayasán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina, permite sustentar su estado específico, frente a las otras formas del conjunto diplo-tetradiploide del grupo americanus. La nueva especie diploide O. lavillai exhibe caracteres diferenciales significativos, somáticos, de estructura cutánea y de coloración. Se presentan datos ecológicos generales y una discusión de sus relaciones cariotípicas con las otras formas diplo-tetraploides del grupo.

  17. Disciplinamientos femeninos y soledades del trabajo doméstico en un hogar de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Romané Landaeta Sepúlveda

    2009-01-01

    El hogar de una familia acomodada en Santiago es el telón de fondo sobre el cual se narra el acontecer cotidiano que sucede entre sus integrantes. De un lado, unos padres profesionales que organizan el día a día junto a sus cuatro hijos que habitan esta gran casa. De otro, una mujer que a pesar de no tener ningún lazo de consanguineidad, ha vivido muchos años junto a ellos; sin embargo, come y habita en un sector paralelo del hogar. He ahí el eje argumental de la película: nos referimos a una...

  18. Estrategia de comunicación museística en redes sociales. El caso de Santiago de Compostela

    OpenAIRE

    González Bouza, Alicia Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Se muestra el análisis y valoración de la comunicación museística en redes sociales de Santiago de Compostela. Se llevó a cabo un estudio sobre los cambios tecnológicos y comunicativos de la última década y el marketing del patrimonio cultural, se definieron las herramientas disponibles y los criterios de análisis cuya presencia se consideró imprescindible en la actividad en Social Media de las instituciones museísticas actuales. A través del seguimiento a modelos de nacionales e internaciona...

  19. The Lyric Feminine Subject in the Periodicals in Santiago de Cuba During XIX Century: Notes for a Characterization

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    Taily Vargas-López

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Santiago de Cuba, during the second half of the nineteenth century, there was a cultural environment that favored the emergence of different periodicals were ordered to disclose, among other genres, poetic creations of the time. The topic of the woman and her multiple social roles was one of the themes worked. In this article, some generalities about the female lyrical subject of the nineteenth century appeared in the poetry of these newspapers are available, the analysis of some of them is made, which can offer general considerations as to the projection of the lyrics over the years and his relationship with women. 

  20. Mateo López y la planta de la iglesia monástica de San Martín Pinario de Santiago

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    Vicente López, Simón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An in depth study of the plan of the church of San Martín Pinario in Santiago de Compostela, attributed to the Portuguese architect Mateo López, according to the Catholic Reformation doctrines concerning the Eucharist.Se profundiza en la lectura de la planta de la iglesia monástica San Martín Pinario de Santiago, atribuida al arquitecto portugués Mateo López, de acuerdo con las consignas de la Reforma Católica en torno a la Eucaristía.

  1. Faith, entertainment, and conflicts on the Camino de Santiago (The Way of St. James: a case study on the mediatization of the pilgrimage experience on Facebook groups

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    Marco Túlio de SOUSA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We call upon the concepts of mediatization, circulation, and discussions about the pilgrimage ritual to reflect on the media interference in the experience of pilgrims going to Santiago de Compostela. From these concepts and the methodology of case studies, we analyze posts in four Facebook groups. The evidence points to a certain distance regarding the Catholic institutional sphere and the linking of this experience to media consumption and entertainment through the expression of the most diverse motivations (self-help, tourism, spiritual, sports, etc.. It also consolidates a totem image of The Camino de Santiago (The Way of St. James as a transforming experience for the different types of pilgrims.

  2. El universo material de la vida doméstica de la élite de Santiago de Cuba entre 1830 y 1868

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tejeda, Aida Morales

    2009-01-01

    ... y de otros llegados directamente desde Francia, que conformaron una pujante colonia en la ciudad. De tal manera se procura revelar cómo el universo material del patriciado santiaguero se transformó a partir de la influencia de modos de hacer traídos por los franceses asentados en la ciudad. PALABRAS CLAVE Santiago de Cuba, vivienda, símbolos, cultura francesa, mobiliario. ABSTRACT This article explores the material and domestic world of the elite from Santiago de Cuba from the perspective of the Arts. In p...

  3. El discurso político de Santiago Carrillo durante la Transición. Aplicaciones metodológicas / The political discourse of Santiago Carrillo in the process of Democratic Transition. Methodological applications

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    Antonio Pantoja Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Continuando con el análisis de los discursos de los líderes más importantes del proceso de Transición democrática en España, en esta entrega nos centramos en la trayectoria política de Santiago Carrillo y su liderazgo del comunismo en España. A diferencia del resto de los oradores analizados, su perfil no muestra ningún punto de inflexión que refuerce su discurso, más bien asiste a un declive continuo y progresivo, desde un discurso que equilibra dos posiciones contrarias ante un auditorio comprometido y agraciado por las palabras del orador, hasta presentar un perfil que reproduce el eclipse de la autoridad del líder comunista.Summary: Continuing with the analysis of the speeches of the most important leaders of the democratic transition process in Spain, in this installment we focus on the political trajectory of Santiago Carrillo and his leadership of communism in Spain. Unlike the rest of the speakers discussed, his profile shows no turning point to strengthen his speech, rather attends a continuous and progressive decline, from a speech that balances two opposing positions before an audience engaged and graced by the speaker's words, to present a profile that reproduces the eclipse of the communist leader's authority.

  4. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Potentially productive years of life lost among adults in Metropolitan Santiago. Is there an improvement in equality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hugo; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia

    2005-05-01

    Potentially productive years of life lost (PPYLL) is an impact measure that illustrates the lost that a society suffers as a consequence of deaths of young people or premature deaths. To study the evolution of PPYLL in adults in the periods 1994-1996 and 1999-2001, according to sex, income quintiles and main diagnostic groups in the communities of Metropolitan Santiago. Ecological study analyzing the population of Metropolitan Santiago, that represents 36% of the national population. A total of 87,969 deaths in people aged 20 to 79 years were analyzed. There is a greater amount of PPYLL among the poorest quintiles and men represent the higher number of PPYLL. In the different analyzed periods, all quintiles experienced a reduction in PPYLL. According to diagnosis, endocrine diseases experienced the greater decrease between periods, followed by respiratory disease. Noteworthy was the increase of PPYLL due to infectious diseases. PPYLL due to digestive diseases was 2.3 higher in the poorest quintile, as compared with the wealthiest quintile (20/20 ratio). The ratio for traumatic disease was 1.8. When comparing both periods, there is a net gain of potentially productive years of life in all income quintiles and in both genders.

  6. ¿Ciudad sin ciudadanos? Fragmentación, segregación y temor en Santiago

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    Lucía Dammert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La imagen de la ciudad como espacio de interacción y celebración de las diferencias está siendo amenazada en Santiago. Visiones alternativas la muestran como espacio de conflicto, desorden e inseguridad, donde la diferencia se convierte en un elemento peligroso que requiere ser excluido o segregado. De esta manera se desarrolla una ciudad sin ciudadanos, es decir, una no-ciudad, que sirve como espacio de movimiento pero no de interacción. El objetivo de este artículo es empezar a analizar esta problemática desde uno de sus elementos: la sensación de inseguridad. El resultado plantea interrogantes sobre la ciudad que se está construyendo y sus posibles consecuencias.The city´s image as space of diversity and as a celebration of difference, is under threat in Santiago. Alternative and dominant images depict the city as conflictive, unruly, disorderly and insecure; where difference became a dangerous element that should be excluded or segregated. In this way, a "city without citizens" is being built, a "no-city" in which people does not interact, just move in the space. The main objetive of this article is to analyze this situation by focusing on one of its elements: fear of crime. The result presents many questions that need to be addressed about the city that is being built and the social consequences of this process.

  7. El crecimiento urbano en Europa: conceptos, tendencias y marco comparativo para el área metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

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    Hidalgo, Rodrigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the urban development in Europe, this paper includes conceptual deliberations on the main processes which have affected both the morphology and structure of cities and it also interprets in broad terms the evolution of the Latin American city up to the modern times. On the basis of the transformations occurred in Santiago of Chile over the last decades, this study aims to draw a comparison with the theoretical framework set for the European reality.

    A partir del desarrollo urbano en Europa se hacen algunas consideraciones conceptuales de los principales procesos que han marcado a la morfología y estructura de las ciudades. A partir de estas disquisiciones se interpreta de un modo general la evolución de la ciudad latinomamericana hasta los tiempos modernos. En base a la transformaciones ocurridas en Santiago de Chile en las últimas décadas se intenta comparar y poner en tensión el marco teórico generado para la realidad europea.

  8. Los anclajes en la proximidad y la movilidad cotidiana: Retrato de tres barrios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile

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    Alejandra Lazo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Situándonos en el actual escenario de lo que se ha denominado una "movilidad generalizada" de la sociedad, en este artículo se aborda la importancia del territorio de proximidad -casa y barrio- como un soporte que permite generar los anclajes necesarios para hacer frente a las tensiones espacio-temporales asociadas a la movilidad. A partir de un enfoque de tipo cualitativo se realizó una investigación en tres barrios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile que permitió plantear que a pesar del aumento de la movilidad, existe todavía entre los habitantes una identificación y valorización de los lazos simbólicos y afectivos, así como de las prácticas que tienen lugar en la casa, el barrio y la vecindad. De este modo, se concluye para el caso de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, la importancia de leer la movilidad a partir de los anclajes tejidos en la proximidad.

  9. Los impactos del turismo en el Camino de Santiago Francés: una aproximación cualitativa

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    Clara Martín-Duque

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El Camino de Santiago se configura como un Itinerario Cultural con una larga tradición tanto histórica como turística. En el plano turístico, el tramo Francés es el más desarrollado, habiendo experimentado en los últimos años un aumento continuado en el número de personas que lo realizan lo que, aunque a priori puede parecer positivo, es necesario estudiar en profundidad.  En concreto, el presente artículo aborda, mediante once entrevistas en profundidad dirigidas a expertos en turismo e Itinerarios Culturales, los principales impactos que ha generado el turismo en el Camino de Santiago Francés. En este sentido, los resultados nos ponen de manifiesto que, si bien es cierto que el auge del Camino Francés ha servido para que el territorio sea conocido a nivel internacional, también lo es que el aumento de visitantes está generando una situación de masificación y la consiguiente turistificación de la ruta.

  10. Condición corporal de paseriformes transaharianos en un palmeral del sureste de Marruecos durante el periodo de paso migratorio prenupcial

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    ARIZAGA, J., CRESPO-DIAZ, A., CUADRADO, J.F., MAZUELAS, D., GUUITEIRREZ, O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinar hasta qué punto el norte de África es empleado como zona de ganancia de reservas por las aves transaharianas es importante no sólo ecológicamente, sino también desde el punto de vista de la conservación. En este trabajo se estudia la relación de capturas, cantidad de reservas y tasa de ganancia de peso de varias especies de paseriformes transaharianos capturadas durante el periodo de paso prenupcial en Zouala, un palmeral en el sureste de Marruecos, localizado a unos 100 km al norte del borde del Sáhara. El objetivo es contribuir al conocimiento del uso que los paseriformes hacen de los oasis del norte de África durante el periodo migratorio primaveral. En conjunto se capturaron 46 especies de aves, siendo 38 paseriformes. De ellas, 23 fueron especies europeas transaharianas, presentes en el área sólo en paso migratorio. Se obtuvieron un total de 820 capturas, de las que un 96% fueron paseriformes y un 62% especies transaharianas. En consecuencia, la comunidad de aves paseriformes en la zona durante el periodo de estudio está notablemente influenciada por las especies europeas en paso migratorio. El 30% de las capturas del conjunto de especies transaharianas estuvo monopolizado por una sola especie el zarcero pálido occidental Iduna opaca (Cabanis, 1850. La cantidad de reservas es globalmente baja, inferior a lo registrado tanto en el norte de Marruecos como, incluso, en las islas del Mediterráneo occidental. Las especies con menos grasa fueron las que se reproducen más al sur, en la Europa mediterránea y el norte de África. El peso de las aves que se capturaron tras el amanecer fue más bajo que el de las aves capturadas hacia el ocaso, lo cual apoyaría la idea de que las aves acumularon peso durante este periodo, probablemente como reservas. Este supuesto incremento diario de peso no se constató al analizar la tasa de ganancia diaria de peso en aves recapturadas dentro del mismo día, probablemente debido al

  11. Insomnio, latencia al sueño y cantidad de sueño en estudiantes universitarios chilenos durante el periodo de clases y exámenes

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    Samuel Durán Agüero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Determinar los factores asociados a la cantidad de horas de sueño, somnolenciadiurna e insomnio antes y durante un periodo de clases y exámenes.Material y métodos:Se evaluó a 384 alumnos de ambos sexos (74,1% mujeres, quienesreportaron su peso y estatura. A cada estudiante se le aplicó el Cuestionario de Insomnio y laEscala De Somnolencia de Epworth en el periodo de clases y periodo de exámenes.Resultados:Al comparar la somnolencia diurna, insomnio, latencia al sueño y cantidad dehoras de sueño entre periodo de clases y exámenes se observó un incremento en la latencia alsueño (p<0,05 durante los exámenes. Al realizar la comparación según estado nutricional seobservó, en el caso de las mujeres, que aquellas que presentan sobrepeso/obesidad tienen unamenor cantidad de horas de sueño en ambos periodos (p<0,05; en hombres, los que presentansobrepeso/obesidad tienen una mayor somnolencia diurna en exámenes (p<0,01. Al realizarla regresión logística tomando como variable dependiente somnolencia diurna, en mujeres seincrementa el riesgo de somnolencia diurna:OR=3,1 (IC95 % 1,1-8,8; en cambio, la ausenciade insomnio es un factor protector para somnolencia diurna:OR=0,06 (IC95 % 0,01-0,35.Conclusión:En periodo de exámenes se incrementa significativamente la latencia al sueño, enespecial en mujeres; en hombres se observa una disminución de las horas de sueño. Finalmente, las mujeres presentan un mayor riesgo de somnolencia diurna; en cambio, la ausencia deinsomnio es un factor protector. Ni el estado nutricional ni el consumo de cafeína se asociaroncon problemas de sueño.

  12. [The School of Medical Sciences of the University of Santiago de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones Restat, F

    1997-07-01

    The Medical Sciences School of the University of Santiago de Chile, is an institution inserted in the occidental culture and therefore on its conceptions and traditions. It subscribes the Principles defined in the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights of the United Nations and especially the importance of the human person, as an entity irrepetible, different to others. The human rights are over the institutions, the society and the laws of science. The Faculty considers the family as the cell or natural and fundamental element for the development of the human being in the society. It defines its historic mission as the search of the truth and the achievement of a society in pro of the welfare and health of the people in a frame of excellence, justice, humanism, efficiency and participation. As an expression of the cultural patrimony it should create and transfer knowledge. As guarantor of the ethical principles it should protect the dignity that emanates from the transcendent nature of the person and its moral principles and therefore its right to life, justice, freedom, equality, health, education, and happiness. As a paradigm of progress it must be involved in modernization and should impulse the development. As an entity committed with Society it should participate in the search of solutions for politics and programs looking for a higher level of life and a better model of health. The profile of our graduated students will identify them due to their profound spirit of welfare of the person, his family, his community, ethical sense, solidarity, justness and humanity, their orientation to the community and the environment with a solid professional formation in the strategy of Primary Health Care. They will provide education in health for the whole family in order to improve a better way of life. They will be trained to detect and solve the risks of individual, communities and environment. Research is also a priority of the Faculty in order to contribute to

  13. Sensing Urban Patterns with Antenna Mappings: The Case of Santiago, Chile

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    Eduardo Graells-Garrido

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile data has allowed us to sense urban dynamics at scales and granularities not known before, helping urban planners to cope with urban growth. A frequently used kind of dataset are Call Detail Records (CDR, used by telecommunication operators for billing purposes. Being an already extracted and processed dataset, it is inexpensive and reliable. A common assumption with respect to geography when working with CDR data is that the position of a device is the same as the Base Transceiver Station (BTS it is connected to. Because the city is divided into a square grid, or by coverage zones approximated by Voronoi tessellations, CDR network events are assigned to corresponding areas according to BTS position. This geolocation may suffer from non negligible error in almost all cases. In this paper we propose “Antenna Virtual Placement” (AVP, a method to geolocate mobile devices according to their connections to BTS, based on decoupling antennas from its corresponding BTS according to its physical configuration (height, downtilt, and azimuth. We use AVP applied to CDR data as input for two different tasks: first, from an individual perspective, what places are meaningful for them? And second, from a global perspective, how to cluster city areas to understand land use using floating population flows? For both tasks we propose methods that complement or improve prior work in the literature. Our proposed methods are simple, yet not trivial, and work with daily CDR data from the biggest telecommunication operator in Chile. We evaluate them in Santiago, the capital of Chile, with data from working days from June 2015. We find that: (1 AVP improves city coverage of CDR data by geolocating devices to more city areas than using standard methods; (2 we find important places (home and work for a 10% of the sample using just daily information, and recreate the population distribution as well as commuting trips; (3 the daily rhythms of floating population

  14. A Case Study of the High-speed Train Crash Outside Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Vázquez, José Antonio Iglesias

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide use of rail transport has increased, and the train speeds are escalating. Concurrently, the number of train disasters has been amplified globally. Consequently, railway safety has become an important issue for the future. High-velocity crashes increase the risk for injuries and mortality; nevertheless, there are relatively few studies on high-speed train crashes and the influencing factors on travelers' injuries occurring in the crash phase. The aim of this study was to investigate the fatal and non-fatal injuries and the main interacting factors that contributed to the injury process in the crash phase of the 2013 high-velocity train crash that occurred at Angrois, outside Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Hospital records (n=157) of all the injured who were admitted to the six hospitals in the region were reviewed and compiled by descriptive statistics. The instant fatalities (n=63) were collected on site. Influencing crash factors were observed on the crash site, by carriage inspections, and by reviewing official reports concerning the approximated train speed. The main interacting factors that contributed in the injury process in the crash phase were, among other things, the train speed, the design of the concrete structure of the curve, the robustness of the carriage exterior, and the interior environment of the carriages. Of the 222 people on board (218 passengers and four crew), 99% (n=220) were fatally or non-fatally injured in the crash. Thirty-three percent (n=72) suffered fatal injuries, of which 88% (n=63) died at the crash site and 13% (n=9) at the hospital. Twenty-one percent (n=32) of those admitted to hospital suffered multi-trauma (ie, extensive, severe, and/or critical injuries). The head, face, and neck sustained 42% (n=123) of the injuries followed by the trunk (chest, abdomen, and pelvis; n=92; 32%). Fractures were the most frequent (n=200; 69%) injury. A mass-casualty incident with an extensive amount of fatal, severe, and critical

  15. La gestación: periodo fundamental para el nacimiento y el desarrollo del vínculo paterno

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    NATALIA MARCELA CALDERÓN BENÍTEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el significado que el padre asigna al proceso de gestación de su hijo por nacer. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa con un diseño de carácter descriptivo-analítico, basado en la teoría fundamentada. Participaron ocho padres primigestantes residentes de la ciudad de Bogotá, con los cuales se logró la saturación teórica de la información, por medio de la entrevista a profundidad; se establecieron cinco categorías de análisis: la pertenencia, los cambios, la anticipación, las necesidades y los referentes paternos; las cuales se relacionaron entre sí por medio de la comparación constante y permitieron identificar que “la gestación es el periodo fundamental para el nacimiento y el desarrollo del vínculo paterno”.

  16. Santiago no es Chile’ : cambio socioinstitucional, inequidades territoriales y políticas públicas para el desarrollo regional, 1990-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veyl Ahumada, Iván Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the unequal power relation between Santiago, the Chilean capital city, and the Northern region of Tarapacá in the period 1990-2010. Chile is one of the most centralized countries in Latin America. Since the 1990s decentralization process has been started including a

  17. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contesse, Maria; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lenhart, J.

    2018-01-01

    Urban green spaces are crucial for citizens’ wellbeing. Nonetheless, many Latin American cities struggle to provide sufficient and equitable green space distribution for their citizens. By looking at the Chilean capital Santiago as an example, this paper examines whether the growing urban

  18. LAS ANDANZAS DE JUAN RAFAEL ALLENDE POR LA CIUDAD DE LOS ‘PALACIOS MARMÓREOS’ Y LAS CAZUELAS DELEITOSAS. SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1880-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palma Alvarado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El artículo presenta un capítulo de la historia social y urbana de Santiago de Chile, en un período durante el cual la ciudad asistió a profundos cambios que modificaron el viejo trazado colonial y las relaciones sociales entre sus habitantes. Por medio de la aguda pluma del escritor satírico Juan Rafael Allende, descubrimos las insuficiencias del proceso de urbanización, los nuevos personajes que se dieron cita en las calles y plazas, y las variadas diversiones que animaban la vida cotidiana de los capitalinos. Palabras clave: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, prensa satírica, historia urbana ABSTRACT. This article deals with a chapter of the social and urban history of Santiago de Chile, throughout a period in which the city was subject of deep changes that modified its colonial setting and long lasting social relationships. Following the sharpness of the satiric writer Juan Rafael Allende, we look to the insuficiencies of the urbanizing process, the new characters ocupying the city’s squares and streets, as well as the multiple entertainments animating the everyday life of its inhabitants. Key words: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, satiric press, urban history

  19. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contesse, Maria; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lenhart, J.

    2017-01-01

    Urban green spaces are crucial for citizens’ wellbeing. Nonetheless, many Latin American cities struggle to provide sufficient and equitable green space distribution for their citizens. By looking at the Chilean capital Santiago as an example, this paper examines whether the growing urban

  20. Gaining or Losing Ground? Equity in Offering Advanced Placement Courses in California High Schools 1997-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis by researchers of the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) on Advanced Placement (AP) courses in California public high schools in the mid-1990s concluded that although high school AP programs offered talented youngsters the opportunity to stretch their mental horizons and preview the challenges of college-level coursework, the programs…

  1. Diet and investigation of immature sea turtles in the coastal waters of West Florida 1997-2003 (NCEI Accession 0156706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains sea turtle life history,diet analysis, and environmental data, recorded as csv spreadsheets ranging from 1997 to 2003. This data was used to...

