WorldWideScience

Sample records for santa cruz bolivia

  1. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; LaFuente, Carlos; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Calderon, Maritza; Pacori, Juan; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Aparicio, Hugo; Brady, Mark F.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Angulo, Noelia; Marcus, Sarah; Sterling, Charles; Maguire, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. Methods Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants of infected mothers, blood specimens obtained on days 0, 7, 21, 30, 90, 180, and 270 were concentrated and examined microscopically; serological tests were performed for the day 90, 180, and 270 specimens. Maternal and infant specimens, including umbilical tissue, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle and by quantitative PCR. Results Of 530 women, 154 (29%) were seropositive. Ten infants had congenital T. cruzi infection. Only 4 infants had positive results of microscopy evaluation in the first month, and none had positive cord blood microscopy results. PCR results were positive for 6 (67%) of 9 cord blood and 7 (87.5%) of 8 umbilical tissue specimens. PCR-positive women were more likely to transmit T. cruzi than were seropositive women with negative PCR results (P < .05). Parasite loads determined by quantitative PCR were higher for mothers of infected infants than for seropositive mothers of uninfected infants (P < .01). Despite intensive efforts, only 58% of at-risk infants had a month 9 specimen collected. Conclusions On the basis of the low sensitivity of microscopy in cord blood and high rate of loss to follow-up, we estimate that current screening programs miss one-half of all infected infants. Molecular techniques may improve early detection. PMID:19877966

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  4. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  5. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  6. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  7. Association of caspase-1 polymorphisms with Chagas cardiomyopathy among individuals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Katherine Yih-Jia; Zamudio, Roxana; Henderson-Frost, Jo; Almuedo, Alex; Steinberg, Hannah; Clipman, Steven Joseph; Duran, Gustavo; Marcus, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas; Alyesh, Daniel; Colanzi, Rony; Flores, Jorge; Gilman, Robert Hugh; Bern, Caryn

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is usually acquired in childhood in endemic areas, leading to Chagas disease, which progresses to Chagas cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of infected individuals over decades. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy involves the host inflammatory response to T. cruzi, in which upstream caspase-1 activation prompts the cascade of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, cardiac remodeling, and myocardial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of two caspase-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cardiomyopathy. We recruited infected (Tc+, n = 149) and uninfected (Tc-, n = 87) participants in a hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cardiac status was classified (I, II, III, IV) based on Chagas cardiomyopathy-associated electrocardiogram findings and ejection fractions on echocardiogram. Genotypes were determined using Taqman probes via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood DNA. Genotype frequencies were analyzed according to three inheritance patterns (dominant, recessive, additive) using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. The AA allele for the caspase-1 SNP rs501192 was more frequent in Tc+ cardiomyopathy (classes II, III, IV) patients compared to those with a normal cardiac status (class I) [odds ratio (OR) = -2.18, p = 0.117]. This trend approached statistical significant considering only Tc+ patients in class I and II (OR = -2.64, p = 0.064). Caspase-1 polymorphisms may play a role in Chagas cardiomyopathy development and could serve as markers to identify individuals at higher risk for priority treatment.

  8. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Pena-Claros, M.

    2012-07-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross sections in 2002 was visually identified. The seven species showed annual growth rings. In most cases, boundaries between rings were marked by the presence of marginal parenchyma and wall-thick ed fibers formed at the end of the growing season. Growth lenses and false rings were recorded in some species. Tree rings can be carefully used in Santa Cruz forests to determine rates of growth. This information is crucial for defining forest management practices in tropical regions. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  10. Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002–2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002–2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January–June) and low (July–December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases. PMID:25706631

  11. Carlos Hugo Molina Saucedo. Andrés Ibáñez, un caudillo para el siglo XXI. La Comuna de Santa Cruz de la Sierra de 1876; Andrey Schelchkov. Andrés Ibáñez y la Revolución de la Igualdad en Santa Cruz: primer ensayo de federalismo en Bolivia, 1876-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Mendonça Cunha Filho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Hugo Molina Saucedo. Andrés Ibáñez, un caudillo para el siglo XXI. La Comuna de Santa Cruz de la Sierra de 1876Andrey Schelchkov. Andrés Ibáñez y la Revolución de la Igualdad en Santa Cruz: primer ensayo de federalismo en Bolivia, 1876-1877

  12. EL DESARROLLO HUMANO EN SANTA CRUZ (BOLIVIA: DESEQUILIBRIOS TERRITORIALES Y EFECTO NEGATIVO DEL COMPONENTE ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bazzaco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del Índice de Desarrollo Humano de los municipios del departamento de Santa Cruz permite destacar como característica central del proceso de desarrollo humano del departamento cruceño en los últimos veinticinco años su profunda vinculación a los progresos realizados por el conjunto de Bolivia y a los factores económicos que condicionaron esta evolución. En este sentido, el departamento reprodujo y amplificó no sólo el ciclo económico del país, sino también el perfil de desarrollo humano de Bolivia: el valor de su Índice de Desarrollo Humano muestra un fuerte desfase entre un indicador económico débil e indicadores sociales básicos - en las áreas de educación y salud - con valores más elevados. Los valores del IDH, los desequilibrios entre sus distintos componentes (entradas económicas, indicadores de educación y esperanza de vida al nacer, así como las correlaciones negativas rescontradas entre indicadores de pobreza y grado de urbanización municipal, ponen en evidencia importantes asimetrías internas en el departamento y permiten avanzar algunas conclusiones respecto a la sostenibilidad del proceso de desarrollo departamental cruceño.

  13. The history of neurosurgery in Bolivia and pediatric neurosurgery in Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.

    2013-01-01

    The practice of neurosurgery in Bolivia began thousands of years ago with skull trepanation. This procedure dates from the earliest period of the Tiwanaku culture, a preInca civilization. Neurosurgical development in Bolivia has its origins in the late 19th century and can be divided in two stages. At the beginning, before the advent of neurosurgery as a discipline, some general surgeons performed procedures on the skull and brain. Formal neurosurgery in Bolivia was developed with the arrival...

  14. Proceso de enfermería: ¿qué significa para las enfermeras de Santa Cruz (Bolivia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Granero-Molina

    Full Text Available Las enfermeras bolivianas no han incorporado definitivamente el método científico y las taxonomías a los cuidados. Este estudio cualitativo pretende comprender el significado atribuido al proceso de enfermería por docentes y profesionales del Departamento de Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia. Recolección de datos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y observación participante. Análisis bajo el marco teórico y metodológico del Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Teoría Fundamentada, usando el software ATLAS.ti.6.0. De los datos emergieron los siguientes temas: dificultades de implantación del proceso de enfermería; déficit de formación e iniciativa profesional; posición de dominio del médico; carencia de registros; escaso apoyo institucional. Ventajas de implementación: unificar criterios, lenguaje y facilitar el rol propio de enfermería. Se concluye en que las enfermeras depositan sus expectativas profesionales y de mejora de los cuidados en la implementación del Proceso de Enfermería y los Planes de Cuidados, un giro cultural que involucra a docentes, auxiliares y gestores.

  15. Proceso de enfermería: ¿qué significa para las enfermeras de Santa Cruz (Bolivia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Granero-Molina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermeras bolivianas no han incorporado definitivamente el método científico y las taxonomías a los cuidados. Este estudio cualitativo pretende comprender el significado atribuido al proceso de enfermería por docentes y profesionales del Departamento de Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia. Recolección de datos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y observación participante. Análisis bajo el marco teórico y metodológico del Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Teoría Fundamentada, usando el software ATLAS.ti.6.0. De los datos emergieron los siguientes temas: dificultades de implantación del proceso de enfermería; déficit de formación e iniciativa profesional; posición de dominio del médico; carencia de registros; escaso apoyo institucional. Ventajas de implementación: unificar criterios, lenguaje y facilitar el rol propio de enfermería. Se concluye en que las enfermeras depositan sus expectativas profesionales y de mejora de los cuidados en la implementación del Proceso de Enfermería y los Planes de Cuidados, un giro cultural que involucra a docentes, auxiliares y gestores.

  16. The history of neurosurgery in Bolivia and pediatric neurosurgery in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F; Dabdoub, Carlos B

    2013-09-25

    The practice of neurosurgery in Bolivia began thousands of years ago with skull trepanation. This procedure dates from the earliest period of the Tiwanaku culture, a preInca civilization. Neurosurgical development in Bolivia has its origins in the late 19(th) century and can be divided in two stages. At the beginning, before the advent of neurosurgery as a discipline, some general surgeons performed procedures on the skull and brain. Formal neurosurgery in Bolivia was developed with the arrival of neurosurgeons trained in the United States and some countries of South America. The Bolivian Neurosurgical Society was created in 1975. Nowadays, our national society has 74 members. It is affiliated with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies and the Latin American Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. Presently, neurosurgery in Bolivia is similar to that seen in developed countries. In this sense, government programs should dedicate more financial support to establish specialized healthcare centers where the management of complex central nervous system lesions could be offered. In contrast, we believe that encouraging the local training of young neurosurgeons is one of the most important factors in the development of neurosurgery in Bolivia or any other country.

  17. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia. The objec......The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia...

  18. Biomarkers in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals with varying severity of cardiomyopathy in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuk, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Marks, Morgan A; Gandarilla, Omar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Vasquez-Villar, Angel; Choi, Jeong; Crawford, Thomas C; Do, Rose Q; Q, Rose; Fernandez, Antonio B; Colanzi, Rony; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2014-10-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of persons with Trypanosoma cruzi infection eventually develop cardiomyopathy. If an early indicator were to be identified and validated in longitudinal studies, this could enable treatment to be prioritized for those at highest risk. We evaluated cardiac and extracellular matrix remodeling markers across cardiac stages in T. cruzi infected (Tc+) and uninfected (Tc-) individuals. Participants were recruited in a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia and assigned cardiac severity stages by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. BNP, NTproBNP, CKMB, troponin I, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TGFb1, and TGFb2 were measured in specimens from 265 individuals using multiplex bead systems. Biomarker levels were compared between Tc+ and Tc- groups, and across cardiac stages. Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created; for markers with area under curve>0.60, logistic regression was performed. Analyses stratified by cardiac stage showed no significant differences in biomarker levels by Tc infection status. Among Tc+ individuals, those with cardiac insufficiency had higher levels of BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 than those with normal ejection fraction and left ventricular diameter. No individual marker distinguished between the two earliest Tc+ stages, but in ROC-based analyses, MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio was significantly higher in those with than those without ECG abnormalities. BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels rose with increasing severity stage but did not distinguish between Chagas cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies. Among Tc+ individuals without cardiac insufficiency, only the MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio differed between those with and without ECG changes.

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  20. Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, from the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), in the Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S L; Rausch, R L; Camacho, O C

    1988-06-01

    Among approximately 2,000 mammals examined for helminths in various regions of Bolivia during 1983-1987, cysts of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, were found in a single paca, Cuniculus paca L., collected at La Laguna, Departamento de Santa Cruz (lat. 16 degrees 36'W; long. 62 degrees 42'S). This record, the first from Bolivia, represents a considerable extension of the known geographic range of this species in South America. Upon analysis of the morphologic characteristics of the protoscoleces derived from the cysts, the sizes of rostellar hooks from the material from the paca were found to be well within the ranges reported in previous studies. Statistical analysis of frequency distributions of hook characteristics revealed some deviations from normality. These results indicate that parametric statistics should be applied with caution in analyses of inter-and intraspecific variation of morphologic characteristics of hooks of metacestodes of the genus Echinococcus.

  1. Incidence of surgical-site infections and the validity of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index in a general surgical ward in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleto, Lorena; Pirard, Marianne; Boelaert, Marleen; Peredo, Remberto; Vargas, Reinerio; Gianella, Alberto; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of and risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) in Bolivia, and to study the performance of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System risk index in a developing country. A prospective study with patient follow-up until the 30th postoperative day. A general surgical ward of a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Patients admitted to the ward between July 1998 and June 1999 on whom surgical procedures were performed. Follow-up was complete for 91.5% of 376 surgical procedures. The overall SSI rate was 12%. Thirty-four (75.6%) of the 45 SSIs were culture positive. A logistic regression model retained an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of more than 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.87), a not-clean wound class (OR, 2.28), a procedure duration of more than 1 hour (OR, 1.81), and drain (OR, 1.98) as independent risk factors for SSI. There was no significant association between the NNIS System risk index and SSI rates. However, a "local" risk index constructed with the above cutoff points showed a linear trend with SSI (P < .001) and a relative risk of 3.18 for risk class 3 versus a class of less than 3. SSIs cause considerable morbidity in Santa Cruz. Appropriate nosocomial infection surveillance and control should be introduced. The NNIS System risk index did not discriminate between patients at low and high risk for SSI in this hospital setting, but a risk score based on local cutoff points performed substantially better.

  2. Cross-sectional analysis of self-efficacy and social capital in a community-based healthy village project in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Osato, Keiichi; Miranda, Cesar; Condore, Julia; Siles, Roxana

    2015-06-20

    An assessment of self-efficacy and social capital may have the potential to detect an effect of dynamic, complex and comprehensive collective actions in community-based health promotion. In 2003, a healthy village project was launched in Santa Cruz, Bolivia with technical assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The originally developed FORSA (Fortalecimiento de Redes de Salud) model accounted for participatory processes in which people could improve their health and well-being through individual behavioral changes and family/community-driven activities. This study aimed to examine the extent of self-efficacy and social capital obtained via project activities by a cross-sectional analysis. We randomly selected 340 subjects from the healthy village project site and 113 subjects from a control area. Both groups were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire. Self-efficacy was assessed with a General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), while social capital was measured as the frequency of formal group participation in community meetings during the past three months, perceived social solidarity, and general trust. The study results showed that the participants in the project site had higher self-efficacy and social capital compared to those in the control site. The number of times a subject participated in the health committee activities was positively associated with the self-efficacy scale. Regarding social capital, females and lower-educated people were more likely to have had more frequent participation in formal groups; males and higher-educated participants showed less formal group participation, but more generosity to contribute money for the community. The main perceived benefit of participation in formal group activities varied among individuals. The findings suggest that people in the healthy village project site have higher self-efficacy, especially those with active participation in the health committee activities. To recruit

  3. Birds surveyed in the harvested and unharvested areas of a reduced-impact logged forestry concession, located in the lowland subtropical humid forests of the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felton, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger study of reduced-impactlogging effects on bird community composition,we surveyed birds from December to Februaryduring the 2003-2004 wet-season within harvestedand unharvested blocks of the La Chonta forestryconcession, Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.The logged forest was harvested using reduced-impactlogging techniques between one and fouryears previously. During point count surveys, weidentified 5062 individual birds, belonging to 155species, and 33 families. We provide a list of birdspecies found within the harvested andunharvested blocks of the concession for thebenefit of other researchers assessing theresponses of Neotropical avifauna to disturbance,and to facilitate increased understanding of thediverse bird assemblages found within thelowland subtropical humid forests of Bolivia.

  4. «Todos somos iguales». La Revolución de la Igualdad en Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 1876-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelchkov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Equality Revolution in Santa Cruz (1876-1877, also known as the equality movement, was a conflict between the pairing of the common urban class and local elites who defended a development formula that championed a modern age that balanced the social values of the traditional and patriarchal society, and other local elites who benefited from the boom of free-market capitalism. The political actions of the egalitarians was influenced by the ideology of romantic socialism in its different stages and combined legal formulas with pressure from peasant militia and civil uprisings. The disruption between the project defending a selfmanaged local way of life and local/state modernization priorities led to a state of repression rarely seen in XIX century Santa Cruz society.La Revolución de Igualdad en Santa Cruz (1876-1877 o movimiento igualitario fue un conflicto entre el binomio formado por las capas plebeyas urbanas y las elites locales, defensoras de la fórmula del desarrollo que abogaba por una modernidad en equilibrio con los valores sociales de la sociedad patriarcal y tradicional, y otras elites locales, beneficiarias del auge del capitalismo de libre cambio. La actuación política de los igualitarios estuvo influenciada por las ideas del socialismo romántico en todas sus etapas y combinó formas legales con presión armada montonera y sublevación popular. El desajuste entre este proyecto de defensa de un autogestionado modo de vida local y las prioridades locales/estatales de modernización provocó una represión del mismo pocas veces vista en la sociedad cruceña en el siglo XIX.

  5. La Ex Hacienda de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Pinto de Estrada

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Ex hacienda Santa Cruz was chosen to show the differences in the geographic and economic structure, and the historic causes that originated them, as an example of ihe situation in the northem part of Campeche.

  6. Harold A. Hyde: Recollections of Santa Cruz County

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Harold A.; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2002-01-01

    A fifth-generation Santa Cruz County resident, Hyde has been in on the creation of organizations and institutions ranging from UCSC and Cabrillo College to the Community Foundation and the Cultural Council of Santa Cruz County. His contributions to California and Santa Cruz are documented in his oral history. Following infantry combat service with the U.S. Army in Europe during World War II and graduate studies in business at Harvard, Hyde returned to Santa Cruz County and a career a...

  7. The influence of method-related partner violence on covert pill use and pill discontinuation among women living in La Paz, El Alto and Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarraher, Donna R; Martin, Sandra L; Bailey, Patricia E

    2006-03-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread worldwide. While assumed to impact women's ability to use contraceptive methods, few data are available to support this claim. In this study, eight focus group discussions were conducted to guide questionnaire development and to provide contextual information. Participants were women who were currently using the pill and women who had used the pill previously. In addition, 300 women were interviewed who initiated oral contraceptive pill use between December 1995 and April 1996. Participants were interviewed 3-6 months later to investigate the role intimate partner violence played in covert pill use and pill discontinuation. Special study procedures for asking women questions about violence were employed. Nineteen per cent of the women interviewed were using the pill covertly. The odds of covert pill use were four times higher in El Alto and La Paz than in Santa Cruz. Women who used the pill covertly were more likely to have experienced method-related partner violence (OR = 21.27) than women whose partners knew of their pill use. One-third of the women had discontinued pill use at the time of the interview. In the final multivariate analysis, having experienced side-effects (OR = 2.37) was a significant predictor of pill discontinuation and method-related partner violence was marginally predictive (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.0-3.66). While efforts are ongoing to incorporate men into family planning programmes, some male partners oppose, and in some situations violently oppose, contraceptive use. The needs of women with these types of partners must not be overlooked.

  8. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  9. Impacto laboral de la violencia contra las mujeres en el Municipio de San Ignacio de Velasco, Santa Cruz-Bolivia, año 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo Tapanache, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia es uno de los países cuyo índice de violencia contra las mujeres y la tasa de feminicidio son los más altos de Latinoamérica. Según datos de la "Fuerza especial de la lucha Contra la Violencia" dichas estadísticas han aumentado para el año 2014. Detrás de cada mujer violentada o asesinada no solo se esconde una historia de sufrimiento, también acarrea consecuencias para quienes las rodean, como el centro donde laboran, sean estos públicos o privados. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto la...

  10. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  11. Santa Cruz thermic plant islanding with local loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A R [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo C. de [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sereno, Marcos G [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work looks into the feasibility of implementing a scheme for the islanding of the Santa Cruz Thermic Plant ( Rio de janeiro State) with LIGHT`s (Electric power public utility) loads fed by the Santa Cruz-Jacarepagua trunk connection, considering presently-existing system problems relative to a significant frequency drop when a loss occurs of a large generation block and which causes the blockade scheme of the mentioned Plant to work, thus aggravating the frequency control still further. An analysis is made of such scheme implementation implications on the scheme for islanding a Santa Cruz 84 MW machine to provide supply to the auxiliary services of The Angra dos Reis nuclear plant presently existing in the system. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Natural gas utilization in Santa Cruz thermal-electric power; A utilizacao de gas natural em Santa Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Mauricio F. de.; Lundeqvist, Carl G; Gomes, Gerson; Almeida, A E

    1994-12-31

    Use of natural gas as an alternative energy source on the thermo electric power plant of Santa Cruz are presented. Economic studies on hydroelectric power plants to use thermal generators during low water supply periods, costs of natural gas as a alternative energy fuel, and the engineer services to the conversion of fuel oil system, are discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Soil chemistry and mineralogy of the Santa Cruz coastal terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Colin; Aniku, Jacob; Burke, Raymond; Harden, Jennifer; Singer, Michael; Munster, Jennie

    2002-01-01

    Marine terraces in the central coast of California provide an opportunity to study a soil chronosequence in which similar materials (beach deposits) have been weathered under similar slope, climatic, and vegetation conditions during the Quaternary. The terraces between Santa Cruz and Año Nuevo, California, have been studied for decades and are thought to be one of the best example of marine terraces in California {Lawson (1893), Wilson (1907); Branner and others (1909), Rode (1930) Page and Holmes (1945), Alexander (1953), Bradley (1956, 1957, 1958, and 1965), Bradley and Addicott (1968), Clark (1966 and 1970), Jahns and Hamilton (1971), Lajoie and others (1972), Bradley and Griggs (1976). Hanks and others (1986), Aniku (1986), Fine and others (1988), Anderson (1990 and 1994), and Rosenbloom and Anderson (1994).} Here we report morphological, chemical, physical, and mineralogical data for the soils that were formed in deposits on the Santa Cruz marine terraces in order to examine soil characteristics as a function of increasing terrace age.

  14. The Early History of UC Santa Cruz's Farm and Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Paul; Norris, Phyllis; Martin, Orin; Tamura, Dennis; Hagege, Maya; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2002-01-01

    The Early History of UCSC's Farm and Garden documents the emergence of the organic gardening and farming movement in Santa Cruz. It includes interviews with Paul Lee, Phyllis Norris, Orin Martin, and Dennis Tamura, who were involved in the early years of the Garden. Maya Hagege, a former Farm and Garden apprentice and UCSC alumna, conducted the interviews, which were edited by Jarrell. Established in 1967 by master gardener Alan Chadwick, the original site was a neglected 4-acre plot...

  15. Water supply and demand management strategies in the Galapagos: A case study of Santa CRuz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources on many islands in the world have been severely strained by increases in visitors. Santa Cruz Island, a tourism hub in the Galapagos, is facing significant challenges of too many people and not enough available water. There are no permanent freshwater resources on Santa Cruz, and the

  16. C-CAP Santa Cruz 2001 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents land cover for the San Lorenzo River basin in Santa Cruz County, California derived from high resolution imagery. The land cover features in...

  17. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  18. Conservation efforts and possibilities for increased collaboration in the Santa Cruz River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; Emily M. Brott

    2013-01-01

    Attendees of the annual Santa Cruz River Researchers’ Day meetings have identified a need to expand collaboration, partnership, and sharing of lessons learned across the watershed. To help guide this interest, Sonoran Institute organized a symposium on 2 May 2012 entitled “Santa Cruz River Conservation.” The symposium had simultaneous Spanish/English translation and...

  19. PRELIMINARY FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF HUARIPAMPA AND SANTA CRUZ STREAMS: HUASCARÁN NATIONAL PARK, ANCASH, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Casana, Jorge; Leal-Pinedo, Jorge; Casana, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary floristic inventory is provided for the Huaripampa and Santa Cruz streams in the Santa Cruz, Huaripampa and Llanganuco route at the Huascarán National Park, located among the Provinces of Huaylas and Yungay, Deparment of Ancash, Peru. This circuit presents a high concurrence of national and foreigner tourists. It is notable for its landscape scenery, its biological structure and its proximity to the mountains Alpamayo, Artesonraju, Yanapaccha, Pisco, Huascarán and Hu...

  20. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  1. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  2. Research in Particle Physics at the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham Seiden

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics is an Organized Research Unit within the University of California system. This is a special structure allowing a focused emphasis on research and includes special commitments for space and personnel from the Santa Cruz campus. The Institute serves to consolidate the research in experimental and theoretical particle physics on campus. This report covers four separate experimental projects. The projects are the BaBar experiment, the ATLAS experiment, the GLAST space satellite, and work toward a Linear Collider and its detector. Research in High Energy Physics (last final report for period 1996-2000)

  3. Geomorphological evidences of Quaternary tectonic activities in the Santa Cruz river valley, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.; Sanguinetti, A.; Nestiero, O.