  2. ¿ES ÚTIL EL ANÁLISIS TÉCNICO EN PERIODOS DE CRISIS FINANCIERA? Evidencia para el mercado bursátil latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo investigamos si los instrumentos de análisis técnico son útiles en periodos de crisis financieras. Considerando cuatro de los principales índices latinoamericanos —Bovespa (Brasil, IGBLV (Perú, IPC (México e IPSA (Chile— no encontramos Considerando cuatro de los principales índices latinoamericanos —Bovespa (Brasil, IGBLV (Perú, IPC (México e IPSA (Chile— no encontramos evidencia a favor del uso de análisis técnico en periodos de crisis financiera. Las técnicas que otorgan rentabilidades más altas no son las mismas que reportan rendimientos más bajos. En general, los instrumentos de mediano plazo son los que reportan un mayor rendimiento, mientras que los de corto plazo reportan un menor rendimiento.

  3. Analytical study of the main door of Santiago church, Guadix, Granada

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    Espinosa Gaitán, Jesús

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical study described on this paper has been made due to the request formulated by the priest of Santiago church, D. José Mª Ballesteros, through the Provincial Delegation of Culture of Granada. In view of the degradation of the main door front, the Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico has been asked for technical advice on the possible treatment to be carried out to resolve the problems of this front. As a part of the technical study we have carried out the analysis required to determine the characteristics of the stone used, the possible causes of weathering and to evaluate the most adequate treatment products, in case that it is convenient to apply any one as a part of the conservation restoration works. As a first step we have carried out a visual inspection of the door front and the inside of the church, and then samples have been taken. These samples have been analyzed by means of: chemical analysis of main components, X Ray diffraction, mineralogic petrographic study and SEM observation. From all these determinations it has been deduced the possible causes and mechanisms of alteration. As previous phase to the evaluation of treatments, due to the high quantity of stone needed to make all the tests, we have proceeded to identify and find the quarry of origin of this stone; it is located in Bácor, a little village on the municipal term of Guadix, at 40 Km from it. Once the identification has been made with certainty, enough material has been extracted to prepare the samples used. It is very interesting to study this stone because it has been employed also on the Cathedral of Guadix and it will be able to extend the results obtained on the tests to this building.

    El estudio analítico recogido en el presente artículo se realiza como respuesta a la petición formulada por el párroco de la iglesia de Santiago, D. José Mª Ballesteros, a través de la Delegación Provincial de Cultura de Granada. Ante el estado de

  4. Complicaciones maternas de la cesárea en gestantes a término en periodo expulsivo en un hospital general de Lima, Perú

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    Javier Puma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las complicaciones maternas de la cesárea en gestantes a término en periodo expulsivo en un hospital general. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos, realizado en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre el 1 de enero de 2011 hasta el 31 diciembre de 2012. Se incluyeron 67 gestantes a término operadas en periodo expulsivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de las pacientes, se registraron las características clínicas y las complicaciones maternas. Resultados: En el periodo de estudio se realizaron 4 218 cesáreas, siendo el 1,84% hechas en periodo expulsivo. En general, 59/ 67 (88,1% presentaron algún tipo de complicación. Se observaron 8 casos de hipotonía uterina (11,9% y 2 (2,9% de atonía. En 5 (7,4% pacientes ocurrieron desgarros de segmento adyacente a la histerotomía, siendo 2 de ellos asociados a compromiso de cuerpo uterino y vagina, y 4 (5,9% casos a laceración de arteria uterina, uno fue bilateral. No se produjeron lesiones en tracto urinario ni digestivo y tampoco hubo necesidad de reintervención quirúrgica. Cuatro pacientes presentaron hemorragia puerperal, dos asociados a hipotonía uterina post cesárea. En 56 (83,5% casos ocurrió anemia post operatoria. Hubo 1 (1,5% caso de endometritis, 3 (4,5% infecciones de herida operatoria. Conclusiones: La cesárea realizada en período expulsivo ocasiona complicaciones frecuentes, algunas muy severas.

  5. “Mne govorjat, kakaja bednost’ slovarja...” Il protosamizdat del periodo staliniano alla ricerca di un’espressività

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L’estetica della letteratura afferente al circuito samizdat dopo il XX congresso del PCUS (1956 è strettamente legata alla produzione non ufficiale del periodo staliniano, a sua volta definitasi secondo una relazione antitetica alla poesia proletaria degli anni Venti. Molte delle figure di rife- rimento di questo periodo hanno attinto il proprio linguaggio e gli strumenti poetici dall'arsenale espressivo e formale del Secolo d’Argento, sebbene differenziadosene notevolmente e adattan- dolo all'estetica che essi perseguivano, intimamente alternativa a quella realsocialista. La com- plessa poetica di autori quali E. Kropivnickij, Jan Satunovskj (come anche, in un periodo succes- sivo, il “discepolo” del primo G Sapgir e molti altri hanno attinto i tratti distintivi della propria produzione dalla rielaborazione dell’arte proletaria della prima metà degli anni Venti alla luce di una visione dissacrante e grottesca della contemporaneità, che emerge in primo luogo dall'aspetto delle loro opere poetiche.

  6. Particle size distribution and its relationship to black carbon in two urban and one rural site in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Reyes, E; Oyola, P; Ma, Rubio; López, G; Pérez, P; Martínez, R

    2014-07-01

    The size distribution of particles has been studied in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and a comparison with black carbon was performed. Two sites are located near busy streets in Santiago and the other site is located in a rural area about 40 km west of Santiago with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The campaign lasted 1 or 2 weeks in each site. We have divided the particle size measurements into four groups (10-39 nm, 40-62 nm, 63-174 nm, and 175-700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. In the sites near the street, black carbon has a high correlation (R = 0.85) with larger particles (175-700 nm). The correlation decreased when black carbon was compared with smaller particles, having very small correlation with the smallest sizes (10-39 nm). In the rural site, black carbon also has a high correlation (R = 0.86) with larger particles (175-700 nm), but the correlation between black carbon and the finest particles (10-39 nm) decreases to near 0. These measurements are an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than -50 nm. In the urban sites, particle size distribution is peaked toward smaller particles (10-39 nm) only during rush hours, but at other times, particles size distribution is peaked toward larger sizes. When solar radiation was high, evidence of secondary particle formation was seen in the rural site, but not in the urban sites. The correlation between the number of secondary particles and solar radiation was R2 = 0.46, indicating that it there may be other variables that play a role in ultrafine particle formation. Implications: A study of the size distribution of particles and black carbon concentration in two street sites and one rural site shows that in the last site the number of particles ultrafine particles (d particles is about 2 times lower. Thus, the rural site has less of the particles that are more dangerous to health

  7. Contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents on Santiago Island - Cape Verde - Western Africa Uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e fatores associados em adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago - Cabo Verde - África Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendes Tavares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents attending public schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13-17years attending eight public elementary and high schools, randomly selected, on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, between January and March 2007. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multiple analysis of risk factors, at a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: among 368 adolescents, 69.3% reported having used a contraceptive method during the last act of sexual intercourse. The most frequently used method were condom (94.9% and pill (26.4%. Factors significantly and positively associated with contraceptive use were: living in the capital (PR=1.23; CI95%: 1.07; 1.39; having dated and had sexual intercourse (PR =1.53; CI95%: 1.14;2.06; and having more than nine years of schooling (PR=1.19; CI95%: 1.02; 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: more educated adolescents who studied in Praia (the capital city and were dating at the time of the study were more likely to use contraception. The high prevalence of condom use and the association between contraception use and years of schooling among adolescents may indicate that sexual and reproductive health policies have produced positive outcomes that may account for the decrease in HIV infection.OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais (MAC e fatores associados entre adolescentes de escola pública na ilha de Santiago em Cabo Verde. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, realizado entre janeiro e março de 2007, com amostra aleatória de 368 adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos de idade, com vida sexual ativa, provenientes de oito escolas secundárias públicas da ilha de Santiago. Para análise múltipla dos fatores de risco foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson ajustada pela estimativa robusta de variância considerando-se nível de signific

  8. Santiago de Chile, nueva arquitectura y espacio público. Arquitecturas de fin de crisis. 1999-2004. / Santiago de Chile, new architecture and public space. Architectures at the end of the crisis of 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránguiz P., Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de un estudio comparado -siempre parcial en estos casos- del estado actual de arquitectura chilena concentrada en la ciudad de Santiago. Su valor estaría en reivindicar lo que denomino común reflexión de ciertos autores entorno a modalidades y gestiones convergentes, superando maneras particulares de hacer y diferentes escalas de intervención. No pretende más que generar, indicar de cierta manera, la conjunción de pensamientos al momento de obrar la arquitectura como objeto urbano. Esta reflexión se realiza en términos de contexto dinámico e inicio de planes operativos, que sin perder las líneas invariantes de analogía y relación a ciertas obras escogidas en este período de tiempo definido, puedan marcar el derrotero de la ciudad de cara a las propuestas de renovación urbana que se avecinan. Para esto utilizaré una escritura, que sin ser texto exhaustivo desde lo académico, se perfila como discurso apriorístico para futuras investigaciones de base objetual y ejercicio crítico. Es un intento también de síntesis de las aportaciones arquitectónicas -en clave de proyectación- refrendadas desde el germen de la economía urbana como matriz ineludible en el concepto de ciudad futura./This article deals with a comparative study of present chilean architecture concentrated in the city of Santiago. It points out the importance of a comprehensive thought process capable of integrating single and unrelated enterprizes to urban systems. This is accomplished by coordinating different scales and functions in order to search for the opportunity to reach a better result in terms of urban morphology and urban functions.

  9. La calidad de asistencia de enfermería en el periodo prenatal desde la perspectiva de la mujer embarazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos-Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la calidad de la atención a la embarazada exige acogimiento, escucha, envolvimiento y compromiso, además de la resolución de problemas o disponibilidad de recursos tecnológicos e infraestructura. Objetivo: describir la visión de las embarazadas acerca de la calidad de la asistencia de enfermería en el periodo prenatal e identificar las expectativas y necesidades de las mujeres en esa perspectiva. Materiales y métodos: investigación cualitativa, exploratoria, realizada en el Hospital de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Participaron veinte embarazadas. Se utilizó la entrevista abierta e individual; el referencial metodológico fue el análisis del contenido de Bardin. La investigación fue aprobada por el Comité de Ética, los sujetos fueron las mujeres embarazadas en su mayoría casadas y con la enseñanza media completa. Resultados: como resultados satisfactorios emergieron aquellos referentes por la atención recibida por parte de los enfermeros en el prenatal, mientras la insatisfacción se dio por la infraestructura, los recursos materiales y la falta de una unidad materna para la atención del parto. Conclusiones: la visión de las madres frente a la atención prestada en el prenatal fue positiva en cuanto a sus expectativas y necesidades. La calidad de la asistencia está centrada en la interacción de los profesionales de enfermería durante los momentos de verdad donde las embarazadas entran en contacto con la atención, desde la admisión hasta el alta.

  10. Selvas yermas. Los pueblos de indios desaparecidos en la costa sur de la Nueva Galicia durante el periodo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Goyas Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis se centra en la desaparición de los pueblos de indios en la alcaldía mayor de la Purificación perteneciente a la Nueva Galicia durante el virreinato. Para la realización de este trabajo se abordó primero la caracterización físico natural de la región, para posteriormente hacer relevante la relación histórica hombre-naturaleza desde la época precolombina, ello con la finalidad de destacar la importancia de la pérdida de población durante el periodo colonial, como tema central de investigación. Más que un estudio de demografía histórica, este trabajo aborda las consecuencias de la desaparición de dichas entidades en el espacio geográfico en que estuvieron ubicadas, por tanto, es un análisis de la relación de los pueblos como entidades geoespaciales y su entorno. Partiendo de la premisa teórica de los llamados “nudos” y “redes” para la construcción de un territorio, en este ensayo se plantea que a medida que las poblaciones indígenas fueron desapareciendo, dejaron de cumplir su papel como articuladoras sociales del territorio surgiendo espacios que en teoría pasaron a ser realengos pero que en realidad fueron “zonas de nadie”, áreas no controladas por las localidades sobrevivientes ni por los nuevos colonizadores que demoraron siglos en consolidarse en la región de estudio.

  11. El divorcio entre los instrumentos de planificación y la morfología urbana en el perímetro metropolitano de Santiago de Chile. El caso de Maipú. / The divorce between the instruments of planning and urban morphology in the metropolitan perimeter of Santiago de Chile. The case of Maipú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawromatis P., Constantino

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available El espacio urbano resultante de la aplicación de los instrumentos de planificación comunal vigentes en Chile en el perímetro metropolitano de Santiago, carece de estructura y forma que evidencie una intencionalidad urbanística y arquitectónica./Chilean urban policies seem dramatically poor towards the physical environment which shapes a community. The public realm in suburban Santiago is a result of restrictive codes applied to private property. Spatial qualities, and morphological identity, are completely overlooked by urban laws.

  12. Supervivencia de los pacientes con cancer escamocelular bucal, tratados por primera vez, en centros oncologicos en el periodo 2000 a 2011, Medellin-Colombia.(ARTICULOS ORIGINALES DERIVADOS DE INVESTIGACION)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez M., Efrain; Posada Lopez, Adriana; Grisales, Hugo; Palacio, Marta Aida; Salas Z., Carolina

    2016-01-01

    ...) que fueron tratados por primera vez en 9 centros oncologicos en un periodo de 12 anos. Metodos: se hizo un analisis de supervivencia basado en una cohorte dinamica retrospectiva de 630 casos de cancer escamocelular bucal...

  13. Urban Morphological Dynamics in Santiago (chile): Proposing Sustainable Indicators from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, H. J.; Gutiérrez, M. A.; Acuña, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    Latin America is one of the world's most urbanised regions, with more than 80% of inhabitants living in urban areas and over 50 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants. The concept of urban structure types (UST) allows the dynamics of a growing urban environment to be captured in its quantity and quality. They are defined as areas of homogenous appearance in the urban matrix with a recognisable mixture of built-up areas and open spaces. We used the vegetation-impervious-soil (V-I-S) model approach to classify and monitor different types of USTs in Santiago (~800 km2), Chile between 1985 and 2015. The V-I-S model is based on a simplification of the large diversity of urban land cover types in three general categories: vegetation, impervious surfaces and soil. These categories were obtained by processing Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI images. First, we applied standard radiometric calibration and co-registration methods to all datasets. Second, using a linear spectral unmixing algorithm we performed a soft classification of urban land cover types (end members): trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, soils, buildings, roads and water bodies. All end members were validated using a combination of photointerpretation on high-resolution images (~1 m) and field data collection (only for 2015). In each pixel we used the resulting probability scores, logically grouped, to obtain final values for each V-I-S component. Third, we used statistical clustering of V-I-S values to create a set of eight pixel groups, which we interpreted as USTs and mapped them for each date. The overall accuracy for V-I-S components in 1985 and 2015 were 78% and 82%, respectively, and errors did not exhibit any spatial correlation. The main sources of differentiation between USTs were the trade-off proportions between vegetation and impervious components, whereas soil proportions remained near 5% across the city in both dates. To analyse the change in UST spatial configuration between dates, we used a

  14. URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS IN SANTIAGO (CHILE: PROPOSING SUSTAINABLE INDICATORS FROM REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most urbanised regions, with more than 80% of inhabitants living in urban areas and over 50 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants. The concept of urban structure types (UST allows the dynamics of a growing urban environment to be captured in its quantity and quality. They are defined as areas of homogenous appearance in the urban matrix with a recognisable mixture of built-up areas and open spaces. We used the vegetation-impervious-soil (V-I-S model approach to classify and monitor different types of USTs in Santiago (~800 km2, Chile between 1985 and 2015. The V-I-S model is based on a simplification of the large diversity of urban land cover types in three general categories: vegetation, impervious surfaces and soil. These categories were obtained by processing Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI images. First, we applied standard radiometric calibration and co-registration methods to all datasets. Second, using a linear spectral unmixing algorithm we performed a soft classification of urban land cover types (end members: trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, soils, buildings, roads and water bodies. All end members were validated using a combination of photointerpretation on high-resolution images (~1 m and field data collection (only for 2015. In each pixel we used the resulting probability scores, logically grouped, to obtain final values for each V-I-S component. Third, we used statistical clustering of V-I-S values to create a set of eight pixel groups, which we interpreted as USTs and mapped them for each date. The overall accuracy for V-I-S components in 1985 and 2015 were 78% and 82%, respectively, and errors did not exhibit any spatial correlation. The main sources of differentiation between USTs were the trade-off proportions between vegetation and impervious components, whereas soil proportions remained near 5% across the city in both dates. To analyse the change in UST spatial configuration between

  15. ¿Ciudad sin ciudadanos? Fragmentación, segregación y temor en Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Dammert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La imagen de la ciudad como espacio de interacción y celebración de las diferencias está siendo amenazada en Santiago. Visiones alternativas la muestran como espacio de conflicto, desorden e inseguridad, donde la diferencia se convierte en un elemento peligroso que requiere ser excluido o segregado. De esta manera se desarrolla una ciudad sin ciudadanos, es decir, una no-ciudad, que sirve como espacio de movimiento pero no de interacción. El objetivo de este artículo es empezar a analizar esta problemática desde uno de sus elementos: la sensación de inseguridad. El resultado plantea interrogantes sobre la ciudad que se está construyendo y sus posibles consecuencias.

  16. That Corporate Social Responsibility in the “José Mercerón Allen” Cement Factory, Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilnia Galán-Rivas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the problems that limit Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the José Mercerón Allen Cement Factory, Santiago de Cuba, in order to trace the corresponding actions to improve the situation. To achieve the proposed objective, initially the themes of CSR that will be evaluated based on Rule 26000 are selected, the problems that limit it are identified and the corresponding objectives and actions are defined. The research showed that the fundamental problems that limit the social responsibility of the selected factory are: air pollution, sonic pollution, inadequate handling of liquid waste, contribution to the deterioration of the ozone layer, limited dialogue mechanisms to interact with the environment social, limited participation in the cultural development of the surrounding community, the production of the entity compromises the health of the local population.

  17. A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands....... The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between...... spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source...

  18. Modernidad en movimiento: Cómo enfrentarse a la movilidad motorizada en Teherán, Santiago y Copenhague

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    Marie Thynell

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El progreso de la modernización está acompañado por un énfasis en la movilidad urbana y el crecimiento económico, junto con un creciente conocimiento medioambiental. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la transformación de los sistemas de transporte (automotriz y de transporte público junto con cambios urbanos relacionados, y sus efectos sociales en tres ciudades muy diferentes: Santiago, Teherán y Copenhague. En estas ciudades, la propiedad de vehículos se está incrementando y la movilidad motorizada se está además facilitando. La motorización masiva es una parte esencial de la modernización. Sin embargo, su impacto en el desarrollo social es un área de investigación que ha recibido escasa atención. Además, la motorización masiva es manejada de maneras diferentes, en distintos escenarios socio-políticos. En Teherán el énfasis está puesto en el mejoramiento y ampliación tecnológicos. En Santiago, una importante re-regulación y modernización del sistema está teniendo lugar. En Copenhague, todos los tipos de mejoramiento son realizados inspirados en parte en la Agenda 21. Además, como precisa el artículo, el orden político local y las estrategias escogidas para manejar los problemas de la motorización son diversos. Nuestro análisis enfatiza la motorización masiva, las intervenciones políticas, la sociedad civil, el gobierno urbano, el desarrollo sustentable y la administración de la movilidad urbana. Se concluye que la fuerza política a nivel de la ciudad parece ser más débil de lo que se observa a nivel nacionalThe progress of modernization is accompanied by an emphasis on urban mobility and economic growth together with increasing environmental awareness. This article aims at analysing the transformation of transport systems (car-road system and public transport together with related urban changes and their societal effects in three very different cities: Santiago, Tehran and Copenhagen. In these

  19. DEVOTIONAL OBJECTS IN A PERIFERICAL COLONIAL CITY (SANTIAGO DE CHILE 1598 – 1610; 1692 – 1710: AN INITIAL RESEARCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Schenke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper sketches in a programmatic manner the main lines of an ongoing PHD research that tries to find out which images and objects of devotion existed, were in use or vanished in Santiago de Chile during two specific periods: 1598–1610/ 1692–1710. The research relates the variation in the presence of these objects to the devotional, social and urban contexts to which they belong. Grounded in a quantitative research of notarial and ecclesiastical sources, it aims to find every single object around which some special religious practice revolves: sculptures, prints, canvas boards, relics, medallions, rosaries and crosses. An estimate of the proportion in which each of this kinds of devotional elements occurs should afford us a better understanding of their organic combinations and their shared meanings. This paper faces the multiple aspects involved in this field of inquiry, as well as its status quaestionis and the methodological approaches of this research.

  20. Movilidad femenina: los reveses de la utopía socio-espacial en las poblaciones de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Figueroa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily displacement is one of the main activities of women in the poor neighborhoods of Latin American cities. Their female status makes heavy demands of them in connection with household support,, accompaniment, maintenance of family relationships and neighborhood social networks, etc. They are consequently obliged to make countless trips both inside and outside their neighborhoods. Through an analysis of the daily travel routines of women in Santa Julia, a poor neighborhood in Santiago, this article shows how the urban design of the political project of “popular promotion” has turned out to be a double-edged weapon. These women’s habitual pathways are being threatened by public space today, a situation which reignites the old debate on whether urban design by itself can transform society.

  1. The triple spiral staircase in the Convent of Santo Domingo de Bonaval (Santiago of Compostela, Spain: design and construction hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Fernández Cabo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By 1700 Domingo de Andrade, at that time master builder of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral (North-west of Spain, built a unique spiral staircase in the Santo Domingo de Bonaval’s Convent, on the outskirts of the city. This paper provides a construction process hypothesis based on the available knowledge and technical resources at that time, involving the geometry, layout, stonework of the steps and their positioning on the site. A 1:5 scale model has been made to demonstrate that the staircase could have been built with no scaffolding at all. That would have meant for Andrade, architect and builder, an important cost reduction. Moreover been a masterpiece with an undeniable show of prowess, it is quite possible that economic reasons had driven the master to this bold design.