    2007-01-01

    From Argentin lake, at west on Andean hills, to Puerto Santa Cruz on Atlantic coast, Santa Cruz river cross eastward Santa Cruz province over 250 km in Patagonia at southern Argentina. Present bed of the river has a meandering outline with first order meanders of great ratio bends and second order meanders of minor ratio bends. Principal wanderings are 45 to 55 km spaced from near Estancia La Julia or Rio Bote at west to Comandante Luis Piedrabuena at east. On river's bed middle sector these great curvatures are located at Estancia Condor Cliff and Estancia Rincon Grande. Regional and partial detailed studies allow to recognize structural control on river's bed sketch and valley s geomorphology that relates first order bends with reactivated principal faults. These faults fit well with parallel system of northwest strike of Austral Basin.On geological, geomorphologic and structural evidences recognized in Santa Cruz river, quaternary tectonic activity, related to Andean movements in southern Patagonian foreland, is postulated. (author)

  4. Mitigation options for futurewater scarcity : A case study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Maria Fernanda; Trifunović, Nemanja; Sharma, Saroj Kumar; Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran; Kennedy, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to

  5. El registro biológico humano de la costa meridional de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suby, Jorge A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa patagónica constituye un sector de riesgo para el registro arqueológico, asociado a factores naturales y antrópicos. Al mismo tiempo, la conservación de las colecciones bioarqueológicas, destacándose la pérdida de restos óseos e información asociada por escasez de recursos, desconocimiento o falta de atención especializada, representa escenarios de riesgo para el registro. Una de las áreas para las cuales no se dispone hasta el momento de información bioarqueológica es la región que comprende la costa meridional de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Considerando esta ausencia de información, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar y discutir los primeros resultados sobre restos óseos humanos hallados en la región costera próxima a la desembocadura del Río Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, Argentina. Los estudios incluyen el análisis de las situaciones de hallazgo y riesgo de los restos recuperados en acciones de rescate, el reconocimiento y puesta en valor de materiales depositados en el Museo Regional "Carlos Borgialli" (Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Argentina y estudios paleopatológicos. Al mismo tiempo se informan y analizan resultados cronológicos e isotópicos. Los resultados brindan evidencias claras de la ocupación de la región costera al menos durante los últimos 2000 años, consumo de recursos predominantemente terrestres y un estilo de vida que favorece el desarrollo de lesiones articulares, con escasos indicios de estrés sistémico que coinciden con los resultados reportados para la región continental del estrecho de Magallanes.

  6. EDUCAÇÃO E ETNICIDADE NA REGIÃO DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL- RS. EDUCATION AND ETHNICITY IN THE REGION OF SANTA CRUZ DO SUL - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart Linhares da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações entre educação, etnicidade e mobilidade social em região de colonização alemã no Rio Grande do Sul, sobretudo em Santa Cruz do Sul, Brasil, cidade com forte discurso identitário germânico. Em que pese ser uma cidade caracterizada pelo germanismo, o que se constatou nas pesquisas até aqui realizadas, abrangendo os últimos seis anos, é que a região em questão possui significativa população de não-brancos, embora invisibilizada socialmente e excluída do processo de pertencimento identitário da comunidade regional. As pesquisas realizadas nas escolas municipais, estaduais e privadas na região de Santa Cruz do Sul permitem uma análise pontual das relações entre a educação e a imobilidade social, cujo resultado pode ser avaliado na dinâmica da visibilidade/invisibilidade identitária e processos de exclusão comunitário destes grupos, nomeadamente dos afrodescendentes.The objective of this article is to analyze the relations among education, ethnicity and social mobility in the region of German colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, and mainly in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, a city with strong German identity speech. Taking into consideration that it is a city characterized by Germanism, what was observed in the researches accomplished until now, including the last six years, is that the region in question has a significant population of non-white people, though socially invisible and excluded from the identitary inclusion process of the region community. The researches that were carried out in the private and public – municipal and state – schools in the region of Santa Cruz do Sul permit sharp analysis of the relations between education and social immobility, which result can be evaluated in the identitary visibility/invisibility dynamic and processes of community exclusion of those groups, nominally of Afro-descendants.

  7. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  9. Reshaping production structure in Patagonia Austral. Development options in Santa Cruz and its labor markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Vacca

    2015-12-01

    None the less, the model that has prevailed in the province of Santa Cruz has been characterized by the same research team as subsidizer and of rentier character, noting that most of the population don’t receive their income from their own work on regional productions (coal, oil, gas, mining and industry, but receive income via state transfers, that come from royalties paid by companies from the primary sector, thus ensuring better living conditions for its inhabitants.

  10. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  11. MICRONUTRIENTES NOS SOLOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcido Kirst

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a fertilidade dos solos do município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, em relação aos micronutrientes zinco, ferro, manganês, cobre e boro, baseado nos laudos técnicos de análise de solo realizados pelo Laboratório de Solos da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, no período de 2001 a 2005. Ao todo, 3548 laudos de solo foram interpretados. As técnicas analíticas para a determinação destas variáveis seguiram a metodologia utilizada pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análises de Solos e Tecido Vegetal do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina (ROLAS. Os resultados indicaram que a avaliação da fertilidade dos solos do município apresentou altas concentrações  dos micronutrientes zinco, cobre, manganês e ferro e concentrações médias de boro, indicando adequadas condições de fertilidade para as culturas predominantes na região.

  12. Geografía médica de Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1909)

    OpenAIRE

    Feo Parrondo, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    En este artículo damos a conocer la anónima e inédita “Geografía médica de Santa Cruz de Tenerife” (1909) en la que se analiza esta localidad a partir de indicadores como suelos, abastecimiento de agua, arbolado, clima, carácter físico y moral de sus habitantes, ocupaciones, alimentación, vestido, vivienda, vías de comunicación y medios de transporte, higiene, enfermedades, etc., que nos permiten conocer su situación hace un siglo.This article gives to know the anonymous and unpublished “Medi...

  13. Energy future Santa Cruz. A citizens plan for energy self-reliance: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    A grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy eduction and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. If the plan is successfully implemented, the energy that the community is projected to use in 1991 can be lowered by 24 to 35 percent.

  14. Energy future Santa Cruz: A citizens' plan for energy self-reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    The results of a grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3,100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The energy plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy education and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. An energy implementation guide and glossary are included.

  15. Desarrollo humano y desarrollo turístico: el caso del cantón de Santa Cruz de Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Morales Zúñiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se analiza la relación existente entre crecimiento económico, generado por las actividades turísticas, y desarrollo humano en el cantón de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. Se realiza un especial énfasis en el proceso de transformación de la estructura económica del cantón de Santa Cruz, desde una economía tradicional, hacia una economía de servicios, y su impacto en el desarrollo humano del cantón.

  16. Evolution of the northern santa cruz mountains by advection of crust past a san andreas fault bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R S

    1990-07-27

    The late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California, reflect uplift associated with the nearby restraining bend on the San Andreas fault. Excellent correspondence of the coseismic vertical displacement field caused by the 17 October 1989 magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and the present elevations of these terraces allows calculation of maximum long-term uplift rates 1 to 2 kilometers west of the San Andreas fault of 0.8 millimeters per year. Over several million years, this uplift, in concert with the right lateral translation of the resulting topography, and with continual attack by geomorphic processes, can account for the general topography of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains.

  17. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  18. Geografía médica de Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feo Parrondo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo damos a conocer la anónima e inédita “Geografía médica de Santa Cruz de Tenerife” (1909 en la que se analiza esta localidad a partir de indicadores como suelos, abastecimiento de agua, arbolado, clima, carácter físico y moral de sus habitantes, ocupaciones, alimentación, vestido, vivienda, vías de comunicación y medios de transporte, higiene, enfermedades, etc., que nos permiten conocer su situación hace un siglo.This article gives to know the anonymous and unpublished “Medical Geography from Santa Cruz de Tenerife” (1909. It analyse this locality starting from indicators like soils, wather supply, tree-covered, climate, physical and moral character from its inhabitants, occupation, feeding, clothing, housing, communication routes and means of transport, hygiene, illness, etc., all these permit ourselves to know its situation from one century age.

  19. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  20. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  1. Ranching and conservation in the Santa Cruz River Region, Sonora: Milpillas Case Study (Ganaderia y Conservacion en la Region del Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: El Caso del Grupo Milpillas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoran Institute (SI) is a non-profit organization working with people toward common conservation goals. Two objectives guide the work of the Sonoran Institute in the Santa Cruz River Region in Sonora, Mexico: to establish projects with community participation that can result in tangible and long-lasting benefits to the environment, and to ensure success by...

  2. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant... grasshopper (Trimerotropis infantilis), and will address associated impacts and conservation measures for the... lawful activities associated with the operation and maintenance of the existing Graham Hill Water...

  3. Implementation of a thinning and burning study in tanoak-redwood stands in Santa Cruz and Mendocino counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin L. O?Hara; Kristen M. Waring

    2008-01-01

    Three silvicultural treatment study sites are being established to examine the effects of thinning and prescribed burning on infection and spread of Phytophthora ramorum. Study sites are located in Mendocino and Santa Cruz counties, California. Stands are even-aged redwood/tanoak mixtures.

  4. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  5. COMPATIBILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF GRAFT TOMATO CULTIVAR SANTA CRUZ KADA IN DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zeist

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomato production through the technique of grafting aims to control soil pathogens, induce flowering, and improve tolerance to waterlogging, salinity and alkalinity of the soil. For this work were performed 50 grafts for each type of rootstock, totaling 100 slips and 50 seedlings kept as control. After 15 days of grafting, the seedlings were evaluated on the percentage of picks grafting. The treatment which used the tomato cultivar Cherry Red® as rootstock presented results of vegetative growth (height and volume Cup higher than other treatments. However after transplanting, defective development was observed for plants with grafting when compared to the controls. After 35 days of follow up, there was a low survival rate, being 5% of the plants. According to the results obtained in this work the tomato cultivar Santa Cruz Kada® has good compatibility with the rootstock cultivar Cayenne® pepper and tomato cultivar Cherry Red®

  6. Geology and ground water in north-central Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    North-central Santa Cruz County is underlain mainly by folded sedimentary rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age that have been highly fractured by movements in the San Andreas fault system. Ground water is stored in fractures within shale and mudstone formations and in intergranular pore spaces within fine- to very fine-grained sandstone and siltstone formations. Fewer than 10% of the wells yield more than 15 gallons of water per minute. The water in most wells is moderately hard to very hard, is generally of a sodium bicarbonate or calcium bicarbonate type, and commonly has excessive concentrations of iron or manganese. Of the many geologic units in the study area, only the Purisima Formation of Pliocene age has the potential to sustain well yields greater than 100 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  7. Perfil profissional de nutricionistas egressos da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Feix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar o perfil profissional dos nutricionistas egressos da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, no período de 2002 a 2014, buscando identificar as áreas de atuação, cidades de atuação, a satisfação profissional e os índices de realização de pós-graduação, bem como observar a filiação aos órgãos da classe. Método: estudo de delineamento transversal, utilizou a aplicação de um questionário estruturado de auto resposta, remetido aos 323 egressos, via endereços eletrônicos. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizado o programa Microsoft Excel. Resultados e Considerações finais: dos 107 egressos de nutrição que aderiram à pesquisa, 83,1% (n=89 exercem a profissão, sendo a área de atuação que mais emprega a alimentação coletiva, 50,6% (n=45. Os nutricionistas atuam, principalmente, na região do Rio Grande do Sul, sendo a principal cidade Santa Cruz do Sul, 47,2% (n=42. A maioria 65,2% (n=58 informou o desejo de permanecer na área em que estava atuando, sendo a nutrição clínica, àquela com maior número de satisfeitos. Os egressos estão filiados aos Conselhos Regionais de Nutricionistas e buscam atualização em programas de pós-graduação. Este tipo de estudo possibilita o aprimoramento da formação e satisfação profissional em Nutrição da Universidade.

  8. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  9. A relação entre produtores e a agroindustria fumageira em Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Lucila Mareli

    1993-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciencias Humanas Analisa a estrutura e mecanismo de funcionamento dos sistemas de integração agroindustriais, ligados à produção de fumo em Santa Cruz do Sul - RS. E as relações estabelecidas entre empresas e produtos agrícolas, bem como as perspectivas destes sistemas em termos da sua manutenção. Focaliza os efeitos da presença da agroindústria na reorganização da produção, nas relações sociais no campo, bem como o...

  10. Communication of work accidents involving biological material: a study in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    OpenAIRE

    Dayane Diehl; Karini da Rosa; Susimar Souza Rosa; Susane Beatriz Frantz Krug

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Healthcare workers are constantly exposed to the risk of occupational accidents involving biological material. Thus the aim of the study was to develop a profile of workers involved in workplace accidents with biological materials in Santa Cruz do Sul, through the number of notifications made in information systems. Methods: Transversal retrospective study with a quantitative approach; data collection was carried out between the years 2008 and 2010 from medical recor...

  11. Entomologic perception by teachers and students in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and interpret the entomologic perception of students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu, Médio Araguaia region. Semistructured interviews were carried out in December 2006 with students and teachers of the basic and intermediate levels, as well as in Youth and Adult Education, in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Of the living beings perceived as “insects” by all the interviewees, 82.75% belonged to the Insecta Class, but the rest belonged either to the Fungi Kingdom or to Classes of Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia and Reptilia. The “insects” were defined by the interviewees as small bugs, which were disgusting and dangerous. When in contact with the “insects”, 76% of the interviewees admitted that they killed them, and the greatest reason given for this was the psychological damage caused by the presence of these animals (65%. To 78% of those interviewed, the “insects” were beings without positive importance. Due to the scarce knowledge about their positive aspects, the perception of the “insects” by the students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu region is mainly related to their belief in the negative qualities of these animals, causing aggressive reactions against them as soon as they are perceived in the environment.

  12. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  13. Storage Capacity and Sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Harmon, Jerry G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a bathymetric survey was done to determine the storage capacity and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. Results of the survey indicate that the maximum capacity of the reservoir is 8,991 acre-feet in November 1998. The results of previous investigations indicate that storage capacity of the reservoir is less than 8,991 acre-feet. The storage capacity determined from those investigations probably were underestimated because of limitations of the methods and the equipment used. The volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in storage capacity. To determine sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir, change in storage capacity was estimated for an upstream reach of the reservoir. The change in storage capacity was determined by comparing a 1998 thalweg profile (valley floor) of the reservoir with thalweg profiles from previous investigations; results of the comparison indicate that sedimentation is occurring in the upstream reach. Cross sections for 1998 and 1982 were compared to determine the magnitude of sedimentation in the upstream reach of the reservoir. Results of the comparison, which were determined from changes in the cross-sectional areas, indicate that the capacity of the reservoir decreased by 55 acre-feet.

  14. The Border Environmental Health Initiative-investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched the Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI), a major project encompassing the entire U.S.-Mexico border region. In 2009, a study of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the border region of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, was initiated as part of the BEHI. In this borderland region of the desert Southwest, human health and the ecosystems on which humans rely depend critically on limited water resources. Surface water is scarce during much of the year, and groundwater is the primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. In order to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential consequences to riparian ecosystems and ultimately human health, the USGS is using an interdisciplinary and integrative approach that incorporates the expertise of geographers, hydrologists, biologists, and geologists to track organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing groundwater and surface-water models are being used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport.

  15. Expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation of Santa Cruz River, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carricarte Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the Los Amaros, the Santa Cruz river, Artemisa, Cuba. The objective was to evaluate how it influences the expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation where the semi-deciduous mesophytic forest (BsdMe predominates. A floristic characterization was performed, identifying the effects of disturbances on the structure and composition of these forests and their relation to human disturbance. A semi-structured interview was applied to all landowners in the study area. Species richness, dominance, basal area, total number of individuals, width of the strip covered by trees and shrubs, and area without vegetation on both banks of the river, respectively were considered as variables. There are differences in the structure and patterns of diversity of the studied forest, as a result of disturbances, with the consequent reduction of species; also anthropogenic disturbances, are the main factors that explain changes in the structure of these forests. They are identified as major species: Cupania macrophylla A. Rich., Roystonea regia HBK O. F. Cook., Guarea guidonia L. Sleumer and Trichilia hirta  L. It is proposed to deepen the effect of the expansion of agriculture into other sectors of the river in interaction with local communities.

  16. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  17. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  18. IRMANDADE DO ROSÁRIO DOS PRETOS DE SANTA EFIGÊNIA DO ALTO DA CRUZ: PROPOSTA DE GESTÃO DE UM ARQUIVO EM OURO PRETO (MG).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Laurimar Gomes da

    2009-01-01

    A proposta deste projeto visa atender a uma demanda da Irmandade do Rosário dos Pretos de Santa Efigênia do Alto da Cruz na cidade de Ouro Preto (MG), a fim de consolidar parcerias no sentido de preservar e gerir o arquivo. Fundada em 1719, compondo uma das vinte irmandades encontradas na cidade, a Irmandade do Rosário dos Pretos de Santa Efigênia do Alto da Cruz se particulariza por ser a responsável pela administração da igreja barroca de Santa Efigênia, que no imaginário ...

  19. New species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2014-11-14

    Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided.

  20. Estratigrafía volcánica del yacimiento argentífero Mina Martha, Macizo del Deseado, provincia de Santa Cruz Volcanostratigraphy of the Martha Mine silver bearing deposit, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province

    OpenAIRE

    N. Páez Gerardo; Ruiz Remigio; Diego M. Guido; Sebastián M. Jovic; Isidoro B. Schalamuk

    2010-01-01

    El yacimiento Mina Martha está ubicado en la parte sudoccidental del macizo del Deseado y corresponde a un depósito epitermal argentífero que se encuentra en explotación desde el año 2001. Se encuentra localizado próximo a la localidad de Gobernador Gregores, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. En el área se han reconocido dos unidades geológicas: el Grupo Bahía Laura (J) y la Formación Monte León (Tc). Los trabajos realizados permitieron obtener un ordenamiento estratigráfico que hace posibl...

  1. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  2. Brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el distrito de Catache, provincia de Santa Cruz, departamento de Cajamarca. Abril 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Victor

    2007-01-01

    De acuerdo con la información proporcionada por la Dirección de Epidemiología de la DIRESA Cajamarca, durante la primera semana de abril se ha producido un brote de una enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el distrito de Catache, provincia de Santa Cruz, departamento de Cajamarca, con 49 casos. Los primeros casos se presentaron el 3 de abril y los últimos seis casos fueron atendidos en el C.S. Catache el día 9 de abril. El 100% de los casos presentaron nauseas, 85,7% vómitos y 75,5% cef...

  3. Valorización de la naturaleza y disputa por el territorio en la Provincia de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Pablo; Fasioli, Enzo; Valiente, Silvia; Schweitzer, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Desde los inicios de la colonización europea, la historia de la Patagonia es la trayectoria de la ocupación para la puesta en valor de la riqueza de sus bienes naturales en el suelo, subsuelo y en su extenso litoral marítimo. Asentados primero en la explotación del ovino, luego del petróleo, el gas y el carbón y recientemente de la pesca, la minería metalífera y el turismo internacional, los territorios de las actuales provincias de Santa Cruz, del Chubut y de Tierra del Fuego, al igual que s...

  4. La escritora Ana de Zayas y el obispo poblano Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayas, Concepción

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de caso sobre la relación entre el obispo de la diócesis angelopolitana, don Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz, y doña Ana de Zayas, escritora que la Inquisición novohispana procesó por alumbrada de 1694 a 1700. Este trabajo analiza principalmente la intervención del prelado a favor de esta mujer, lo cual impidió que ella fuera condenada por el Santo Oficio de México. El artículo se basa en fuentes mexicanas y españolas.

  5. Trends in landscape and vegetation change and implications for the Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and characterizing the interactive effects of land use and climate on land surface processes is a primary focus of land change science, and of particular concern in arid Wells Distribution in Shallow Groundwater Areas Pumping Trends Increase Streamflow Extent Declines 27 environments where both landscapes and livelihoods can be impacted by short-term climate variability. Using a multi-observational approach to land-change analysis that included landownership data as a proxy for land-use practices, multitemporal land-cover maps, and repeat photography dating to the late 19th century, we examine changing spatial and temporal distributions of two vegetation types with high conservation value in the southwestern United States: grasslands and riparian vegetation. Our study area is the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed, a topographically complex watershed that straddles the Sonoran Desert and the Madrean Archipelago Ecoregions. In this presentation we focus on historical changes in vegetation and land use in grasslands and riparian areas of the Madrean Ecoregion (San Raphael Valley, Cienega Creek, Sonoita), and compare changes in these areas to changes in the warmer and drier Sonoran Ecoregion. Analysis of historical photography confirms major 20th century vegetation shifts documented in other research: woody plant encroachment, desertification of grasslands, and changing riparian and xeroriparian vegetation occurred in both ecoregions following human settlement. However, vegetation changes over the past decade appear to be more subtle and some of the past trajectories appear to be reversing; most notable are recent mesquite declines in xeroriparian and upland areas, and changes from shrubland to grassland area in the Madrean ecoregion. Land cover changes were temporally variable, reflecting broad climate changes. The most dynamic cover changes occurred during the period from 1989 to 1999, a period with two intense droughts. The degree of vegetation change

  6. Factores influyentes en la primiparidad precoz en Santa Cruz del Norte durante 10 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hernández Núñez

    Full Text Available Introducción: el embarazo en la adolescencia es una de las preocupaciones médicas más importantes derivadas de la conducta sexual de las jóvenes. Objetivo: identificar los factores de riesgo que influyen en el embarazo en la adolescencia en el municipio Santa Cruz del Norte. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles sobre los factores predisponentes del embarazo en adolescentes de Santa Cruz del Norte, del año 2002 al 2011. El universo fue de 336 pacientes, escogiéndose una muestra de 252 al azar que conformó el grupo estudio, se dispuso de un grupo control de 252 pacientes primíparas no adolescentes. Los datos se recolectaron mediante encuesta y para el análisis estadístico se empleó la media, desviación estándar, porcentaje, Chi Cuadrado y Odds Ratio. Resultados: las adolescentes fueron mayormente amas de casa, la edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue más precoz en el grupo estudio; la mayoría de las adolescentes no utilizaban métodos anticonceptivos; la crianza de éstas no fue realizada por ambos padres y se desarrollaron en un medio familiar disfuncional mayoritariamente. Conclusiones: existen múltiples factores de riesgo para el embarazo en adolescentes susceptibles de ser modificados desde la atención primaria de salud.

  7. [Characterization of the atmospheric environment in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain: 2000-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Villarrubia, Elena; García Pérez, M Dolores; Peral Pérez, Nieves; Ballester Díez, Ferrán; Iñiguez Fernández, Carmen; Pita Toledo, M Luisa

    2008-01-01

    The island factor in the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, their meteorology and the proximity to the African Continent that originates the natural particulate matter transport over the islands, cause some specific features in their air quality. The aim of this paper is to characterize the air pollution from 2000 to 2004 as exposure indicator of both cities inhabitants. 24 hour daily average variables of PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 and O3 , 8 hours daily maxima moving averages of O3 y CO and 1 hour maxima of SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5 were calculated. Daily levels of coarse particles were obtained subtracting PM2,5 from PM10. African dust events were identified. In Sta. Cruz de Tf daily means of SO2 (14.0 microg/m(3)N) and ozone levels (44.4 microg/m(3)N ) were higher than Las Palmas de GC levels (8.0 y 28.3 microg/m(3)N). Daily means of NO2 in Las Palmas de GC: 45.8 microg/m(3)N where higher than Sta. Cruz de Tf levels: 30.3 microg/m(3)N. Due to African dust outbreaks, some days in both cities exceeded 600 microg/m(3) of PM10 and 200 of PM2.5 24-h average. The air quality patterns were characterized by very high levels of African dust outbreaks that affect all PM size fractions. Different O3 seasonality exists respect European cities in addition to an urban-industrial ambient air in Sta. Cruz de TF and clearly urban in Las Palmas de GC. These results have to be considered in order to lay the foundations to suitable surveillance systems, analyse the potential impact on the Canary Islands citizens health and to get conclusions.

  8. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  9. Fortalecimiento institucional al municipio de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); C. Acioly (Claudio); F. Steinberg (Florian); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl programa de Apoyo para la Implementación de los Planes Nacionales de Acción SINPA (Support for Implementation of National Plans of Action) surge para dar cumplimiento a las políticas y directrices proclamadas durante la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos

  10. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  11. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  12. Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Norman, Laura A.; Meixner, Thomas; Callegary, James B.

    2012-01-01

    In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, the main reach of the Santa Cruz watershed, located on the Arizona-Mexico border, is discontinuous for most of the year except during large flood events, and therefore the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Calibration is required at multiple locations along the Santa Cruz River to improve model reliability. The objective of this study was to best portray surface water flow in this semiarid watershed and evaluate the effect of multi-gage calibration on flow predictions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated at seven monitoring stations, which improved model performance and increased the reliability of flow, in the Santa Cruz watershed. The most sensitive parameters to affect flow were found to be curve number (CN2), soil evaporation and compensation coefficient (ESCO), threshold water depth in shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (GWQMN), base flow alpha factor (Alpha_Bf), and effective hydraulic conductivity of the soil layer (Ch_K2). In comparison, when the model was established with a single calibration at the watershed outlet, flow predictions at other monitoring gages were inaccurate. This study emphasizes the importance of multi-gage calibration to develop a reliable watershed model in arid and semiarid environments. The developed model, with further calibration of water quality parameters will be an integral part of the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online decision support tool, to assess the impacts of climate change and urban growth in the Santa Cruz watershed.

  13. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  14. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  15. “To order the province”. About Néstor Kirchner’s charisma in Santa Cruz (1991-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we reconstruct one of the main representation strategies and sources of power for Néstor Kichner’s leadership in Santa Cruz, Argentina between 1991 and 1996: his consolidation as a “warrantor of order and stability”. In second stance, we will analyze the social conditions that explain the success of this strategy of representation. Mainly, its affinity with a set of social attributes of the province defined as part of the “culture of suffering” and the ability of the Frente para la Victoria as an organization to embody analog values. We use for the making of this article mostly semi-structured interviews and analysis of journalistic archives. This work is a valuable study on the forms of power construction of the Frente para la Victoria since its origins, in the early 1990, a previous experience to its access of the national government in 2003.

  16. Gobernabilidad en Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Pautas para mayor transparencia y democracia local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andia Fernández (Luis); H.C. Cossio (Hedim); J-P. Feldis Bannwart (Jean-Paul); F. Méndez Egüez (Fransisco)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA partir de los años ochenta se inició una nueva etapa democrática en Bolivia, después de quince años de alternar entre gobiernos dictatoriales y constitucionales. La profundización de la democracia fue prolongada (1978-1982), costosa, lenta y complicada. El desarrollo de las democracias

  17. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (pdog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Around 11.5 ∗ 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ∗ 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ∗ 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ∗ 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

  19. Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), a new genus of Rhopalophorini from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter, a monotypic new genus of Rhopalophorini, is described from Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Meringodes is most similar to Disaulax Audinet-Serville, although it also possesses characters of Thalusia Thomson and Cosmisoma Audinet-Serville. A diagnosis and descripti...

  20. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-05-17 to 1974-06-12 (NODC Accession 7400570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ from 17 May 1974 to 12 June 1974. Data were collected by Grace Prudential Lines as part of the...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-03-08 to 1977-04-22 (NODC Accession 7700321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 08 March 1977 to 22 April 1977. Data were collected by the National...

  2. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-03-08 to 1974-05-21 (NODC Accession 7400454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 08 March 1974 to 21 May 1974. Data were collected by Grace Prudential...

  3. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-08-14 to 1977-01-21 (NODC Accession 7700124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 14 August 1976 to 21 January 1977. Data were collected by Grace...

  4. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-06-22 to 1975-09-17 (NODC Accession 7500932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 22 June 1975 to 17 September 1975. Data were collected by Grace...

  5. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-04-04 to 1976-05-13 (NODC Accession 7601166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 04 April 1976 to 13 May 1976. Data were collected by Grace Prudential...

  6. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-05-31 to 1978-07-26 (NODC Accession 7800637)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 31 May 1978 to 26 July 1978. Data were collected by Grace Prudential...

  7. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-10-17 to 1975-12-28 (NODC Accession 7600103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 17 October 1975 to 28 December 1975. Data were collected by Grace...

  8. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-08-16 to 1975-10-23 (NODC Accession 7501041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 16 August 1975 to 23 October 1975. Data were collected by Grace...

  9. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-07-06 to 1974-09-30 (NODC Accession 7400712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 06 July 1974 to 30 September 1974. Data were collected by Grace...

  10. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-12-02 to 1976-06-30 (NODC Accession 7601553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 02 December 1975 to 30 June 1976. Data were collected by Grace...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-05-22 to 1977-07-27 (NODC Accession 7700593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 22 May 1977 to 27 July 1977. Data were collected by Grace Prudential...

  12. Floración de las especies de interés apícola en el noroeste de Santa Cruz, Argentina Flowering of species with apicultural importance in the northwest of Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de relevar la disponibilidad de fuentes de néctar y polen en el noroeste de Santa Cruz se siguió la fenología de floración de 113 especies del valle de Los Antiguos. Las plantas relevadas pertenecen a 36 familias, de ellas, las más representadas en la oferta de floración fueron Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae y Rosaceae. Del total de especies relevadas, 47 son nativas, 40 naturalizadas y 26 cultivadas. El pico máximo en la oferta de floración se registró a fin de noviembre y principios de diciembre con el mayor número de especies en floración plena. Las plantas introducidas dominaron las floraciones durante la mayor parte del período apícola, con excepción de la segunda quincena de octubre y el mes de noviembre en que predominaron las nativas. Se registraron 32 especies muy visitadas por Apis mellifera L., tres de ellas pertenecen a la flora característica de la estepa: Mulinum spinosum (Cav. Pers., Phacelia secunda J. F. Gmel. y Schinus marchandii F. A. Barkley.With the aim of surveying the availability of sources of nectar and pollen in the northwest of Santa Cruz, the flowering phenology of 113 species from Los Antiguos Valley was recorded. The plants studied belonged to 36 families, from which the most represented in the flowering offer were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae and Rosaceae. Of the total species surveyed, 47 are native, 40, naturalized and 26 cultivated. Peak flowering was registered at the end of November and beginnings of December with the maximum number of species in full flowering. Introduced plants dominated the flowerings during most of the apicultural period, except in the second half of October and during November, when native plants prevailed. Thirty-two species frequently visited by Apis mellifera L. were registered, three of them belonged to characteristic flora from the steppe: Mulinum spinosum (Cav. Pers., Phacelia secunda J. F. Gmel. and Schinus marchandii F. A. Barkley

  13. APORTES PALEOBOTÁNICOS EN LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE PALEODIETAS. ANÁLISIS DE COPROLITOS DEL CERRO CASA DE PIEDRA, SANTA CRUZ/Palaeobotany contributions in palaeodiets reconstruction. Coprolites analysis of Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Martínez Tosto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los coprolitos son heces fósiles deshidratadas o mineralizadas que contienen inclusiones orgánicas e inorgánicas. El estudio de las inclusiones de origen vegetal de los coprolitos permite conocer los ítems vegetales consumidos por los organismos e inferir la estacionalidad en el uso del sitio. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el contenido de polen y de microrrestos vegetales de un coprolito humano del sitio CCP7 relacionado a una capa arqueológica fechada en 8920±200 C14 (UGA 7383 años AP. El sitio CCP7 está ubicado en la provincia de Santa Cruz (Argentina en el ecotono bosque-estepa. Se realizaron los análisis polínicos y microhistológicos de los restos vegetales del coprolito. Se identificaron 13 tipos polínicos, tres de ellos pertenecientes a la vegetación del bosque y el resto a la estepa. Mediante el análisis microhistológico se identificaron las especies Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum y Gaultheria mucronata. El análisis simultáneo de la información extraída de los datos palinológicos y de los microhistológicos mostró coincidencias parciales entre el contenido de polen y de restos vegetales, permitiendo reconstruir la porción vegetal de la paleodieta e inferir la época del año en que el hombre que dio origen al coprolito estuvo ocupando el sitio CCP7.   Abstract Coprolites are dehydrated or mineralized fossil feces containing organic and inorganic inclusions. The study of plant inclusions of coprolites allows knowing the vegetable items consumed by organisms and inferring the seasonality in the use of the site. This work aims at studying pollen and plant remains from a human coprolite in the CCP7 site related to an archaeological layer dated from around 8920±200 14C (UGA 7383 years BP. CCP7 is located in the province of Santa Cruz (Argentina within the forest-steppe ecotone. Pollen and microhistological analyses of coprolite plant remains were conducted. Thirteen pollen types were identified: three

  14. Las trayectorias de vida de los jóvenes de Santa Cruz de Tenerife en tiempos de crisis: una aproximación cualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomer Betancor Nuez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, producto de un proyecto financiado por la Fundación Cajacanariasy la Asociación Cultural TuSantaCruz, analiza las perspectivas juveniles acerca de la realidad social, política y económica que marcan las diferentes trayectorias de vida de la juventud que habita en Santa Cruz de Tenerife. El uso del concepto de joven que hacemos en este trabajo es más abierto de lo habitual, pues concebimos que la juventud es una categoría social atravesada por cuestiones como el origen social, el nivel de estudios y la clase social, por lo que no es un colectivo caracterizado únicamente por un aspecto biológico-generacional.  La metodología utilizada es de tipo cualitativa, concretamente  se ha empleado la técnica denominada grupos de discusión.

  15. Los recursos naturales y culturales, 28 de Noviembre, Güer Aike, Santa Cruz: su importancia turística y patrimonial

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Tamara Paillán; Graciela Elvira Tello

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo, tiene por objetivo, identificar los recursos naturales y culturales, que puedan contribuir al desarrollo integral, de la localidad 28 de Noviembre, en la Provincia de Santa Cruz. Esta región contiene recursos naturales muy variados, entre los que se destacan los geológicos, forestales y faunisticos. Y a pesar de ser una localidad relativamente joven, cuenta con una historia cultural muy interesante, posiblemente porque la población del lugar proviene de diferentes lugares del pa...

  16. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  17. Sustainability analysis using FORSEE and continuous forest inventory information to compare volume estimation methods for the Valencia coast redwood tract in Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Piirto; Mitchell Haydon; Steve Auten; Benjamin Han; Samantha Gill; Wally Mark; Dale Holderman

    2017-01-01

    The 1,295 ha (3,200 ac) Swanton Pacific Ranch (Swanton) and the associated Valencia Tract in Santa Cruz County have been managed by California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly) since 1987. Swanton’s Valencia Tract is a 239 ha (591 ac) property located north of Watsonville, California. Cal Poly forest managers have conducted two harvest...

  18. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  19. Aproximación a la cuenta de resultados del Colegio Mayor Santa Cruz (1968-1981 como instrumento de gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Robles Paramio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los Colegios Mayores son organizaciones con gran tradición, tanto en España como en Europa. Este trabajo pretende aproximarse a uno de ellos, el Colegio Mayor Santa Cruz situado en Valladolid, durante el período comprendido entre 1968 y 1981. La investigación realizada se centra en el ámbito económico-contable y se enmarca en los estudios de documentos primarios localizados en diferentes archivos y de normas y legislación influyentes en Santa Cruz, sin olvidar la recopilación de fuentes secundarias. Una vez dispuesta toda la información se procede a la descripción, análisis y explicación de los ingresos y gastos de este Centro agrupados en una cuenta de resultados, denominada Cuenta de Residencia, mediante un análisis vertical de la misma, y la posible importancia de la elaboración de este estado contable para la gestión y la toma de decisiones en Santa Cruz. Así como, intentar descubrir su uso e interrelacionar los avances contables con los contextos económico, social y legal del momento, con el fin de extraer la mayor información económica de este documento contable.

  20. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing trade in three locations: Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Puerto Quijarro (Bolivia, and Corumbá (Brazil. The purpose is to identify the route and the nuances regarding the second-hand clothing distribution network from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Corumbá, on the Bolivia-Brazil border.

  1. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  2. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  3. Visiones regionales superpuestas y propuesta del Ecosistema Cultural para Santa Cruz de Mompox (Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Osorio Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de Santa Cruz de Mompox (Departamento de Bolívar, Colombia cuyo centro históricofue declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO en 1995, da su nombre a la regiónconocida como Depresión Momposina, a veces confundida con la región de La Mojana ¿Esla Depresión Momposina la misma región de La Mojana? ¿Qué área comprende? Por una parte,se consultan varias fuentes y se identifican diferencias en la delimitación de la región (o regionesque llevan estos nombres y que varían según los actores que las delimiten y la finalidad perseguida.Por otra parte, se propone la aproximación territorial al Ecosistema Cultural Momposinobasada en una propuesta teórica y metodológica que articula las demandas del Centro Históricoal territorio -aquellas relacionadas a las expresiones culturales patrimoniales-, como aporte a lavaloración, protección y gestión patrimonial así como a la planificación regional. Este artículo seenmarca en la investigación Centro histórico y territorio: Ecosistema cultural momposino.

  4. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  5. Diagnosis of the quality of water supplied to the locality of Santa Cruz, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana R. C. Vilaça

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic sanitation comprises several services that are essential to the maintenance of people's health and well-being. The populations that have an appropriate water supply, sewage collection and treatment, proper garbage disposal, among other services, are protected from diseases and have access to a minimum comfort to live in a safe way. In spite of the importance of these services, to the extent to be characterized as “basic”, several populations, national or worldwide, suffer for the lack or the complete privation of sanitation, live without access to quality water, their waste is thrown under open air and their garbage is disposed in inappropriate sites, what causes health and environmental impacts. This work is being accomplished in a community called Santa Cruz, located in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, and aims to carry out a survey about the local sanitary reality, especially about the quality of the water supplied to the population. 100 inhabitants of that community were interviewed and answered a questionnaire. Among the results, 22% of the interviewees consume the water that comes to their homes without any type of treatment, 47% consider the supply water as being of poor quality and 7% don't own home water tanks. After the interviews, bacteriological and physicochemical water analyses were performed in fifteen samples collected in the community. The test results indicated that the collected water was out of the drinking water standards, and therefore, inappropriate for human consumption.

  6. Communication of work accidents involving biological material: a study in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Diehl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Healthcare workers are constantly exposed to the risk of occupational accidents involving biological material. Thus the aim of the study was to develop a profile of workers involved in workplace accidents with biological materials in Santa Cruz do Sul, through the number of notifications made in information systems. Methods: Transversal retrospective study with a quantitative approach; data collection was carried out between the years 2008 and 2010 from medical records in the Municipal Reference Occupational Health Unit – UMREST – containing the notification via Individual Report of Accident Notification - RINA, and/or Work Accident Communication - CAT. Results: A total of 1,263 records were analyzed during the study period. There were 13 notifications in 2008, 7 cases in 2009 and 2 in 2010. Five records had CAT, 8 had RINA and 9 had RINA and CAT. The most frequently affected professional category was the nursing technician, with the highest frequency in 2008, followed by dentists and nurses. There was a higher prevalence of female workers, with 18 cases. The most prevalent age group was 20 to 49 years old. Conclusion: The study showed that women working in the nursingprofession at the productive-age group are the ones most often affected by work accidents involving biological material during the study period. The study results raise the suspicion of underreporting of accidents with biological material, considering the number of notifications in thesetting of records found in the investigated UMREST. KEYWORDS Wo rk-related accidents. Health care professional. Occupational accidents.

  7. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  8. δ13C and 14C dating of sediments in Santa Cruz do Arari, Marajo Island (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Claudia More de; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rossetti, Dilce de Fatima; Rosario, Carlos da Silva; Silva, Carlos Alberto Santos da

    2007-01-01

    The eastern domain of Marajo Island, in the surroundings of Santa Cruz do Arari (Para State), is occupied by holocenic sedimentary deposits, at present covered predominantly by natural grasslands. The analysis of stable carbon isotopes in organic matter of these sediments has been applied with the objective of to evaluate the paleovegetation dynamics, the retreat or the expansion of the Amazonian Forest (located in the westerner domain) over the different types of natural grasslands in Marajo Island, during Late Quaternary. From 3.60 m to 1.80 m the δ 13 C results are around -25 (reaching value up to -29 per mille) and indicate that the organic matter of these sediments are originated from C3 plants. In the interval of 1.80 m until 0.90 m all the samples present a gradual enrichment of 13 C, indicating a higher influence of C4 plants in the vegetation cover. The intermediate δ 13 C values found in those depths (from -22 per mille to -18 per mille) indicate a mixture of C3 and C4 plants with gradual increase of areas with C4 plants. From 0.90 m to the shallow layer the δ 13 C values show a tendency to more depleted values, indicating higher influence of C3 plants in the recent and present period. The results demonstrate that the vegetation dynamics was significant in the Marajo Island from the past to the present. The chronology of these events is being determined by the 14 C dating technique and possible causes (climatic, anthropogenic and/or neotectonic) for such changes investigate. (author)

  9. A micromorphological evaluation of pedogenesis on Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Estudio micromorfológico de la edafogénesis en la Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Avaliação micromorfológica da génese de solos da Ilha de Santa Cruz (Galápagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Stoops

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin sections of about 200 horizons or layers, representing 60 soil profiles in the coastal area and on the windward slopes of Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Islands were analysed. Based on the fabric and the composition of the groundmass and the presence of pedofeatures in individual layers or horizons, clusters of similar material are made and 7 units and 3 subunits distinguished. Plotting these units on a survey map gives a good insight in the spatial distribution of soil materials, expressing different combinations of parent material and precipitation. In the coastal area and the lowest slopes, with a summer dry climate, respectively reddish and greyish and brown materials with a porphyric c/f related distribution pattern and striated b-fabrics, and often with fragmented illuvial clay coatings are observed. The coarse material contains mainly holocrystalline basalt fragments, unweathered in the coastal area, or basalt derived individual minerals. The micromass has a halloysitic-smectitic composition. On the higher slopes, with a permanent moist climate, materials have also a porphyric or fine monic c/f related distribution pattern, but the b-fabric is undifferentiated and no illuvial features are present, gibbsitic features sometimes occur and the micromass consists mainly of halloysite and gibbsite. Subunits are distinguished here according to the microstructure, and the quantity and type of coarse material. Mesocrystalline basalt, often vesicular, dominates over holocrystalline, pointing to the influence of scoria. Soils on the higher slopes are more strongly weathered than those on the drier lower slopes and the coastal area. In depressions in the higher areas, materials with a yellowish or brownish grey micromass with a striated b-fabric, and well developed limpid illuvial clay coatings and impregnative iron oxide nodules occur. The micromass has a halloysite-smectite composition. Contrary to existing hypotheses the reddish soils in the

  10. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153 Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevistados, 82,75% pertenceram à Classe Insecta, as demais citações foram pertencentes ao Reino Fungi e a outras Classes do Reino Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia e Reptilia. Os “insetos” foram definidos, como bichos pequenos, nojentos ou perigosos. Em contato com os “insetos”, 76% dos entrevistados admitiram matá-los e a maior razão para tal reação foi o dano psicológico causado pela presença destes animais (65%. Para 78% dos entrevistados, os “insetos” foram seres sem importância positiva. Devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre os seus aspectos positivos, a percepção dos “insetos” por alunos e professores residentes da região de Santa Cruz do Xingu está relacionada, principalmente, à atribuição de qualidades negativas a estes animais, provocando reações de agressividade contra os “insetos” assim que percebidos no ambiente.

  11. The Imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz and its Birds of Prey: A Modest Contribution to the Micro-Physics of Power in the mid-Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Alberro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The brutal decline of the Imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz, after a bright but brief career, has spurred many papers and reflections. This one focuses on the economic factors, frequently ignored, that participated in its ruin. Indeed, the Colegio was stripped of its most precious assets by a few individuals belonging to the rising oligarchy of original settlers and conquerors' descendants, supported in turn by the highest authorities' --Real Audiencia, Real Hacienda, and even the viceroy Luis de Velasco the Elder, with whom they held family ties-- disregard and/or passive, or even active, complicity.

  12. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of International policy or urban development requires consideration of the impacts of these decisions on Ecosystem Services, or the values that humans receive from the ecosystem, including market-land price, environmental, and human well-being values. Hedonic modeling helps to identify the market land price, considering the price is determined by multiple factors affecting it. In U.S. portions of the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed (SCW), situated at the Arizona-Sonora International border, natural amenities like the riparian corridor and green space have been documented as positive amenities that boost local real estate.

  13. Investigación económica y laboral del mercado turístico de la provincia de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Soledad Villanueva; Daniel Alberto Schinelli

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación se propone realizar un diagnóstico actualizado sobre diversos sectores productivos en la dinámica socio-económica de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Particularmente el turismo se presenta como una actividad emergente y de gran importancia en la economía provincial. Sin embargo se advierte la inexistencia de información actualizada y sistematizada que englobe el funcionamiento del sector turístico, su relevancia económica y laboral, como también estudios de zonificac...

  14. El estado de la soberanía y seguridad alimentaria en la comunidad santa cruz del cantón Guamote

    OpenAIRE

    Naula Yangol, María Rosario

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the situation degree of security and food sovereignty in the community of Santa Cruz de Guamote, and the causes that have affected the loss of these rights. It was found that the community there are a number of factors that hinder achieving food sovereignty, such as lack of access to factors of production: water, land, credit. Other factors include climate change and loss of local varieties. The small size of the plots makes missing land for livestock or crops to ex...

  15. Fine-Resolution Modeling of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins for Climate Change and Riparian System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Volo, T. J.; Rivera, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the impacts of climate variability and change on the ecological services provided by riparian ecosystems in semiarid watersheds of the southwestern United States. Valuing the environmental and recreational services provided by these ecosystems in the future requires a numerical simulation approach to estimate streamflow in ungauged tributaries as well as diffuse and direct recharge to groundwater basins. In this work, we utilize a distributed hydrologic model known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the upper Santa Cruz and San Pedro basins with the goal of generating simulated hydrological fields that will be coupled to a riparian groundwater model. With the distributed model, we will evaluate a set of climate change and population scenarios to quantify future conditions in these two river systems and their impacts on flood peaks, recharge events and low flows. Here, we present a model confidence building exercise based on high performance computing (HPC) runs of the tRIBS model in both basins during the period of 1990-2000. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available data across the US-Mexico border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely-sensed imagery and government databases. Meteorological forcing over the historical period is obtained from a combination of sparse ground networks and weather radar rainfall estimates. We then focus on a comparison between simulation runs using ground-based forcing to cases where the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to specify the historical conditions. Two spatial resolutions are considered from the WRF model fields - a coarse (35-km) and a downscaled (10- km) forcing. Comparisons will focus on the distribution of precipitation, soil moisture, runoff generation and recharge and assess the value of the WRF coarse and downscaled products. These results provide confidence in

  16. Entre rios e ruas: água, açude e tragédia em uma cidade do agreste potiguar (Santa Cruz, 1º de abril de 1981)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Islândia Marisa Santos

    2014-01-01

    Na noite do dia primeiro de abril de 1981, a cidade de Santa Cruz foi tomada por uma inundação que destruiu o sangradouro do açude Santa Cruz e de boa parte da cidade, fazendo com que a população das áreas mais baixas abandonasse suas casas. Residências e ruas mais próximas ao açude, ao rio Trairi e ao riacho do Pecado foram totalmente afetadas, sendo muitas das casas e prédios públicos completamente destruídos. Localizada no interior do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, a cida...

  17. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  18. Territorio y ganadería en la Patagonia Argentina: desertificación y rentabilidad en la Meseta Central de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa brevemente las características que asume el proceso de desertificación en la Patagonia Austral, con énfasis en la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Se hacen referencias a la ocupación del territorio santacruceño por el ganado ovino, a fines del siglo XIX y con más intensidad a principios del siglo XX, y el impacto que ello conllevó, especialmente el desencadenamiento de un proceso erosivo (desertificación, producido básicamente por el pastoreo constante (sobrepastoreo del pastizal natural. También se encuentran referencias al sector ganadero y su participación en el producto bruto geográfico (PBG de Santa Cruz y, hacia el final, un análisis comparativo de la cantidad de animales que el productor estima que puede sostener en su campo y la cantidad que el Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, con base en relevamientos de pastizal, calcula que podría mantener.

  19. Effects of environmental amenities and locational disamenities on home values in the Santa Cruz watershed: a hedonic analysis using census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav; Frisvold, George; Norman, Laura

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we used the hedonic pricing method to measure the effects of natural amenities on home prices in the U.S-side of the Santa Cruz Watershed. We employed multivariate spatial regression techniques to estimate how difference factors affect median home values in 613 census block groups of the 2000 Census, accounting for spatial autocorrelation, spatial lags, and/or spatial heterogeneity in the data. Diagnostic tests suggest that failure to account for the hedonic model can be classified as (1) physical features of the housing stock, (2) neighborhood characteristics, and (3) environmental attributes. Census data was combined with GIS data for vegetation and land cover, land administration, measures of species richness and open space, and proximity to amenities and disamenities. Census block groups close to the US-Mexico border of airports/air bases were negative. Results suggest that policies to maintain biodiversity and open space provide economic benefits to homeowners, reflected in higher home values. Future research will quantify the marginal effects of regression explanatory variables on home values to assess their economic and policy significant. These marginal effects will be used as input indicators to discern potential economic impacts of various scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). Future research will also expand this effort into the Mexican-portion of the watershed.

  20. Living in an estuary: Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804, habitat use and behavioural pattern at the Santa Cruz River, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Loizaga de Castro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, suffer bycatch in fisheries and are target of dolphin-watching activities along Patagonia. Here we described dolphins' habitat use and behavioural pattern at the estuary of Santa Cruz River. Behavioural observations were made from vantage points using a spotting scope. Boat surveys were conducted randomly from Puerto Santa Cruz to the mouth of the river to analyze the habitat use. The survey area was divided into 1 km² cells and characterized with depth and benthic slope. The described behaviours for the Commerson's dolphin were: travelling, slow travelling, milling, resting, socializing, stationary swimming and diving. A new behavioural context was assigned to diving, a behaviour that showed a high frequency during downing tide, suggesting a benthic foraging strategy. Additionally, we found a strong influence of the tide on Commerson's dolphin behaviour. Habitat use models indicated that dolphins prefer shallow water inside the estuary. The knowledge of the behavioural patterns and the habitat use of these endemic species, in this unexplored area, provide tools for management and conservation purposes.