  2. Isotopic and geochemical tracers in the evaluation of groundwater residence time and salinization problems at Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, Paula M.; Nunes, Dina [Quimica Analitica e Ambiental, IST/ITN, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional no. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Marques, Jose M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica. Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro Santos, Fernando A. [Universidade de Lisboa-IDL, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Goncalves, Rui [Inst. Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Pina, Antonio; Mota Gomes, Antonio [Instituto Superior de Educacao, Praia, Santiago (Cape Verde)

    2013-07-01

    Stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) and tritium ({sup 3}H), together with geochemistry and geophysical data, were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times in a watershed on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, West Africa. Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. Low tritium concentrations at seven sampling sites indicate groundwater residence times greater than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other locations suggest more recent recharge. Young ages indicate local recharge and potential groundwater vulnerability to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. Geochemical results indicate that water-rock interaction mechanisms are the major processes responsible for the groundwater quality (mainly calcium-bicarbonate type), reflecting the lithological composition of subsurface soil. (authors)

  3. Transformaciones socioterritoriales asociadas a proyectos residenciales de condominios en comunas de la periferia del área metropolitana de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Calderón F.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios periurbanos del área metropolitana de Santiago son el escenario de importantes transformaciones sociales, demográficas y territoriales, que se manifiestan en nuevas modalidades de ocupación del territorio rural. En este proceso de expansión de la metrópoli la función residencial es el principal motor de cambio. Tanto las viviendas en parcelas de agrado, individuales o agrupadas en condominio, como las soluciones habitacionales de carácter social, impulsadas por el Estado, contribuyen a dibujar la forma en que los asentamientos humanos se establecen en el territorio. A partir del estudio de las comunas de Pirque, Calera de Tango, Padre Hurtado y Lampa, se efectúa una lectura del nuevo diseño socio espacial que generan dichas agrupaciones residenciales.

  4. Young people in the sounds whirlwind: toward to study of musical consumption in young peoples of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Lavielle-Pullés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, many generational gulfs have existed between adulthood and youth, and music is one of them, this is due, in part by power relationships. The young people of Santiago are not an exception. Big gaps are opened thanks the differences about the musical tastes. However in Cuban case the education, conformation and satisfaction of musical consumptions and tastes must be also in hand of Culture institutions. This essay begins in the problematic inside the work of culture sector, about its design of proposal and strategic to leisure time, and how this work is away to young people interest. That´s why the scientific approaches since music sociology is justified, toward the musical consumer and tastes to fill the lacks in the action of institutions. The present paper shows the general view of methodological and theoretical frames of the future research on musical consumers.

  5. MUCHO Y MUY BUEN VINO. PRODUCCIÓN VITIVINÍCOLA EN LA ZONA NORTE DE SANTIAGO (SIGLOS XVI -XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ruiz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En la zona norte de Santiago (sectores de la Chimba, Renca, Conchalí, El Salto, Quilicura), se comenzó a producir desde poco después de la conquista española, “mucho y muy buen vino”. Se reseña el origen y particularidades de esta producción vinícola durante el período colonial. Se reconstruye un cuadro descriptivo de la viñatería colonial en la zona, junto con analizar los aspectos económicos: la evolución de la infraestructura productiva, el tipo de predios dedicados a la producción ...

  6. Del Grabado Europeo a la Pintura Americana. La serie El Credo del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo de Rueda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de dos series de grabados flamencos del siglo XVII sobre el tema El Credo, de los artistas Adrian Collaert (1560-1618 y Johan Sadeler (1550-1600, permiten confirmar la importante presencia de los grabados europeos en los talleres de pintura de la América Hispana y su influencia decisiva en la formación de nuestros artistas. Se analizan entonces bajo esta perspectiva, las once pinturas al óleo que conforman la Serie de los Artículos de El Credo, obra del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago (1603-1706 que se encuentran en la Catedral Primada de Bogotá desde la época colonial.

  7. INTERCULTURALIDAD Y POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS EN EDUCACIÓN: REFLEXIONES DESDE SANTIAGO DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Romo,Andrés; Contreras Mühlenbrock,Rafael; Cubillos Puelma,Leonardo; Aravena Aragón,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Desde Santiago de Chile se observan, analizan y cuestionan los resultados de diez años de políticas públicas destinadas a materializar la Educación Intercultural Bilingüe en la ciudad. Con una mirada histórica de la educación indígena en el continente se sopesa la originalidad del escenario urbano como ámbito de intervención en interculturalidad y se examina el desarrollo de ésta educación en el país, extrayéndose conclusiones, a modo de preguntas, que ayudan a palpar los límites teóricos y p...

  8. Innovations in adolescent reproductive and sexual health education in Santiago de Chile: effects of physician leadership and direct service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzard, Tarayn; González, Electra; Sandoval, Jorge; Molina, Ramiro

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive and sexual health (RSH) education is a key component of most family planning programs around the world and is particularly important for adolescents, for whom parenthood is more likely to have difficult or dangerous health outcomes. A lack of comprehensive RSH education targeted at adolescents may augment the poor outcomes associated with early pregnancy by creating barriers to optimal care. This article discusses the creation of the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva y Desarrollo Integral de la Adolescencia clinic, a comprehensive adolescent reproductive health center in Santiago de Chile, and its RSH education programs. In particular, the role of the physician in originating and leading the RSH education efforts, the controversy associated with RSH education in Chile, and the effects of comprehensive RHS education on the local and regional adolescent populations are discussed.

  9. Cultura popular y turismo cultural en Santiago de Cuba. La conga de los Hoyos: crisol de la identidad del santiaguero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Carmen María Domínguez-Díaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito presentar diferentes enfoques de diversas lecturas posibles y aproximaciones teóricas ineludibles sobre la cultura popular y el turismo cultural y analizar los conflictos que se generan en el binomio cultura-turismo en Santiago de Cuba. Tiene además la pretensión de mostrar las potencialidades culturales de esta ciudad asentadas en las manifestaciones de la cultura popular tradicional, se utiliza como referente las prácticas culturales de una institución centenaria: La Conga de los Hoyos como una de las expresiones más importantes de autenticidad del santiaguero.

  10. Disciplinamientos femeninos y soledades del trabajo doméstico en un hogar de Santiago de Chile

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    Romané Landaeta Sepúlveda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El hogar de una familia acomodada en Santiago es el telón de fondo sobre el cual se narra el acontecer cotidiano que sucede entre sus integrantes. De un lado, unos padres profesionales que organizan el día a día junto a sus cuatro hijos que habitan esta gran casa. De otro, una mujer que a pesar de no tener ningún lazo de consanguineidad, ha vivido muchos años junto a ellos; sin embargo, come y habita en un sector paralelo del hogar. He ahí el eje argumental de la película: nos referimos a un...

  11. Del Grabado Europeo a la Pintura Americana. La serie El Credo del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago

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    Marta Fajardo de Rueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de dos series de grabados flamencos del siglo XVII  sobre el tema El Credo, de los artistas Adrian Collaert (1560-1618  y  Johan Sadeler  (1550-1600, permiten confirmar la importante presencia de los grabados europeos en los talleres de pintura de la América Hispana y  su influencia decisiva en la formación de nuestros artistas. Se analizan entonces bajo esta perspectiva, las  once pinturas al óleo que conforman la Serie de los Artículos de El Credo, obra del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago (1603-1706 que se encuentran en la Catedral Primada de Bogotá desde la época colonial.

  12. Del Grabado Europeo a la Pintura Americana. La serie El Credo del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago

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    Marta Fajardo de Rueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de dos series de grabados flamencos del siglo XVII sobre el tema El Credo, de los artistas Adrian Collaert (1560-1618 y Johan Sadeler (1550-1600, permiten confirmar la importante presencia de los grabados europeos en los talle - res de pintura de la América Hispana y su influencia decisiva en la formación de nuestros artistas. Se analizan entonces bajo esta perspectiva, las once pinturas al óleo que conforman la Serie de los Artículos de El Credo, obra del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago (1603-1706 que se encuentran en la Catedral Primada de Bogotá desde la época colonial.

  13. Esclavos musulmanes en los hospitales de cautivos de la Orden Militar de Santiago (siglos XII y XIII

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    Echevarría Arsuaga, Ana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Military Orders had slave manpower in their lands since their foundation. However, the hospitals for ransoming captives owned by the Order of Santiago are the best example of how slavery worked in the kingdom of Leon-Castile during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These houses had enough room to provide lodging for captives while ransoms were being negotiated. They also helped to redistribute those Muslims who, lacking this possibility, became slaves of the order itself, or were sold in the slave markets of the kingdom. The scarce records kept in the Archivo Histórico Nacional, section Órdenes Militares, referring to slaves, help to understand the development of traffic, work and manumission of these people.

    Las órdenes militares dispusieron desde su fundación de mano de obra esclava en sus tierras, pero la institución que mejor sirve para estudiar la esclavitud en los siglos XII y XIII en los reinos de León y Castilla son los hospitales para la redención de cautivos de la Orden de Santiago. Estas instituciones disponían de espacio para alojar a los cautivos mientras se negociaban rescates con los poderes islámicos, y atendían a la redistribución de aquellos musulmanes que, por no haber sido redimidos, pasaban a ser esclavos de la propia orden o a ser vendidos en los mercados de los reinos cristianos. Los escasos documentos de la sección de Órdenes Militares del Archivo Histórico Nacional dedicados a esclavos ayudan a comprender el funcionamiento del tráfico, trabajo y liberación de este colectivo.

  14. La guerra de la basura de Santiago: desde el derecho a la vivienda al derecho a la ciudad

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en un estudio de caso, este artículo discute las características de las movilizaciones populares urbanas en la ciudad de Santiago, Chile, comparándolas con el mítico "movimiento de pobladores" de los años sesenta. Aquéllas aparecen como reactivas, persiguiendo fines prácticos, animadas de cierto espíritu conservador (de defensa de lo que existe o se tiene y cargadas de desconfianza hacia los partidos y el sistema político. Sin embargo, y paradójicamente, el estudio pone de relieve la existencia de trazos democráticos de los que carecía el movimiento de pobladores, cruzado por la lógica clientelista que impulsaban los partidos políticos. Incluso, las actuales iniciativas populares podrían contener potencialidades de cambio social en gran medida insospechadas.Based on a case study, the paper discusses collective political initiatives on the part of popular groups in Santiago, Chile, and makes a comparison with the mythical "pobladores movement" of the sixties -pobladores being the name given in Chile to low-class settlers of the urban periphery. Current mobilizations show up as being reactive, geared at practical goals, inspired by conservatism (the defense of what exists or is possessed and loaded with cynicism towards political parties and the political system. Nevertheless, and paradoxically enough, these collective endeavors may comprise democratic traits which the pobladores movement, crossed as it was by the clientelist logics put forward by political parties, lacked off. Current popular initiatives could even include social change potential to a great extent unsuspected.

  15. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  16. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay of populations under chronic heavy metal and other metal exposure along the Santiago River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zúñiga-González, G M; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Zamora-Perez, A L; Rojas-Ramírez, J P; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Sobrevilla-Navarro, A A; Arellano-Avelar, M A; Guerrero-de León, A A; Armendáriz-Borunda, J S; Sánchez-Parada, M G

    2017-09-26

    The Santiago River is one of the most contaminated rivers in Mexico, with heavy metal levels above the allowed limits. Scientific evidence indicates that chronic heavy metal exposure leads to cytogenotoxic effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of such exposure in buccal mucosa cells by micronucleus (MN) assay and to identify other nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as nuclear buds (NBUDs), binucleated cells (BNs), pyknotic nuclei (PNs), karyorrhexis (KX), karyolysis (KL), and abnormally condensed chromatin (CC). Assays were performed on samples from four populations located alongside the Santiago River that are under chronic exposure to heavy metals and other metals (HMMs), and the results were compared with those of a population without exposure to HMMs. The exposed group showed increased frequencies of NAs (KX, CC, and KL), which are associated with cytotoxic damage, and NBUDs, which are associated with genotoxic damage. Increased frequencies of NBUDs and CC were observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán, Ocotlán, and Paso de Guadalupe, and an increase in KX frequency was observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán. Significant differences in KL frequency were observed in subjects from La Barca, El Salto/Juanacatlán, Paso de Guadalupe, and Ocotlán. Predictors for increased development of MNs and NBUDs were high concentrations of Al, Zn, and Cu. In conclusion, chronic exposure to HMMs, especially Al, Cu, and Zn, in the studied population could be related to increased frequencies of NAs, such as NBUDs, KX, CC, and KL, in the buccal mucosa cells.

  17. Development of mobile technologies for the prevention of cervical cancer in Santiago, Chile study protocol: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momany, McKenzie C; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Soto, Mauricio; Capurro, Daniel; Ciampi, Francis; Thompson, Beti; Puschel, Klaus

    2017-12-13

    In Chile, more than 500 women die every year from cervical cancer, and a majority of Chilean women are not up-to-date with their Papanicolau (Pap) test. Mobile health has great potential in many health areas, particularly in health promotion and prevention. There are no randomized controlled trials in Latin America assessing its use in cervical cancer screening. The 'Development of Mobile Technologies for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Santiago, Chile' study aims to determine the efficacy of a text-message intervention on Pap test adherence among Chilean women in the metropolitan region of Santiago. This study is a parallel randomized-controlled trial of 400 Chilean women aged 25-64 who are non-adherent with current recommendations for Pap test screening. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) a control arm (usual care) or (2) an intervention arm, where text and voice messages containing information and encouragement to undergo screening will be sent to the women. The primary endpoint is completion of a Pap test within 6 months of baseline assessment, as determined by medical record review at community-based clinics. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arms. The secondary endpoint is an evaluation of the implementation and usability of the text message intervention as a strategy to improve screening adherence. This intervention using mobile technology intends to raise cervical cancer screening adherence and compliance among a Chilean population of low and middle-low socioeconomic status. If successful, this strategy may reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02376023 Registered 2/17/2015. First participant enrolled Feb 22nd 2016.

  18. Distribución, superficie y accesibilidad de las áreas verdes en Santiago de Chile

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    Sonia Reyes Päcke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas verdes urbanas (AVU proveen servicios sociales y ecológicos, en función de su distribución, superficie y accesibilidad. Se evalúan dichos atributos para las AVU de Santiago mediante métricas de paisaje. Se muestra que el 91% de las AVU tiene tamaño menor a 5.000 m². Las comunas de bajos ingresos y mayor población presentan un mayor número de áreas verdes (NP, pero de menor tamaño (Green spaces provide social and ecological functions within urban environments. The magnitude of these depends on the size, distribution and accessibility of such spaces. These attributes of the green areas in Santiago de Chile are evaluated using landscape metrics. The results show that 91% of green spaces are smaller than 5,000 m2. Municipalities with higher population and lower income levels had a greater number of green spaces, but these are smaller than 1,000 m2. The four municipalities with the highest income levels have 32.2% of the total green space surface, while the four municipalities with the lowest income levels barely exceed 4.0%>. The proposed accessibility indicator (IAc reveals that in the La Pintana municipality (low income level, 19.6% of the population has access to a green space of at least 5,000 within 300 from their home, while this figure is 45.3% for San Miguel (medium income level and 74.1% in Vitacura (high income level. Chilean urban legislation tends to promote the creation of smaller green spaces.

  19. Corografías de Santiago de Compostela: la vista de la ciudad monumental del arquitecto Juan López Freire, hijo (1799

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    Taín Guzmán, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1799 the architect Juan López Freire, son, made the first engraving of a view of the city of Santiago, looking towards its western façade. This panorama is of undeniable interest to the history of Compostela, as it is the first graphic record of ‘Monumental Santiago,’ the result of a series of new constructions and interventions in the urban layout that took place during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. This article is dedicated to the location where the preparatory sketches were made, and to identifying each of the buildings shown.En 1799 el arquitecto Juan López Freire, hijo, lleva a la estampa la primera vista impresa de la ciudad de Santiago, su frente occidental. La panorámica presenta un interés ineludible para la historia de Compostela, constituyendo el primer testimonio gráfico del Santiago Monumental, resultado de las nuevas construcciones e intervenciones en el entramado urbano llevadas a cabo en los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII. En el presente artículo se reconoce el lugar desde donde se han hecho los bocetos preparatorios, concretamente Sarela de Abaixo, y se identifican uno por uno los edificios representados, definiendo la iconografía arquitectónica de la Compostela del setecientos. [gl] En 1799 o arquitecto Juan López Freire, fillo, leva á estampa a primeira vista impresa da cidade de Santiago, o seu frente occidental. A panorámica presenta un interese ineludible para a historia de Compostela, constituíndo o primeiro testemuño gráfico do Santiago Monumental, resultado das novas construcións e intervencións na estructura urbana levadas a cabo nos séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII. No presente artigo localízase o lugar dende onde se fixeron os deseños preparatorios, concretamente Sarela de Abaixo, e identifícanse un por un os edificios representados, definindo a iconografía arquitectónica da Compostela do setecentos.

  20. EXCESO DE MORTALIDAD PRECOZ RELACIONADO CON LA GRIPE EN ESPAÑA DURANTE UN PERIODO INTERPANDÉMICO

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    Lorena Simón Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El indicador Años Potenciales de Vida Perdidos (APVP ha sido utilizado con frecuencia en análisis de mortalidad precoz, y recientemente ha servido para estimar el impacto de la última pandemia de gripe A(H1N1 pdm09. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido estimar los excesos de defunciones por gripe y neumonía (GyN en España y los APVP durante el periodo 1980-2008, valorando la mortalidad atribuible a gripe en función del tipo/subtipo de virus predominante. Métodos: Los excesos de defunciones mensuales se calcularon con modelos de regresión cíclica. El cálculo de APVP se realizó como el producto del número de excesos de defunciones por la diferencia entre la esperanza de vida al nacer y los años vividos para cada grupo de edad. El análisis de la variación entre los excesos de defunciones por GyN y APVP, según el tipo/subtipo de virus de la gripe predominante, se llevó a cabo con un análisis de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: En las temporadas con predominio del virus de la gripe A(H3 el promedio de excesos de defunciones por GyN se estimó en 1.348 y de APVP en 5.297, mientras que en las temporadas con predominio de A(H1 o B el promedio de excesos por las mismas causas fue de 648 y de APVP de 2.885. Las razones de tasas ajustadas de excesos (2,11; IC-95%=2,05-2,16 y de APVP (1,86; IC-95%=1,83-1,88 señalaron que las frecuencias relativas de ambos indicadores son significativamente mayores en las temporadas con predominio de virus de la gripe A(H3. Conclusiones: Los excesos de defunciones y APVP se duplicaron al comparar las temporadas con predominio del subtipo A(H3 frente al resto de virus de la gripe.

  1. CAMBIOS EN LA ACTIVIDAD ENZIMÁTICA EN DUODENO Y YEYUNO DE CERDOS DURANTE VARIOS PERIODOS POSDESTETE

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    D. Ospina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: evaluar los cambios en la actividad enzimática intestinal de algunos cerdosdurante varios periodos posdestete. Materiales y métodos: el trabajo de campo serealizó en el Centro San Pablo, perteneciente a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia,sede Medellín. El estudio se realizó con 16 cerdos destetados a los 21 días de edad. Losanimales experimentales fueron alimentados durante 10 días con una dieta basal (DBque tuvo como componentes leche y algunos de sus derivados y que además cumplíacon los requerimientos nutricionales. Luego, los cerdos fueron sacrificados escalonadamentelos días uno, cinco, siete y diez posdestete, y se realizó extracción completa delintestino delgado, el cual fue dividido en dos secciones (duodeno y yeyuno de igualtamaño. El análisis de la actividad enzimática (APN, DPP-IV, LPH, MGA y SI se realizómediante el método de velocidades iniciales y el diseño estadístico que se empleófue completamente al azar, no obstante, los datos se analizaron mediante la aplicaciónde los modelos lineales generales (GLM y de la prueba de duncan. Resultados:se evidencia que las enzimas presentaron diferencias (P < 0,01 durante los periodosposdestete. En el día cinco se observaron cambios negativos en todas las enzimas encomparación con su estado durante el primer día posdestete; sin embargo, entre el díauno y diez posdestete se presentaron diferencias entre APN, DPP-IV y LPH (P < 0,01.Además, se encontró que la sección proximal (duodeno presentó las mayores actividadesenzimáticas (P < 0,01. Conclusiones: el destete temprano disminuye la actividadenzimática a nivel intestinal, provocando la subutilización de los nutrientes de la dietay, por ende, alta incidencia de diarreas durante esta etapa.

  2. La Realidad de la Adquisicion del Lenguaje Oral y Escrito en una Muestra de Escuelas del Sector sur de Santiago. [The Reality of the Acquisition of Oral and Written Language in a Sample of Schools in the Southern Part of Santiago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarce, Carmen Diaz; Mujica, Elena Alvarez-Salamanca

    2001-01-01

    Investigated reading and writing skills of socioeconomically deprived first graders in Santiago, Chile. Found that the children had low achievement in reading and writing and at the end of the school year had not acquired sufficient linguistic competence to successfully master these skills. Also found a dissociation between observed practice and…

  3. Agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile. Morfología de la inequidad en la distribución del consumo domiciliario de agua potable/Water and Poverty in Santiago de Chile. Morphology of inequity in the distribution of household consumption of drinking water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustavo Durán

    2015-01-01

    En la trayectoria temporal de la relación entre agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile, el "acceso" como indicador ha sufrido, para los estudios urbanos, una suerte de desgaste, y en la actualidad no representa un dato significativo para medir...

  4. Desencuentro de afectos y de poderes: variaciones para el estudio de un conflicto singular. Santiago de Chile, octubre 1793 – noviembre 1797

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Vásquez, María Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Au mois d’octobre 1793 à Santiago du Chili, Clara Pando dépose un recours devant l’autorité laïque, la Real Audiencia de Chile, contre l’abus de pouvoir commis par une autorité ecclésiastique : l’évêque Blas y Minayo avait enlevé et enfermé sa fille avec l'aide des soldats de la garde du Gouverneur Ambrosio O’Higgins. Le Conseil des Indes, en Espagne, finit par accueillir la plainte, délaissée par les juges de Santiago. Cette dispute implique des personnes dont les patronymes sont connus au C...

  5. Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX

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    Clara Aurora Zúñiga Moro

    Full Text Available Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se mencionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas.