  1. LA ACTIVIDAD TURÍSTICA EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA CRUZ Y SU IMPRONTA EN EL ESPACIO. EL CASO DE EL CALAFATE Y EL CHALTÉN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Viviana Norambuena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda las transformaciones espaciales sufridas en los asentamientos humanos del área cordillerana de la provincia de Santa Cruz producto de la actividad turística particularmente en los del departamento Lago Argentino. El Chaltén y El Calafate son los asentamientos que desarrollan el turismo como base de su economía. El incremento de la actividad se debe a los cambios en el sistema productivo provincial en las últimas décadas, netamente ganadero en El Calafate a principios y mediados del siglo XX. Asimismo, las razones geopolíticas que dieron origen a El Chaltén, hoy han pasado a ser parte de su historia, ya que el turismo es la principal actividad que desarrolla el asentamiento. Esta actividad en la provincia se ha incrementado a partir de la década del 1990 impulsada por los Estados nacional, provincial y municipal que llevan adelante políticas de promoción en el sector. Por otra parte, en estos asentamientos, el auge turístico trae aparejado consecuencias sociales y ambientales dado el crecimiento acelerado de los mismos en cuanto a la población que se radica, la falta de infraestructura básica y equipamiento son los principales sin dejar de mencionar la especulación inmobiliaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las transformaciones espaciales en los asentamientos del oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz particularmente los del departamento Lago Argentino a partir del incremento de la actividad turística en el área en las últimas décadas. Teóricamente, se recurrió a Roberto C. Boullón en Planificación del espacio turístico, a diferentes apuntes de Eduardo Salinas Chávez, y a Leslie Scovenna en el Gran Libro de Santa Cruz entre otras. Se utilizaron diversas páginas en Internet información proporcionada por la Subsecretaria de Turismo de la Provincia de Santa Cruz. Para el análisis de las transformaciones se realizo una caracterización del emplazamiento de los asentamientos en cuesti

  2. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  3. Developing an Ecosystem Services online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processes through which ecosystems provide goods or benefit people can be referred to as "ecosystems services”, which may be quantified to clarify decision-making, with techniques including cost-benefit analysis. We are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz W...

  4. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  5. Los recursos naturales y culturales, 28 de Noviembre, Güer Aike, Santa Cruz: su importancia turística y patrimonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tamara Paillán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, tiene por objetivo, identificar los recursos naturales y culturales, que puedan contribuir al desarrollo integral, de la localidad 28 de Noviembre, en la Provincia de Santa Cruz. Esta región contiene recursos naturales muy variados, entre los que se destacan los geológicos, forestales y faunisticos. Y a pesar de ser una localidad relativamente joven, cuenta con una historia cultural muy interesante, posiblemente porque la población del lugar proviene de diferentes lugares del país y del exterior. Ademas se consideran las diferentes actividades económicas de la región, con el propósito de revalorar e incorporar nuevas actividades que impulsen el desarrollo local basadas en lo natural, tradicional, y en las innovaciones tecnológicas del sector.

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  7. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  8. Biometría del esqueleto postcraneal en muestras del Holoceno tardío de la Cuenca del Lago Salitroso (provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es presentar la información osteométrica correspondiente al esqueleto postcraneal de una muestra de 18 individuos adultos de diferente sexo y edad, provenientes la cuenca del lago Salitroso (N.O. de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los mismos fueron recuperados a partir de la excavación de chenques y hoquedades naturales sobre roca, con un rango de edades radiocarbónicas situado entre ca. 2500 y 300 años AP. El presente estudio se integra a una investigación de mayores alcances orientada a analizar la evolución de las poblaciones humanas del centro-sur de la Patagonia continental durante el Holoceno tardío. En este estudio se consideraron 45 variables métricas correspondientes a 10 unidades anatómicas del esqueleto postcraneano (húmero, radio, cúbito, clavícula, fémur, tibia, peroné, escápula, sacro y coxal. A nivel de la localidad, se establecieron comparaciones basadas en análisis uni y multivariados entre el conjunto de entierros más antiguo (ca. 2500-1800 años AP con el más reciente (ca. 1000-300 años AP, con la finalidad de detectar diferencias significativas entre ambas submuestras cronológicas. Finalmente, se analizaron los datos regionales en relación con la variabilidad registrada en otras muestras de Patagonia continental (Chubut y sur de Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego.

  9. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  10. Caracterización del ambiente atmosférico en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 2000 a 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena López Villarrubia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El carácter insular de las ciudades de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife, su meteorología y la proximidad del continente africano que favorece la llegada de material particulado de origen natural sobre las islas, determinan unas especificidades en su calidad del aire. El objetivo de este artículo es la caracterización de la contaminación atmosférica durante los años 2000 a 2004 como indicador de exposición de los habitantes de estas dos ciudades. Métodos: Se elaboraron los siguientes indicadores de contaminación: promedios de 24 horas de PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 y O3; máximo de las 17 medias móviles octohorarias diarias de O3 y CO; máximo horario diario de SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5. También se calcularon los niveles de la moda gruesa de partículas, como la diferencia entre los valores de PM10 y PM2,5 (PM10-2,5. Se identificaron episodios de intrusión africana. Resultados: En Sta Cruz de TF los promedios de SO2 (14ug/m3N y de O3 (44,4 ug/m3N fueron superiores respecto a los de Las Palmas de GC (8 y 28,3 ug/m3N. Los promedios de NO2 en Las Palmas de GC: 45,8 ug/m3N fueron superiores a los de Sta. Cruz de TF: 30,3 ug/m3N. Debido a las intrusiones africanas, algunos días superaron los 600 ug/m3 de PM10 y los 200 de PM2.5 en ambas ciudades. Conclusiones: Se identifica un patrón de calidad del aire con episodios de polvo mineral africano que en superficie afecta a todas las fracciones granulométricas, una estacionalidad diferente a las ciudades europeas respecto al ozono, así como un patrón de contaminación urbano-industrial en Sta. Cruz de Tf y netamente urbano en Las Palmas de GC. Se hace necesario tener en cuenta estos resultados para analizar su posible impacto sobre la salud de los ciudadanos de las Islas Canarias y establecer sistemas adecuados de vigilancia.

  11. As primeiras indústrias, a arquitetura utilitária e o espaço fabril em Santa Cruz do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é descrever a história da indústria de sua origem até 1930, destacando o vínculo colono-industrialização, a origem dos primeiros estabelecimentos industriais, os condicionantes para o desenvolvimento da mesma, a arquitetura empregada nos prédios fabris e sua situação atual. O trabalho baseou-se em análises de imagens encontradas nos arquivos do Centro de Documentação da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (CEDOC, e fontes bibliográficas constituídas por livros, jornais, periódicos e meio eletrônico. Dessa forma, o trabalho permite entender o contexto histórico e a dinâmica pela qual a cidade e a indústria foram estruturando-se no território santa - cruzense, como também, identificar e analisar as edificações da arquitetura industrial e como a mesma se relaciona/relacionou com a paisagem urbana.

  12. Remediation of acid mine drainage from the Santa Fe tin mine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Daniel; Zamora Echenique, Gerardo; Alfonso, Pura; Casado, Jordi; Trujillo, Elvys; Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Garcia-Valles, Maite

    2015-04-01

    The Santa Fe mine, department of Oruro, is located in the Andean Tin belt, is exploited for tin, zinc, lead and silver. This in an underground mine mined up to the -108 level. Today it is only mined up to the -50 level. Under this level the table water covers the mine. Water reaches the surface with a very acidic composition, with a high content in potentially toxic elements. This water drains directly to the Santa Fe River and contribute to the pollution present in this river that directly affect to the aquatic communities. In addition, population of this area have problems in the supply of drinking water, so remediation by obtaining cleaning water is a priority for this area. This study presents a neutralization-precipitation treatment with lime to the acid water inside the mine. The ore mineralogy of the Santa Fe mined deposit consists mainly in cassiterite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite argentite and sulphosalts. The host mineral is mainly quartz, with a minor content in feldspars and tourmaline. Alteration minerals as alunite, goethite and pumbojarosite are abundant and indicate the occurrence of reactions that lead to the formation of acid mine drainage. The mean pH of water drained from the Santa Fe mine is 2.2 and chemical analyses show high contents in potentially toxic elements: 27-295 ppm Zn, 0.05-0.2 ppm Pb, 0.06-0.09 ppm Cd, 04-0.12 ppm Cu, 113-165 ppm Fe, 4 ppm Mn and 564-664 ppm S. As and Sb were under 0.5 ppm. A settler tank inside the mine was designed by means of seal a selected gallery to clean the mine water. The function of this gallery is to sediment the sludge resulting from the neutralization - precipitation treatment process to obtain a clear water overflow continuously to the outside. The neutralization tests indicate that 0.65g/L of lime and 2ml of flocculant should be added to neutralize water up to pH 6-7. A flow rate of 80 L /s was considered. After a geotechnical study, a chamber located in the mine was selected to locate

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2014-01-17 to 2014-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0157404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157404 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  14. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA OS COMITÊS DE ÉTICA DE PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E PSICOSSOCIAL NA BOLIVIA BIOMEDICAL AND PSICOSOCIAL SCIENTIFIC ETHICAL REVIEW COMMITTEES IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Zwareva Mashiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.Este artigo reporta a um estudo realizado nas cidades de La Paz, Cochabamba, e Santa Cruz, na Bolivia. Interessava-se saber qual era a situação da bioética na Bolivia e como se estava protegendo os sujeitos de pesquisa. Ao revisar alguns conceitos bioéticos, a legislação boliviana e os métodos de estudo foi possível identificar os resultados pesquisados; esses revelaram grande desconhecimento a respeito de como garantir os direitos dos sujeitos de pesquisa, por conta da quase ausência e/ou do inadequado funcionamento dos comitês de ética de pesquisa.This article reports a study carried out in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. The interest was to know the situation of bioethics in Bolivia and how research subjects are being protected. After revising some bioethical concepts, Bolivian legislation and study methods, results revealed great lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects, due to the almost absence or inadequate functioning of scientific ethical review committees.

  15. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  16. El deslizamiento de rocas y detritos sobre elrío Santa Cruz y el aluvión resultante por el colapso del dique natural, AndesCentrales de San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Perucca; Yanina Esper

    2009-01-01

    Durante el verano de 2005 un gran deslizamiento derocas y detritos ubicado en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de Santa Cruzobturó el valle del río Santa Cruz, en el sudeste de la provincia de San Juan(31º40'12''S; 70º16'18''O). Este deslizamiento originó una presa natural en laquebrada del río y formó un lago de volumen considerable. El 12 de noviembre de2005, probablemente por la enorme presión generada por la masa de agua contrala presa, se produjo el colapso parcial del dique natural...

  17. Natural dam failure in the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Argentina. Numerical modelling of the 2005 Santa Cruz river outburst flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, I.; Daicz, S.; Zlotnik, S.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Central Andes of Argentina, ephemeral river blockage due to landslides deposition are common phenomena. During the first fortnight of January 2005, 11.5 * 106m3 of rock collapsed from the east slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina). The rock mass displaced from 4300 m a.s.l., down to the valley bottom, at 2900 m a.s.l., and ran up the opposite flank of the valley. This produced the blockage of the Santa Cruz river and generated the Los Erizos lake. The rapid snow melting during the spring season caused the increase of the water level of the reservoir, leading to a process of overtopping on November 12th of 2005. 30 * 106m3 of water were released from the reservoir and the consequent outburst flood displaced along 250 km. From local reports of arrival times, we estimated that the outburst flood reduced its velocity from around 40 km/h near the source area to 6 km/h in its distal section. A road, bridges, and a mining post where destroyed. 75 tourists had to be rescued from the mountains using helicopters, and people from two localities had to be evacuated. Near its distal part, the flood damaged the facilities of the Caracoles power dam, which was under construction, and its inauguration had to be delayed one year due to the damage. The outburst flood produced changes in the morphology of the valley floor along almost all its path (erosion of alluvial fans, talus and terraces, and deposition of boulders). The most significant changes occurred in the first 70 km, especially upstream narrow sections, showing the importance of the backwater effects due to hydraulic ponding. In this work we carried out numerical simulations to obtain the velocity patterns of the flood, and compared them with those obtained from local reports. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between the dynamics of the flood with the patterns of erosion and deposition near the source area.

  18. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  19. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  20. O USO DO GEOPROCESSAMENTO NA ANÁLISE ESPACIAL DOS CONDOMÍNIOS E LOTEAMENTOS FECHADOS EM SANTA CRUZ DO SUL- RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonis Bozzetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, localizada na região do Vale do Rio Pardo – RS, constitui-se no principal polo agroindustrial de tabaco do mundo e também em importante centro regional de comércio e serviços. Nos últimos trinta anos, a cidade passou por intensas e desiguais transformações em seus processos de evolução urbana e de urbanização. Um desses processos tem sido a intensa produção de novos produtos imobiliários: loteamentos e condomínios fechados. Com o auxílio de técnicas de geoprocessamento, foi possível melhor analisar esses empreendimentos, identificando a segregação espacial, os impactos ambientais e a injustiça fiscal que esses produtos tem representado na dinâmica de organização e de uso do espaço urbano na cidade.

  1. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: comparative study of children and adolescents of the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cezar Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify possible differences in the levels of physical activity related to the socio-economic conditions of schoolchildren in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. It is of transversal-descriptive character, and its subjects are 350 schoolchildren, aged 7 to 17, of both genders. For data collection a previously validated and adapted questionnaire was used, while the chi-quadrat-test was used for statistical analysis. Significant statistical differences were detected in the manner of locomotion, with regard to the school level and socio-economic status, for both genders. The results showed that students from urban areas and of inferior socio-economic levels showed more active in this respect. In the practice of physical activities, the results pointed to a reverse relation of this variable with the socio-economic level. At school level, a prevalence of inactive subjects from the rural area was observed. The difference in the form of locomotion and the physical activities of the evaluated schoolchildren, both at school level and at their socio-economic level, demonstrates different profiles of schoolchildren, which should be considered in future intervention programs.

  2. Paleoparasitological finding of eggs of nematodes in rodent coprolites dated at the early Holocene from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7, Santa Cruz, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, N H; Fugassa, M H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (CCP7), located in the Perito Moreno National Park (47°57'S, 72°05'W), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Eight coprolites obtained from the layer 17, dated at 10,620 ± 40 to 9,390 ± 40 yr B.P., were examined for parasites. Feces were processed whole, rehydrated, homogenized, subjected to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined via light microscopy. Eggs of parasites were measured and photographed. Seven of 8 coprolites possessed 199 eggs of 2, probably new, species of nematodes, including 43 eggs of Heteroxynema sp. Hall, 1916 (Cavioxyura sp. Quentin, 1975) (Oxyurida, Heteroxynematidae), and 156 eggs of Trichuris sp. Roederer, 1761 (Trichinellida, Trichuridae). Heteroxynema sp. is cited for the first time from ancient material worldwide. The finding of Trichuris spp. in both rodents and other host samples from the area under study is indicative of the stability of the biological and environmental conditions for this nematode genus to establish in the Patagonian Early Holocene. The rodent host was assigned to an unknown species of Caviomorpha (Hystricognathi) that lived during the Pleistocenic transition in Patagonia.

  3. A domus infirmorum do mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra e o acolhimento no hospital São Nicolau (Portugal, séculos XII-XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce O. Amarante dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo configura os primeiros resultados de uma pesquisa de micro-história sobre dois espaços de saúde e practica médica no Mosteiro agostiniano de Santa Cruz de Coimbra, a saber, a enfermaria ou domus infirmorume o Hospital São Nicolau. O primeiro, construído no século XII, constituiu-se na área do mosteiro crúzio destinada ao cuidado com os monges doentes, definido primeiro nas regras de fundação e depois presente nos Costumeiros ou Liberordinis posteriores. O Hospital São Nicolau foi igualmente fundado em meados do século XII e funcionou como os outros hospitais de caridade medieval, ou seja, hospedava peregrinos, albergava pobres, tratava dos doentes e acolhia desvalidos. Esses dois espaços favoreceram os estudos médicos, como atestam os títulos da biblioteca, ao mesmo tempo foram lócus de experimentação das medidas preventivas e de práticas terapêuticas.

  4. Evaluación de impacto ambiental en la mina artesanal de arcilla, Santa Cruz en el municipio de Manaure, la Guajira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Daniel L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se fundamenta en la evaluación de los impactos generados por la extracción de arcilla en la mina Santa Cruz (Manaure, La Guajira. El trabajo se realizó mediante la descripción y análisis de los impactos ambientales, socioculturales y económicos registrados a partir de visitas técnicas, entrevistas, encuestas y observaciones; posteriormente, todas estas técnicas fueron evaluadas a través de métodos cuantitativos como lista de chequeo, diagrama de redes, matriz de Leopold y matriz de valoración; relacionándolas con cada una de las actividades desarrolladas en las etapas del proyecto minero. La finalidad del trabajo consistió en generar un plan de manejo ambiental; en el que se contemplen medidas como: prevenir, mitigar, corregir o compensar las afectaciones a los recursos naturales intervenidos por la minería.

  5. Santa Cruz 10 x 20 NTMS area, California: data report (abbreviated), National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Santa Cruz 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1270 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 636 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, and BB

  6. Tectonics and Unroofing of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California, from Low-Temperature Thermochronology and Catchment-Averaged 10Be-Derived Denudation Rates (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, G. E.; Burgmann, R.; Dumitru, T. A.; Ebert, Y.; Fosdick, J. C.; Le, K.; Levine, N. M.; Wilson, A.; Gudmundsdottir, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present eleven Apatite Fission Track (AFT) and Apatite (U-Th)/He (A-He) analyses and eighteen catchment-averaged cosmogenic 10Be denudation rates from the Santa Cruz Mountains (SCM) that resolve the unroofing history of this range over the past several Myr. This range lies within a restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault (SAF), which appears to be fixed to the crust on the northeast side of the fault based on previous work. In this view, the topographic asymmetry of the SCM reflects the advection of material southwest of the right-lateral SAF through a zone of uplift centered on the restraining bend, while material northwest of the fault remains trapped this zone. Northeast of the fault bend in the Sierra Azul block of the SCM, AFT ages adjacent to the SAF appear completely reset during the Pliocene, and show partial resetting at the periphery of the block. This suggests that total exhumation exceeded 3-4 km within the heart of the block and was SCM are near mass flux steady state over the timescales captured by the CRN (~1.5-6.5 ka). Nonetheless, the extent of topography in areas far from the bend suggests that there may be some component of regional fault-normal contraction and/or that this steady state has not been fully attained because of geomorphic lags and isostatic adjustments.

  7. Diabetes in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Alberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, obesity, and related risk factors in major cities in Bolivia Methods. A population-based survey was conducted in four Bolivian cities: La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba. The total sample size was chosen to be 2 948 persons. The overall response rate was 86%, with the rate varying somewhat among the four cities. DM was diagnosed through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT 2 hours after an overload of 75 grams of glucose, using World Health Organization criteria. Results. The overall prevalence of DM in the four urban areas combined was 7.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2%-8.3% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 7.8%. A total of 73.1% (95% CI: 65.0%-81.0% of those previously diagnosed with DM and 73.7% (95% CI: 61.0%-86.4% of newly diagnosed cases were overweight, according to measurements of body mass index. Hypertension was found in 36.5% (95% CI: 27.6%-45.5% of known diabetics and in 36.6% (95% CI: 23.0%-50.1% of newly diagnosed cases, compared to only 15.9% (95% CI: 14.3%-17.5% among people without DM. The disease was most common among older persons and those with little education. Conclusions. Diabetes is a genuine public health problem in Bolivia. Further, the high prevalence of IGT that was found suggests that diabetes prevalence will increase in the near future in the country unless prevention strategies are implemented.

  8. Estimación de la estatura en muestras del Holoceno Tardío del N.O. de Santa Cruz: problemas metodológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béguelin, Marien

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Un tema muy debatido ha sido el de la estatura de las poblaciones aborígenes tardías del sur de Patagonia la cual, de acuerdo con los estándares europeos del siglo XVI, ha sido descripta como excepcional. Una muestra osteológica recientemente recuperada que permite aproximarse a este problema, es la procedente del lago Salitroso (N.O. de la provincia de Santa Cruz. La misma, constituida por un mínimo de 60 individuos de diferente sexo y edad, corresponde a distintos momentos del Holoceno tardío (ca. 2500 a 300 años 14C AP. La estimación de la estatura a partir de medidas lineales de huesos largos de muestras arqueológicas constituye un problema complejo, debido a la gran variedad de ecuaciones existentes en la literatura. Las mismas, derivadas de diferentes muestras de referencia, producen resultados muy disímiles que, en nuestro caso de estudio, varían (valores medios entre 168 y 177 mm en individuos masculinos y entre 162,7 y 165 mm en femeninos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es discutir una serie de criterios (v.g. proximidad genética, similitud ambiental y de proporciones corporales entre la muestra problema y la de referencia que resulten aplicables en el proceso de selección de las ecuaciones, con el fin de derivar estimaciones mas adecuadas y realistas de la estatura en muestras arqueológicas.

  9. The monotony of transferrin and esterase electrophoretic patterns in pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) from Santa Cruz Lake, Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A S

    2008-05-07

    Starch gel electrophoresis was used for examining the transferrin gene locus (Tf) and two esterase gene loci (Est-1 and Est-D1) of a pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) population sample collected from Santa Cruz Lake, Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. The Tf locus was tentatively classified as being polymorphic, showing two double-banded patterns (Tf(12) and Tf(22)) of the three theoretically expected ones (Tf(11), Tf(12) and Tf(22)), presumably controlled by two co-dominant alleles, Tf(1) and Tf(2). The monotony detected in pirarucu Tf locus genotypes showing a very high proportion of the double-banded heterozygote pattern Tf(12) (95% of the sampled individuals) may indicate the possibility of their having come from representatives of the same brood begotten by a pair of fish, where a single-banded Tf(11) homozygote pattern male would have crossed with a single-banded Tf(22) homozygote pattern female, or vice versa. One zone of electrophoretic activity was detected in esterase, presumably controlled by a monomorphic Est-1 locus with the fixed allele Est-1(1) where all individuals showed the single-banded Est-1(11) homozygote pattern. Esterase-D also displayed one zone of electrophoretic activity, presumably controlled by a monomorphic Est-D1 locus with a fixed allele Est-D1(1) where all individuals revealed the single-banded Est-D1(11) genotype pattern. The monotony comprised by single-banded genotype patterns in both esterase systems tested may also indicate the possibility of the individuals from the sample examined having come from representatives of the same brood begotten by a pair of fish with both the male and female having the same genotypes.

  10. Dança e Educação: considerações a partir da contradança de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alves de Paiva

    2016-07-01

    as well as other cultural popular manifestations - in their classes. Keywords: Corporeity. Culture and physical education. Folklore and education. RESUMEN El artículo resulta de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue un estudio de la Contradanza de Santa Cruz de Goiás, en que se busca reflexionar su importancia en las clases de Educación Física. Para esto, se hizo, además de la búsqueda bibliográfica, una investigación empírica, con enfoque cualitativo y cuantitativo en forma de investigación etnográfica participante en la dicha ciudad durante la festividade, y en la escuela pública estatal Antônio de Ramos Caiado. Para el enfoque teórico fueron utilizados textos de Volp, Soares, Ribas, Freire, Figueiredo, Daolio y Bonetti, entre otros autores que investigan la Danza, la Cultura y la Educación Física, además de los culturalistas Brandão, Geertz, McLaren y Giroux. Los resultados más relevantes encontrados indican que: la contradanza es un hecho significativo para la ciudad y para la educación, y se puede insertarla en el programa escolar. Se concluye que cambios significativos en la educación sólo serán posibles en la medida que, además de otros factores, los profesionales de Educación Física perceban la importancia de hacer cambios en su práctica a partir de la propuesta de inserción de las Contradanzas -, así como otras manifestaciones culturales en las dichas clases. Palabras clave: Corporeidad. Educación Física y cultura. Folclore educación.

  11. The peanut landraces from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var.vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces “Crema”, “Colorado San Simón”, “Bayo americano”, “Overo”, and “Overo carenado”, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical  variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity  in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which  are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers

  12. Prevalência de transtornos mentais em indivíduos de uma unidade de referência para Programa Saúde da Família em Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Prevalence of mental disorders at a referral center for the Family Health Program in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maffasioli Gonçalves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as dez primeiras causas de anos vividos com incapacidade no mundo, sete são transtornos mentais. Centros de atendimento primário são fundamentais para as políticas de saúde mental, conforme a Organização Mundial da Saúde. Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a prevalência de transtornos mentais entre indivíduos que buscaram atendimento médico na unidade de referência de uma equipe do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF em Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e verificar a influência de diagnóstico psiquiátrico na utilização de recursos da saúde. Dos 754 indivíduos que participaram do estudo, 51,1% (IC95%: 47,5-54,7 foram diagnosticados como portadores de diagnóstico psiquiátrico, sendo que estes utilizaram de forma significativamente mais freqüente recursos da saúde nos últimos 12 meses. Transtornos mentais representam impacto negativo na qualidade de vida e bem-estar dos portadores, assim como aumento de uso dos recursos da saúde por sintomas não tratados e por ser fator de mau prognóstico para outras doenças não-psiquiátricas. Esses resultados reforçam a necessidade da inclusão efetiva do tema saúde mental nas metas e intervenções dos PSFs no Brasil.Among the ten leading causes of disability-adjusted life years, seven are mental disorders. Primary health care centers are crucial to public mental health policies, according to the World Health Organization. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of mental disorders among individuals seeking care at the referral center for a Family Health Program (FHP team in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and the influence of psychiatric diagnosis on utilization of the health system. Of the 754 participants, 51.1% had a psychiatric diagnosis. Subjects with a psychiatric diagnosis showed significantly higher use of the health system in the previous 12 months. Mental disorders have a negative impact on well-being and quality of life, besides

  13. Dieta e sobreposição de nichos de duas espécies de gerreídeos, Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier, 1830) e Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829) capturadas no canal de Santa Cruz, Itamaracá, Pernambuco.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Tavares Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram avaliados os perfis sazonais das dietas de Eugerres brasilianus e Diapterus rhombeus, e, a sobreposição alimentar entre estas espécies capturadas no canal de Santa Cruz, localizado no litoral norte do estado de Pernambuco, no período de junho de 2010 a maio de 2011. Teve como objetivo fornecer subsídios que sirvam de base para estudos voltados para o cultivo e uso sustentável destas espécies. Para entender seus hábitos alimentares, foram analisados 837 indivíduos das duas...

  14. PRODUTOS DO INTEMPERISMO E AVALIAÇÃO DO NÍVEL DE DETERIORAÇÃO EM ROCHAS ORNAMENTAIS DA FORTALEZA DE SANTA CRUZ (NITERÓI, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI 10.12957/tamoios.2012.5084RESUMO A Fortaleza de Santa Cruz, magnífico exemplo da arquitetura dos tempos da chegada dos europeus ao nosso continente, começou a ser construída por volta de 1555 na entrada da Baía de Guanabara (Niterói, RJ com blocos de gnaisse facoidal local. De modo geral, rochas empregadas em construções em ambientes litorâneos e urbanos são expostas ao sal marinho, bem como, aos poluentes CO2, S e N e, em decorrência disso, os processos relacionados ao intemperismo podem causar danos consideráveis a essas construções. Na Fortaleza de Santa Cruz foram identificados diversos tipos de crostas (negra, de sal, orgânica, “flowstones” e estalactites como produtos do intemperismo. A intensidade dos processos é diferente nos três pavimentos que compõem a Fortaleza, levando a níveis distintos de deterioração dos blocos de rocha, em função da circulação, teor de umidade e de sal no ar em cada pavimento. Palavras-chaves: intemperismo; rochas ornamentais; crosta negra; dissolução.ABSTRACT The Santa Cruz Fort, a magnificent example of architecture at the time of arrival of the Europeans to our continent, began to be constructed at about 1555 at the entrance of the Guanabara Bay (Niterói, RJ with local blocks of augen gnaiss. In general, rocks employed in constructions in coastal and urban environments are exposed to sea derived salts and pollutants such as CO2, S and N and, as consequence of that, weathering related processes can cause considerable damage to these constructions. In the Santa Cruz Fort, various types of crusts (black, salt, organic, flowstones and stalactites have been identified as weathering products. The intensity of such processes is different in the Fort’s three main floors and that leads to distinct deteriorations levels of the blocks of rock in each floor, a function of air circulation, humidity and salt content.Keywords: Weathering; building stones; black crust; dissolution. 

  15. Investigación económica y laboral del mercado turístico de la provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Soledad Villanueva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto de investigación se propone realizar un diagnóstico actualizado sobre diversos sectores productivos en la dinámica socio-económica de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Particularmente el turismo se presenta como una actividad emergente y de gran importancia en la economía provincial. Sin embargo se advierte la inexistencia de información actualizada y sistematizada que englobe el funcionamiento del sector turístico, su relevancia económica y laboral, como también estudios de zonificación que permitan determinar la potencialidad del espacio turístico provincial a fin de abordar políticas de desarrollo turístico. Objetivos: • Actualizar y analizar información secundaria vinculada al sector turístico, referente a oferta y demanda turística. • Diseñar y aplicar instrumentos metodológicos para la recolección de información primaria. • Elaborar y aplicar encuestas vinculadas al mercado laboral. • Identificación de zonas y corredores turísticos. Metodología: Revisión y análisis bibliográfico y documental del sector turismo en la provincia. Se elaboraron y completaron fichas de relevamiento de atractivos y centros turísticos. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a responsables de empresas turísticas a fin de conocer las características del mercado laboral. Se elaboró un mapa de zonas y corredores turísticos de la provincia. Conclusiones: Se ha elaborado y actualizado una base de datos referente a la oferta (atractivos y centros y demanda. Se identificaron siete zonas turísticas y sus corredores de comunicación. Los centros mejor dotados en infraestructura y equipamientos son Río Gallegos, El Calafate y El Chaltén. En éstos dos últimos se realizaron entrevistas a hoteleros para conocer aspectos propios de la dinámica laboral turística.

  16. The impact of biotic/abiotic interfaces in mineral nutrient cycling: A study of soils of the Santa Cruz chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biotic/abiotic interactions between soil mineral nutrients and annual grassland vegetation are characterized for five soils in a marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, California. A Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, controls the annual cycle of plant growth and litter decomposition, resulting in net above-ground productivities of 280-600gm -2yr -1. The biotic/abiotic (A/B) interface separates seasonally reversible nutrient gradients, reflecting biological cycling in the shallower soils, from downward chemical weathering gradients in the deeper soils. The A/B interface is pedologically defined by argillic clay horizons centered at soil depths of about one meter which intensify with soil age. Below these horizons, elevated solute Na/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect plagioclase and smectite weathering along pore water flow paths. Above the A/B interface, lower cation ratios denote temporal variability due to seasonal plant nutrient uptake and litter leaching. Potassium and Ca exhibit no seasonal variability beneath the A/B interface, indicating closed nutrient cycling within the root zone, whereas Mg variability below the A/B interface denotes downward leakage resulting from higher inputs of marine aerosols and lower plant nutrient requirements.The fraction of a mineral nutrient annually cycled through the plants, compared to that lost from pore water discharge, is defined their respective fluxes F j,plants=q j,plants/(q j,plants+q j,discharge) with average values for K and Ca (F K,plants=0.99; F Ca,plants=0.93) much higher than for Mg and Na (F Mg,plants 0.64; F Na,plants=0.28). The discrimination against Rb and Sr by plants is described by fractionation factors (K Sr/Ca=0.86; K Rb/K=0.83) which are used in Rayleigh fractionation-mixing calculations to fit seasonal patterns in solute K and Ca cycling. K Rb/K and K24Mg/22Mg values (derived from isotope data in the literature) fall within fractionation envelopes bounded by inputs from

  17. Off-fault ground ruptures in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California: Ridge-top spreading versus tectonic extension during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wells, Ray E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ms 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 18 October 1989 produced abundant ground ruptures in an 8 by 4 km area along Summit Road and Skyland Ridge in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Predominantly extensional fissures formed a left-stepping, crudely en echelon pattern along ridges of the hanging-wall block southwest of the San Andreas fault, about 12 km northwest of the epicenter. The fissures are subparallel to the San Andreas fault and appear to be controlled by bedding planes, faults, joints, and other weak zones in the underlying Tertiary sedimentary strata of the hanging-wall block. The pattern of extensional fissures is generally consistent with tectonic extension across the crest of the uplifted hanging-wall block. Also, many displacements in Laurel Creek canyon and along the San Andreas and Sargent faults are consistent with right-lateral reverse faulting inferred for the mainshock. Additional small tensile failures along the axis of the Laurel anticline may reflect growth of the fold during deep-seated compression. However, the larger ridge-top fissures commonly have displacements that are parallel to the north-northeast regional slope directions and appear inconsistent with east-northeast extension expected from this earthquake. Measured cumulative displacements across the ridge crests are at least 35 times larger than that predicted by the geodetically determined surface deformation. These fissures also occur in association with ubiquitous landslide complexes that were reactivated by the earthquake to produce the largest concentration of co-seismic slope failures in the epicentral region. The anomalously large displacements and the apparent slope control of the geometry and displacement of many co-seismic surface ruptures lead us to conclude that gravity is an important driving force in the formation of the ridge-top fissures. Shaking-induced gravitational spreading of ridges and downslope movement may account for 90¿ or more of the observed displacements on

  18. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Blum, A.E.; Stonestrom, David A.; Anderson, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in element and mineral concentrations in regolith profiles in a chronosequence developed on marine terraces along coastal California are interpreted in terms of chemical weathering rates and processes. In regoliths up to 15 m deep and 226 kyrs old, quartz-normalized mass transfer coefficients indicate non-stoichiometric preferential release of Sr > Ca > Na from plagioclase along with lesser amounts of K, Rb and Ba derived from K-feldspar. Smectite weathering results in the loss of Mg and concurrent incorporation of Al and Fe into secondary kaolinite and Fe-oxides in shallow argillic horizons. Elemental losses from weathering of the Santa Cruz terraces fall within the range of those for other marine terraces along the Pacific Coast of North America. Residual amounts of plagioclase and K-feldspar decrease with terrace depth and increasing age. The gradient of the weathering profile bs is defined by the ratio of the weathering rate, R to the velocity at which the profile penetrates into the protolith. A spreadsheet calculator further refines profile geometries, demonstrating that the non-linear regions at low residual feldspar concentrations at shallow depth are dominated by exponential changes in mineral surface-to-volume ratios and at high residual feldspar concentrations, at greater depth, by the approach to thermodynamic saturation. These parameters are of secondary importance to the fluid flux qh, which in thermodynamically saturated pore water, controls the weathering velocity and mineral losses from the profiles. Long-term fluid fluxes required to reproduce the feldspar weathering profiles are in agreement with contemporary values based on solute Cl balances (qh = 0.025-0.17 m yr-1). During saturation-controlled and solute-limited weathering, the greater loss of plagioclase relative to K-feldspar is dependent on the large difference in their respective solubilities instead of the small difference between their respective

  19. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  20. Provincia de Santa Cruz, República Argentina: Políticas estatales en educación a distancia mediante el uso de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Hector Ferro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente es el Informe Final de la Beca de Investigación para alumnos de Postgrado que fuera otorgada al autor mediante Resolución Nro. 0354-R-UNPA. Es una actividad descriptiva que recoge información acerca de la Educación a Distancia mediada por Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, observando políticas estatales concretas: las de la Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, y las que lleva a cabo, en el mismo campo, el Estado provincial en Santa Cruz. Se trata de ver de qué manera organismos del Estado pusieron en acción procesos que promueven la circulación de conocimiento en una sociedad específica, sobre la base de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación. Asimismo, se incluye una descripción histórica del desarrollo económico de la provincia de Santa Cruz, así como un estado del mismo en la actualidad, a efectos de hacer visible la importancia básica de la acción estatal en dicho proceso.

  1. TERRAIN, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. HYDRAULICS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  3. Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil Medicinal plants used for oral health in the Santa Cruz neighborhood, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliza Meireles Borba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Mato Grosso, populações tradicionais recorrem ao uso de espécies vegetais como alternativa terapêutica. Na cidade de Chapada dos Guimarães, o bairro Santa Cruz se destaca por abrigar famílias nascidas em áreas urbanas ou rurais que conservam esses conhecimentos transmitidos por gerações. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade local, indicações terapêuticas, preparos e modos de uso visando a manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal. Foram entrevistados 40 residentes, através de abordagem qualitativa, usando entrevista semi-estruturada. As espécies catalogadas foram depositadas para identificação no UFMT/Herbário Central. Foram citadas 87 espécies pertencentes a 48 famílias utilizadas na saúde bucal, encontradas no bioma Cerrado ou cultivadas nas residências. Conforme as afecções bucais citadas, as espécies utilizadas são: para erupção dentária: camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.; candidíases, estomatites, gengivites e afta: açafrão (Crocus sativus L.; dor de dente: arnica-da-serra (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng. Robinson. A folha foi a parte da planta mais usada e o chá, por decocção, modo de preparo mais comum. Pessoas idosas, líderes comunitários, parteiras e benzedeiras entrevistados apresentaram um maior conhecimento sobre o assunto. Constatou-se que a comunidade utiliza espécies vegetais, nativas do cerrado ou exóticas, com finalidade terapêutica para manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal, sendo uma alternativa tradicional, econômica e atuante.In the State of Mato Grosso, traditional populations turn to the use of many plant species as a therapeutic alternative. In the city of Chapada dos Guimarães, the Santa Cruz neighborhood is well known for harboring families from urban and rural communities who preserve this knowledge passed down through many generations. The objective of this research was to survey the medicinal plants used

  4. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  5. Caracterización geosísmica de un sector de traza de la Ruta Nº 40: Provincia de Santa Cruz - Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Imhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar las distintas calidades de terrenos subyacentes para el proyecto de pavimentación de la Ruta Nacional Nº 40, en la provincia de Santa Cruz, se llevaron a cabo tareas de prospección sísmica de refracción. La finalidad que se persiguió fue estudiar el grado de escarificabilidad del subsuelo bajo la traza mencionada, a lo largo de una extensión de 5000 m, comprendidos en dos secciones cercanas entre sí. Esta determinación permite calcular costos de voladuras o escarificables. La zona de estudio se caracteriza por presentar un paisaje típico de estepa patagónica, con presencia de coladas basálticas indicando vulcanismo antiguo. En la superficie se observó suelos aluvionales finos a medios con presencia en ocasiones de orgánicos y además en algunos sitios grandes bloques de basalto. Se realizaron 50 tendidos sísmicos, los cuáles fueron distribuidos a lo largo de la traza en forma continua. En cada uno de los tendidos se efectuaron lecturas de ida, vuelta, desde el punto central hacia los extremos y 2 tiros lejanos; la configuración de geófonos y disparos se determinó en campo en pruebas previas y de acuerdo a la disponibilidad de espacio. En general la longitud de los perfiles estuvo situada entre 25 y 100m y la separación entre geófonos fue de 5m, con objeto de garantizar el detalle de la investigación. La distribución y cantidad de disparos que se utilizó tuvo por objetivo calcular con precisión velocidades aparentes y de esta forma las verdaderas, calcular inclinaciones de refractores, delimitar el refractor profundo con la mayor precisión posible y asegurar una profundidad de investigación de por lo menos 15 metros. En el procesamiento se procedió a la determinación de los primeros arribos; éstos se representaron en función de las distancias mutuas entre geófonos, en la forma habitual de dromocronas para la posterior ayuda a la interpretación. Una vez efectuado el trazado de las

  6. Prevalência de notificação dos casos de tuberculose nas estratégias de saúde da família no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Almudi Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e Objetivos: A tuberculose (TB, doença infectocontagiosa, é atualmente um problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo, integrando a Lista Nacional de Agravos de Notificação Compulsória. Devido à alta incidência verificada, a cidade de Santa Cruz do Sul configura um dos municípios prioritários no controle de notificação da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Nesse contexto, as Estratégias de Saúde da Família (ESF são contribuintes importantes do processo de notificação, por serem cada vez mais utilizadas como portas de entrada do sistema de saúde e como pontos de controle da doença. Este estudo tem como objetivo estabelecer a prevalência da notificação dos casos de TB nas ESF em Santa Cruz do Sul. Métodos: O estudo realizado foi observacional, de caráter transversal. Foram utilizados dados dos consolidados das famílias cadastradas em 11 ESF na cidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, referentes ao ano de 2013. Resultados: O total de casos notificados foi 17, sendo que todos possuíam 15 anos ou mais de idade. O documento não especificava o sexo dos indivíduos notificados. A prevalência de tuberculose, no total de ESF analisadas, foi de 0,51/1000 pessoas cadastradas. Conclusão: A taxa elevada de casos de TB no município pode estar relacionada a um aumento na qualidade da busca ativa dos pacientes, levando a um número elevado de notificações pelas ESF. Essa taxa elevada de notificações é relevante, uma vez que atenta para a importância das ESF na elaboração e adoção de medidas preventivas.

  7. Análisis de seguridad y salud ocupacional en el equipo de investigación a cargo del proyecto puesta en valor del patrimonio cultural del noreste de Santa Cruz a través del turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Beatriz Bravo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El equipo de investigación al que la becaria se incorpora, indaga el patrimonio cultural del noreste de Santa Cruz. Su plan de formación buscaba vincular el objeto de análisis con la Tecnicatura Universitaria en Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo que la alumna estudia. Resultó prioritario trabajar en el análisis de las condiciones propias de desempeño del equipo de investigación en relación a la seguridad, con el anhelo de contribuir al desarrollo de un sistema de gestión de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional –recientemente iniciado- para posteriormente, adaptarlo a los diversos sitios y lugares de patrimonio cultural regionales.

  8. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles van Riper III

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM, to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  9. Estado de situación de los sitios arqueológicos en relación con el turismo en Santa Cruz (Argentina. La visión del arqueólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Flavia Elena Carballo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los circuitos turísticos no convencionales como Patagonia reciben cada vez mayor interés mundial debido a que no sólo promueven el atractivo natural de la región, sino también la visita a lugares en los que se encuentran bienes arqueológicos. Cualquier actividad que no considere medidas que mitiguen las acciones que se ejerzan sobre el registro arqueológico le producirá un daño irreversible. Si bien la problemática referida al turismo y patrimonio arqueológico usado como recurso turístico ha sido debatida muy ampliamente por décadas a nivel nacional y en la provincia de Santa Cruz, aún no se logra una tarea conjunta entre las instituciones involucradas en la preservación de los bienes arqueológicos. En este trabajo se hace referencia a un estado de la cuestión en la provincia de Santa Cruz y se delinea una metodología que contempla los criterios de una adecuada preservación del registro arqueológico para una correcta regulación de la oferta al público. Entre otros elementos de enfoque, se encuadra la situación en una necesaria perspectiva a escala de ordenamiento y planificación territorial, como marco más general para insertar la problemática, en pos de un equilibrio entre conservación y desarrollo.

  10. Presencia de vectores de leishmaniosis cutánea y visceral en la Isla de Santa Cruz de Mompox, Departamento de Bolívar, Colombia Vectors of cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniosis in San Cruz de Mompox island, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Vélez Bernal

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó una prospección entomológica en la Isla de Santa Cruz de Mompox entre los días 23 y 29 de diciembre de 1993, con el fin de determinar si se trata de una zona de riesgo potencial de Infección por Leishmania; para ello se practicaron capturas de flebotomíneos en sitios de reposo diurno y con trampas de luz tipo CDC y Shannon, colocadas simultáneamente en el perl y el extradomicilio. Se colectaron 367 ejemplares de flebotomíneos cuya Identificación demostró por primera vez la presencia en la Isla de siete especies de Lutzomyia entre las cuales se encuentran Lu. panamensis y Lu. gomezi, vectoras de leishmaniosis cutánea y Lu. evansi vectora principal de la forma visceral en la Costa Caribe Colombiana; el hallazgo demuestra que la isla es una zona de riesgo potencial para leishmaniosis cutánea y visceral.

    An entomological survey was carried out at the island of Santa Cruz of Mompox between December 23 and 29, 1993, In order to determine if there is a potential risk for Leishmania infection. Phlebotominae were captured at sites of diurnal rest as well as using CDC and Shannon light traps, simultaneously located at extra and peridomiciliary sites. 367 specimens were collected, among them 7 species of Lutzomyia including Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi vectors of cutaneous leishmaniosis; also Lu. evansi, the main vector of visceral leishmaniosis In the Colombian Caribbean Coast. This is the first report implicating this island as a potential risk site for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniosis.

  11. Resultados preliminares de las emisiones COVs generada por el tráfico de vehículos por carretera en Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, N. M.; Nolasco, D.; Lima, R. N.; Hernández, P. A.; Salazar, J. M. L.; Mena, A.; Rosa, D. de la; Hernández Cruz, Bentorey; González, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: 1er Encuentro sobre Meteorología y Atmósfera de Canarias, celebrado en el Puerto de la Cruz, los días 12,13 y 14 de noviembre de 2003. El encuentro estuvo organizado por el Centro Meteorológico Territorial en Canarias Occidental, con la colaboración del Observatorio Atmosférico de Izaña y del Grupo de Física de la Atmósfera de la Facultad de Física (Universidad de La Laguna) Los hidrocarburos emitidos directamente por los vehículos influyen en la salud humana como ...

  12. Susceptibility and resistance to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae: Triatominae in Bolivia: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Depickère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a high-endemic country for Chagas disease, for which the principal vector is Triatoma infestans (Triatominae. This is a mainly domestic species that is also found in the wild environment. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the importance of Triatominae resistance to insecticides, especially in Bolivia. Data regarding the susceptibility/resistance of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin are presented. For the first time, domestic populations of the department of Santa Cruz were tested, showing low resistance. Although most of the wild populations were found to be susceptible to deltamethrin, three populations from three departments showed a mortality rate of less than 100%. This result is emphasised here.

  13. Refining age estimates for three historic ground rupturing earthquakes in the Santa Cruz Mountains: 14C Wiggle-matching and Non-Native Pollen as age indicators (or not!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streig, A. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Guilderson, T.; Gavin, D. G.; Reidy, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Hazel Dell site provides the first definitive paleoseismic evidence of two pre-1906 19th century events on the Santa Cruz Mountains section based on the presence of anthropogenic artifacts. Hundreds of pieces of cut redwood chips were found in a stratigraphic horizon just below the ante-penultimate (E3) earthquake surface, suggesting that redwood trees at the site were cut down right before earthquake E3. We correlate our paleoseismic findings with the historic record and the onset of redwood logging in the area by determining the felling date of a buried redwood tree stump at the site and the age of the woodchips. We wiggle match 14 radiocarbon dates sampled from annual growth rings taken from the stump and the known interval between growth rings, with the intercepts of the INTCAL04 terrestrial 14C calibration curve. Pending 13C measurements, we find that the youngest ring we have identified in the tree is A.D. 1800. We also wiggle match 2 radiocarbon dates from inner and outer growth rings from two wood chips (with bark); their ages are consistent with the tree and the youngest woodchip ring is dated to 1813 A.D. There are no known ethnographic or historical accounts of pre-contact native people felling large trees in the way that European colonists did. The first record of European land use was for pasture in 1803. The property became a Spanish land grant in 1827, soon after which a whip-saw lumber mill is documented to have begun operation in the upper Corralitos area. We combine these paleoseismic results with historical earthquake accounts for the area and conclude that the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1838, 1890 and 1906. The Hazel Dell results are in contrast with findings from earlier paleoseismic studies in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The Grizzly Flat site, 6 km to the north, found evidence of 1906 and one 17th century earthquake. Two historic earthquakes were observed at the Mill Canyon site 8 km to the south and at the Arano Flat site 9.5 km south of

  14. Liderazgo y práctica pedagógica de los docentes en la Institución Educativa"José del Carmen Cabrejo Mejía del distrito de Andabamba, provincia de Santa Cruz, región Cajamarca - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Milían, Eduin

    2017-01-01

    La investigación responde a la pregunta ¿Cuál es la relación entre el liderazgo y la práctica pedagógica de los docentes en la institución educativa José del Carmen Cabrejo Mejía del distrito de Andabamba, provincia de santa Cruz, región Cajamarca en el año 2014? El objetivo general es: Determinar la relación entre el liderazgo y la práctica pedagógica de los docentes en la institución educativa José del Carmen Cabrejo Mejía del distrito de Andabamba, provincia de Santa Cruz, región Cajamarca...

  15. Valoración del impacto de efluentes minero industriales del carbón en el arroyo San José de Río Turbio en Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efluentes descargados al arroyo San José de Río Turbio al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina quedaron caracterizados mediante un análisis estadístico multivariado realizado con parámetros fisicoquímicos determinados sobre ellos (Caballero A. Dicho análisis permitió su diferenciación cualitativa y la identificación de los aportes que ocasiona cada uno de ellos. En éste trabajo se ha procedido en primer lugar a determinar la calidad de los vertidos y del agua del arroyo a partir de una escala de valoración. Dicha escala se confeccionó usando las conclusiones del análisis estadístico mencionado y la comparación de los valores obtenidos con los límites máximos de vuelco establecidos para la provincia de Santa Cruz (ley N° 2658, los Niveles guía argentinos de calidad de agua ambiente y los Niveles guía de la ley de protección Ambiental Nº 24585 (Código de minería argentino. Finalmente para valorar el impacto ocasionado por los efluentes minero industriales, se tomó en consideración además de la calidad, otros factores relevantes tales como caudal, tipo de vertido, intermitencia y peligrosidad; adoptando un modelo matemático particular que permitió asignar un puntaje asociado a una escala cualitativa. Como conclusión se pudo determinar mediante una metodología científica que el impacto ocasionado por las descargas minero industrial de carbón al curso de agua varía en un rango de alto a muy alto y esta determinada principalmente por aquellas provenientes de la planta depuradora de carbón y la central térmica.