  6. Análisis edad-periodo-cohorte de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España

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    Saiz-Sánchez Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre las medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas y la mortalidad se han construido modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS. Se observaron dos ondas evolutivas en la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico. Respecto a la edad, no podemos hablar de un efecto claro; tampoco se encontró un efecto cohorte ni para varones ni para mujeres. En relación con las medidas de seguridad vial, se discutió la consistencia que guardaban los modelos seleccionados con los resultados gráficos, y se obtuvo que el uso obligatorio del casco y de las luces de cruce en motocicletas se ha asociado significativamente a la reducción de la mortalidad (RR 0.73, p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONES. La mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España muestra un ligero incremento en el periodo estudiado. Este comportamiento de las tasas no puede ser explicado suficientemente por los efectos de la edad, el periodo de diagnóstico de la muerte y la cohorte de nacimiento; en cambio las medidas de seguridad vial introducidas se valoraron positivamente.

  7. Evaluación forrajera de gramineas y leguminosas introducidas en la provincia de Morona Santiago (1070m.s.n.m)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Escandón, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    Todas las explotaciones de ganadería en la Provincia de Morona Santiago se realizan en praderas naturales de gran valor; la presente investigación introduce siete gramíneas nuevas asociadas con tres leguminosas para poder realizar un manejo integral tanto de los potreros como de los bovinos Magister en Producción Animal, Mención Bovinos Cuenca

  8. Fracturas del tercio medio facial operadas en el Instituto Traumatológico de Santiago (Chile): 10 años de revisión.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Pacheco; Sebastián Zapata; Cristián Núñez

    2012-01-01

    Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Methods. We perf...

  9. Movilidad para la emancipación o para el arraigo: Interacción de las escalas en París y Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jouffe

    2015-03-01

    The paper analyzes the integration of the multiple dimensions of mobility, in search for key principles through which meaning is conveyed at the same time by the relationship with the territory, the decisions related to the extension and intensity of mobility, as well as life projects and ethical values. Thus, from the study of poor workers of the far suburb of Paris, we set the bases to discuss its replicability to the case of Santiago of Chile.

  10. The Camino de Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and The Via Francigena (Italy): a comparison between two important historic pilgrimage routes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lucarno, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Italian section of the Via Francigena, a Medieval pilgrimage route to Rome, has not yet been commercialised to its full potential when compared to the Camino de Santiago in Spain. There are many reasons for this under development. First, there is an absence of a specialised organisation focused on utilising the resources available; a difficulty that could be overcome by the forming a tourism body with the specific charter for developing these resources and attracting tourism. Second, the ...

  11. Trazas y trazos de la circulación musical en el virreinato del Perú: copistas de la catedral de Lima en Santiago de Chile

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    Vera Aguilera, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to expand the current knowledge about the circulation of music in the Viceroyalty of Peru, through a comparative study between music scores from the colonial period that have been preserved in the cathedrals of Lima and Santiago de Chile. Contributing with new musical and calligraphic concordances, it shows that some of the works held in Santiago were copied in the viceregal capital. It also raises convincing hypotheses about the possible Spanish origin of certain musical sources, as well as methodological contributions for the study of music copyists, complementing the existing ones. Finally, it goes on to question important assumptions about the musical life of Lima cathedral that have been transmitted in previous works.El presente trabajo busca ampliar el conocimiento actual sobre la circulación musical en el virreinato del Perú por medio de un estudio comparado entre las partituras del período colonial que se han conservado en las catedrales de Lima y Santiago de Chile. De esta forma, se establecen nuevas correspondencias tanto musicales como caligráficas, demostrándose que algunas de las obras conservadas en Santiago fueron copiadas en la capital del virreinato; se formulan hipótesis convincentes acerca del posible origen español de ciertas fuentes musicales; y se realizan aportaciones metodológicas para el estudio de los copistas de música, que complementan las ya existentes. Finalmente, el trabajo permite cuestionar importantes premisas sobre la vida musical de la catedral de Lima que nos han sido transmitidas en trabajos previos.

  12. Evaluación ambiental del proceso de urbanización de las cuencas del piedemonte andino de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las cuencas son complejos sistemas ambientales en que se desarrollan procesos geomorfológicos, hidrológicos, climáticos y ecológicos, que son impactados por la urbanización. En este trabajo se estudian seis cuencas del piedemonte andino de la ciudad de Santiago que se encuentran en diferentes fases del proceso de urbanización, variando entre Macul-San Ramón, en donde casi el 40% de su superficie ha sido incorporada a la ciudad, y Pirque, que mantiene aún sus características agrícolas y rurales. Empleando Sistemas de Información Geográfica, se analiza el impacto de la urbanización sobre indicadores ambientales, tales como productividad vegetal, biomasa, humedad en el suelo y temperaturas superficiales de los territorios ocupados por las cuencas. Las Áreas Totales de Impermeabilización, los Coeficientes de Escorrentía y las Áreas Sensitivas Ambientales, permiten estimar el estado de las cuencas y su contribución a la salud ambiental de la ciudad de SantiagoWatersheds are complex environmental systems, where geomorphologic, hydrologic, climatic and ecological processes take place, and which are severely impacted by urbanisation. In this paper, six Santiago Andean piedmont watersheds have been researched, according with the degree of urbanisation that they reach, which varies between Macul-San Ramón, where about 40% of their land covers has been already urbanised, until Pirque, where agricultural and rural features are still dominants. Using geographical information systems, the impact of urbanization on several ecological indicators, such as vegetative productivity, biomass, soil moisture and surface temperature are analysed. Total Imperviousness Areas, Runoff Coefficients and Environmentally Sensitive Areas allow the estimation of the state of the watersheds ant their contribution to the environmental health of Santiago city

  13. Análisis político de la tributación en Colombia durante el periodo 1986-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Rodríguez, Víctor Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo, a partir de una revisión de los principales resultados de la perspectiva ortodoxa de la tributación, el análisis del proceso por el que han debido transitar las nueve (9) reformas tributarias de orden nacional en Colombia durante el periodo 1986-2006 y la condicionalidad interpuesta por actores externos, evidencia el marco político en que los intereses particulares han logrado interferir en la función legítima del Estado para establecer la política tributaria, lo cual es caracte...

  14. Análisis de ADN mitocondrial en una muestra de restos óseos arcaicos del periodo Herrera en la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los restos óseos arcaicos son fuente privilegiada de información biológica y su caracterización genética permite confirmar o descartar filiaciones propuestas por otras aproximaciones científicas. La historia precolombina de los Andes orientales se divide en tres periodos principales: i un poblamiento temprano por parte de grupos cazadores-recolectores; ii un periodo intermedio (Herrera de pueblos con agricultura incipiente, y iii un periodo tardío de pueblos chibchas, agrícolas y alfareros (agroalfarero. Objetivo. Analizar el ADN mitocondrial de restos óseos del periodo Herrera. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 11 individuos pertenecientes al yacimiento arqueológico Madrid 2-41, con una edad aproximada de 2.000 años. Un fragmento (192 pb del segmento hipervariable I fue amplificado y secuenciado, siguiendo criterios estrictos de autenticidad de ADN arcaico. Las secuencias se compararon con las existentes en bases de datos de Norteamérica y Europa usando herramientas bioinformáticas. Resultados. Todas las secuencias resultaron idénticas y fueron clasificadas como haplogrupo B. Esto puede relacionarse con el tipo de entierro ritual practicado en Madrid 2-41, es decir, probablemente los individuos analizados hagan parte de una familia jerárquicamente importante en la antigua sociedad Herrera. La búsqueda de secuencias homólogas en las bases de datos estadounidense y europea no arrojó coincidencias exactas, aunque existe el reporte de un individuo amazónico de ~4.000 años de antigüedad (Brasil cuya secuencia coincide con la hallada en Madrid 2-41. Conclusión. Los individuos del yacimiento arqueológico Madrid 2-41 están estrechamente emparentados entre sí por línea materna y presentan una secuencia aparentemente ausente en poblaciones actuales.

  15. El nivel de calidad de servicio de un centro de idiomas aplicando el modelo Servqual caso: Centro de idiomas de la Universidad Nacional del Callao periodo 2011 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Bazalar, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    La investigación realizada se orienta al sector de educación, y su estudio es específicamente en el Centro de Idiomas de la Universidad Nacional del Callao (CIUNAC). El objetivo es determinar el nivel de calidad de servicio en el Centro de Idiomas de la Universidad del Callao durante el periodo 2011 - 2012, mediante el modelo SERVQUAL, el cual tiene cinco dimensiones: fiabilidad, capacidad de respuesta, seguridad, empatía y elementos tangibles. Para el estudio se emplearon herramientas est...

  16. Análisis estratégico de la intendencia nacional de principales contribuyentes de la SUNAT para el periodo 2002-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Blancas, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    El presente proyecto de investigación gerencial, denominado “Análisis Estratégico de la Intendencia Nacional de Principales Contribuyentes de la SUNAT para el periodo 2002 – 2005” busca elaborar un plan estratégico para una de las dependencias de la Administración Tributaria peruana (SUNAT) a partir del análisis y evaluación del plan estratégico institucional elaborado a inicios del año 2001, como parte de los esfuerzos realizados por el gobierno de transición de nuestro país, con fin de logr...

  17. Clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral en los trabajadores del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana, periodo 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Tenazoa, Néstor Oswaldo; Rivera Cardozo, Pedro Lito

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente existe consenso respecto a que el clima organizacional y la satisfacción laboral son variables fundamentales dentro de la gestión de las organizaciones, sin embargo, no está claro cuáles son los efectos específicos que tienen dichas variables sobre el desempeño laboral en general. La presente tesis muestra el nivel de clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral en los trabajadores del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, durante el periodo comprendido de Abril a Di...

  18. Descripción de la dinámica poblacional en la zona costera mexicana durante el periodo 2000-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac AZUZ-ADEATH; Evelia RIVERA-ARRIAGA

    2009-01-01

    La población de la costa mexicana y sus patrones de crecimiento producen modifi caciones sobre los espacios marinos y costeros, las cuales deben ser consideradas en los procesos de planeación y gestión del litoral. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la dinámica poblacional reciente (2000-2005) de los municipios que conforman la zona costera mexicana. En dicho periodo, 23 por ciento del crecimiento nacional se dio en los 27 municipios más dinámicos de la zona costera (1.3 millones) y oc...

  19. La migración internacional en el actual periodo de globalización del sistema mundo-moderno/colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Germaná Cavero, César

    2005-01-01

    En el presente trabajo quisiera explorar algunos de los problemas del fenómeno de la migración internacional planteados en el mundo contemporáneo. En primer lugar, examino las características específicas de la migración internacional, buscando diferenciarla de lo ocurrido en periodos anteriores; para ello tengo como punto de partida las influyentes propuestas centradas en el concepto de sistema-mundo moderno de Immanuel Wallerstein y en el concepto de colonialidad del poder ...

  20. Las relaciones comerciales bilaterales entre Estados Unidos y Japón, a partir del "Milagro Japonés". Periodo 1980 - 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Sirtori, Paula Andrea

    2011-01-01

    El actual trabajo, busca determinar las relaciones comerciales bilaterales sostenidas entre Estados Unidos y Japón a partir del milagro japonés durante el periodo 1980 -1990; por lo anterior, se desarrollan tres objetivos específicos. Primero, describir los antecedentes de las relaciones comerciales bilaterales entre Estados Unidos y Japón, a partir del impacto de la firma del Tratado de San Francisco en 1951. Segundo, identificar los cambios en las relaciones comerciales bilaterales entre Es...

  1. Los matorrales del Paraje Natural Sierra Pelada y Rivera del Aserrador (Huelva) y su transformación en el periodo 1942-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Butler Sierra, Isabel; Monteagudo Sánchez de Movellán, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    El Paraje Natural Sierra Pelada y Rivera del Aserrador (ZEPA, LIC, Red Natura 2000, Reserva de la Biosfera), situado en el NO de la provincia de Huelva, debe su estatus de protección a que acoge la mas importante colonia de nidificación de buitre negro de Andalucía y una de las principales de la Península Ibérica. Se presenta una caracterización descriptiva de sus matorrales y un estudio diacrónico de los cambios acaecidos en ellos durante un periodo de 70 años (1942-2012), que permite analiz...

  2. Calidad e innovación de las páginas Web de enfermería en el periodo 2010-2012.

    OpenAIRE

    De la Torre Barbero, Maria José; Estepa Luna, María José; López-Pardo Martínez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad y la innovación de las páginas web de colegios oficiales y sociedades científicas de enfermería en España. Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo realizado en dos periodos: Julio-Septiembre de 2010 y Julio-Septiembre de 2012. Se ha utilizado el cuestionario de Bermúdez–Tamayo para evaluar la calidad y las herramientas PageRank de Google y Alexa TrafficRank para medir la visibilidad y popularidad respectivamente. Para valorar el grado d...

  3. Caracterización de los estudiantes con matrícula condicional en el periodo académico 2-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Maya, Eliana Patrícia Estrada; Corporación Universitaria Lasallista; Ardila, Luis Felipe Londoño; Corporación Universitaria Lasallista; Muriel, Fernado Antonio Zapata; Corporación Universitaria Lasallista.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los hallazgos de la investigación “Caracterización de los estudiantes con matrícula condicional (EMC) en el periodo 02-2011”, que apunta a describir las principales características socioeconómicas, psicológicas, académicas e institucionales, como posibles factores de riesgo asociados con la deserción estudiantil en la Corporación Universitaria Lasallista (CUL). La investigación es de tipo cuantitativo, con un alcance descriptivo en cuanto pretende conocer y describir la...

  4. Condición corporal de paseriformes transaharianos en un palmeral del sureste de Marruecos durante el periodo de paso migratorio prenupcial

    OpenAIRE

    ARIZAGA, J., AZKONA, A., CEPEDA, X., MAGUREGI, J., UNAMUNO, E., UNAMUNO, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Determinar hasta qué punto el norte de África es empleado como zona de ganancia de reservas por las aves transaharianas es importante no sólo ecológicamente, sino también desde el punto de vista de la conservación. En este trabajo se estudia la relación de capturas, cantidad de reservas y tasa de ganancia de peso de varias especies de paseriformes transaharianos capturadas durante el periodo de paso prenupcial en Zouala, un palmeral en el sureste de Marruecos, localizado a unos 100 km al nort...

  5. Análisis de la tendencia de sífilis adquirida en México durante el periodo 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Sánchez Alemán; Antonia Herrera-Ortiz; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Ma. Leonidez Olamendi-Portugal; Santa García-Cisneros; Carlos Jesús Conde-Glez

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo. Identificar el grupo poblacional en el que se concentra el incremento de sífilis ocurrido durante los últimos años. Material y métodos. A partir de información obtenida de los Anuarios de Morbilidad de la Secretaría de Salud, se conformaron diversas bases de datos con información desagregada por sexo, grupo de edad y entidad federativa durante el periodo de 2003 a 2013. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal, se estimó el incremento con intervalos de confianza a 95%; se evaluaron los...

  6. Papel de la diplomacia cultural de corea del sur para consolidar su marca país en Colombia en el periodo 2011- 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Moreno, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación busca analizar el papel de la Diplomacia Cultural de Corea del Sur en el posicionamiento de su marca país en Colombia en el periodo 2011-2013. Se pretende demostrar que desde el 2011 la diplomacia cultural de Corea del Sur ha sido usada como estrategia sistemática y armónica del Gobierno de Lee Myung Bak en alianza con los sectores público y privado, a fin de posicionar su marca país en Colombia y promover a través de la llamada “Ola Coreana” la demanda po...

  7. Análisis edad-periodo-cohorte de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz-Sánchez Carmen; Bautista-Rentero Daniel; Corella-Piquer Dolores; Cortina-Birlanga Silvia; González-Arraez José Ignacio

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre l...

  8. Análisis del proceso de securitización del Crimen Organizado entre Estados Unidos y México. Periodo 2005-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego Jiménez, Andrés Felipe

    2013-01-01

    La presente monografía pretende responder a la pregunta ¿Cuál ha sido la incidencia del proceso de securitización entre México-Estados Unidos frente al crimen organizado en el periodo 2005-2012? Respecto a este cuestionamiento se plantea que el proceso de securitización del crimen organizado entre México y Estados Unidos logró conformar una identidad conjunta y ampliar la agenda de seguridad en relación con la acción del Crimen Organizado. Esto mediante la creación de un Complejo de Seguridad...

  9. Las relaciones estado - ciudadano en Colombia observadas a través de las normas antitrámites en el marco del servicio notarial. Periodo (2005 - 2012).

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Martínez, Juan Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio de caso propone realizar un análisis de las relaciones entre el Estado y el ciudadano tras la implementación de las normas antitrámites, Ley 962 de 2005 y Decreto ley 019 de 2012. Para tal propósito se reducirá el ámbito de estudio al área del servicio notarial, allí se elaborará un trabajo de campo tendiente a demostrar mediante encuestas la situación de dichas relaciones, tomando como periodo los años 2005 al 2012. Se argumenta que las incongruencias y las fallas de las ...

  10. Clima y compromiso organizacional de los trabajadores empleados de la Universidad Peruana Unión Filial Juliaca, durante el periodo 2014-I

    OpenAIRE

    Cutipa Gonzales, Álex Daniel

    2014-01-01

    El clima organizacional y el compromiso de los trabajadores son relevantes en el comportamiento de las personas, y fundamentales en el desarrollo estratégico de toda organización. Por estos motivos se hace importante determinar cuál es la relación que existe entre el clima organizacional y el compromiso organizacional de los trabajadores empleados de la Universidad Peruana Unión en el periodo 2014-I. La población para este trabajo de investigación fueron 320 trabajadores distribuida en difere...

  11. La migración en el Azuay y su incidencia en el sector inmobiliario: estudio caso de la Ciudad de Cuenca, durante el periodo 2005–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Chávez, Silvia Esther

    2015-01-01

    En la siguiente investigación titulada: “La Migración en el Azuay y su incidencia en el sector inmobiliario: Estudio caso de la ciudad de Cuenca, durante el periodo 2005 – 2012 “, se presentan los factores que han llevado a convertirse a la ciudad en un destino de inmigrantes y emigrantes. De igual manera se da a conocer la influencia directa que ha tenido y tiene el fenómeno migratorio en la adquisición de bienes inmuebles, en medio de ello, con consideraciones sociales como la mejora de la ...

  12. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Barrientos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el

  13. Violencia y Clima Escolar en Establecimientos Educacionales en Contextos de Alta Vulnerabilidad Social de Santiago de Chile School Violence and School Climate in Schools of Santiago, Chile, in High Vulnerable Social Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tijmes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la asociación entre violencia escolar y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales, diferenciando según el clima escolar del establecimiento. Por medio de una muestra intencionada de 13 establecimientos educacionales municipales con alta vulnerabilidad social de Santiago de Chile, se aplicó un cuestionario a 4.015 estudiantes de ambos sexos entre 10 y 18 años de edad. Se construyeron escalas y subescalas de violencia para testigos, víctimas, victimarios y víctimas agresivas. Por medio del cálculo de proporciones y x², t de Student y correlación lineal de Pearson (r, se constató que la mayoría de los alumnos (61% ha sido testigo de violencia entre los alumnos. A pesar de la elevada percepción de violencia escolar, la mayor parte de los alumnos percibe una buena calidad de las relaciones interpersonales, la cual se correlaciona en forma inversa, aunque débilmente, con la violencia escolar. Dicha correlación es reforzada en un clima escolar bueno cuando se trata de testigos de violencia, pero no de víctimas o victimarios. La correlación entre violencia física y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales es muy baja.The study investigated the relationship between school violence and the quality of interpersonal relations, according to school climate. Using a purposive sample of 13 public schools in highly vulnerable social contexts, in Santiago, Chile, 4,015 male and female students aged 10 to 18 completed a questionnaire. Violence scales and subscales were constructed for witnesses, aggressors, and aggressive victims. Using proportions and x², Student's t, and Pearson's linear correlation (r, it was observed that most students (61% have witnessed violence between their peers. Even though they perceived a high rate of school violence, most students reported good interpersonal relationships, which is inversely correlated with school violence, although weakly. In a good school climate this correlation is stronger for

  14. Métrica y Arquitectura del Hospital de los Reyes Católicos en Santiago de Compostela

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    Grande Nieto, Víctor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Catholic Kings protected several hospitals in different cities of the peninsula but promoted two directly: one in Santiago and one more in Granada, that present in its idea matrix the architectural corpus of the container well defined and isolated in that are included multitude of functions and of assistances. They are not simply hospitals, his representative function like Real building for public interest is so much important that the sanitary, it is not casual that are built in two cities in the that the Kings needed to have more presence. The grain attainment of the Crown was not so it awards his factories a decoration determined, else that they inserted in the space urban like symbolic monument of the new image of power. The analyses drawing corresponding show us a well tied building, in the that checks that Egas based in the true measures, the principle of the small whole numbers and the scale system, to apply the Arts Quadrivium to the Real Hospital and like this dignify, and the architectural discipline achieve the status of Greater Art.Aunque los Reyes Católicos protegieron varios hospitales en diferentes ciudades de la península, promovieron dos directamente: el de Santiago y el de Granada, que presentan en su idea matriz el corpus arquitectónico del contenedor bien definido y aislado en el que caben multitud de funciones y de asistencias. No son por lo tanto simplemente hospitales, su función representativa como edificio Real para interés público es tanto o más importante que la sanitaria, ya que no es casual que estén construidos en dos ciudades en las que los Reyes justamente necesitaban tener más presencia. El gran logro de la Corona no fue tanto el otorgar a sus fábricas una decoración determinada, sino el insertarlas en el espacio urbano como monumento simbólico de la nueva imagen de poder. Los análisis planimétricos correspondientes nos muestran un edificio bien trabado, en el cual se comprueba que Egas se bas

  15. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barraza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0 that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %, industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %, copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %, wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %, coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 % and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %. Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the