  16. Estudio de adecuación fisiológica y salud bucal de restos óseos de cazadores recolectores del holoceno tardío del lago Salitroso (noroeste de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guráieb, Ana Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de los estudios de salud y adecuación fisiológica de la cavidad oral, efectuados sobre una muestra de 30 individuos de distinto sexo y edad, correspondientes a grupos cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno tardío de la cuenca del lago Salitroso (Noroeste de Santa Cruz. Se emplearon técnicas macroscópicas y radiológicas para evaluar la prevalencia de caries, pérdida de dientes antemortem, abscesos y enfermedad periodontal. Asimismo, sólo de forma macroscópica, se relevó la prevalencia de cálculo dental y el grado de desgaste de la corona. Se observaron bajas prevalencias de caries, abscesos y pérdidas de piezas antemortem, altos grados de desgaste y moderadas frecuencias de cálculo dental. Se compararon estos resultados con aquellos obtenidos para otros grupos cazadores-recolectores. Los datos obtenidos en el lago Salitroso coinciden con lo observado para grupos con dietas altamente abrasivas y de bajo contenido de alimentos cariogénicos. Metodológicamente, la inclusión de técnicas radioscópicas permitió refinar el diagnóstico de abscesos, aunque mostró una baja sensibilidad para la detección de caries.

  17. Qualidade Visual do Patrimônio Arquitetônico Eclético na Paisagem Urbana da Área Central de Santa Cruz do Sul: O Impacto das Mídias Exteriores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hennig Lovato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O projeto de pesquisa: “Qualidade Visual do Patrimônio Arquitetônico Eclético na Paisagem Urbana da Área Central de Santa Cruz do Sul: O Impacto das Mídias Exteriores” teve como principal objetivo realizar um diagnóstico referente ao impacto visual causado pelos diferentes elementos de publicidade utilizados nas edificações do período eclético da arquitetura. Parte-se dos pressupostos de que os elementos de publicidade, em seu excesso, ocasionam a perda da legibilidade das edificações patrimoniais pela população. Por outro lado, as alterações de identidade visual dos imóveis ocorrem também em conjunto com outros processos como os de sua readequação funcional e descaracterização física. Este artigo compreende uma descrição sintética da metodologia utilizada para desenvolver a pesquisa, bem como os principais resultados finais obtidos ao longo dos dois anos de estudo (2012 e 2013 e que estão relacionados ao uso atual e original das edificações, ao conceito de legibilidade (integridade física e estado geral de conservação externa das obras e a avaliação geral dos diferentes níveis de impactos causados pelas mídias.

  18. Gestión de residuos en un emprendimiento minero carbonífero caso de estudio: Yacimientos Carboníferos Río Turbio (YCRT Río Turbio, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Luís Abiuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un diagnostico ambiental basado en la información disponible, se propone un Procedimiento de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Domésticos y Especiales (RSD, RSE y medidas de manejo ambiental, con el fin de mejorar en breve plazo la situación actual de YCRT (Yacimientos Carboníferos Río Turbio Río Turbio, Santa Cruz, producto de años de un manejo ambiental deficiente. Dada la perspectiva a partir del año 2005, de un progresivo mejoramiento de las condiciones generales del yacimiento, a raíz de una decisión del gobierno nacional y la incorporación definitiva del carbón de Río Turbio a la matriz energética nacional, con la inminente construcción de una Central Térmica de 240 Mw. en Río Turbio que se conectara al Sistema Interconectado Nacional, cobra vital importancia el tratamiento del pasivo ambiental de YCRT, así como la planificación de los aspectos ambientales vinculados a su desarrollo actual y futuro.

  19. Estudio microscópico y radioscópico de indicadores de salud bucal en una muestra de restos óseos de cazadores-recoletores tardíos del Lago Salitroso (noroeste de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Guraieb, Solana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En un trabajo reciente se realizó un estudio de salud bucal en una muestra de restos humanos perteneciente a cazadores recolectores tardíos (entre ca. 1200-350 años AP provenientes de chenques en la cuenca del lago Salitroso (Noroeste de Santa Cruz. Mediante la inspección visual se estudiaron 21 individuos de distinto sexo y edad, observándose bajas prevalencias de caries, abscesos, pérdida de dientes antemortem y altos grados de desgaste dental. Estos resultados coinciden con lo observado en otras muestras de cazadores-recolectores con dietas con una baja proporción relativa de alimentos vegetales ricos en azúcares y almidones. Teniendo en cuenta este antecedente, el objetivo del presente trabajo es ampliar los estudios de salud bucal mediante la incorporación de nuevos casos, nuevas variables (v.g. enfermedades periodontales y la diversificación de las técnicas de análisis utilizadas, principalmente a través del empleo de la radioscopía como técnica complementaria a la inspección visual. Este estudio permitirá, por un lado, estimar la concordancia entre las observaciones obtenidas a través de ambas técnicas de análisis y, por el otro, evaluar la persistencia de las tendencias observadas anteriormente en el comportamiento de estos indicadores

  20. Avaliação da compatibilidade entre processos produtivos e os ecossistemas locais pela determinação da capacidade suporte dos recursos hídricos: um estudo de caso em Santa Cruz do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa descreve a aplicação de métodos ecotoxicológicos para avaliar a capacidade de suporte do rio Pardinho, município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, frente ao lançamento de efluentes de diferentes origens: estação de tratamento de esgoto doméstico, frigorífico de suínos, indústria de alimentos (massas e biscoitos, indústria de curtimento de couro, indústria têxtil e lavanderia hospitalar. Os resultados obtidos permitiram identificar que em uma situação na qual qualquer um destes efluentes fosse lançado neste corpo receptor, mesmo que de forma isolada, resultaria em sérios prejuízos ambientais decorrentes de efeitos agudos e crônicos. A baixa vazão deste recurso hídrico reduz por conseqüência a sua capacidade de suportar impactos deste tipo, denunciando uma completa incompatibilidade entre as atividades geradoras destes resíduos e o ecossistema local. Assim, a alternativa para compatibilizar estes fatores passa pela otimização de processos industriais e a implantação de políticas voltadas ao reuso de águas no processo, de forma a minimizar o volume de efluente gerado e a sua ecotoxicidade.

  1. Comunicação e representações sociais nas relações de trabalho do pólo de confecções de Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Maciel

    Full Text Available A partir da coleta de informações, por meio de investigação direta e pesquisa bibliográfica, objetivamos analisar hipotéticas influências recíprocas entre as relações de trabalho vinculadas ao pólo de confecções de Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, no Agreste Setentrional do Estado de Pernambuco, e práticas socialmente construídas e compartilhadas a partir das identificações das pessoas com as implicações do ambiente e do nicho de trabalho em questão. Além da observação direta em campo e da pesquisa bibliográfica, também acrescentamos alguns depoimentos das pessoas. Entre os resultados, ficaram claras influências geracionais nos direcionamentos de mercado, algumas consequências da sintonia entre as diferentes faixas etárias, assim como mudanças no cotidiano demarcada pelo intercâmbio constante entre "o local" e "o global".

  2. El turismo en Santa Cruz y una caracterización del empleo generado. Su análisis en el epicentro turístico de la provincia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Blasco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone analizar la sustentabilidad del desarrollo de la actividad turística desde el punto de vista del empleo, tomando en cuenta su importante contribución hacia la economía regional. Al analizar la actividad turística y su dinámica, se avanza hacia una caracterización de la estructura empresaria predominante, y en dicho marco, su vinculación con el empleo.Estudios anteriores permitieron caracterizar la estructura productiva de la Provincia de Santa Cruz, los efectos de la transformación económica de los años ´90 y su evolución posterior a las crisis de los años 2001/2002 y la iniciada en el 2008.La tarea investigativa incluye la recopilación y actualización de datos e información estadística para el sector de actividad en lo económico y laboral, el procesamiento de la información producida, y el análisis y elaboración de los informes correspondientes.En tal sentido se ha trabajado con información cuali-cuantiativa para los diferentes niveles de análisis considerados, relevando, sistematizando y analizando información secundaria y documental relacionada al sector. Asimismo, y en cuanto a instrumentos metodológicos para la recolección de información primaria sectorial, se han diseñado encuestas semi estructuradas vinculadas al mercado laboral y demandas específicas por sector, las que fueron aplicadas sobre informantes calificados de la región.Si bien históricamente ha destacado en la Provincia de Santa de Santa Cruz lapreponderancia del sector primario -particularmente de la rama petrolera-, en los últimos años se ha podido relevar un fuerte crecimiento del sector turístico como emergente de una nueva dinámica productiva.La principal ventaja comparativa la ofrece el producto “glaciares”, el cual emerge como excluyente en las preferencias de los visitantes, constituyéndose las ciudades de El Calafate y El Chalten como epicentro turístico de la región.Se estudia la

  3. The herpetological collection from Bolivia in the “Estación Biológica de Doñana” (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padial, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection consists of 822 specimens, of which 529 are amphibians, all of them anurans (5 families, 17 genera and 51 species and 293 specimens are reptiles (10 families, 28 genera and 49 species. The collection has around 25% of the amphibians species known to occur in Bolivia and about 19% of the reptile species. They come from 55 localities of the Bolivian Departments of Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí and Santa Cruz and represent the following bioregions: Puna, Chaco, Chiquitanian Forest, Wet Savannas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Interandean Dry Valleys and Humid Lowland Forest. The specimens of Scinax chiquitanus and Phrynopus kempffi are paratypes. The record of Pleurodema borelli is the first for the Santa Cruz Department and second for Bolivia. Liolaemus dorbignyi also constitutes the second report for the country and Tropidurus melanopleurus is cited for the first time for the Beni Department.

    La colección se compone de 822 ejemplares, 529 anfibios y 293 reptiles. Los anfibios son todos anuros, pertenecientes a 51 especies de 17 géneros y cinco familias. Los reptiles estan representados por 49 especies, incluidas en 28 géneros de 10 familias. Los ejemplares provienen de 55 localidades repartidas en los Departamentos bolivianos de Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí y Santa Cruz, y representan las siguientes bioregiones: Puna, Chaco, Bosque Chiquitano, Sabanas Húmedas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Valles Secos Interandinos y Bosque Húmedo de Llanura. Los ejemplares de Scinax chiquitanus y Phrynopus kempffi son paratipos. Pleurodema borelli es citada por primera vez para el Departamento de Santa Cruz y por segunda vez para Bolivia; también el registro de Liolaemus dorbignyi constituye el segundo para el país y el de Tropidurus melanopleurus el primero para el Departamento Beni.

  4. Historical case - welding on service in Brazil Bolivia gas pipeline at 92 Bar of pressure, in Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Caso historico: execucao de soldagem em operacao no gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil a pressao de 92 BAR, em Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lobao Filho, Jesualdo Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alcatrao, Mauro dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the steps for the qualification the welding procedure and the jobs for the welding in service at 92 bar of pressure, the measures to guarantee the integrity of the gas pipeline, including lines support, requirements for hydrostatic testing and the main equipment used during the jobs. It is made reference to an accident happened several month after in service welding in gas pipeline and presents the respective cause. (author)

  5. Assessment of the uranium potential of the Jurassic volcanism (Bahía Laura and El Quemado Complexes), Province of Santa Cruz, using ground-borne gamma-ray spectrometry and rock geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, L.E.; Maloberti, A.L.; Gayone, M.R.; Kaufmann, C.; Sruoga, P.

    2013-01-01

    Radiometric surveys are a rapid tool to measure uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations in rocks and are very useful in the exploration for radioactive minerals. The distribution of uranium in Jurassic volcanic rocks of the province of Santa Cruz is evaluated in this work using ground gamma-ray spectrometry and rock geochemistry in order to assess its potential to form uranium deposits. Five areas were selected, which had some previous data of high radiometric values and detailed geological information. Measurements were carried out with a portable gamma-ray spectrometer (Exploranium-GR 320®) in andesites, ignimbrites, rhyolites, silicified areas, ash-fall tuffs and lacustrine sediments corresponding to the Bahía Laura and to El Quemado complexes. The results were similar in the five surveyed areas: radiometric concentrations show good positive correlations with chemical composition of the studied rocks for both K and Th, and a relatively poorer correlation for U. Different processes such as magmatic differentiation, vapor phase crystallization, hydrothermal alteration and supergene alteration are reflected in the distribution of these elements. U concentrations increase in the more glassy rocks, in areas with hydrothermal silicification, and in fracture zones, features that should be considered in future surveys. The calkalkaline composition and arc-signatures of the Jurassic magmatism are not the most favorable for uranium enrichment and for concentration of significant mineralizations. However, the extensional tectonic setting; the occurrence of calderas with facies slightly enriched in U and Th, in addition to hydrothermal activity are positive factors for U exploration. (authors) [es

  6. Implicancias del conflicto Ameghino-Moreno sobre la colección de mamíferos fósiles realizada por Carlos Ameghino en su primera exploración al río Santa Cruz, Argentina Implications of the Ameghino-Moreno conflict on the collection of fossil mammals made by Carlos Ameghino during his first exploration of the Santa Cruz river, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre de 1887, Carlos Ameghino, Ayudante Preparador de Paleontología del Museo de La Plata, retornaba de una fructífera expedición a las barrancas del río Santa Cruz, encomendada por el Director de dicha institución, Francisco P. Moreno. Hacia fines de ese año, Florentino Ameghino, Secretario Subdirector del Museo de La Plata, dio a conocer dichos hallazgos describiendo sucintamente 122 taxones de los cuales 110 eran nuevas especies. Al poco tiempo, Florentino era exonerado del Museo, negándosele el acceso a las colecciones. No obstante, en 1889 Ameghino amplió sus descripciones y figuró 74 de los taxones de 1887. En 1891 Florentino Ameghino explicó que sus descripciones y figuras de 1889 se basaron en apuntes y croquis realizados antes de ser exonerado. Llamativamente, muchos de los ejemplares figurados se encuentran depositados en la Colección Naci onal Ameghino, alojada en el Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia". En 1980, basándose en este impensado destino de los fósiles, Larry Marshall concluyó que Florentino Ameghino se habría apropiado de una parte de la colección de 1887 y sobre ésta basó su obra de 1889. Las evidencias aquí presentadas avalan la apropiación de ejemplares propuesta por Marshall y brinda un marco de referencia para evaluar la conformación de las series tipo de las especies de 1887. Por último, revelan de que forma el contexto histórico, la competencia entre instituciones y los anhelos personales se conjugaron para romper lo que debió haber sido una asociación científica de excelencia.In September 1887, Carlos Ameghino, Assistant Preparator of Paleontology at the Museo de La Plata, returned to the museum after a successful expedition to the banks of the Santa Cruz River. He had been commissioned by the director of this institution, Francisco P. Moreno, to carry out this fieldwork. By the end of that year, Florentino Ameghino, Assistant Director of the museum

  7. O Flúor nas águas subterrâneas da Formação Santa Maria, na região de Santa Cruz do Sul e Venâncio Aires, RS, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Casagrande Marimon

    2006-01-01

    Concentrações de fluoreto, até 11 mg L-1, têm sido detectadas no aqüífero da Formação Santa Maria, Sistema Aqüífero Guarani, na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As águas subterrâneas são utilizadas para abastecimento público e levaram a incidência de fluorose dental. Esta área é a maior produtora de tabaco no Brasil, com uma longa história de aplicação de fertilizantes. Duas hipóteses são investigadas na busca de elucidar a origem das anomalias de flúor, a primeira, se r...

  8. TBG's equipment for gas pipeline repair and bypass in service; Equipamentos da TBG para execucao de reparos e bypass em operacao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemgruber, Nelson Arthur Pinto; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the main available resources in TBG for repair of the gas pipeline, as clamps for small repairs, bolt-on clamps, equipment for hot tapping and execution of by pass in-service, cold cutter machine, air movers for removal the gas of the line, and movable systems of emergency illumination. The location of the equipment is detailed, the main technical and operational characteristics, as well as aspects observed in simulated accomplished in the operational units of TBG and presents the planning for acquisition of new equipment. (author)

  9. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  10. Perfil antropométrico e a relação da flexibilidade com a dor e desconforto em trabalhadores da indústria de Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Nepomuceno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhadores industriários estão expostos a diversas situações que podem agravar a sua saúde. A promoção da saúde no trabalho é de extrema importância e exige intervenção interdisciplinar. Objetivo: identificar o perfil antropométrico e a relação de flexibilidade com a presença de dor e desconforto em trabalhadores da indústria do município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com trabalhadores industriários. Na avaliação antropométrica foram analisados índice de massa corporal e percentual de gordura, já para a flexibilidade foram realizados os testes do manguito rotador e sentar e alcançar. A dor e desconforto foi identificada através de uma figura do corpo humano onde eles referiam estes sintomas. Resultados: a maioria dos industriários apresentam excesso de peso (56,4% e bom percentual de gordura (49,2%, porém possuem resultados inadequados de flexibilidade de ombro (71,0% e parte posterior de tronco e pernas (64,6% e presença de dor e desconforto em ombros (50% e costas (26,6%. Ao relacionar a flexibilidade com a presença de dor e desconforto, percebe-se que as variáveis não se relacionam diretamente. Considerações finais: o perfil dos trabalhadores da indústria se caracteriza por excesso de peso, baixa aptidão na flexibilidade e presença de dor e desconforto. Sobre a dor e desconforto observa-se uma tendência de associação entre níveis de flexibilidade inadequada e a presença destes sintomas.

  11. La resignificación del contenido agua en geografía. Un análisis de los diseños curriculares del ciclo básico en la provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Ariel Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se basa en la descripción y análisis de los diseños curriculares, intenta resignificar el contenido agua en el ciclo básico de la secundaria, brindando luego a la comunidad educativa una serie de propuestas didácticas que puedan resultar interesantes para los docentes y alumnos sobre el desarrollo curricular de dicho contenido.La idea de trabajar esta temática en las escuelas surge a partir de la importancia que se le otorga al contenido agua en diversos ámbitos extra escolares concediéndole a éste un valor significativo como recurso fundamental para la vida, fuente de energía, uso recreativo ó como un bien económico, entre otros.Por tal motivo y viendo que este trabajo tiene un marcado acento en la temática agua y que además nos encontramos con una variada información sobre la misma, se busca saber cuál es la significatividad que le otorga el Estado en sus diseños curriculares y libros de textos, cuál los docentes y cómo es recepcionada y trabajada toda esta información. En este sentido el trabajo tiene como objetivo resignificar el contenido agua en los programas, planificaciones y diseños curriculares, con la finalidad de poner en valor su discusión en el ámbito escolar, siendo este recurso importante en la provincia de Santa Cruz.Para finalizar, lo que se pretende también es brindar a toda la comunidad educativa propuestas didácticas innovadoras contextualizadas, con la idea de trabajarlas en clase y generar aprendizajes significativos en torno al uso, valoración y cuidado del agua.

  12. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning τ and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z degrees, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the τ the leptonic branching fraction of the J/ψ, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of α s at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of α s by a factor of about three from m r to m z . Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b bar b fraction of Z degrees decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z degree coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z degrees mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z degrees decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model

  13. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  15. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-11-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  16. Collection methods and quality assessment for Esche-richia coli, water quality, and microbial source tracking data within Tumacácori National Historical Park and the upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas; Coes, Alissa L.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Mayo, Justine

    2018-03-05

    Tumacácori National Historical Park protects the culturally important Mission, San José de Tumacácori, while also managing a portion of the ecologically diverse riparian corridor of the Santa Cruz River. This report describes the methods and quality assurance procedures used in the collection of water samples for the analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli), microbial source tracking markers, suspended sediment, water-quality parameters, turbidity, and the data collection for discharge and stage; the process for data review and approval is also described. Finally, this report provides a quantitative assessment of the quality of the E. coli, microbial source tracking, and suspended sediment data.The data-quality assessment revealed that bias attributed to field and laboratory contamination was minimal, with E. coli detections in only 3 out of 33 field blank samples analyzed. Concentrations in the field blanks were several orders of magnitude lower than environmental concentrations. The microbial source tracking (MST) field blank was below the detection limit for all MST markers analyzed. Laboratory blanks for E. coli at the USGS Arizona Water Science Center and laboratory blanks for MST markers at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory were all below the detection limit. Irreplicate data for E. coli and suspended sediment indicated that bias was not introduced to the data by combining samples collected using discrete sampling methods with samples collected using automatic sampling methods.The split and sequential E. coli replicate data showed consistent analytical variability and a single equation was developed to explain the variability of E. coli concentrations. An additional analysis of analytical variability for E. coli indicated analytical variability around 18 percent relative standard deviation and no trend was observed in the concentration during the processing and analysis of multiple split-replicates. Two replicate samples were

  17. Elder Abuse in the Iberian Peninsula and Bolivia: A Multicountry Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal, Rosa; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Ruiz-Gandara, África; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, Mª Aurora

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with abuse. Suspected abuse was identified in 6.9% of the elderly who participated in the study in Spain, 39% in Bolivia, and 24.5% in Azores. In all areas, studied psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse. In conclusion, although the prevalence of abuse to older people in the family and community environment differs in the areas studied, it is present in all countries and the data are comparable with other developing and European countries. The profile of the abused older persons appears to be similar in all countries.

  18. Case history: recovery of the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline at the Vocoroca reservoir crossing Parana state; Caso historico: recuperacao da travessia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil no reservatorio da barragem de Vocoroca-Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 Km. Of this total, 2.593 Km are in Brazilian soil. In the kilometer 526+500m of the south spread, GASBOL crosses the reservoir of the Vocoroca's dam (COPEL), which had its operational level reduced, in face of the station of the droughts that usually reaches the area in the months of March to September. The lowing of the reservoir caused the turn of the course of Fojo River (Sao Joaozinho River) to its natural quota, forming a waterfall, whose hydraulic gradient caused the removal of the sediment and part of the foundation soil, discovering the pipe that was with space free from approximately 13 m of length. This paper discusses the solution adopted, as well as the several details of the recovery project, besides geotechnical and hydraulic studies and the aspects of safety of the Gas Pipeline. (author)

  19. Índices de calidad de agua del río Cucabaj ubicado en el municipio de Santa Cruz del Quiché, Quiché y la influencia en los costos de tratamientos de potabilizaciónWater quality index of Cucabaj River located in the municipality of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lisett Aldana Aguilar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El río Cucabaj es una de las fuentes principales de agua que abastece junto a los ríos Tabil y Aguacate a 1,352 hogares del área urbana del municipio de Santa Cruz del Quiché. Este rio recorre parte de los municipios de Santa Cruz del Quiché y Chiché. Es tributario del río Durazno y pertenece a esta microcuenca. En el periodo de estudio el caudal osciló entre 0.009-0.1004 m3/seg. Gran proporción de este caudal se capta y recorre alrededor de 9 km. hacia la planta de tratamiento para su potabilización ubicada en la salida a San Pedro Jocopilas. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo mostrar la variabilidad temporal del recurso hídrico, determinando el índice de calidad del agua e índice de contaminación del río Cucabaj, así como los costos de desinfección utilizando hipoclorito de calcio. El monitoreo del rio fue realizado por un periodo de diez meses, de abril 2012 a enero 2013, según el índice de calidad de agua que muestra en una escala de 0-100 puntos, que suman los resultados de nueve parámetros y clasifica el agua del río Cucabaj en la categoría de media a buena (contaminada a levemente contaminada para uso humano, por lo que antes de su consumo debe de aplicarse tratamientos de potabilización. El mes con mayor caudal fue septiembre con 0.1004 m3/seg, particularidad que influyó considerablemente en presentar el valor más bajo en calidad y uno de los valores más altos en contaminación por materia orgánica. Esta característica se asocia principalmente a la presencia de coliformes totales. En cuanto a los costos de desinfección por hipoclorito de calcio, no se establecieron diferencias significativas en función de la cantidad de caudal.

  20. Lineage Analysis of Circulating Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites and Their Association with Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Ramona; Nishizawa, Juan Eiki; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Iihoshi, Naomi; Roca, Yelin; Avilas, Cinthia; Gianella, Alberto; Lora, Javier; Gutierrez Velarde, Freddy Udalrico; Renjel, Luis Alberto; Miura, Sachio; Higo, Hiroo; Komiya, Norihiro; Maemura, Koji; Hirayama, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU): Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon) from Bolivia were analyzed for their circulating parasites lineages using minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymorphism. Methods and Findings Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro-intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japonés were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon). DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%), of which 104 (53.3%) were Tc IId, 4 (2.0%) Tc I, 7 (3.6%) Tc IIb, 1 (0.5%) Tc IIe, 26 (13.3%) Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5%) Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0%) Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9%) were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%), TPK like (48.9%) and Bug-like (1.5%). There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease. Conclusions None of the identified lineages or sublineages was significantly associated with any particular clinical manifestations in the chronic Chagas patients in Bolivia. PMID:20502516

  1. DIAGNÓSTICO DE UN PROYECTO EDUCATIVO SOBRE LA ESTRATEGIA DEL EJERCICIO FÍSICO Y LA PARTICIPACIÓN PRÁCTICA DE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA DIRIGIDO A UN GRUPO DE ADULTOS DE LA COMUNIDAD DE BOLSÓN DE SANTA CRUZ, GUANACASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Revuelta Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue de evaluar la viabilidad y factibilidad de desarrollar un proyecto de intervención en la comunidad de Bolsón de Santa Cruz de Guanacaste, Costa Rica, que involucre la educación y participación activa de la comunidad con el objetivo de promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables, en búsqueda de mejorar la calidad de vida de los participantes y por consiguiente reducir los índices de sedentarismo y un mayor control sobre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. La muestra de participantes estaba compuesta por n= 25 (24 mujeres y 1 hombre, con edades promedio de 33,72 ± 11,65 años, todos ellos residentes de la Comunidad de Bolsón de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. Los sujetos se sometieron en forma voluntaria a completar el cuestionario DJK. Dentro de los resultados obtenidos se encuentra que un 88 porciento de los encuestados mencionan que no existe un proyecto de actividad física; a su vez el 100 por ciento desea recibir información y participar de los talleres de actividad física; se encuentra también que el 56 porciento está dispuesto a pagar por recibir este tipo de servicios en su comunidad. En cuanto a las actividades de interés que a los encuestados les gustaría realizar, dentro de las de mayor porcentaje se presentan con más del 80 por ciento el baile, la caminata y las actividades al aire libre. Al mismo tiempo, se encuentra que un 68 porciento tienen alguna patología o lesión. Por los resultados obtenidos, se cumple con la expectativa planteada de determinar el grado de interés y posibilidad de desarrollar el proyecto de intervención planteado y se refleja que el 100 por ciento de la población se puede involucrar en el mismo, procurando que al implementar este tipo de acción, se fortalezca la posibilidad de informar y dar la idea a los usuarios, basado en su propia experiencia sobre la importancia de optar por estilos de vida saludables en su diario vivir. ABSTRACT The purpose of this

  2. EL DESARROLLO DE UN ASENTAMIENTO LACUSTRE EN LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO LERMA: EL CASO DE SANTA CRUZ ATIZAPÁN, MÉXICO CENTRAL (The development of a lake settlement in the upper basin of the Lerma river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kabata

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El valle de Toluca se localiza en la cuenca hidrológica Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, la más extensa de la República Mexicana. A lo largo de su milenaria historia, ha sido reconocido por ser una región donde se encuentran tres ciénagas (Chignahuapan, Chimaliapan y Chicnahuapan, circundadas por volcanes y densos bosques además del río Lerma. La riqueza ambiental de este frío valle favoreció la temprana ocupación de la región, cuyas evidencias arqueológicas se remontan, por lo menos, hasta hace más de 3000 años, durante el Formativo temprano. Hacia 500/600 d. C., las condiciones climáticas se volvieron más secas, provocando el descenso del nivel de agua de las lagunas y permitiendo la colonización del interior de las ciénagas. El sitio arqueológico Santa Cruz Atizapán constituye uno de los asentamientos lacustres que se fundaron en esta zona. Este artículo se enfoca en él, donde los antiguos pobladores se adaptaron a las condiciones del terreno cenagoso y lo transformaron en un lugar habitable, construyendo unos cien montículos sobre los cuales levantaron sus casas-habitaciones. Trata, también, acerca del modo de vida lacustre, donde prevalece la relación simbiótica del hombre con su medio, y sobre el intercambio de productos con otras regiones, que destacan por considerarse de gran relevancia en el desarrollo y consolidación del sitio como centro rector. A pesar de que los montículos dentro de la ciénaga fueron abandonados a fines del Epiclásico cuando las condiciones climáticas provocaron nuevamente un ascenso en el nivel del agua, la parte nuclear del sitio Santa Cruz Atizapán continuó funcionando durante el Posclásico como uno de los centros regionales importantes. ENGLISH: The Valley of Toluca is situated in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago hydrological system, the largest basin of the Mexican Republic. Throughout its history it has been known for its three shallow water lakes or marshes (Chignahuapan, Chimaliapan and

  3. "I Cannot Be Worried": Living with Chagas Disease in Tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin J

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. In this ethnographic study, semistructured interviews took place from March-June 2013 with 63 patients who had previously tested positive for CD. During the fieldwork period, participant observation was conducted and patient family members, providers, community members, and public health officials were consulted. Patients often experienced emotional distress when diagnosed with CD, yet were generally unable to find biomedical treatment. Respondents stressed the need to avoid powerful emotions which would worsen the impact of CD symptoms. To manage CD, patients embraced a calm state of mind, described in Spanish as tranquilidad, which partially empowered them to return to a normal existence. In the perceived absence of biomedical treatment options, patients seek their own means of coping with CD diagnosis. Rather than fatalism or resignation, patients' emphasis on maintaining calm and not worrying about CD represents a pragmatic strategy for restoring a sense of normalcy and control to their lives. Programs focused on treatment of CD should remain mindful of the emotional and social impact of the disease on patients.

  4. Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, G.; Revollo, J.; Guerra, M.; Cruz, M.; Barja Simon, Z.; Roca, Y.; Vargas Florès, J.; Hervé, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural transmission of dengue virus from an infected female mosquito to its progeny, namely the vertical transmission, was researched in wild caught Aedes aegypti during an important outbreak in the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Mosquitoes were collected at the preimaginal stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) then reared up to adult stage for viral detection using molecular methods. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulating with significant higher prevalence in male than in female mosquitoes. Of the 97 pools of Ae. aegypti (n = 635 male and 748 female specimens) screened, 14 pools, collected in February-May in 2007, were found positive for dengue virus infection: five DEN-1 and nine DEN-3. The average true infection rate (TIR) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were respectively 1.08% and 1.01%. These observations suggest that vertical transmission of dengue virus may be detected in vectors at the peak of an outbreak as well as several months before an epidemic occurs in human population. PMID:21894270

  5. Antibody response to an anti-rabies vaccine in a dog population under field conditions in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; González, E T; Ascarrunz, G; Loza, A; Pérez, M; Ruiz, G; Rojas, L; Mancilla, K; Pereira, J A C; Guzman, J A; Pecoraro, M R

    2008-10-01

    Rabies remains an important public health issue in Bolivia, South America. Public concern and fears are most focussed on dogs as the source of rabies. The objective of the present study was to assess immunity of an inactivated suckling mouse brain vaccine against canine rabies used for the official vaccination campaigns under field conditions in an endemic area of rabies in Bolivia. A total of 236 vaccinated and 44 unvaccinated dogs in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, selected using stratified random sampling, were investigated in order to obtain owned dog characteristics and antibody titres against rabies in April 2007. The proportion of vaccinated dogs with an antibody titre exceeded the protection threshold value of 0.5 EU/ml was 58% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 52-65], indicating that vaccination is likely to elicit an antibody response (odds ratio 6.3, 95% CI: 1.2-11.5). The range of geometric mean of antibody titre for vaccinated dogs (0.89 EU/ml; 95% CI: 0.75-1.04) was considered to meet the minimal acceptable level indicating an adequate immune response to the vaccine. However, the titre level was not satisfactory in comparison with the results from other field investigations with inactivated tissue culture vaccines. It is recommended for public health authorities to (1) consider modernizing their vaccine manufacturing method because the level of immunity induced by the current vaccine is comparably low, (2) conduct frequent vaccination campaigns to maintain high levels of vaccination coverage, and (3) actively manage the domestic dog population in the study area, which is largely responsible for rabies maintenance.

  6. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  7. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  8. Diferenciación de efluentes minero industriales del carbón y poblacionales mediante el uso de la estadística multivariada: un análisis sobre las descargas al arroyo San José de Río Turbio en la provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante décadas efluentes poblacionales y minero industriales del carbón han sido descargados en el arroyo San José ubicado en Río Turbio, al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina, inutilizándolo para cualquier uso. La demanda de agua que se generará a partir de los planes de expansión de la actividad productiva y la que se originará por el aumento poblacional, hace necesario que se realicen acciones para recuperar cursos afectados, tomando como punto de partida la identificación y caracterización de efluentes descargados. Los estudios realizados previamente se han basado en un tratamiento global o en muestreos puntuales sin difereciar, cuantificar o cualificar en forma sistemática las alteraciones ocasionadas por los distintos aportes. En éste trabajo se identificó los diferentes vertidos al arroyo y se determinó parámetros fisicoquímicos durante dos campañas (invierno y verano que permitieron caracterizar los individuos a partir de un tratamiento estadístico multivariado de los datos. Los resultados arrojaron valores de pH dentro del rango de la neutralidad o ligeramente básicos y la alcalinidad, otro de los factores que determinan la disolución de metales, dio valores que les confiere a las aguas capacidad amortiguadora beneficiosa. Como conclusión estadística general, los efluentes quedaron diferenciados principalmente entre los que aportan importantes cantidades de sólidos y metales totales en suspención (Planta depuradora de carbón y la Central térmica, de los que no lo hacen (Minas en explotación y abandonadas y efluentes Poblacionales. Éstos últimos se caracterizaron además por una elevada alcalinidad y contenidos de cloruros,calcio y dureza.

  9. Avances en la agenda urbana : Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Steinberg (Florian); M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEste libro tiene como objetivo principal, presentar algunos trabajos del SINPA que contribuyeron y representan “Avances en la Gestión Urbana”. Estos artículos son fruto de la experiencia del proyecto SINPA como aporte a los cambios y procesos de fortalecimiento de la gestión urbana en el

  10. Charles Dick: Agricultural Regulation in Santa Cruz, 1930- 1967

    OpenAIRE

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Dick, Charles; Jarrell, Randall

    1997-01-01

    This is the oral history of the late county agricultural commissioner, who traces the history of California's unique system of agricultural regulation and inspection, which dates from the 1880s. Dick's overview of county agriculture includes the increasing importance of pesticide regulation (which is currently a very debated issue in the strawberry industry); mechanization, changes in local crops and acreages, farm labor and unionization, and the demise of the family farm.

  11. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance practices

  12. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance

  13. Market-Based Instruments for the Conservation of Underutilized Crops: In-Store Experimental Auction of Native Chili Products in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Native chilies (Capsicum spp. are currently underutilized in Bolivia, one of this crop’s centers of diversity. Fewer local farmers cultivate native chilies annually due to low market demand. Increasing its private use value can lead to the in-situ conservation of this crop. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the market acceptability of three native chili products: (a chili marmalade; (b chili cooking paste; and (c pickled chilies. Multi-product Becker-DeGroot-Marschak experimental auctions and hedonic tests were conducted with 337 participants in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Data were analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results suggest that consumers are willing to pay price premiums of about 25–50 percent. Biodiversity conservation and improvements in farmers’ quality of life statements would not have influence on first purchase decisions but rather on repurchase decisions and therefore on consumers’ product loyalty. This in turn could lead to sustainable agro-biodiversity conservation, centered on consumers’ purchase of these products over time.

  14. y El Alto, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Parra Bernal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente caso de estudio se analiza la empresarialidad informal como un reto de política pública y económica. Para ello, se efectuaron 20 entrevistas en profundidad a microempresarios y comerciantes del sector informal en las ciudades de La Paz y El Alto, en Bolivia en 2010, y a 3 funcionarios públicos de instituciones de apoyo al fomento empresarial en el mismo país. La principal reflexión giró en torno al establecimiento de que los empresarios informales poseen un elevado nivel de influencia en la efectividad de las políticas públicas implementadas para su sector, así como en los mecanismos que se han utilizado en Bolivia para incluirlos en el proceso.

  15. Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and mineral supplements among resource-poor women in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Elizabeth; Dearden, Kirk A; Slater, Sharon; Butrón, Betzabé; Lanata, Claudio F; Huffman, Sandra L

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that social marketing improves women's awareness and consumption of multivitamin and mineral supplements. Formative research and baseline and final surveys using a multistaged stratified cluster sample. Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Women 15 to 49 years old (n=1709 at baseline and n=1735 at final survey). Social marketing campaign using radio and television spots. Awareness and use of multivitamins, including VitalDía, the brand promoted as part of this social marketing campaign. Cross-tabulations to assess changes over time in awareness and use of multivitamins. Logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of multivitamin use. The campaign increased women's awareness and use of multiple supplements, including VitalDía. Awareness of multiple supplements nearly doubled among women with 6 to 8 years of schooling, tripled among women with 4 to 5 years of education, and more than quadrupled among women with less than 4 years of schooling. After 9 months of social marketing, 11% of women had taken VitalDía one or more times, 7% had taken it at least once in the last 3 months, and 4% had used it one or more times in the last month. Improvements in the use of VitalDía were evident for women of all socioeconomic and educational levels, with the greatest increases occurring in the least advantaged groups. Additionally, women who had a positive perception of the benefits of multivitamins were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.3; P marketing of multiple supplements reached resource-poor women and can be used to bridge gaps in access, improve awareness of supplementation as an option, and increase the likelihood that women will try supplements.

  16. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  17. Protective human leucocyte antigen haplotype, HLA-DRB1*01-B*14, against chronic Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia del Puerto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the flagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects 8-10 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms that underlie the development of complications of chronic Chagas disease, characterized primarily by pathology of the heart and digestive system, are not currently understood. To identify possible host genetic factors that may influence the clinical course of Chagas disease, Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA regional gene polymorphism was analyzed in patients presenting with differing clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred and twenty nine chronic Chagas disease patients in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were examined by serological tests, electrocardiogram (ECG, and Barium enema colon X-ray. 31.4% of the examinees showed ECG alterations, 15.7% megacolon and 58.1% showed neither of them. A further 62 seropositive megacolon patients who had undergone colonectomy due to acute abdomen were recruited. We analyzed their HLA genetic polymorphisms (HLA-A, HLA-B, MICA, MICB, DRB1 and TNF-alpha promoter region mainly through Sequence based and LABType SSO typing test using LUMINEX Technology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies of HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-B*14:02 were significantly lower in patients suffering from megacolon as well as in those with ECG alteration and/or megacolon compared with a group of patients with indeterminate symptoms. The DRB1*0102, B*1402 and MICA*011 alleles were in strong Linkage Disequilibrium (LD, and the HLA-DRB1*01-B*14-MICA*011 haplotype was associated with resistance against chronic Chagas disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of HLA haplotype association with resistance to chronic Chagas disease.

  18. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  19. Altiplano Sur de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; Cruz, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles; Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quin...

  20. Novas espécies de Lamiinae (Cerambycidae neotropicais e transferência de Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia. Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; da Bolívia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Adetus basalis, sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz.. Do Panamá: Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. (Chiriqui. O gênero Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originalmente descrito em Pteropliini é transferido para Apomecynini.New species described from Brazil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia, Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; from Bolivia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz; Adetus basalis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz., Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. from Panama (Chiriqui. The genus Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originally described in Pteropliini, is transferred to Apomecynini.

  1. Bolivia: A Gasified Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Assies

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2003 a wave of popular protest  brought down the Sánchez de Lozada government  in Bolivia. The intention to export natural gas to  the United States and Mexico triggered the protests, but actually stood for widespread discontent  with the Sánchez de Lozada government, the  preceding governments and the economic policies  pursued since 1985. The events belie the opinion  of various students of the Latin American democratic transitions who held that Bolivian democracy  was on its way towards consolidation and suggest that the recent inquiries into the quality of Latin  American democracies may point a way ahead in  rethinking democracy in the region. Taking such  assessments as a reference, this article reviews the  ‘gas war’ and looks at the Bolivian political regime as it has functioned over the past decades. It  will be argued that the ‘pacted democracy’, that  until now sustained institutionality, and the economic model adopted in 1985 have excluded an  important part of the population, both in political terms and where poverty alleviation and equity is  concerned. Increasing popular protest has been  met with increasing repression, which gradually  turned Bolivia into a ‘democradura’, or a ‘gasified  democracy’ that relies on teargas and bullets to  uphold itself. At present the country finds itself at  a crossroads. It either may reinvent democracy or  become an institutionalized ‘democradura’. Resumen: Bolivia: una democracia gasificadaEn octubre de 2003 una ola de protesta popular  llevó a la caída del gobierno de Sánchez de Lozada en Bolivia. La intención de exportar gas natural a los Estados Unidos y México gatilló dichas  protestas, aunque en realidad reflejaron un descontento general con el gobierno Sánchez de  Lozada, los gobiernos anteriores y las políticas  económicas implementadas desde 1985. Los  sucesos desmienten la opinión de varios analistas  de las

  2. 78 FR 64909 - Southwestern Region: Invasive Plant Control Project, Carson and Santa Fe National Forests, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... the following instructions: (1) Complete the analysis of effects on the Management Indicator Species... forest: Carson Forest Supervisor's Office, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571, Attn: Planning; or Santa... and each will prepare a separate record of decision. Importance of Public Participation in Subsequent...

  3. Zika virus epidemiology in Bolivia: A seroprevalence study in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba Villarroel, Paola Mariela; Nurtop, Elif; Pastorino, Boris; Roca, Yelin; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gallian, Pierre; Jaenisch, Thomas; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Priet, Stéphane; Ninove, Laetitia; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), was widely reported in Latin America and has been associated with neuropathologies, as microcephaly, but only few seroprevalence studies have been published to date. Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence amongst Bolivian blood donors and estimate the future potential circulation of the virus. A ZIKV seroprevalence study was conducted between December 2016 and April 2017 in 814 asymptomatic Bolivian volunteer blood donors residing in various eco-environments corresponding to contrasting entomological activities. It was based on detection of IgG to ZIKV using NS1 ELISA screening, followed by a seroneutralisation test in case of positive or equivocal ELISA result. Analysis revealed that ZIKV circulation occurred in tropical areas (Beni: 39%; Santa Cruz de la Sierra: 21.5%) but not in highlands (~0% in Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija). It was modulated by Aedes aegypti activity and the virus spread was not limited by previous immunity to dengue. Cases were geo-localised in a wide range of urban areas in Santa Cruz and Trinidad. No differences in seroprevalence related to gender or age-groups could be identified. It is concluded that ZIKV has been intensely circulating in the Beni region and has still a significant potential for propagating in the area of Santa Cruz.

  4. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  5. Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virreira, V.

    1981-01-01

    The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

  6. Oligosaccharides isolated from Agave vera cruz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Dorland, L.; Kamerling, J.P.; Satyanarayana, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The structures of naturally occurring and enzymically synthesized oligosaccharides, consisting of fructose and glucose residues and having d.p. 3–8, in the stem of Agave vera cruz have been investigated by using methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and p.m.r. spectroscopy. The naturally

  7. CAPTURED : evaluación Bolivia : Bolivia Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana Halkyer, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente informe contiene los resultados de la Evaluación en Bolivia y se produce como parte de la evaluación final del proyecto CAPTURED. El equipo AGRUCO logro formular una Programa de Formación Continua intercultural descolonizador, que va desde el técnico operativo, medio y superior,

  8. A laboratory approach to the control of cocaine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vaca, M

    1984-01-01

    Of the 4,196 samples of drugs seized and analysed at the Toxicology Laboratory of the National Bureau for the Control of Dangerous Substances during the period 1975-1982, 3,768 samples (89.8 per cent) contained coca paste, cocaine hydrochloride or related substances. Most of the samples analysed contained coca paste and came from La Paz, Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. With a slight exception in 1980, the number of samples increased steadily over an eight-year period. The increase in the number of seizures of cocaine-related substances was a result of the growth in the illicit production of these substances, which began to assume larger dimensions in 1976. In many areas, coca-paste and cocaine-related problems are growing out of all proportion. The smoking of cigarettes that contain a mixture of tobacco and coca paste, popularly known as pitillos, is the most common form of drug abuse.

  9. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  10. Santa Teresa y sus cartas, historia de los sentimientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egido, Teófanes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical reflection on a peculiar dimension of St. Teresa of Jesus: the expression of her feelings in her writings, particularly in her abundant letters. The article focuses on the sense of humor, the joyfulness, and the importance of laughter in St. Teresa language, and also on the feeling of endearment with her family, with her order, with fray Juan de la Cruz. Ample space is dedicated to the tenderness towards girls in her convents. St. Teresa of Jesus appears as transgressor of 16th century social behaviours.Reflexión histórica sobre una dimensión peculiar de santa Teresa de Jesús: la expresión de sus sentimientos en sus escritos, de forma más especial en sus cartas abundantes. El artículo se centra en el sentido del humor, de la alegría, en la importancia de la risa en el lenguaje de santa Teresa y en el sentimiento de ternura con su familia, con su orden, con fray Juan de la Cruz. Se dedica un espacio amplio a la ternura hacia las niñas en sus conventos. Aparece santa Teresa de Jesús como trasgresora de los comportamientos sociales del siglo XVI.

  11. La Virgen del Rosario del convento de Santa Cruz la Real en la Granada barroca (The Virgen del Rosario of Santa Cruz la Real convent in Granada baroque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús López-Guadalupe Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A pesar de la escasez de fuentes documentales, se ensaya una reconstrucción de la historia devocional de la Virgen del Rosario de Granada que la convierte en un ejemplo eminente de la religiosidad popular barroca. En ella interaccionan los intereses pastorales de la orden dominica con la renovación de la imagen de la monarquía hispánica. En este proceso el auge de la devoción a la Virgen del Rosario la proyecta hasta el crucero de la iglesia y sirve de estímulo a la conclusión de las obras del templo.Abstract: Despite the scarcity of documentary sources, a reconstruction of the devotional history of the Virgen del Rosario of Granada make it an outstanding example of Baroque popular religiosity. In this case the pastoral interest of the Dominican order and the renovation of the image of the Spanish monarchy are related. In this process the growth of devotion to the Virgen del Rosario projected her to the transept of the Church and gives encouragement to the completion of its construction.

  12. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  13. Novas espécies de Adetus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini New species of Adetus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da descrição de novas espécies de Adetus LeConte, 1852, provenientes da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: Adetus cacapira sp. nov. e A. cecamirim sp. nov.; do Peru (Cuzco e da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: A. inca sp. nov. e do México (Veracruz: A. catemaco sp. nov.The following species of Adetus LeConte, 1852 are described: from Bolivia (Santa Cruz, A. cacapira sp. nov. and A. cecamirim sp. nov.; from Peru (Cuzco, and Bolívia (Santa Cruz, A. inca sp. nov.; from Mexico (Veracruz, A. catemaco sp. nov.

  14. Reflexiones sobre los efectos del cambio climático en la agricultura de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura es altamente dependiente del clima, y los impactos del cambio climático se sentirán más en los países del Sur, agravando los problemas existentes de degradación de suelos y falta de agua. Las familias de agricultores de escasos recursos particularmente, se verán afectados por las pérdidas de sus cultivos y la posible erosión de su agrobiodiversidad. Esto se agravará porque no cuentan con recursos económicos y tecnologías adecuadas para adaptarse a las consecuencias de los efectos del cambio climático. Los efectos del cambio climático manifestados como el cambio de temperatura, mayor incidencia de sequía, helada, granizo y otros fenómenos naturales, tienen un impacto directo sobre los niveles de producción y rendimiento de los cultivos. El fenómeno niño/niña agudizó por ejemplo la sequía en el oriente boliviano, causando en el presente año dramáticos cambios en la agricultura de Santa Cruz, así en la soya de 290.000 ha sembradas en el año 2015, este año bajo la siembra a 40.000 ha, con una reducción de la superficie cultivada de 276.2%; asimismo hubo efectos catastróficos a nivel de rendimiento, ya que de 2.5 t/ha producidas, bajo a 1.5 t/ha. Similar situación ocurre con el sorgo, el trigo, el maíz, el arroz, el girasol y la chía; y lo mismo está pasando con cultivos de seguridad alimentaria, como la papa, la quinua y las hortalizas en el occidente boliviano. Esto obligará a que el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, tenga que posiblemente pensar en importar estos productos para el consumo de la población boliviana, porque sus efectos recién se sentirán en el año 2017. Es notorio el hecho que también habrá un impacto indirecto, ya que el ciclo de los cultivos resulta ser afectado por otros factores, como la proliferación de enfermedades y plagas; así como los cambios en la composición de los suelos, lo que implica que abra pérdida de microorganismos benéficos y menor contenido de materia org

  15. Sistema de salud de Bolivia The health system of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ledo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.

  16. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The

  17. Aeromagnetic and Bouger Gravity Data from Bolivia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a two-year assessment of the geology and mineral resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia, aeromagnetic and gravity data were...

  18. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  19. La democracia directa en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Inexistente a principios del siglo XXI, el referéndum se ha convertido en Bolivia en un instrumento político de primer orden, lo que no va sin dificultades o contratiempos. El estudio de su importancia así como de los problemas que ha planteado es el objetivo del artículo, para lo cual realiza un análisis del marco legislativo, la estructura institucional, el marco regulador de la Corte Nacional Electoral, financiamiento, rendición de cuentas, dinámica de la campaña, la educación del elector y la actual propuesta de reforma a la legislación que regula esta figura de democracia directa.

  20. New Records of Lecanora for Bolivia. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwa Lucyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the lichen genus Lecanora Ach. are important but still poorly known components of almost all vegetation types in Bolivia. In this paper, seven species new for Bolivia are presented: Lecanora bicincta Ramond, L. fulvastra Kremp., L. hagenii (Ach. Ach., L. muralis (Schreb. Rabenh., L. percrenata H. Magn., L. stramineoalbida Vain. and L. strobilina (Spreng. Kieff. Their distributions are described and information on their diagnostic characters and chemistry is given

  1. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  2. 75 FR 22835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... foundation and construction of a retaining wall for the Menchine HCP would take place within a 0.44- acre... home's foundation requires repair, and a retaining wall is necessary for slope stabilization. The third...