  16. Secondhand tobacco smoke in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile: evaluation of partial smoking ban legislation in public places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Veronica; Droppelmann, Andrea; Acuña, Marisol; Peruga, Armando; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare air nicotine concentrations according to the smoking policy selected by bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile before and after the enactment of partial smoking ban legislation in 2007 (establishments could be smoke free, have segregated (mixed) smoking and non-smoking areas, or allow smoking in all areas). Methods The study measured air nicotine concentrations over 7 days to characterise secondhand smoke exposure in 30 bars/restaurants in 2008. Owner/manager interviews and physical inspections were conducted. Results Median IQR air nicotine concentrations measured in all venues were 4.38 (0.61–13.62) μg/m3. Air nicotine concentrations were higher in bars (median 7.22, IQR 2.48–15.64 μg/m3) compared to restaurants (1.12, 0.15–9.22 μg/m3). By smoking status, nicotine concentrations were higher in smoking venues (13.46, 5.31–16.87 μg/m3), followed by smoking areas in mixed venues (9.22, 5.09–14.90 μg/m3) and non-smoking areas in mixed venues (0.99, 0.19–1.27 μg/m3). Air nicotine concentrations were markedly lower in smoke-free venues (0.12, 0.11–0.46 μg/m3). After adjustment for differences in volume and ventilation, air nicotine concentrations were 3.2, 35.5 and 56.2 times higher in non-smoking areas in mixed venues, smoking areas in mixed venues and smoking venues, respectively, compared to smoke-free venues. Conclusions Exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile. These findings demonstrate that the partial smoking ban legislation enacted in Chile in 2007 provides no protection to employees working in those venues. Enacting a comprehensive smoke-free legislation which protects all people from exposure to secondhand smoke in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed. PMID:20798021

  17. Vector competence of the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Island, Cape Verde, to different serotypes of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Moura, Aires Januário Fernandes; de Melo Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Guedes, Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte; de Carvalho-Leandro, Danilo; da Cruz Brito, Maria Lidia; Rocha, Hélio Daniel Ribeiro; Gómez, Lara Ferrero; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira

    2015-02-19

    Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), whose main vectors are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti is the only DENV vector in Cape Verde, an African country that suffered its first outbreak of dengue in 2009. However, little is known about the variation in the level of vector competence of this mosquito population to the different DENV serotypes. This study aimed to evaluate the vector competence of A. aegypti from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, to four DENV serotypes and to detect DENV vertical transmission. Mosquitoes were fed on blood containing DENV serotypes and were dissected at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to detect the virus in the midgut, head and salivary glands (SG) using RT-PCR. Additionally, the number of copies of viral RNA present in the SG was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, eggs were collected in the field and adult mosquitoes obtained were analyzed by RT-PCR and the platelia dengue NS1 antigen kit to detect transovarial transmission. High rates of SG infection were observed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 whereas for DENV-1, viral RNA was only detected in the midgut and head. DENV-4 did not spread to the head or SG, maintaining the infection only in the midgut. The number of viral RNA copies in the SG did not vary significantly between DENV-2 and DENV-3 or among the different periods of incubation and the various titers of DENV tested. With respect to DENV surveillance in mosquitoes obtained from the eggs collected in the field, no samples were positive. Although no DENV positive samples were collected from the field in 2014, it is important to highlight that the A. aegypti population from Santiago Islands exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to DENV serotypes. This population showed a high vector competence for DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains and a low susceptibility to DENV-1 and DENV-4. Viral RNA copies in the SG remained constant for at least 21 dpi, which may enhance the vector

  18. CONQUISTA Y FUNDACIÓN DE LA CIUDAD TERRENA: EL NACIMIENTO DE SANTIAGO EN LA NARRATIVA DE CARLOS DROGUETT

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    Roberto Suazo Gómez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo proporciona una lectura actualizada de las llamadas ‘novelas históricas’ o ‘novelas de ciudad’ de Carlos Droguett. En particular, sus novelas centradas en la conquista y fundación de la ciudad de Santiago (100 gotas de sangre y 200 de sudor y Supay el cristiano señalan la primera coordenada del proyecto narrativo droguettiano orientado a reelaborar y reescribir la historia chilena y latinoamericana, en una historiografía-literaria que busca sus fuentes, su prueba documental, en eenorme archivo conformado por toda esa sangre, por todas esas muertes soslayadas “con silencio o con ruido”. 100 gotas de sangre y 200 de sudor y Supay el cristiano constituyen las primeras páginas de lo que aquí denominaremos “La Historia de Chile según Carlos Droguett”. Pero, además, ambas novelas serían tributarias de la fuente documental previamente elaborada y narrativizada por el historiador Crescente Errázuriz en su Historia de Chile bajo Pedro de Valdivia.The present article provides an up-to-date reading of the so called ‘historical novels’ or ‘city novels’ by Carlos Droguett. In particular, his novels focused on the conquest and founding of the city of Santiago (100 Gotas de Sangre y 200 de Sudor and Supay el cristiano mark the droguettian narrative project first’s coordinate, oriented towards a remaking and rewriting of the Chilean and Latin American history, in a literary-historiography which looks for its sources, its documentary evidence, within the enormous archive conformed by all that blood, all those deaths eluded “with silence or noise”. 100 Gotas de Sangre y 200 de Sudor and Supay el cristiano are the first pages of what we here call Chilean History according to Carlos Droguett. But, in addition, both novels would be tributary of the documentary source previously elaborated by the historian Crescente Errázuriz in his Historia de Chile bajo Pedro de Valdivia.

  19. Trends In The Elemental Composition Of PM2.5 In Santiago, Chile From 1998 To 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, P.; Oyola, P.; Gramsch, E.; Moreno, F.; Koutrakis, P.

    2007-05-01

    Santiago, Chile is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 years, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA). This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of PM2.5 and its elemental composition. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago, Chile at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM2.5 decreased only marginally, from 41.8 μg/m3 for the 1998/1999 period to 35.4 μg/m3 for the 2002/2003 period. PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. EPA Standard of 15 μg/m3. Additionally, about 20% of the days exceeded the old standard of 65 μg/m3, while about half of the days exceeded the new standard (effective in 2006) of 35 μg/m3. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were three times as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity. Significant decreases were observed for Pb, Br, and S concentrations, while minor but still significant decreases were observed for Ni, Al, Si, Ca and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented to remove lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, specially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM. However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high and it is thus imperative to continue the efforts to improve air quality, particularly, focusing on industrial

  20. Entre el Estado y el mercado: resonancias geográficas y sustentabilidad social en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los autores argumentan que los resultados de las políticas urbanas pro-mercado aplicadas en Santiago después de 1973 han estado fuertemente condicionados por la "resonancia geográfica", o impronta espacial, del intervencionismo estatal previo, así como por los "espacios de borde" que el desarrollo urbano está produciendo entre las áreas pobres de la ciudad y los barrios modernos y zonas comerciales que están expandiéndose hoy. Las políticas urbanas no tienen impactos simples o directos en la ciudad, como parece implícito en el enfoque en boga sobre los "impactos territoriales" de la reestructuración capitalista y la globalización, o en la metodología de evaluación de proyectos o políticas que forma parte de las formas privadas y públicas de gestión urbana. Las resonancias geográficas y los espacios de borde pueden, incluso, impulsar resultados paradójicos, algunos de los cuales se analizan en el artículo. La atención que se dé a estas complejidades espaciales puede facilitar una mejor evaluación de las iniciativas de gestión urbana, así como de las peculiaridades de cada ciudadThe authors argue that the results of the post-1973 market-oriented urban policies in Santiago have been strongly conditioned by the "geographical resonance," or spatial imprint, of the earlier state interventionism, as well as by the "border spaces" product of urban development between the city’s poor areas and today’s expanding modern neighborhoods and commercial areas. Urban policies have no simple or direct impact on the city as implied nowadays by the popular approach of "territorial impacts" of capitalist restructuring and globalization, or in the project or policy assessment methodology, that is part of the private and public forms of urban management. Geographical resonances and border spaces could even further paradoxical results, some of which are discussed in the article. The attention paid to these spatial complexities could provide

  1. Los costos del uso del automóvil y su elasticidad. El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Alejandro Cortés Salinas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El fenómeno de la congestión y la búsqueda de su reducción y/o mitigación, es un tema de amplio debate actualmente. El argumento central consiste en cómo limitar o hacer más racional el uso del automóvil. Muchas de las propuestas se inscriben dentro de enfoques mercantiles, mediante cobros por circulación o peaje urbano en zonas y/u horarios distintos. Este trabajo analiza los comportamientos de los automovilistas frente a incrementos de sus costos, para verificar si efectivamente existe una relación entre un aumento en los costos de circulación y el desaliento al uso del automóvil. Consecuentemente, se consideró la evolución de los precios de los combustibles, que en Chile son ajustados periódicamente, para relacionarlos con los flujos de tránsito.Se verifica que en Santiago de Chile existe una fuerte inelasticidad en la demanda por el uso del vehículo particular frente a importantes incrementos de costo y por ello, no se asegura que un pago de peaje promueva una reducción de la circulación privada. ABSTRACT Congestion and the search for its reduction or mitigation is nowadays a highly discussed issue. The focal point of this debate is to find alternatives to limit or rationalize the car use. Many current proposals are developed under market approaches, such as congestion charges or urban toll in high-demanded areas or schedules. This paper analyzes the drivers’behavior facing increases in their costs, aiming to detect if there is a relationship between these and the discouragement of car use. To achieve it, the paper takes into account the fuel price evolution adjusted periodically to relate it to traffic flows. It verifies that in Santiago de Chile there is a strong inelasticity in demand for the private car use facing relevant increases of costs; therefore, the introduction of toll payments does not assure a reduction in private circulation.

  2. De la represión al patrimonio: vestigios de la violencia de estado en Madrid y Santiago de Chile

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    Bianchini, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores social practices related to two sites of repression both resulting from 20thcentury dictatorships: Villa Grimaldi in Santiago, Chile, and Carabanchel Prison in Madrid, Spain. The conservation and memorialization of «sites of memory» is a common practice in the contemporary world. The objective here is to analyse critically certain aspects of the memorial culture in which these practices are generated and developed, demonstrating the existence of transnational dialogues and mimetic processes between communities rooted in different contexts. Taking this transnational perspective as its starting point, the article explores the actors, languages, rituals and timing of the heritage valuation processes affecting these two sites in the 21st century, and compares and contrasts similarities and differences, demonstrating the development of a common memorial culture. This dialogue suggests a reflection on various critical aspects of the transnational culture in which these two processes are framed.Este artículo investiga las prácticas sociales que se desarrollan en torno a dos lugares de represión de dos dictaduras del siglo XX: Villa Grimaldi en Santiago de Chile y la Cárcel de Carabanchel en Madrid, España. La conservación y memorialización de «sitios de memoria» es una práctica difundida en el mundo actual. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar críticamente algunos aspectos de la cultura memorial en la que estas prácticas nacen y se despliegan, mostrando la existencia de intercambios y procesos de mímesis entre comunidades de distintos contextos. Adoptando esta perspectiva transnacional, se investigan los actores, los lenguajes, los rituales y los tiempos de los procesos de valorización patrimonial que han afectado a estos sitios en el siglo XXI, evidenciando algunas similitudes y diferencias que indican el desarrollo de una cultura memorial común. Este diálogo sugiere una reflexión sobre algunos aspectos cr

  3. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors Relaciones sexuales entre adolescentes de Santiago, Chile: un estudio de factores individuales y de crianza

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    Ninive Sanchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. RESULTS: Seventy (9.14% youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74 for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40 for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97, but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38 and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36, after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80% of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.OBJETIVO: Examinar distintos factores relacionados con el inicio de la actividad sexual que presentan los jóvenes, sus padres y su familia en una muestra de jóvenes y su respectiva familia tomada de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile

  4. Natural sulphate contamination in the multi aquifer system in Santiago del Estero city, Argentine; Contaminacion natural por sulfatos en el sistema multiacuifero de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A. P.; Palazzo, R.

    2009-07-01

    The study observed a complex of figures and graphics that reveal the progressive pollution in the pumping wells. Also, it is made a detailed and current review of the underground physics-chemistry evolution, which results justify the importance of finding a real solution to the degradations problem of the aquifers in Santiago del Estero. for that reason, it is strictly necessary to build a total of eleven wells in the recharges zone, so five of them will be diggings 70 m in the gravel wedge (aquifer II) and six wells of 150 m of depth in the margins of the river Dulce. On the other hand, the studies carried out in the area indicate that all the wells will obtain water directly from the river to a direct recharge, so 81% of its flow will be absorb from the river and the rest, 19 % would be taken from the aquifer. This reason will avoid the progressive advance of the saline wedge and there wont harm the chemical quality of the recharge area. The batteries of the wells will supply 1.500.000 L/hour to the interconnected system on the top most potable conditions. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Viudas y Brujas: Repensar el suttee de la crónica de Santiago Avendaño desde perspectivas feministas Viúvas e Bruges: Repensando a crônica "sati", de Santiago Avendaño a partir de perspectivas feministas Widows and witches: Rethinking the "suttee" in Santiago Avendaño's chronicles from feminist perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la denominada "Crónica de Santiago Avendaño", se describe el asesinato de treinta y dos mujeres en el marco de las exequias de Painé, principal autoridad, cacique o lonko de los rankülche de Leubucó, a mediados del siglo XIX, en la actual provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. Para realizar este análisis partimos de los aportes teóricos de la antropóloga Rita Segato sobre las relaciones entre crímenes de mujeres y disputas por el poder, y del texto de Gayatri Spivak "¿Puede hablar el subalterno?", que incluye un análisis del suttee desde la teoría de la subalternidad. Hasta el momento se ha sostenido que la crónica identifica dos motivos para matar a las mujeres: por viudas y por brujas. Pretendemos analizar, a partir de esta fuente y de otras del siglo XIX (principalmente de Luis De la Cruz y Lucio Mansilla, cómo se construyeron las categorías de viudas y brujas. También queremos hacer visible la participación de los refugiados "blancos" en el ritual que estamos analizando.No chamado "Santiago Avendaño Chronicle, descreve o assassinato de trinta e duas mulheres em conexão com o funeral de Paine, principal autoridade, o chefe ou lonko Leubuco Rankulche de meados do século XIX, na província de La Pampa (Argentina. Para realizar esta análise, partimos de contribuições teóricas da antropóloga Rita Segato sobre a relação entre os crimes das mulheres e disputas de poder, eo texto de Gayatri Spivak "Pode o subalterno falar?", que inclui uma análise da teoria suttee de subserviência. Até agora tem sido defendido que crônico identifica duas razões para matar as mulheres, e as viúvas e as bruxas. Tente analisar a partir dessa fonte século XIX e outras (principalmente Luis de la Cruz e Lucio Mansilla, foram construídas categorias de viúvos e bruxas. Também queremos fazer participação visível do "branco" refugiados no ritual que estamos analisando.The so-called 'Santiago Avendaño chronicles' describe the

  6. Vivienda social y ordenamiento territorial en Medellín durante el periodo 2006- 2011. Pasos hacia la segregación residencial socioeconómica

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    Claudia Maritza Velu00E1squez Higuita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un acercamiento a la relación entre ordenamiento territorial y segregación residencial socioeconómica, a partir del caso de la localización de la vivienda social en Medellín, Colombia, durante el periodo 2006-2011. Para esto, se introducen en la primera parte las regulaciones en materia de localización de la vivienda social, identificando ambigüedades en el plan de ordenamiento vigente. Posteriormente, se presenta el cruce entre la información normativa y la ubicación de los proyectos que estuvieron en construcción durante el periodo de estudio, evidenciando la necesidad de considerar la localización como característica importante de la vivienda social y la segregación residencial como fenómeno que debe reconocerse y trabajarse en el ordenamiento territorial de nuestras ciudades.

  7. Propuesta de un certificado de defunción para mejorar el registro y reporte de la muerte en el periodo perinatal

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    Contreras-Lemus Javier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la forma en que se registran los nacimientos y la muerte en el periodo perinatal, en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, y documentar si el registro de la muerte, en este periodo, es adecuado. Material y métodos. Entre enero y marzo de 2000, se aplicó una encuesta en las 37 delegaciones del IMSS, para conocer, del año 1999, el total de nacimientos vivos y muertos, las defunciones ocurridas antes del séptimo día, considerando su edad gestacional y peso al nacimiento. Con estos datos se analizó la mortalidad hebdomadal e infantil y se calcularon las tasas correspondientes, incluyendo o desagregando a los niños con o = 28 semanas de gestación. Antes de la primera semana de vida extrauterina fallecieron 4 556 niños, de los cuales 1 385 (30.4% pesaron http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  8. Influencia de los sucesos perinatales en la incidencia de la mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica en el periodo 2006-2010

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    Ever Zeledón Díaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de una revisión documental sobre la influencia de sucesos perinatales, esto es, hechos ocurridos en el periodo perinatal, en el comportamiento de la mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica durante el quinquenio 2006-2010. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. La población estuvo conformada por los menores de un año fallecidos durante el período referido. Se realizó una comparación, a partir de la tasa de mortalidad infantil, por sexo y provincia. Como resultado, se evidenció que la tasa de mortalidad infantil en nuestro país posee una tendencia a la disminución y que los sucesos perinatales son la causa de la mayor cantidad de muertes. Se concluye que, en Costa Rica, durante el periodo 2006-2010, la mortalidad infantil se produjo por causas perinatales en su mayoría. Como principales factores de riesgo se encuentran los trastornos respiratorios, los cardiovasculares y aquellos relacionados con la duración de la gestación y el crecimiento fetal, por ejemplo, el Síndrome de dificultad respiratoria y la prematuridad.

  9. Variaciones antropométricas a lo largo de un periodo competitivo en judokas de élite. (Anthropometric variations over a competitive period in elite judoka.

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    Gema Torres-Luque

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio fue valorar el efecto de un periodo competitivo sobre características antropométricas en judokas de élite. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 7 judokas de alto nivel (21 ± 2,7 años, 72,8±15,9 kg, 170,8 ± 10,3 cm y 11,22 ± 2,6 años de experiencia en judo. Durante un periodo de 7 semanas se valoró la carga de entrenamiento, así como el perfil antropométrico. Los resultados muestran variaciones de la carga de entrenamiento, masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa, y masa residual las semanas previas a las competiciones (pAbstractThe aim was to assess the effect of competitive period on anthropometric characteristics of elite judoka. 7 high-level judo (21 ± 2.7 years, 72.8 ± 15.9 kg, 170.8 ± 10.3 cm and 11.22 ± 2.6 years of experience in judo were selected. Over a period of 7 weeks, training load and the anthropometric profile was evaluated. The results show variations in training load, body mass, fat percentage, and residual mass in the weeks before the competition (p

  10. Status and evolution of the cryosphere in the Andes of Santiago (Chile, 33.5°S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, X.; Rojas, F.; Brenning, A.

    2010-06-01

    In the context of a general retreat of glaciers in the dry Andes, this study focuses on the state and recent evolution of debris-covered glaciers and permafrost-related landforms, especially rock glaciers, in the semiarid to semihumid Laguna Negra catchment, a part of the Andes of central Chile at 33.5°S, that is a key contributor of drinking water for the city of Santiago. We conducted catchment-scale geomorphological mapping, diachronic analysis of 1955 and 1996 orthophotographs and digital elevation models (DEMs), and the analysis of ground temperatures and their sensitivity to climate variation. Rock glaciers dominate spatially and in terms of water storage over glaciers (area ratio: 1.7:1; ratio of water equivalents: 1.5:1). An intense downwasting has affected both debris-covered and exposed glacier components in the Punta Negra subcatchment, a process that is associated with the growth of numerous thermokarst depressions. The altitudinal transect of ground temperature suggest that permafrost is widespread above ˜ 4000 m asl, although it can also occur at lower elevations on sheltered footslopes and within rock glaciers. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the near-surface ground thermal regime at high altitudes is strongly influenced by the snow cover disappearance date, which may therefore constitute an important control on the effect of climatic warming.

  11. Bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum in Bahía Santiago and Bahía Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano-Scheggia, Sonia; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramis; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Garcés, Esther; Gaviño-Rodríguez, Juan H; Galicia-Pérez, Marco A; Patiño-Barragan, Manuel; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco J; López-Cortés, David J

    2012-03-01

    Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88 microM DIN, 0.78 microM PO4 and 24.34 microM SiO2) were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x 10(7) cells/L). Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC) in local oysters (1525.8 microg STXeq/100g), and in phytoplankton (10.9 pg STXeq/cells) samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells), most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.

  12. Bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum in Bahía Santiago and Bahía Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico

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    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2 were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x10(7cells/L. Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC in local oysters (1525.8μg STXeq/100g, and in phytoplankton (10.9pg STXeq/cells samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells, most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.

  13. [Efficiency of a pharmaceutical care program for long-acting parenteral antipsychotics in the health area of Santiago de Compostela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Parrondo, Carmen Durán; López-Pardo Pardo, Estrella; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the healthcare area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), the therapeutic subgroup "other antipsychotics" represented the fifth largest outpatient expenditure in 2013. More than half of this expenditure corresponded to long-acting parenteral forms of paliperidone and risperidone. Over a 12-month period, the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program based on process management and coordination of actions between health professionals in both levels of care represented savings of € 636,391.01 for the organization and a direct saving of € 16,767.36 and 9,008 trips to the pharmacy for patients. This study shows the efficiency of the program, which was facilitated by its situation in an area of integrated management and the use the unified medical records and electronic prescription, elements that will enable the future implementation of similar programmes. The new registries and healthcare interventions will allow reliable evaluation of their effectiveness in terms of treatment adherence, relapses and hospitalisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. ANÁLISIS DE LA INTERACCIÓN HUMANO-ESTRUCTURA EN PUENTES PEATONALES DE SANTIAGO DE CALI

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    JHON ANDERSON SÁNCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el incremento de la resistencia en nuevos materiales y las mayores luces entre apoyos hacen que los puentes peatonales sean más susceptibles a problemas de vibraciones excesivas. Infortunadamente las provisiones de las normas colombianas son limitadas para el diseño o rehabilitación de estas estructuras. En este artículo se presenta una clasificación de los puentes peatonales en Santiago de Cali que permite comparar efectos de la Interacción Humano-Estructura, aceleraciones máximas y frecuencias naturales, con los criterios de vibraciones para diseño especificados en las principales normas. Aunque en los 19 puentes estudiados no se superaron los límites de aceleraciones establecidas por las normas por una persona al caminar, 16 de los puentes presentaron vibraciones que generaron incomodidad en los peatones. En consecuencia, se recomienda que futuras normas colombianas establezcan valores límites de aceleraciones y frecuencias naturales en función del desempeño según niveles de comodidad y seguridad percibida por los peatones.

  15. EL CAMINO DE SANTIAGO COMO POSIBLE MOTOR TURÍSTICO EN ZONAS RURALES DE ESCASOS RECURSOS: EL CASO DE BRANDEBURGO

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    Katharina Maak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Turismo y desarrollo regional son dos conceptos que se discuten en el ámbito de lograr un desarrollo sostenible para las zonas rurales de escasos rescursos que existen en la Unión Europea. Una nueva tendencia que se investiga junto con los dos conceptos es el cambio de la demanda en el sector turístico hacía productos en relación a la cultura y/o a la naturaleza. Se toma el ejemplo del Camino de Santiago como red de rutas de peregrinaje, que cubre mayor parte de Europa. En el estado federado de Brandeburgo, una región con varias deficiencias estructurales por lo cúal depende todavía del apoyo de fondos nacionales y comunitarios, se realiza un proyecto de revitalización de un tramo del Camino con el fin de generar posibles efectos económicos. La idea principal de este proyecto universitario es de apoyar el desarrollo turístico por la creación de una oferta adicional en el margén de turismo cultural y rural, la promoción y organización de sinergias entre varios actores turísticos en los sectores privados y públicos y por la creación de una red de cooperaciones. El fondo es que Brandeburgo, a pesar de los problemas estructurales, dispone de un potencial enorme que se debe aprovechar.

  16. Midface fractures surgically treated in Instituto Traumatológico of Santiago (Chile: A 10 years review.

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    Cristóbal Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Methods. We performed a cross sectional study at Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Instituto Traumatológico (Chile, by reviewing medical records of subjects with midfacial fractures treated surgically from January 2001 to December 2010. Information was collected according to patient age and gender, aetiology, type of fracture, health insurance and date of the intervention. The sample consisted of 549 patients.Results. There was a total of 549 patients with a total of 709 fractures. The male:female ratio with midface fractures was 5,3:1. The most affected age group was from 20 and 29 years. Most fractures were caused by aggression. The most common fracture was nasal, followed by zygomatic complex fractures.Conclusion. The findings of the study allow us to know the distribution patterns of surgically treated midface fractures. Our study showed similar characteristics to other studies in terms of affected population and the distribution of the location of fractures.

  17. Vida y muerte de un grupo inca local en Santiago de Chile: cementerio incaico estación Quinta Normal

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    Henríquez, Mario C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A raíz de los trabajos de construcción de la estación Quinta Normal de la Línea 5 del Metro de Santiago, se excavan cinco entierros de individuos adultos (un masculino y cuatro femeninos, en un cementerio incaico ubicado en calle Matucana esquina calle Catedral. Si bien el patrón mortuorio revela cierta homogeneidad en los contextos funerarios con relación al tipo de sepultura y a la disposición y tratamiento de los cuerpos, se observa cierta diversidad con relación a sus ofertorios cerámicos. El análisis bioantropológico, por otro lado, pone de manifiesto las ocurrencia de alteraciones óseas causadas por procesos degenerativos, lesiones traumáticas y problemas nutricionales, donde estos últimos afectan especialmente a los individuos femeninos. Las condiciones del aparato masticatorio: desgaste oclusal leve, importante frecuencia de caries, baja incidencia de traumas dentales no intencionales ocurridos en vida, muestran en su frecuencia y distribución, una dieta basada plenamente en la horticultura, caracterizada por la ingesta de alimentos blandos, ricos en carbohidratos y con un bajo contenido de partículas abrasivas. La frecuencia de hipoplasias del esmalte y el intervalo de edad en que ocurren, reflejan que algunos individuos estuvieron sometidos a factores de estrés ambiental durante su infancia, posiblemente relacionados con el destete.

  18. Brechas territoriales de género en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile

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    Gerardo Ubilla Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el tema de género ha sido abordado conceptualmente desde la academia por las ciencias sociales (como el caso de PNUD, y por el Estado a través de medidas de acción de políticas públicas impulsadas a partir la década de 1990. Desde la perspectiva del análisis territorial del género ha habido un escaso desarrollo del conocimiento respecto del comportamiento de diferentes variables en comunas y regiones (SUBDERE, 2012. De esta manera, la presente investigación muestra resultados sobre la dinámica de las brechas género en las comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (RMS considerando variables de tipo social, económica, de localización y gobernabilidad, dando cuenta de las disparidades territoriales presentes, así como de las relaciones que existen entre éstas. En cuanto a los hallazgos, se observa que sólo una de las diez variables analizadas tiene una predominancia femenina, que la escolaridad constituye el de menor inequidad y que los patrones espaciales están fuertemente determinados por el ingreso y estatus de la población.

  19. [Self-rated health in elderly adults and physical health, mental health, and geriatric syndrome outcomes in Santiago de Cali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer

    2015-07-01

    Objective To determine the relation between bad self-rated health (SRH) and outcomes of physical and mental health and geriatric syndromes over one year. Methods A prospective study. A cohort of 231 adults over 60 years of age from commune 18 in Santiago de Cali, Colombia were classified into good and poor self-rated of health status according to results of a primary measurement carried out in 2009 and re-measured with the same instrument in 2010. The variables evaluated were physical and mental health, functional deterioration, geriatric syndromes, and use of health services. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used through the module of complex samples of the statistical package SPSS version 17. Results After a year of monitoring, the incidence of mortality was higher among older adults with poor self-perceived health. Important differences were observed in: self-perception of recent weight loss (p=0.009); self-perception of undeliberate weight loss (p=0.065); self-report of suspension of any activity (p=0.001); self-report of having done less things or activities than before (p=0.011); self-report of having felt their movements were slower (p=0.002); self-report of feeling without energy (0.001); weakened grab power and decreased of walking speed (p <0.05). Conclusion The elderly adults with poor self-perceived health status presented greater health deterioration, geriatric syndromes, and higher frequency of use of health services.

  20. Las consecuencias del urbanismo fragmentador en la vida cotidiana de habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile

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    Paola Jirón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de las múltiples transformaciones urbanas que experimentan las grandes metrópolis, este trabajo analiza el modo en que, por medio de diversas intervenciones, la práctica del urbanismo fragmenta las condiciones espacio-temporales sobre las cuales se constituye la espacialidad urbana de la vida cotidiana. Con un enfoque etnográfico de la movilidad cotidiana de los habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago, describe el modo en que la fragmentación urbana es vivida por los habitantes, los que implementan diversas estrategias de movilidad para zurcir las espacialidades inconexas, interrumpidas y segregadas en las que ha sido descompuesta la ciudad, y que han ido fragmentando la espacialidad de la vida cotidiana. Los resultados de la investigación dan cuenta de las consecuencias de este urbanismo fragmentador, en particular en las condiciones de exclusión social, y también permiten proponer posibles intervenciones urbanas destinadas a aminorar el impacto de dicha fragmentación y consiguiente exclusión.

  1. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  2. EL MOCASE: ORÍGENES, CONSOLIDACIÓN Y FRACTURA DEL MOVIMIENTO CAMPESINO DE SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO.

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    María Agustina Desalvo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mayor parte de la población rural de Santiago del Estero reside en tierras que fueron abandonadas por la industria forestal que se desarrolló en esa provincia argentina hasta la década de 1960. Sobre todo hacia fines de la década del ’90 y principios del 2000, esas tierras, hasta entonces marginales, se volvieron codiciables para el cultivo de soja. Esto generó focos de conflicto entre los capitalistas interesados en ellas y la población rural que allí residía. Las familias afectadas se nuclearon en distintas organizaciones que dieron origen al MOCASE. En este artículo reconstruyo la historia de este Movimiento a partir de bibliografía existente y de entrevistas en profundidad. Observo sus antecedentes y la influencia que han tenido en su estructuración intelectuales ajenos al sujeto directamente afectado, algunos de origen urbano, vinculados especialmente a la Iglesia Católica. 

  3. SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO Y SUS PUEBLOS DE INDIOS. DE LAS ORDENANZAS DE ALFARO (1612 A LAS GUERRAS DE INDEPENDENCIA

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    Judith Farberman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las ordenanzas de Francisco de Alfaro, las aldeas indígenas bajo el régimen de encomienda se institucionalizaron como pueblos de indios. Como es sabido, la reducción, el mantenimiento de las tierras de comunidad, el respeto por las autoridades indígenas tradicionales y la designación de alcaldes, además del reemplazo del servicio personal por un tributo, fueron las principales medidas que se procuró implementar. En Santiago del Estero, zona no alterada por la política de desnaturalizaciones posterior a las rebeliones calchaquíes, las disposiciones alfarianas no tuvieron un carácter meramente formal. Configurando un cuadro bastante excepcional en el escenario tucumano (salvando quizás la jurisdicción de Jujuy, los pueblos de indios y su estructura institucional sobrevivieron hasta poco después de las revoluciones de independencia. Nuestra hipótesis es que la perduración de los pueblos de indios santiagueños se vinculó a la puesta en marcha de una serie de estrategias. El matrimonio preferencial, la migración temporaria, la integración a los mercados de bienes y mano de obra y los cambios en los sistemas de autoridad son algunas de las variables que serán analizadas en la ponencia.

  4. Las bandas de "Huaso Raimundo". Redes sociales y transicionalidad delictiva en Santiago y sus alrededores, 1882-1911.

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    Ignacio Ayala Cordero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En su calidad de ladrón conocido, Nonato Orellana Avilés aparece como un sujeto transicional en el contexto de la modernización capitalista en Chile. Representa el proceso de descampesinización y la pretensión de disciplinamiento del peonaje rural, además de las formas de incorporación al mundo urbano desde la transgresión. Expresión de transicionalidad también es la diversidad de soportes documentales de los delitos que lo tuvieron por protagonista en un espacio de tiempo que se extiende desde 1904 hasta 1911. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar –incorporandola aproximación microhistórica y el análisis de redes sociales– la práctica criminal desarrollada por las bandas del “Huaso Raimundo”, a partir de sus dimensiones estratégica y organizacional. En tanto estrategia de supervivencia al día, sin subordinarse a la ética del trabajo, constituiría una alternativa a la proletarización; mientras que a través de sus formas organizativas características, tal estrategia se proyectaría socialmente incorporándose en el proceso deconfiguración de los “bajos fondos” de Santiago y sus alrededores.

  5. Caracterización de cyberbullying en el gran Santiago de Chile, en el año 2010

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    Jorge Varela T.

    Full Text Available El estudio caracteriza el cyberbullying en estudiantes del gran Santiago de Chile (2010. Se aplicó una encuesta de autorreporte (Cuestionario de Experiencias de Internet a 1.357 estudiantes entre 7º básico a IVº medio. El diseño de muestra fue no probabilístico por cuotas en 32 establecimientos educacionales, ponderados según género, curso y tipo de dependencia. El 50% fueron hombres, con un promedio de edad 15 años (DS= 1,82 años. Resultados: El 11,4% reportó haber sido víctima de algún tipo de cyberbullyingy el 12,5% victimario. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las víctimas según sexo, curso y tipo de dependencia. Sólo los hombres reportan identificarse en forma más frecuente con los victimarios que las mujeres. Conclusiones: El cyberbullying es un fenómeno existente en la realidad chilena, siendo - mayormente - homogéneo en su presentación. Dado esto, se plantean nuevos desafíos y preguntas respecto a sus consecuencias tanto para los estudiantes como para todo el sistema escolar.

  6. Abundance of domestic dove (Columbia livia domestica Gmelin, 1789 in Santiago de Tolú, Sucre, Colombia

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    Jaime De La Ossa V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determination of the population abundance and diet resources of C. livia domestica and in Santiago de Tolú city, Sucre, Colombia. Materials and methods. The work was carried out during 6 months: January-March and September-November of 2015, in dry season and rains season, between the 06:00 and the 08:00 hours, 4 fixed point sampling was used with timed counts; likewise, measurements were taken for the noise levels found in the study area. Results. The total population was 185 individuals, with a total density of 7.71 ind/ha (5.9-9.0. significant difference was obtained (p<0.01 among the 4 studied populations, it was observed that the main feeding source is residuals of human food deposited as urban waste, when comparing the volumes of available waste and the density in each place it is observed that direct relationship exists. Significant populational differences are not determined among the two seasons studied. The levels sound oscillated among 40.3-72.1dB. The calculated density was lower when compared to other studies but higher than the density that has been established as harmful for this species in urban populations. Conclusions. C. livia domestica it is recognized like a species considered urban plague, because it transmits diverse zoonotics diseases, it affects infrastructure and it contaminates foods by means of its excrements, the registration of its density, becomes a high-priority necessity for the public health.

  7. Agricultura urbana en metrópolis iberoamericanas: estudio de casos en Santiago de Chile y Lisboa, Portugal

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    Isabel María Madaleno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La mitad de la humanidad vive actualmente en las grandes ciudades, donde la sustentabilidad en estas urbes pasa por políticas indusivas, tanto sociales, culturales, como económicas y ambientales. La agricultura practicada al interior del tejido urbano o en su entorno, sobre todo cuando evita el uso de sustandas químicas, revela cuan imprescindible resulta mejorar la calidad de vida urbana y junto a ella, aminorar la pobreza de la pobladón. El trabajo que se presenta tiene por objetivo comparar las semejanzas y diferencias de cultivos intra y peri-urbanos registrados en dos capitales de similar dominio climático: Lisboa, Portugal y Santiago de Chile. Se recurre en este estudio a imágenes de satélite, estadísticas y al muestreo, enfocando más detenidamente las políticas públicas favorecedoras de actividades del sector primario en esos medios urbanos, las cuales contribuyen a hacerlas más sostenibles desde el punto de vista social, económico y ambiental.

  8. Documenting the Impact of Socioeconomic Dynamics on Heritage Sites. The Case of Vista Alegre District in Santiago de Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, L. B.; Castillo, M. M.; Van Balen, K.

    2017-08-01

    Recent policies adopted in Cuba are producing a significant turn into the country's socioeconomic dynamics. Past shifting circumstances have demonstrated the positive and negative implications on heritage sites. In this regard, this paper presents a first stage of a research project aimed at monitoring the impact of socioeconomic dynamics on local heritage sites. The research partial results focus on the documentation of the evolution of a case study: Vista Alegre District in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Scholars have noted that the District's urban design and historic building stock represent its most significant heritage values. Such qualities are under permanent threat due to transformations and deterioration. In order to analyse current site condition, and to understand transformations as a result of socioeconomic dynamics, a Geographic Information System (GIS) was implemented as a monitoring and documenting tool. The GIS allowed integrating data related to the evolution of the urban layout, and the heritage buildings. Data was sourced from heritage management and urban planning offices, as well as from previous studies on the site. In addition, the analysis of remote sensing imagery, and a field survey helped to update the existing records, and to include new information with the purpose of assessing the integrity of heritage values. At this stage, maps that describe the site evolution, the significant changes over time, and the alterations to character defining elements served to identify sectors of different scenic qualities. Results are essential to contribute to draft management strategies as part of decision making.

  9. MUCHO Y MUY BUEN VINO. PRODUCCIÓN VITIVINÍCOLA EN LA ZONA NORTE DE SANTIAGO (SIGLOS XVI -XVIII

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    Carlos Ruiz Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la zona norte de Santiago (sectores de la Chimba, Renca, Conchalí, El Salto, Quilicura, se comenzó a producir desde poco después de la conquista española, “mucho y muy buen vino”. Se reseña el origen y particularidades de esta producción vinícola durante el período colonial. Se reconstruye un cuadro descriptivo de la viñatería colonial en la zona, junto con analizar los aspectos económicos: la evolución de la infraestructura productiva, el tipo de predios dedicados a la producción de vino, el precio de los suelos y de las plantas de viña, el uso de mano de obra (asalariada, servil y esclava y el impacto del establecimiento del régimen colonial y del consumo de alcohol en la población indígena.

  10. Mamíferos del pleistoceno superior de santiago del estero (Argentina y sus afinidades paleobiogeográficas

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    Nicolás R. Chimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente contribución se describe una nueva asociación mamaliana para el Pleistoceno Superior de la de la localidad denominada como Dique "Los Quiroga" (provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina, la cual se emplaza en el territorio denominado como Región Chaqueña. Los materiales aquí descriptos proceden de depósitos de arenas finas y limos de una unidad estratigráfica aún innominada. Son mencionados por primera vez para el país Panochthus greslebini y Mixotoxodon larensis, y para la región geográfica los taxones Holmesina paulacoutoi y Toxodon gracilis. Un análisis de los registros aquí reportados y de estudios previos en la zona sugiere condiciones climáticas más favorables que las propuestas por autores previos, así como una mayor vinculación biogeográfica con la Región Mesopotámica.

  11. Los deícticos espaciales en narraciones orales de un barrio de Santiago de Cuba: Los Hoyos.

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    Tania Ulloa Casaña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El espacio es el gran olvidado de los estudios lingüísticos, pues la mayor parte de los debates acerca de la estructura del lenguaje y su empleo no han prestado atención al mundo material en el que tienen lugar las interacciones comunicativas y cómo las lenguas estructuran el espacio, de ahí la pertinencia de su estudio en narraciones orales del barrio santiaguero Los Hoyos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar y caracterizar su empleo en las diferentes partes que conforman los relatos conversacionales producidos por hablantes de un barrio de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba,  mezcla de historia, cultura y folklore, a la vez que uno de los sitios más ricos en cuanto al tesoro de las tradiciones celosamente guardadas por la ciudad. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. Novas espécies e nota sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera neotropicais da coleção Arriagada, Santiago, Chile

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre uma forma melânica de Trachyderes (T. cingulatus Klug, 1825 (Trachiderini e descrição de novos táxons: Eburini, Pantomallus titinga sp. nov. da Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz; Elaphidionini, Stizocera asyka sp. nov. do Paraguai (Presidente Hayes; Ibidionini, Cycnidolon immaculatum sp. nov., da Bolívia (La Paz; Desmiphorini, Ischnoleomimus arriagadai sp. nov. do Paraguai (Paraguari; Ceiupaba bella sp. nov., da Guiana Francesa, Equador (Pichincha e Bolívia (La Paz; Euestola obliqua sp. nov. e Paraguay (Caazapá.New species and note on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera of Arriagada´s collection, Santiago, Chile. Notes on a melanic form of Trachyderes (T. cingulatus Klug, 1825 (Trachiderini are provided and new taxa are described: Eburiini, Pantomallus titinga sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz; Elaphidionini, Stizocera asyka sp. nov. from Paraguay (Presidente Hayes; Ibidionini, Cycnidolon immaculatum sp. nov., from Bolivia (La Paz; Desmiphorini, Ischnoleomimus arriagadai sp. nov. from Paraguay (Paraguari; Ceiupaba bella sp. nov., from French Guiana, Ecuador (Pichincha and Bolivia (La Paz; Euestola obliqua sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá.

  13. Los Fenómenos Físico-Geológicos Secundarios en la Ciudad de Santiago de Cuba

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    José A. Zapata-Balanqué

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis de los sismos más fuertes ocurridos en la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba arrojó que en caso de eventos de moderada y de gran intensidad los suelos pueden desencadenar procesos físico-geológicos secundarios. Tomando como base resultados de investigaciones anteriores de microzonificación sísmica realizadas desde 1984 hasta 1995 se realizó una nueva investigación que abarcó áreas de la ciudad y sus alrededores, en la que se pudo comprobar que las zonas con mayor posibilidad de ocurrencia de deslizamientos, derrumbes y licuefacción están ubicadas en los alrededores de la bahía, la cuenca del río San Juan y de los antiguos ríos Yarayó y Trocha, en zonas aledañas a Altamira, Versalles, Chicharrones y en la parte norte del Distrito José Martí.

  14. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression-younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime-were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed.

  15. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the "Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid" (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  16. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, Schools and Nobel Prizes

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    Jairo Alonso Rozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid (Medicine International Congress in Madrid in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  17. The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla

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    Alberto Valdés Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

  18. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATH IN TWO COMMUNITIES TEMAZCAL OF THE MIXTECA REGION: SANTIAGO YOLOMECATL AND SAN ANDRES CHICAHUAXTLA

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    Alberto Valdés-Cobos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism, scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and social symbols.

  19. La pequeña Lima: Nueva cara y vitalidad para el centro de Santiago de Chile

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    María Elena Ducci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones recientes hacia Chile constituyen un fenómeno social inédito para el país. Este trabajo se centra en el impacto que están teniendo los peruanos, como grupo migrante mayoritario, en el centro de Santiago, donde han recuperado lugares y comercios semiabandonados, generando una “Pequeña Lima”, sector donde los migrantes acuden a conseguir trabajo, alimentarse y divertirse. El trabajo muestra los efectos positivos de este fenómeno en la recuperación y revitalización de zonas centrales, dinamizando el comercio y la ocupación de los espacios públicos. Se reconoce también que la instalación precaria de muchos migrantes en viviendas antiguas del centro está generando problemas de hacinamiento y de acceso a salud y educación, lo cual, dada la inexistencia de políticas sociales orientadas a la inmigración, puede (y empieza a originar confictos en el corto plazo.

  20. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A cross-sectional study in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudio; Droppelmann, Andrea; Erazo, Marcia; Aceituno, Paulina; Orellana, Cecilia; Parro, Javiera; Mesias, Sthepanie; Marchetti, Nella; Navas-Acien, Ana; Iglesias, Verónica

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in bars and restaurants and identify the main determinants of airborne PAH concentrations. This study included 57 bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile. PAH concentrations (ng/m(3) ) were measured using photoelectric aerosol sensor equipment (PAS 2000CE model). Nicotine concentrations (μg/m(3) ) were measured using active sampling pumps followed by gas-chromatography. Linear regression models were used to identify determinants of PAH concentrations. PAH concentrations were higher in venues that allowed smoking compared to smoke-free venues. After adjusting, the air PAH concentrations were 1.40 (0.64-3.10) and 3.34 (1.43-7.83) ng/m(3) higher for tertiles 2 and 3 of air nicotine compared to the lowest tertile. In hospitality venues where smoking is allowed, secondhand smoke exposure is a major source of PAHs in the environment. This research further supports the importance of implementing complete smoking bans to protect service industry workers from PAH exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:887-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. La Oficina Municipal de Conservación y Rehabilitación de la Ciudad Histórica de Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, España

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    Ramos, Javier

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO declared the historic core of Santiago de Compostela a Cultural Asset of Universal Interest in December, 1985. The City of Santiago Trust, through the Santiago de Compostela City Council, promotes the creation of a technical Office to be specifically in charge of designing and developing rehabilitation programs for the Historic City Core. While waiting for the final approval of the "special Protection and Rehabilitation Plan for the Historic City Core of Santiago de Compostela", the Rehabilitation Office has designed and managed during one year the "Bridging Plan for Interior Rehabilitation of Dwellings in the Historic Core of Santiago de Compostela", with the purpose of improving the living conditions of its occupants by means improving and repairing works of electricity and plumbing installations, as well as of the interior finishes of such dwellings. The paper presents the Office model, the designed programs and the performance there of since the Municipal Office of Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Historic City Core was created in June, 1994.

    El casco histórico de Santiago de Compostela fue declarado por la UNESCO Bien Cultural de Interés Universal en el mes de diciembre de 1985. El Consorcio de la Ciudad de Santiago promueve, a través del Ayuntamiento de Santiago, la creación de una Oficina Técnica que se ocupe específicamente del diseño y desarrollo de los programas de rehabilitación de la Ciudad Histórica. A la espera de la aprobación definitiva del "Plan Especial de Protección y Rehabilitación de la Ciudad Histórica de Santiago de Compostela", la Oficina de Rehabilitación diseñó, y gestiona desde hace un año, el ''Plan Puente de Rehabilitación Interior de Viviendas de la Ciudad Histórica" con el objetivo de mejorar las condiciones de vida de sus habitantes mediante la realización de obras de mejora y saneamiento de las instalaciones de electricidad y fontanería, así como de los acabados

  2. Los palacios en la Costa Central durante los periodos Tardíos: de Pachacamac al Inca

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    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALAIS DE LA COTE CENTRALE DURANT LES PERIODES RECENTES : DE PACHACAMAC A L’INCA. Des études récentes portant sur la côte centrale du Pérou ont mis en évidence le fait que durant la période Intermédiaire récent (XIe au XVe s. dne l’architecture reliée au pouvoir était étroitement liée à un type particulier d’édifice : la résidence d’élite ou palais. Les données indiquent également que durant l’occupation inca dans la même région (15-16e siècles, ce type de bâtiment conserve toute son importance en tant que symbole spécifique du pouvoir politique des élites gouvernantes (c'est-à-dire les curacas. La persistance des palais de tradition locale comme référents de l’organisation politique de ce que l’on appelle la province inca de Pachacamac - tout du moins dans la zone correspondant au fleuve Rimac - met en evidence un thème toujours d’actualité dans le débat archéologique : quelles furent les caractéristiques du contrôle politique résultant de l’occupation inca dans cette partie du Tahuantinsuyu ? Quelle fut la reaction des élites locales face à l’ordre nouveau issu de la conquête ? Cet article développe ce thème à partir de la définition des attributs formels des palais, la description et l’usage des artefacts associés à ceux-ci, ainsi que l’analyse des sources historiques qui rendent compte des caractéristiques particulières de la société préhispanique récente de la côte centrale. Recientes estudios para la costa central del Perú han evidenciado que durante el periodo Intermedio Tardío (S. XI a XV d.C. la arquitectura del poder estuvo íntimamente ligada a un tipo particular de edificio: la residencia de elite o palacio. Las evidencias también indican que luego de la ocupación Inca de la misma región (S. XV, esta variedad de edificio conservó su vigencia como símbolo distintivo del poder político de las elites gobernantes (v.g. curacas. La persistencia de los palacios de

  3. Influencia de los talleres recreativos en la calidad de vida y din?mica familiar de los jubilados que acuden al centro de atenci?n primaria ?Cotocollao? del IESS en el periodo marzo- abril del 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Ortiz, Ang?lica Carolina; Romero Hidalgo, Sandra Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Influencia de los Talleres Recreativos en la Calidad de Vida y Din?mica Familiar de los jubilados que acuden al Centro de Atenci?n Ambulatoria del IESS ?Cotocollao? en el periodo Marzo- Abril del 2015? Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de los talleres ocupacionales en la Calidad de vida y Din?mica Familiar de los Jubilados que acuden al Centro de Atenci?n primaria ?Cotocollao? del IESS en el periodo Marzo- Abril del 2015? 4 Antecedentes: El envejecimiento demogr?fico como fen?meno mund...

  4. Pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras en España: un análisis para el periodo 2005-2009

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    Luz María Peña Longobardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El impacto económico que causan las enfermedades va mucho más allá del gasto sanitario, transmitiéndose a la sociedad a través de diferentes dimensiones. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la evolución de las pérdidas de productividad laboral causadas por muertes prematuras en España durante el periodo 2005-2009. Métodos: Se emplearon varias fuentes estadísticas (Registro de defunciones según la causa de muerte, Encuesta de Población Activa y Encuesta de Estructura Salarial para desarrollar un modelo de simulación basado en el enfoque de capital humano que permitió estimar las pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras para el periodo analizado. Adicionalmente, se llevaron a cabo dos escenarios alternativos en los que se analizó la influencia de la evolución epidemiológica en los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: El modelo de simulación mostró una caída de las pérdidas laborales asociadas a muertes prematuras que fue desde 8.935 millones de euros en 2005 a 8.073 millones de euros en 2009. El análisis de las causas reducidas de muerte señaló que nueve causas de enfermedad (accidentes de tráfico, tumor maligno de tráquea, suicidios, infarto agudo de miocardio, SIDA, cirrosis, tumor de mama, enfermedades cerebrovasculares y cáncer de colon supusieron el 35,6% del total de Años Potenciales de Vida Laboral Perdidos y 36,6% del total de pérdida estimada. Las pérdidas estimadas representaron el 0,98%, 0,85% y 0,77% del Producto Interior Bruto de 2005, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras en España disminuyeron sustancialmente en el periodo analizado. Esta reducción se debió fundamentalmente a la favorable evolución epidemiológica de la mortalidad prematura.

  5. Factores asociados al ingreso a medicina en la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia y sus tendencias durante el periodo 1994-1999

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    Daniel Mendoza Requena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar algunos factores académicos, sociales y personales de los ingresantes a la Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH durante el periodo 1994-1999 asociados al tiempo de ingreso, y describir las tendencias de las características de los ingresantes ocurridas durante este periodo. Material y Métodos: Estudio transversal analítico. Los datos se obtuvieron de las actas de notas escolares solicitadas a cada ingresante. Resultados: Los egresados de colegios particulares son de menor edad y demoran menos en ingresar (p<0.001. Los hijos de médicos tienden a demorarse menos en ingresar (p=0.03. Los ingresantes por el Centro de Estudios Preuniversitarios (CEPU se demoran menos en ingresar que los de admisión (p<0.001; y a mayor nota escolar en matemáticas menor es el tiempo de ingreso (p<0.001. La razón mujer/varón incrementó de 0.26 en 1994 a 0.62 en 1999 (p<0.001; también los ingresantes menores de 17 años, de 4% en 1995 a 18% en 1999 (p<0.001. No varió el porcentaje de ingresantes de colegios de provincia, estatales y de hijos de médicos. Además se encontró que las mujeres tienen notas escolares más altas que los hombres (p<0.001. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes provenientes de colegios privados, hijos de médicos, con notas altas en matemáticas e ingresantes por modalidad CEPU se demoran menos en ingresar a medicina en la UPCH. Además durante el periodo estudiado están ingresando estudiantes cada vez más jóvenes y de sexo femenino. ( Rev Med Hered 2001; 12: 8-15 .

  6. La sequía de 1937 en Santiago del Estero: Antecedentes y consecuencias de un acontecimiento ambiental The drought of 1937 in Santiago del Estero: Antecedents and consequences of an environmental event

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    Alberto Tasso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años 1935 a 1937 se produjo una importante sequía que afectó duramente a las regiones áridas y semiáridas del noroeste argentino, así como de México y Estados Unidos. En esta nota se estudia la repercusión de ese acontecimiento ambiental sobre la economía y la sociedad de Santiago del Estero, que marca un antes y un después en su historia agraria. Hasta ese año se consolidó el modelo agroforestal surgido entre 1880-1900, que combinaba el obraje, la finca y la economía campesina. La gran sequía hizo fracasar dos cosechas seguidas, y disminuyó el stock ganadero vacuno y caprino en un 80%. Esto tuvo consecuencias catastróficas en una sociedad rural, cuya dieta dependía en gran medida de su propia producción, desatando la hambruna más notable en la historia contemporánea de esta provincia. Entre las numerosas consecuencias de esta sequía, estudiamos sus efectos en la población, la economía y las políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado fueron dispersas y tardías, y no pudieron contener los problemas de miles de familias que enfrentaron el hambre y el desamparo social. Este drama regional adquirió dimensión nacional a través de la prensa oral y escrita, que en los últimos meses de 1937 promovió una campaña solidaria en gran escala. El éxodo inauguró un sendero migratorio hacia las zonas fabriles de Berisso, Ensenada y el Gran Buenos Aires. La sequía también estimuló la construcción de los diques Los Quiroga (1949 y la presa de embalse de Río Hondo (1968. La literatura también recogió este tema como símbolo del drama campesino en el imaginario colectivo.During the years 1935 to 1937 there was a significant drought that hit the arid and semiarid regions of northwestern argentina, as well as from Mexico and the United States. This note discusses the impact of this environmental event on the economy and society of Santiago del Estero, which marks a before and an after in its agricultural history

  7. Propiedades fisicoquímicas en suelos predominantes del noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero, Argentina Physicochemical properties of predominant soils in Northwestern Santa Fe and Southern Santiago del Espero provinces, Argentina

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    Germán Roberto Revelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 175 muestras de suelos fueron recolectadas en la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero durante el período 2001-2009. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos (pH, Nitrógeno Total, Nitrógeno Nítrico, Nitrato, Fósforo, Potasio, Azufre y Materia Orgánica con el objetivo de categorizar las mismas en función a su calidad y aptitud para uso agrícola-ganadero. El perfil de los suelos analizados destaca deficiencias en Nitrógeno (NT = 0,127 ± 0,032%, N-NO3-= 13 ± 10,349 mg kg-1 y NO3- = 56 ± 45,830 mg kg-1 y un potencial de hidrógeno levemente ácido (pH = 6,4 ± 0,623, observándose una marcada tendencia a aumentar la acidificación en los últimos años. La fertilización equilibrada adquiere importancia estratégica a la hora de obtener óptimos rendimientos en los suelos de la zona, y la incorporación de prácticas de manejo conservadoras tales como labranza reducida, aumento de materia orgánica y rotación de cultivos son fundamentales para el desarrollo sostenible de la región.In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in evaluating soil quality and health. The resource soil is a fundamental component of the biosphere, participating in the production of food, fibers and energy and consequently impacting on the environmental quality. The indiscriminate expansion of agriculture added to the inadequate management in many areas has led to the deterioration of soil structure and to the consequent reduction in organic matter levels, affecting the soil chemical and physical fertility. A total of 175 soil samples were collected in the northwestern area of Santa Fe and in the southern part of Santiago del Estero provinces during the 2001-2009 period. Physicochemical analyses were carried out (pH, Total Nitrogen, Nitrate- Nitrogen, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur and Organic Matter with the objective of categorizing the soil samples according to fertility and aptitude for agricultural-cattle use

  8. Las prácticas lúdicas en la calle y la imagen del centro de la ciudad en Santiago de Chile = Recreational practices on the street and the image of the city center of Santiago de Chile

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    Natacha Calvet Tapia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación de la imagen del espacio central de una ciudad y la calle como escenario de esparcimiento y las prácticas lúdicas que en ellas se manifiestan. Los espacios que permiten o promueven las actividades lúdicas y festivas, ya sean parques, plazas, paseos o simplemente calles, en el Centro de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile responden a la necesidad consensual de todos los actores que componen ese espacio. Contribuyen a crear sentimientos de pertenencia e identidad, a disimular las diferencias sociales, como también constituyen una necesidad desde el punto de vista turístico y comercial. Mejoran la calidad de vida de los habitantes, a la vez que construyen una imagen positiva del territorio. Los espacios lúdicos y las actividades lúdicas son utilizados como instrumento por todos los actores y colectividades sociales, ya sea para ordenar, normalizar y estructurar dichos espacios y dichas prácticas; o para criticar y subvertir ese orden; o para obtener beneficios económicos. No existe una relación de causa-efecto entre la organización espacial planificada y las vivencias y apropiación de un espacio por parte de la población. Dicho de otra manera las personas no necesariamente usan o viven el espacio según sea la voluntadinstitucional.This article examines the relationship between the images of central and the street as a leisurely space in a city against the recreational practices that are enacted in them. The spaces that foster festive and recreational activities, such as parks, squares or simply streets in the center of Santiago de Chile meet a consensual need of all actors involved. They contribute to create feelings of belonging and identity, to soften social differences, in addition to responding to the needs of trade and tourism. They improve the quality of life of the city residents and build a positive image of the territory. Recreational spaces are used as tools by all

  9. Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile” - U.I.A. 1972. Primer Premio. Galería fotográfica. / International competition: “Redevelopment area in down town Santiago – Chile” – U.I.A. 1972. First prize. Photo Gallery.

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    Revista de Urbanismo (M.I.Pavez Co-Ed.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Revista de Urbanismo presenta una compilación de imágenes referidas al Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile” - U.I.A. 1972. Ella ha sido realizada a partir de los archivos profesionales del arquitecto Emilio Sessa (por su gentileza desde Argentina, y del arquitecto Juan Parrochia B., (en la Colección “Juan Parrochia Beguin”, Archivo Nacional de Chile, DIBAM. También se presenta imágenes en AUCA N° 24/25, Santiago de Chile, 1973; en SUMMA, N°57, Buenos Aires, Argentina, marzo de 1975, y finalmente, una fotografía aérea vertical en Google Earth, mayo de 2011. Otras fotografías de interés han sido realizadas por M.I. Pavez R. y Diego Vallejos O., en mayo de 2011. /Revista de Urbanismo presents a compilation of images referring to the International Competition "Redevelopment area in downtown Santiago de Chile" - UIA 1972. It compiles the architect's professional files of Emilio Sessa (by courtesy from Argentina, and Juan Parrochia B., (from the collection "Juan Parrochia Beguin", National Archives of Chile, DIBAM. It also presents images from AUCA No. 24/25, Santiago de Chile, 1973, and from SUMMA N°57, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 1975, and finally, a vertical aerial photography in Google Earth, May 2011. Other photos of interest have been carried out by M.I. Pavez R. and Diego Vallejos O., in May 2011.

  10. Convergencia económica en la región sur de México: un análisis municipal durante el periodo 1990-2010

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    Antonio Kido-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pone a prueba la hipótesis de convergencia entre el crecimien - to del ingreso per cápita y un nivel de ingreso inicial. Se generan diagramas de convergencia sigma y beta absoluta y se estima la ecuación de convergencia beta condicional en municipios de cuatro estados de México: Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacán y Oaxaca, durante el periodo de 1990 al 2010, veinte años después de la entrada en vigor del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte ( tlcan . Los principales resultados sugieren evidencia que rechaza la hipótesis de convergencia absoluta y condicional durante el tiempo de estudio.

  11. Frecuencia de diagnósticos histopatológicos en un periodo de 20 años (1989-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Romero de León; Rogelio Sepúlveda Infante

    2010-01-01

    Presentar datos sobre el diagnóstico histopatológico que se realizó en el Departamento de Patología Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México, durante el periodo 1989 a 2008. De 2 183 biopsias, las lesiones de tejido óseo comprendieron 637 casos (29,2 %) y las de tejido blando sumaron 1 529 (70,0 %), de tejido dental se procesaron 17 muestras (0,8 %). Los diagnósticos más frecuentes para tejido óseo fueron: granuloma periapical, quiste peri...

  12. ESTADO DEL ARTE DEL CONSUMO DE SUSTANCIAS PSICOACTIVAS EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL QUINDÍO, EN EL PERIODO 2009-2012

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    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es descriptivo-comparativo, de corte cuantitativo y tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión de investigaciones acerca del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA en el periodo 2009-2012, en el departamento del Quindío. Cabe resaltar, que el consumo de SPA afecta tanto la calidad y expectativa de vida de las personas consumidoras, como la de sus familias y comunidad. En este sentido, su consumo se constituye en una pandemia y en una innegable problemática de salud a nivel macro, meso y micro social. En el eje cafetero, la investigación se ha realizado sobre grupos focales y atañe a configuraciones familiares y sociales, perfiles, características e incidencia del fenómeno.

  13. Bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum in Bahía Santiago and Bahía Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico

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    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2 were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x10(7cells/L. Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC in local oysters (1525.8μg STXeq/100g, and in phytoplankton (10.9pg STXeq/cells samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells, most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.La proliferación de Gymnodinium son motivo de preocupación, debido a que en algunas circunstancias producen toxinas, que tienen consecuencias desfavorables para los ecosistemas marinos, la salud humana y la economía. Este trabajo describe las condiciones fisicoquímicas presentes durante una proliferación algal detectado en mayo de 2010 en la Bahía de Santiago y Bahía Manzanillo (Colima, México. La proliferación algal inició poco tiempo después de registrarse las temperaturas oceánicas superficiales más bajas del año, las cuales permitieron un aumento de las

  14. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

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    Niurka María Dupotey Varela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. The most common activity performed by pharmacists was the distribution of medications or the drug supply management (51.5% and adverse drug reactions reporting (29.4%, activities performed daily by pharmacists. Pharmaceutical care practice was considered as poor by the professionals, and only 15.6% of them have collaborated in these programs in the past. For nurses and physicians, interprofessional communication occurs sometimes (56.9% and never (25.8%. Pharmacists' integration into the health team was considered as fair (50.7%. A total of 70.1% perceived the pharmacist as a drug expert and 60.1% as a professional who provides medication counseling. The main expectations these health care professionals expressed were that pharmacists provide more education about medication (97.4% and improve their interprofessional communication techniques in order to communicate more effectively with the other members of the health care team (96.6%.O presente trabalho analisa o papel do farmacêutico na atenção primária de saúde e em hospitais, na percepção de profissionais da saúde na província de Santiago de Cuba. Um estudo descritivo transversal foi conduzido, através da aplicação de um questionário autoadministrado a uma amostra de 763 profissionais de atenção primária e hospitalar, 40,9% de médicos e 59,1% de enfermeiros. As funções farmacêuticas mais reconhecidas pelos profissionais desta amostra foram o fornecimento e distribuição de medicamentos

  15. Historia social de la acción colectiva urbana: Los pobladores de Santiago, 1957-1987

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    Vicente Espinoza

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la acción colectiva de los pobladores de Santiago entre 1957 y 1987 desde la perspectiva sociológica de los movimientos sociales. Las categorías del análisis remiten a cuatro familias de acción colectiva: acción reivindicativa, participación institucional, acción comunitaria y lógica de ruptura. El artículo muestra que las características del movimiento social en los períodos analizados corresponden a articulaciones particulares de estas orientaciones a la acción. El período de las primeras ocupaciones de terrenos está dominado por una lógica puramente reivindicativa, que subordina la participación institucional y se apoya en la comunidad. En el período de la promoción popular la iniciativa institucional y política se articula con la organización comunitaria, a la vez que intenta canalizar la acción lógica reivindicativa, mientras que esta última se vincula con acciones rupturistas. Durante la Unidad Popular el movimiento está dominado por la asociación de una lógica reivindicativa y la mantención de la institucionalización, cuya expresión típica son los campamentos. La acción comunitaria pasa a un segundo plano, mientras que la lógica de ruptura no se articula con los elementos anteriores. La acción de los pobladores en los 80 se organiza sobre la base de la crisis de la acción reivindicativa y la institucionalización; la prioridad otorgada a los sentimientos comunitarios se acerca, de forma minoritaria pero real, a las fuerzas de ruptura revolucionariaWhat does characterize the collective action of Santiago's pobladores from 1957 to 1987 as the action of a social movement? I propose an analytical framework of four orientations that organize the collective action of pobladores: negotiation of urban rights, institutional participation, community action and revolutionary politics. The history of this urban social movement yields different hierarchies of these elements in the organization of

  16. [Factors Related to the Disability Burden in People with Suicidal Attempts Attended in the Public Health Care Service Network of Santiago de Cali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Elvis Siprián Castro; Martínez, Alejandro Castillo

    2013-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the aftermaths of suicide attempts are the sixth leading cause of poor health and disability in the world. Establish the level of disability and related factors in terms of restrictions regarding participation and activity limitations in cases of suicidal attempts attended by the Public Service Network Health of Santiago de Cali, from September 2009 to June 2010. A cross-section, observational study was applied to 126 people between 15 and 65 who had attempted suicide and were treated at the Public Health Service in Santiago de Cali. A Spanish version of the Disability Assessment Scale of the World Health Organization 30 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated together with a disability prevalence of 95.3%. 4.6% of the sample did not show disability while 41.27% had mild disability, 38.1%, moderate disability, and 15.87%, severe disability. Factors related with disability were: Age, occupation, presence of mental illness, current depressive symptoms, lethal methods, use of psychiatric drugs, activity limitations, participation restrictions and lack of religious practice. The prevalence of disability in people who have committed suicidal attempts treated at the public health services in Santiago de Cali, was 95.3%. The results are consistent with the study of global burden of disease that establishes a high score for mental disorders in suicidal attempts. The presence of a deficiency after the suicide attempt increases the burden of disability. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivo relacionado con el conflicto en el arte rupestre del Periodo de Desarrollos Regionales en la arqueología del Noroeste argentino

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    Alicia A. FERNÁNDEZ DISTEL

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El motivo o tema de la guerra y la portación de armas en el arte rupestre de las provincias andinas argentinas es el motivo de este artículo. Respecto a la época, se lo ubica en el llamado “Periodo de Desarrollos Regionales” entre los años 900 y 1430 después de Cristo. Se discute sobre si es posible extender lo consignado por ciertos cronistas mestizos y españoles (Poma de Ayala y Cieza de León a la interpretación de este motivo. Estas Crónicas de la Conquista hablan de una época preincaica de conflicto interétnico permanente o Edad de los Auca Runa. Se plantea si el motivo tiene igual presencia que las imágenes de caravanas que también se dan en este periodo y se alude a la tradición oral para dirimir la cuestión.ABSTRACT: This article deals with the motif (or theme of war and weapons in the rock art of the andean provinces of Argentina. This motif appears repeatedly during the Regional Developments Period (900-1430 AD. It is interesting to discuss the possible extension of the so called “Warriors Era” of the Spanish Chroniclers in Perú (Poma de Ayala and Cieza de León to the interpretation of this motif. These Chronicles speak about a Pre-Inka Era characterized by unrest and confrontation among andean groups. At the same region and period the motif of lama caravans increase its importance. Oral tradition is decisive to adopt or to reject the peruvian model.

  18. Sobrevida en hemodiálisis según el periodo de ingreso de pacientes entre 1982 y 2007 en Lima, Perú

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    Víctor Meneses Liendo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La hemodiálisis desde la década del 1970 ha sufrido grandes variaciones tecnológicas, organizacionales y conceptuales. Objetivo: Evaluar la supervivencia de pacientes en hemodiálisis en función del periodo de inicio de su tratamiento. Material y métodos: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo no concurrente de dos grupos de pacientes que iniciaron hemodiálisis antes de 1995 (Grupo 1 y después de 1995 (Grupo 2, pareados para edad, sexo y etiología de enfermedad renal crónica terminal (ERCt. Resultados: Se Incluyeron 179 pacientes en el grupo 1, (prescripción KT/V = 1,0 y 180 pacientes en el grupo 2 ,(prescripción KT/V > 1,2. No hubo diferencia estadística en la sobrevida de los pacientes en función del periodo de inicio de hemodiálisis (mediana ± ES: 7,2 ± 2,38 años para el grupo 1 y mediana ± ES: 7,4 ± 1,49 años para el grupo 2. La supervivencia al 1er y 5to año fue 0,87 ± 0,026 y 0,54±0,047 para el grupo 1; y 0,86 ± 0,028 y 0,62 ± 0,051 para el grupo 2. Las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas. Conclusión: No hubo diferencia en la sobrevida entre los dos grupos estudiados. (Rev Med Hered 2011;22:157-161.

  19. Análisis de la tendencia de sífilis adquirida en México durante el periodo 2003-2013

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    Miguel A. Sánchez Alemán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el grupo poblacional en el que se concentra el incremento de sífilis ocurrido durante los últimos años. Material y métodos. A partir de información obtenida de los Anuarios de Morbilidad de la Secretaría de Salud, se conformaron diversas bases de datos con información desagregada por sexo, grupo de edad y entidad federativa durante el periodo de 2003 a 2013. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal, se estimó el incremento con intervalos de confianza a 95%; se evaluaron los cambios a través del tiempo en los diversos grupos poblacionales analizados. Resultados. A partir de 2010 hay un incremento de 0.67 casos por 100 000 habitantes (IC95% 0.30-1.04 entre los hombres, que se concentra en individuos de 20 a 24 y de 25 a 44 años. Las mayores incidencias de sífilis adquirida se reportaron en los dos últimos años: 2012 y 2013; este último año registró una incidencia 1.85 veces mayor a la reportada en el año 2003. Entidades como Aguascalientes, Distrito Federal, Durango, México, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Yucatán y Zacatecas reportaron incrementos de sífilis adquirida durante el periodo de estudio. Conclusión. La sífilis adquirida aparentemente está reemergiendo en México entre hombres jóvenes, incremento que no es homogéneo en el país, por lo que es necesario focalizar medidas de intervención para esta infección de transmisión sexual.

  20. Los últimos actos. Celebraciones del PJ-Juarista en su etapa final. Santiago del Estero 2002-2003

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    Mariana Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propongo analizar el despliegue intenso del Partido Justicialista-Juarista en Santiago del Estero, durante los actos partidarios y de gobierno en 2002 y 2003, etapa de acentuación de la crisis del régimen juarista, donde se endurecen los mecanismos de dominación a la vez que se apela enérgicamente al recurso simbólico. Describo las prácticas de escenificación del partido, especialmente en lo que respecta a la actuación de un conjunto amorfo y relativamente independiente de la burocracia partidaria y del liderazgo centralizado de Carlos y "Nina" Juárez, de diversos segmentos que se unen o enfrentan en la escena, anclando en especial en la Rama Femenina y la Juventud Peronista, los grupos de mayor movilización en esos años. Desde tres actos, relato las exhibiciones que preceden al acto central, el montaje oficial de la plaza donde tiene lugar la celebración y las formas de disposición de los cuerpos que marcan en la escena las relaciones entre los segmentos de la organización partidaria. Al final, exploro los modos de organización previa en diferentes territorios dirigenciales y unidades básicas, los recursos que se movilizaban, y el sistema de intercambios donde éstos y sus portadores se articulaban, el modo en que se vivía un día del acto, y los sentidos que alentaban la participación en los mismos y en la trama organizacional.

  1. [Evaluation of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of enteral formulas in public hospitals of Santiago (Chile)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara González, Sandra; Domecq Jendres, C; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The development of enteral formulas (FE) is subject to various risks of contamination. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), have worried about alerting, recommendations and documents released to prevent contamination the FE, suggesting the standardization and protocols for all procedures involved. The study was aimed to evaluate compliance with the technical criteria contained in a Guideline for Good Practice of Manufacture in relation to the development, maintenance and administration of enteral nutrition in hospitals of Santiago, in the Metropolitan Area. The verification criteria considered Physical Plant, Equipment and Implementation, Hygienic and Sanitary Standards, Human Resources, Organization and Management, Safety and Warranty Quality Assurance. 639 criteria were defined, 309 risk Type 1, by mayor risk of producing pollution. The study was conducted by observing Central Units Enteral Formulas and interview with the caregiver. Medium of compliance for each group of criteria risk 1 and overall, was analyzed. A total of 14 public hospitals were studied. The degree of compliance with the 639 reached a median of 33.2% (p25-75 31.6%-40.4%), with the lowest value for physical plant with 27.9% (p25-75 23.9%-38.2%) and the highest for human resources with 52.4% (p25-75 44.1%-52.4%). Median compliance for risk criteria Type 1 was only 31.8% (p25-75 27.5%-41.2%). Most of the units tested, meets less than half of the internationals recommendations, or the Ministry of Health of Chile. It should develop protocols and train staff to ensure quality and safety in the development of enteral formulas and reduce risk of infection. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

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    Dennis Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP, we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs and residual insecticide treatment (RIT with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity.We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38 were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT.Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  3. Determination of nutritional value of native prairie José Manuel Pando Province, Municipality of Santiago de Machaca

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    Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia Animal y Tecnología (IICAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in the municipality of Santiago de Machaca which is the first section of the province, José Manuel Pando, it is located at the southeast of the Department of La Paz, at a distance of 205 km, from the city of La Paz. The objectives of this research were to: determine the biomass and floristic composition according to vegetative site, the stocking of native grasslands and the chemical composition of native prairie. The results were the following: the biomass composition and floristic composition is diverse, (35 native forrage species were identified in the vegetative site pampa, Marsh (11, hillside (18 and Hill (33. The capacity of stocking ability of (DC a stocking of native grasslands, Urtica flabellata (Itapallu (2.46; Bromus catharticus (bromus (1.26; Trifolium pratensis (Layulayu (1.38; Iberis sp. (tears of Virgin (1.55 and Hordium muticum (tail of mouse (1.64. Regarding chemical composition, the forage species with higher crude protein content of (% is Urtica flabellata (Itapallu, Bromus catharticus (bromus, 181,66 is 25.77%, forage species with higher energy content Kcal100/g Kcal100/g. and forage specie with higher content of iron mg / 100 g was Iberis sp. (Tears of Virgin, 20,97 mg / 100g. These identified species should be preserved and disseminated, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals. The conservation of these native species identified improve weight gain, consumption of native forage throughout the year, the chemical content, these native species studied, improve quality and cover the requirements from consumption of dry matter and nutrients required by animals. Finally this condition will positively affect the economy of the producers. It is recommended that these native species should be preserved and disseminated on the Prairies, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals.

  4. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Toledo, María Eugenia; Ceballos, Enrique; Fabré, Francisco; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38) were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT. Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  5. The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Gouveia, Nelson; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use for three case study cities in Latin American: Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. Annual levels of ozone and particulate matter were estimated from 2000 to 2020 for two emissions scenarios: (1) business-as-usual based on current emissions patterns and regulatory trends and (2) a control policy aimed at lowering air pollution emissions. The resulting air pollution levels were linked to health endpoints through concentration-response functions derived from epidemiological studies, using local studies where available. Results indicate that the air pollution control policy would have vast health benefits for each of the three cities, averting numerous adverse health outcomes including over 156,000 deaths, 4 million asthma attacks, 300,000 children's medical visits, and almost 48,000 cases of chronic bronchitis in the three cities over the 20-year period. The economic value of the avoided health impacts is roughly 21 to 165 billion Dollars (US). Sensitivity analysis shows that the control policy yields significant health and economic benefits even with relaxed assumptions with regard to population growth, pollutant concentrations for the control policy, concentration-response functions, and economic value of health outcomes. This research demonstrates the health and economic burden from air pollution in Latin American urban centers and the magnitude of health benefits from control policies.

  6. [Excess respiratory diseases in children and elderly people in a community of Santiago with high particulate air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto C, María José; Mancilla F, Pedro; Astudillo O, Pedro; Reyes P, Alvaro; Román A, Oscar

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between air pollution and health damage has been sufficiently documented. In station "R" of the air quality monitoring system, located in a community of Metropolitan Santiago (Cerro Navia), the Chilean standard of 150 microg/m3, averaged in 24 hours, for particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10), has been exceeded more days than in the rest of the city stations. To investigate if the population living near that station has a higher proportion of lower respiratory infections than the Metropolitan Region (MR) as a whole. An outpatient clinic located near station "R" (Centro Albertz), was implemented as a sentinel center according to UNICEF methodology, used since 1992 by the Acute Respiratory Infections National Program. Daily information was collected between May and December 2004. Monitoring data included total number of consults by children less than 15 years old for lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, obstructive bronchitis syndrome in children and by adults over 64 years old for lower airway disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Results were compared with those of the rest of MR. Compared with the MR, children from the sentinel clinic had a significantly higher proportion of consults for obstructive bronchial syndrome (20.1% and 26.4% respectively, in pelderly, the average consults for lower airway disease were 17% in the sentinel clinic and 12.2% in MR (pChildren and elderly subjects at the sentinel clinic had a significantly higher proportion of respiratory infections (pneumonia and obstructive bronchial syndrome in children and lower airway disease in the elderly) as compared to the Metropolitan Region.

  7. Infraestructura Vial y crecimiento económico: Caso Parroquias Sevilla Don Bosco y San Isidro, Provincia de Morona Santiago, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Zurita Vaca, Mauricio; Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo- Riobamba, Ecuador; Amboya Soqueb, Renato; Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo- Riobamba, Ecuador; Barba Castro, Elizabeth; Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo- Riobamba, Ecuador

    2016-01-01

    RESUMENLas parroquias mencionadas en esta investigación son eminentemente agrícolas y han mostrado un crecimiento de su producción en los últimos años gracias al cultivo de tubérculos (yuca y malanga) destinados a la exportación, esta situación se complementa con la ejecución de proyectos de asfaltado de carreteras por parte del Gobierno Autónomo de Morona Santiago, por ello la investigación realizada se canalizó hacia la determinación del nivel de influencia de esta infraestructura vial sobr...

  8. Capital social y participación,una perspectiva desde el Cono Sur de América: Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Valdivieso

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio presento evidencias sobre la participación ciudadana y el Capital Social (CS) en tres casos sudamericanos - Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile-, con el propósito de revitalizar el debate sobre la opinión pública, cultura política y CS. El estudio parte de los siguientes supuestos: el CS es el resultado de decisiones racionales de las personas, y los diseños políticos, las instituciones y la cultura política tienen efectos en esas decisiones. Con ayuda de un modelo de...

  9. Modelo de gestión basado en el marketing mix para hosterías de la provincia de Morona Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Peñafiel Moncayo, Isabel Romané

    2016-01-01

    1. Introducción. --2. Panteamiento de la propuesta de trabajo. --3. Marco teórico. --4. Metodología. --5. Resultados. --6. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones El presente proyecto de investigación y desarrollo tiene como objetivo implementar un modelo de gestión basado en el marketing mix para el fortalecimiento de la actividad turística en la provincia de Morona Santiago, determinando las potencialidades y oportunidades de desarrollo de la infraestructura turística incorporados a los servicios...

  10. Santiago H. Valdés, Psicología social : Prolam S. R. L., Colección Ciencias Sociales, Buenos Aires, 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Casé, Lilia Elba

    1981-01-01

    Esta nueva obra de Santiago H. Valdés nos ofrece un panorama considerablemente completo del área que ocupa a la Psicología Social. Su lectura permite en una primera parte, un acercamiento a temas tales cómo la evolución y búsqueda de la Psicología Social, comenzando con un desarrollo acerca de las Ciencias Sociales en general, consideradas por diversos autores, entre ellos Adam Smith, Comte, Max Weber, Durkheim, Horowitz, Hilgard, etc. Luego se adentra en et análisis de la socialización, el l...

  11. Prevalencia de ideación e intento suicida en adolescentes de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VENTURA-JUNCÁ D,RAÚL; CARVAJAL,CÉSAR; UNDURRAGA,SEBASTIÁN; VICUÑA,PILAR; EGAÑA,JOSEFINA; GARIB,MARÍA JOSÉ

    2010-01-01

    Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, suicide is one of the five leading causes of death among people aged l5-24 years. Suicide rates in Chile among young people have been increasing. In 1990 and 2005, the prevalence of suicide was 8.8% and 9.3% per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Aitns: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates among teenagers aged 14 and 19 years, living in Metropolitan Santiago and analyze the factors relate...

  12. Informe sobre la estabilidad del cimborrio barroco sobre el crucero de la catedral de Santiago, con vistas a su restauración integral

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago; Fuentes González, Paula; Guerra Pestonit, Rosa Ana

    2016-01-01

    El cimborrio barroco sobre el crucero de la catedral de Santiago (Fig. 1) se encuentra en la actualidad agrietado: hay grietas meridianas en las aristas y en los paños que evidencian un cedimiento del sistema de contrarresto. Las grietas dejan entrar el agua de lluvia. Deben ser antiguas porque se construyó hace tiempo una cubierta interior de teja. La linterna presenta daños visibles y el pináculo está completamente fracturado. En la Figura 2 puede verse una sección vertical, la planta ...

  13. Manejando por Santiago: Explorando el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos desde una óptica de movilidad sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN URETA ICAZA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los regímenes actuales de movilidad urbana cotidiana y sus efectos sociales y medioambientales han sido materia de debate y preocupación pública. En el presente artículo pretendemos explorar el tema a través de un caso de estudio específico: el análisis de los motivos y percepciones detrás de la adquisición y el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. En primer lugar veremos cómo puede ser entendido el automóvil y el tipo de movilidad urbana que genera desde una óptica de teoría social y urbana. En segundo lugar, presentaremos algunas tendencias generales de uso de automóviles en Santiago. Luego se analizarán en detalle los principales argumentos detrás de la adquisición, uso y valoración del automóvil por parte de un grupo de usuarios de bajos ingresos de la ciudad. Finalmente entregaremos, a partir de los análisis presentados, algunas ideas que pueden contribuir al diseño de políticas públicas que incentiven formas de movilidad urbana sustentables en la ciudad.In recent years, existingforms of daily urban mobility and their social and environmental impacts have become issues of debate and public concern. In this article we explore this issue through a specific case study: the analysis of the motives and perceptions that lie behind the acquisition and use of cars by low income residents in Santiago de Chile. Firstly we analyze how the car and the type of urban mobility that is generated are understood in terms of social and urban theory. Secondly, we present some general tendencies of car use in Santiago. Next we look in detail at the principal arguments behind acquisition, use and valuing of the vehicle by a group of low income users in the city. Finally, we offer, based on the analysis, some ideas that can contribute to the design of public policies that incentivize forms of sustainable urban mobility in the city.

  14. Le Bassin de Ribeira Seca de Santiago, Cap Vert: une gestion basée sur l´approche GIRE

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    Januário da Rocha Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l´auteur caractérise l´eau et l´agriculture des îles du Cap Vert et analyse les défis del´eau après la construction du barrage de Poilao dans la Vallée de Ribeira Seca, sur l´île de Santiago,en se servant de l´approche GIRE (Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau. Au niveau de la législation,il s´avère nécessaire de proposer de nouvelles lois, décrets et règlements qui soient en accord avecnotre réalité, en opposition à un important lot d´instruments juridiques inapplicables, obsolètes et decompréhension difficile. La construction du barrage de Poilão a produit des impacts environnementaux,socio-économiques et sur l´irrigation. Il s´agit de trouver un modèle de gestion qui s´adapte à la réalitédu Cap Vert et de l´île de Santiago, regroupant tous les partenaires pour une gestion durable de lavallée de Ribeira Seca et qui puisse servir d´exemple aux futurs barrages à construire.In this article, the author characterizes the water and agriculture of the islands of Cape Verde andanalyzes the challenges in the water after the dam construction Poilao in the Valley of Ribeira Seca,on the island of Santiago, using the IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management approach. Interms of legislation, it is necessary to propose new laws, decrees and regulations that are consistentwith our reality, as opposed to a large batch of inapplicable legal instruments obsolete and difficult tounderstand. The construction of the dam has produced Poilão environmental, socio-economic impactsand irrigation. It is to find a model that fits the reality of Cape Verde and Santiago Island, involvingall partners for the sustainable management of the valley of Ribeira Seca and that can serve as anexample to future to build dams.

  15. Plan verde: un instrumento para la gestión y fomento de áreas verdes en el gran Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nilo Orellana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Santiago, cuenta con una importante falencia de espacios verdes. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda que las ciudades tengan 9 metros cuadrados por habitante. Por su parte, el Plan de Prevención y Descontaminación para la Región Metropolitana (PPDA se ha propuesto como meta lograr que el área Metropolitana logre un promedio de 6 metros cuadrados por habitante.

  16. Dispersión urbana y nuevos desafíos para la gobernanza (metropolitana en América Latina: el caso de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIRK HEINRICHS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La expansión acelerada de las áreas urbanas no es algo nuevo para las ciudades latinoamericanas. Sin embargo, es sólo ahora que las profundas implicaciones sociales, ecológicas y económicas de la dispersión urbana empiezan a convertirse en una preocupación fundamental de las grandes aglomeraciones del continente. El presente artículo toma a Santiago de Chile como ejemplo para discutir los desafíos que la dispersión urbana supone para la gobernanza. En primer lugar, resume tendencias recientes en producción de viviendas, donde los "megaproyectos" residenciales a gran escala han sido muy importantes. En segundo lugar, considerando estas tendencias desde la perspectiva de la bibliografía internacional sobre dispersión, concluye que la dispersión urbana en Santiago está ampliamente impulsada por las políticas públicas y la toma de decisiones. En tercer lugar, construye un análisis básico de la gobernanza de la dispersión en términos de actores, instituciones y su interacción, tanto sobre la base de los pocos estudios existentes, como de las propias investigaciones en curso de los autores. Finalmente, el artículo sugiere campos de acción y lincamientos estratégicos de carácter general como puntos de partida para afrontar la dispersión.Massive expansion of urban areas is not a new experience to Latin American cities. However, the profound social, ecological and economic implications of urban sprawl are only today starting to become a major concern in the continent's big agglomerations. By taking Santiago de Chile as an example this paper discusses the challenges posed to urban governance by urban sprawl It first summarizes recent trends in residential housing production where large scale residential 'megaprojects' have become highly significant. Second, by looking at these trends from the perspective of the international sprawl literature it finds that urban sprawl in Santiago is largely driven by policy and decision making

  17. [Various epidemiological aspects of Enterobius vermicularis infection inpatients served at public outpatient clinics and hospitals from the northern section of Santiago, Chile, 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; García, M

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, we examined 2,666 Graham's tests (five perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape) prescribed to ambulatory patients attended in 14 public outpatient clinics and four hospitals from the north section of Santiago. The infection rates found by age groups were the following: 6.1% in infants ( 15 years old). Similar percentages of E. vermicularis infections were observed in females and males patients. Frequency of infection in each month of the year varied between 17.4 and 26.8%, with no seasonal variation. This study and previous surveys are stressing that E. vermicularis is the most frequent helminthic agent found in Chile, specially in elementary school children.

  18. Arte y ciencia : consideranciones artísticas sobre los dibujos histológicos de Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Peñalver, José

    2014-01-01

    La presente tesis se propone como objetivo primordial, el estudio de las relaciones entre arte y ciencia, a través de los dibujos histológicos realizados por Santiago Ramón y Cajal, durante sus estudios sobre la estructura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados. Para ello, primeramente se ha procedido a establecer su perfil personal, científico y artístico. A continuación hemos consultado y analizado información contenida en las fuentes bibliográficas, para establecer una b...

  19. Presencia de los inmigrantes españoles en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba (1902- 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrantes españoles tuvieron una activa participación en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba aunque no pudieron competir con los monopolios norteamericanos en sectores claves como la industria azucarera, la minería, las finanzas y los ferrocarriles; por lo que concentraron sus inversiones en el comercio, las manufacturas y la producción de bebidas, alimentos, confituras y otros artículos.

  20. La ciudad como espectáculo. Marketing territorial, Internet y economía cultural en Santiago de Compostela ¿Éxito o fracaso?

    OpenAIRE

    García Vázquez, María Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Hemos tratado de analizar si el desarrollo económico cultural de Santiago de Compostela en relación con su imagen es un éxito o un fracaso; los datos para esta ciudad constatan un estancamiento demográfico y unas tasas de desempleo estructural durante las últimas dos décadas; todo ello coincidiendo con la llegada masiva de turistas y visitantes que en años Xacobeos pueden llegar a ser de varios millones para una ciudad de apenas 100.000 habitantes. Con la investigación lleva...