  3. Linking departmental priorities to knowledge management: the experiences of Santa Cruz County's Human Services Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Arley

    2012-01-01

    Federal welfare reform, local service collaborations, and the evolution of statewide information systems inspired agency interest in evidence-informed practice and knowledge sharing systems. Four agency leaders, including the Director, Deputy Director, Director of Planning and Evaluation, and Staff Development Program Manager championed the development of a learning organization based on knowledge management throughout the agency. Internal department restructuring helped to strengthen the Planning and Evaluation, Staff Development, and Personnel units, which have become central to supporting knowledge sharing activities. The Four Pillars of Knowledge framework was designed to capture agency directions in relationship to future knowledge management goals. Featuring People, Practice, Technology and Budget, the framework links the agency's services, mission and goals to the process of becoming a learning organization. Built through an iterative process, the framework was created by observing existing activities in each department rather than being designed from the top down. Knowledge management can help the department to fulfill its mission despite reduced resources. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Teaching Cases in Management - Decisões Financeiras na Empresa Biscoitos Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wegner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of the financial situation of an enterprise in the food sector which has cash flow difficulties resulting from its fast growth and from hastening decisions, such as the acquisition of a competitor, which generated new levels of production and commercialization and consequently the need for more working capital. Faced with the urgency to obtain resources to overcome the immediate cash difficulties, alternatives are presented for evaluation by students in order to choose the best option. The learning emphasis is on the calculation of the effective cost of capital for different proposals of raising resources and their consequences for the enterprise’s cash flow during the period analyzed. The case can be used in undergraduate and graduate programs, in courses aiming to stimulate discussions about the decision-making process of financial alternatives.

  5. Tule Reeds and Stone - Localized, Non-Specialized Technology in Laguna Canyon, Santa Cruz Island

    OpenAIRE

    Sunell, Scott David

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to understand the ways in which the Island Chumash who were not participating in specialized bead-making activities invested their labor. Considerable research on the Northern Channel Islands focuses on the nature and distribution of specialist labor spent on beads, drills, and sewn-plank canoes. The history of small-scale production based on the resources in individual canyons on the islands has received less attention. I categorize two new types of heavy igneous tools that...

  6. DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL Y DESIGUALDADES REGIONALES EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA CRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Schweitzer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Patagonia austral es un espacio con dinámicas migratorias muy fuertes particularmente luego del 2003 y un medio natural frágil, las actividades económicas, la oferta de servicios y las condiciones para la reproducción de la población se asientan en el aprovechamiento de una significativa dotación en recursos naturales distribuidos desigualmente y en mayor parte no renovables. La línea orientadora que se sigue en la ponencia es producto de la evolución de actividades de investigación y transferencia por parte de los autores en torno a las temáticas de las relaciones entre poderes y territorios, en particular en el campo del ordenamiento y el desarrollo territorial. Tomando como punto de partida conceptos clave como el de desarrollo territorial y analizando las estrategias y articulaciones de los grupos dominantes, el estado y sociedades en el área de estudio, en los últimos años y en aproximaciones desde distintas escalas, la ponencia apunta a analizar los proyectos de territorio a partir del estudio de las iniciativas hacia los territorios por parte del estado y las empresas y reflexionar sobre las situaciones conflictivas y las resistencias desde las sociedades regionales.

  7. Integrated hydrologic model of Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Faunt, Claudia C.; Lear, Jonathan; Lockwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population, agricultural development (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available groundwater resources in the Pajaro Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This study provided a refined conceptual model, geohydrologic framework, and integrated hydrologic model of the Pajaro Valley. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that are being considered in the revision and updates to the Basin Management Plan (BMP). The Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) was designed to reproduce the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system and related climatic factors, permitting an accurate assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform the new BMP and help to improve planning for long-term sustainability of water resources. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, reevaluation of the previous model transformed into MODFLOW, implementation of the new geohydrologic model and conceptual model, and calibration of the transient hydrologic model.

  8. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  9. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... introduction of covered species or other species and removal of aquatic invasive species. The covered area.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the Endangered Species... species currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (Act), and two species that may become listed...

  10. All projects related to bolivia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is ... Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and ... Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution.

  11. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Chura, O.; Trujillo, F.; Aguilar, Enric; Martí n-Herná ndez, Natalia; Ló pez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Morá n-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesú s; Ycaza, P.; Friend, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control

  12. The TIPNIS Conflict in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract Soon after the formation of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in 2009, the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (TIPNIS became the epicentre of a conflict over the construction of a road, initiated by Evo Morales’s administration, that would run through the park. Initially undertaken by the Brazilian company OAS, and funded by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES, the project was justified on the grounds that it would link the departments of Beni and Cochabamba, and bring development to an isolated locality. However, indigenous peoples from the lowlands opposed the scheme, and, together with their counterparts in the Andean region, organised a march that was violently dispersed by the Bolivian armed forces. In this article, I analyse the political processes in this Andean country, notably the reconfiguration of power from 2011 onwards, in parallel with economic measures adopted by the government. I conclude with observations about the relation between the national and regional spheres, arguing that indigenous repression forms part of a new developmentalist agenda.

  13. Eastern Bolivia: The White Promised Land. IWGIA Document 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman

    The Indians of Bolivia, already exploited by a military dictatorship, will have to take up more of the white man's burden if South Africans and Rhodesians accept an invitation to colonize the country. White South Africans, accustomed to the excesses of their own police, will find much that is familiar in Bolivia. Bolivia is a poor country, its per…

  14. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  15. Santa Fe Linac Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory, was held from 19-23 October in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The surroundings were superb and helped to ensure a successful meeting. There were more than two hundred and twenty participants, with good representation from Japan and Western Europe

  16. Radiological Protection and Environmental Monitoring in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez Pacheco, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the main activities of the Department of Radiological Protection, Nuclear Energy Commission of Bolivia. The following topics are covered: organization, environmental control of air, water, milk and plants, personal dosimetry, instrumentation and calibration, protection in uranium mines. Standard setting and international cooperation aspects are also presented

  17. The occupational health of Santa Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa?s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  18. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  19. Novas espécies de Neocorini e Pteropliini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da América do Sul New species of Neocorini and Pteropliini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas em Neocorini: Marauna bucki sp. nov. (Brasil: Rio Grande do Sul e M. abati sp. nov. (Paraguai. Em Pteropliini:; Rhaphiptera boliviana sp. nov. e Ataxia cineracea sp. nov. (Bolívia: Santa Cruz.New species described in Neocorini: Marauna bucki sp. nov. (Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul and M. abati sp. nov. (Paraguai. In Pteropliini: Rhaphiptera boliviana sp. nov. and Ataxia cineracea sp. nov. (Bolivia: Santa Cruz.

  20. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  1. All projects related to bolivia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-16

    End Date: March 16, 2018. Topic: LATIN ... Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru. Program: ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America. Project.

  2. Reforming the educated person in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2011-01-01

    The Bolivian educational reform law nr. 070 was approved in 2010 and its implementation is beginning in 2012. Basing itself on a combination of Marxist and Cultural Studies -influenced theories, the thesis examines the tensions between the vision of Law 070 and the conditions and aspirations of the stakeholders. A central concept in this discussion is ”the cultural production of the educated person”, and the development of the concept of the educated person through the history of Bolivia is d...

  3. Indigenous Competition for Control in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    made in return for their support. Despite this natural affinity, it took time for MNR planning to mature with respect to the Indian population. In...1949, the MNR attempted to seize power through a series of urban uprisings, yet they were soundly defeated. Planning for the uprising revealed the...to take control of Bolivia’s labor unions. This included the Federacion Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia (FSTMB), which had been allowed

  4. Area Handbook Series: Bolivia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    sightseeing on the national railroad, and the Indian cultures. The government’s Boliv- ian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Boliviano de Turismo ...Colegio de Mexico, 1979. Zavaleta Mercado, Ren6 (ed.). Bolivia, hoy. Mexico City: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1983. -. Las masas en Novienbre. La Paz...123 Bel6im (Brazil), 148 Bolivian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Brz6 Hum~ez, Manuel Isidoro, xxviis, Boliviano de Turismo ), 149 20, 164 Bolivian

  5. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia's rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report 'distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.' Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system.

  6. Interview with Joanna Bigfeather, Cherokee, Director of the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum (IAIA, Santa Fe, NM, USA, October 28, 2000 Entretien avec Joanna Bigfeather, Cherokee, directrice, Institute of American Indian Arts Museum (IAIA, Santa Fe, NM, États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Selbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ForewordJoanna Bigfeather was appointed director of the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in April 1999. A Western Cherokee brought up in New Mexico, Joanna Osburn Bigfeather graduated from IAIA in 1987 and moved to the University of California at Santa Cruz to study for a Bachelor of Fine Arts. Then she attended the State University of New York in Albany, where she obtained a Master in Fine Arts. While exhibiting extensively prints, ceramics and installations...

  7. Surnames in Bolivia: a study of the population of Bolivia through isonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Dipierri, José; Gomez, Emma Alfaro; Scapoli, Chiara; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Salvatorelli, Germano; De Lorenzi, Sonia; Carrieri, Alberto; Barrai, Italo

    2011-02-01

    In Bolivia, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of Bolivia, the surname distribution of 12,139,448 persons registered in the 2006 census data was studied in 9 districts and 112 provinces of the nation, for a total of 23,244,064 surnames. The number of different surnames found was 174,922. Matrices of isonymic distances between the administrative units (districts and provinces) were constructed and tested for correlation with geographic distance. In the 112 provinces, isonymic distances were correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.545 ± 0.011 for Euclidean, 0.501 ± 0.012 for Nei's, and 0.556 ± 0.010 for Lasker's distance). The multiple regression of the surname effective number (α), equivalent to the allele effective number in a genetic system, was nonsignificant on latitude and longitude; however, it was highly significant and negative on altitude (r = -0.72). Because the Andes extend from north to south in west-central Bolivia, random inbreeding was lowest in the eastern districts, and highest in mountainous western Bolivia. Average α for the provinces was 122 ± 2; for the districts, it was 216 ± 29, and for the whole of Bolivia it was 213. The geographical distribution of α in the provinces is compatible with the settlement of subsequent groups of migrants moving from east and north toward the center and south of Bolivia. The relative frequency of indigenous surnames is correlated positively with altitude. This suggests that the country was populated by recent low-density demic diffusion over a low-density indigenous population. This may have been a common phenomenon in the immigration to tropical South America. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. ANÁLISE SAZONAL DA ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA À VEGETAÇÃO NO ATERRO DA SOUZA CRUZ, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Eugenia Cavalcanti Bruchmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A facilidade de adaptação dos insetos aos diversos ambientes faz com que sejam encontrados em todos os tipos de habitats, independente de seu nível de sucessão. Sendo assim, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar a sucessão na comunidade de artrópodes em uma área de aterro em Santa Cruz do Sul, correlacionando os dados com a sazonalidade e a vegetação presente no local. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma área de aterro, da empresa Souza Cruz. Para a coleta do material entomológico, foram utilizados 17 pontos amostrais na área. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente de junho de 2013 a junho de 2014, totalizando 24 coletas, seis em cada estação do ano. Em cada ponto foram instaladas quatro armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foi amostrado um total de 81.438 indivíduos pertencentes a 24 táxons diferentes. Sendo 19.828 no inverno, 24.845 na primavera, 20.635 no verão e 16.130 no outono. A maior amostragem durante todas as estações foi Formicidae (Hymenoptera, com 50.239 espécimes coletados, o que representa 62% do total. Nos dados obtidos nesse período, foi possível inferir que há certa dominância de poucos táxons, que possuem maior potencial de adaptação a ambientes perturbados antropicamente.

  9. Additions to the known Vesperidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-nine Cerambycidae and two Vesperidae species not previously recorded from Bolivia are listed along with the department(s) where they were collected, and are thus added to the known fauna. An additional 22 species gleaned from existing publications, but whose Bolivia distribution is not recor...

  10. Desastre y Memoria Material: La Inundacion 2003 de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Baez Ullberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On April 29, 2003, a catastrophic flood occurred in the Argentina city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Soon, the disaster became a political issue, as they had made serious accusations against the authorities and decision makers regarding negligence, corruption and lack of disaster preparedness. A local protest movement emerged, claiming both the allocation of responsibilities and financial compensation for the losses suffered by the victims. This article analyses the role of material memory and oblivion on the post disaster scene, more specifically, how different social actors in Santa Fe used places and objects in the contentious making of a disaster memoryscape. The analysis is based on ethnography from transtemporal translocal and field research conducted in Santa Fe between 2004 and 2011, and applies anthropological and sociological theories of memory to analyse these processes. Resumen El 29 de abril de 2003, ocurrió la peor inundación catastrófica en la historia de la ciudad argentina de Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Al poco tiempo, el desastre se convirtió en una cuestión política, ya que se habían realizado graves acusaciones contra las autoridades y tomadores de decisiones con respecto a la negligencia, la corrupción y la falta de preparación para desastres. Surgió un movimiento de protesta demandando tanto la asignación de responsabilidades, como la compensación económica por las pérdidas sufridas por las víctimas. Este artículo analiza el papel de la memoria material y el olvido en el escenario del posdesastre, y más específicamente cómo los diferentes actores sociales en Santa Fe usaron los lugares y los objetos en una contienda por construir un memo-paisaje del desastre. El análisis se basa en etnografía de trabajo de campo translocal y transtemporal realizado en Santa Fe entre 2004 y 2011, y aplica las teorías antropológicas y sociológicas de la memoria a fines de analizar estos procesos.

  11. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  12. [Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydana, Edgar; Serral, Gemma; Borrell, Carme

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda) covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR); the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses). The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1000 live births. Rates ranged from <0.1 per 1000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of illiteracy per municipality was 17.5%; the mean percentage of houses without running water was 90.4%, and for those lacking sanitation services, 67.6%. The IMR was inversely associated with all of the socioeconomic indicators studied. The highest relative risk was found in housing without sanitation services. Multifactorial models adjusted for illiteracy showed that the following indicators were still strongly associated with the IMR: no sanitation services (Relative risk (RR)=1.54; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI)=1.38-1.66); adobe, stone, or mud walls (RR=1.54; 95%CI: 1.43-1.67); and, corrugated metal, straw, or palm branch roof (RR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.26-1.43). A significant association was found between poor socioeconomic status and high IMR in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. The municipalities in the country's central and southeastern areas had lower socioeconomic status and higher IMR. The lack of education, absence of basic sanitation

  13. Estilos estructurales del Subandino Sur de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    El Subandino Sur de Bolivia es una típica faja plegada y corrida de lámina delgada, con una notable regularidad en la geometría de las estructuras. Esta es una característica típica de las fajas plegadas en las que no se involucra el basamento en la deformación. Sin embargo, cuando se analiza en detalle la geometría y evolución de la deformación del Subandino Sur, se verifica que existen numerosas desviaciones de dicha regularidad. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los diferentes procesos ...

  14. Fernando Cruz Kronfly and the fractured time of Destierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Henao-Jaramillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Fernando Cruz Kronfly´s novel Destierro (2012 through categories like anachronism, presenteism and memory (Didi-Huberman, Hartog, Benjamin, among others in order to investigate the particular way in which the novel temporalizes the experience of exile. Destierro part from a present that, in perpetual motion, leading to a present of the already-gone, a narrative temporality made by absences. The time in this temporality and its links generated produces what we called ghost community, a kind of community which govern relations between that remains present and what does not.

  15. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  16. Murillo y los orígenes de la iconografía del Niño Jesús dormido sobre la cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea V. Pérez López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Murillo realizó varias pinturas del Niño Jesús dormido sobre la cruz, creando una serie de modelos iconográficos que fueron muy seguidos. Aunque es un tema en auge en la Contrarreforma, sus orígenes se encuentran en las visiones de santas, en los textos religiosos y literarios y en la adaptación de otras tipologías iconográficas de origen pagano, alegórico y religioso. En este artículo se rastrean los orígenes de la iconografía del Niño Jesús dormido y su presencia en la obra del pintor español Murillo.

  17. El linaje de Cristo a la luz del “giro genealógico” del siglo XV. La respuesta de Juana de la Cruz (1481-1534

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Fernández, Ángela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research revolves around the sermon on Saint Anne in El Conhorte by Juana de la Cruz, focusing on imagery in the text about life and generation that supports the importance of maternal genealogies. Using this evidence as point of departure, this sermon is used as an example of shifting currents of opinion in female convents related to the Querelle des Femmes, currents of opinion that interacted with the main social and cultural debates of the period. These debates were closely related to the socalled “genealogical turn” which Iberian societies underwent in the 15th century.Este trabajo se articula en torno al sermón de Santa Ana de El Conhorte de Juana de la Cruz. Su temática incide en imágenes de vida y generación y defiende el peso de las genealogías maternas. A partir de esta evidencia, se plantea su estudio como exponente del desarrollo en el mundo de los conventos femeninos de corrientes de opinión relacionadas con la Querella de las Mujeres que interactuaron con los principales focos del debate social y cultural de su época, debates que guardaron relación con el llamado “giro genealógico” que experimentaron las sociedades ibéricas en el siglo XV.

  18. GeoBolivia the initiator Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia's Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Rodriguez, Raul Fernando; Lesage, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Started in 2011, the GeoBolivia project (www.geo.gob.bo)aims at building the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (IDE-EPB by its Spanish initials), as an effort of the Vice Presidency of the State to give an open access to the public geographic information of Bolivia. The first phase of the project has already been completed. It consisted in implementing an infrastructure and a geoportal for accessing the geographic information through WMS, WFS, WCS and CSW services. The project is currently in its second phase dedicated to decentralizing the structure of IDE-EPB and promoting its use throughout the Bolivian State. The whole platform uses free software and open standards. As a complement, an on-line training module was developed to undertake the transfer of the knowledge the project generated. The main software components used in the SDI are: gvSIG, QGis, uDig as GIS desktop clients; PostGreSQL and PostGIS as geographic database management system; geOrchestra as a framework containing the GeoServer map server, the GeoNetwork catalog server and the OpenLayers and Mapfish GIS webclient; MapServer as a map server for generating OpenStreetMap tiles; Debian as operating system; Apache and Tomcat as web servers. Keywords: SDI, Bolivia, GIS, free software, catalog, gvSIG, QGIS, uDig, geOrchestra, OpenLayers, Mapfish, GeoNetwork, MapServer, GeoServer, OGC, WFS, WMS, WCS, CSW, WMC.

  19. ESTUDIOS FUNCIONALES DE ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS DE CUEVA DE LAS MANOS, RÍO PINTURAS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA / Lithic artifacts functional studies from Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roxana Cattaneo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados del estudio funcional o de microhuellas de una muestra de raspadores procedentes de la excavación del sitio Cueva de las Manos. Fueron seleccionados entre los provenientes de las capas 4c, 5 y 6 –que cuentan con fechados radiocarbónicos entre 1610 años AP a 9300 años AP. Por un lado nos interesó poder profundizar sobre qué materia prima trabajaron estos raspadores, ya que nunca había podido ser analizado en estudios anteriores. Por otro lado nos interesa ampliar el estudio de la variabilidad morfológica en relación a la variabilidad funcional en los raspadores ya que en este sitio es notable la variedad de instrumentos clasificados como raspadores y cepillos (rabots. Estos nuevos resultados permitirán además profundizar la discusión presentada en trabajos anteriores donde se infirió una tendencia hacia una diferenciación entre ciertos subgrupos de instrumentos cuyos últimos usos conocidos fueron sobre un solo tipo de materia prima mientras que otros se asociaron con el trabajo de al menos dos tipos de materiales. Para este trabajo se utilizaron las observaciones realizadas con el Microscopio Láser Confocal de Barrido BioRad MRC600, luego analizadas a través de software de reconocimiento de imágenes “PHILOS”.  Palabras clave: Cueva de las Manos, raspadores, análisis funcional, diseño.  AbstractWe present the results of microwear studies of a sample of scrapers, from the excavations at the site Cueva de las Manos -layers 4c, 5 and 6-, dated between 1610 bp to 9300 years bp. We are interested in defining on what type of raw material these scrapers worked, since this subject wasn’t previously analyzed. On the other hand we are interested in extending the study of the morphologic variability of scrapers, in relation to their functional variability. Especially considering that this site presents a remarkable number of instruments classified as scrapers and rabots. These new results will allow going deeper in the discussion started by Cattaneo in previous works. A differentiation was established in them between certain subgroups of scrapers working only on one type of material and other groups which combined several types- at least two of them. Also, we reintroduce the observations made with the Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope BioRad MRC600, that were also analyzed with the “PHILOS” software for image recognition.  Keywords: Cueva de las Manos, scrapers, functional analysis, design.  

  20. La Política Energética de Bolivia y las Relaciones entre Bolivia y Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2006-01-01

    I artiklen analyseres Bolivias nationalisering af energiforekomster i 2006 i et historisk lys. Med dette udgangspunkt går analysen til sit centrale fokus, nemlig betydningen af nationaliseringen for de bilaterale relationer mellem Bolivia og Brasilien, der er blevet "ramt" af nationaliseringen....... Dette fører til en diskussion af forskellige positioner i den brasilianske interne debat om Brasiliens politik over for Bolivia, hvor regeringen er blevet kritiseret for ikke at forsvare Brasiliens interesser godt nok af ideologiske grunde. I artiklen argumenterer jeg for, at Brasiliens politik på...

  1. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  2. First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2008-11-20

    The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians.

  3. All projects related to bolivia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to bolivia ... Topic: AQUACULTURE, FISH CULTURE, FISH PRODUCTION, FISHERY PRODUCT PROCESSING, FISH UTILIZATION, ... Project. This grant will support a study of the factors (aspects, instruments, sectors and ...

  4. Diagnosis of the quality of water supplied to the locality of Santa Cruz, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Dayana R. C. Vilaça; Isis S. V. Jacob; Sônia G. Alves

    2012-01-01

    The basic sanitation comprises several services that are essential to the maintenance of people's health and well-being. The populations that have an appropriate water supply, sewage collection and treatment, proper garbage disposal, among other services, are protected from diseases and have access to a minimum comfort to live in a safe way. In spite of the importance of these services, to the extent to be characterized as “basic”, several populations, national or worldwide, suffer for the la...

  5. Biogenic and pedogenic controls on Si distributions and cycling in grasslands of the Santa Cruz soil chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Art F.; Vivit, Davison V.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Bullen, Tom D.; Evett, Rand R.; Aagarwal, Jugdeep

    2012-10-01

    Biogenic and pedogenic processes control silica cycling in grasslands growing on a soil chronosequence and dominated by strong seasonal variabilities of a Mediterranean climate. Shallow pore water Si, in spite of significant annual uptake and release by plant growth and dieback, exhibits only moderate seasonal fluctuations reflecting strong buffering from labile biogenic Si, dominated by phytoliths and by secondary pedogenic silicates. Long phytolith residence times (340-900 yrs) reflect the seasonally dry climate and high solute Si concentrations. Water-extractable Si is closely associated with Al, indicating seasonal precipitation and dissolution of a highly labile 1:1 hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS), probably allophane, which transforms in deeper soil into fine grained, poorly crystalline kaolinite. Shallow plant roots extract greater proportions of biogenic Si and deeper plant roots larger amounts pedogenic Si. High pore water Ge/Si in late winter and spring reflects the reinforcing effects of plant fractionation and concurrent dissolution of Ge-enriched HAS. The same processes produce pore waters with depleted 30Si/28Si. In the summer and fall, Ge/Si declines and 30Si/28Si increases, reflecting the cessation of plant uptake, continued dissolution of soil phytoliths and re-precipitation of less soluble HAS. Si inputs from weathering (2-90 mmol m-2 yr-1) and losses from pore water discharge (18-68 mM m-2 yr-1) are comparable for individual soils, decline with soil age and are significantly less than amounts of Si annual cycled through the vegetation (42-171 mM m-2 yr-1). Mobile Si is generally balanced in the soils with upward bio-pumping by the shallow-rooted grasses efficiently competing against downward leaching and pore water discharge. Small net annual increases in Si in the present day soils could not have been maintained over the time scale represented by the chronosequence (65-225 yrs), implying past changes in environmental conditions.

  6. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Martínez, M.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante que reúne las siguientes características: es mixto, en cuanto a la forma y materiales; rígido, por el enlace de las plataformas superiores de trabajo; y de sección constante, por mantener los silos las mismas dimensiones en toda su altura. La maniobra de ascenso del encofrado se conseguía mediante dispositivos de elevación accionados por mando hidráulico centralizado. Dadas las particularidades del encofrado deslizante, el hormigón utilizado en la obra debía reunir una serie de condiciones especiales, sensiblemente distintas a las del hormigón que normalmente se emplea con encofrados fijos, por lo que fue objeto de numerosos estudios y ensayos hasta conseguir su perfecta adecuación. La construcción se llevó a cabo en un tiempo récord: en primer lugar, por la confección previa de un detallado programa que consiste en un gráfico de barras y una red de precedencias; y, en segundo lugar, por la implantación de un hormigonado continuo, con tumos de día y de noche, con lo que se consiguió disminuir en doce días los dos meses y medio previstos para la terminación.

  7. Cerro Bombero: registro de Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla en el Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new record of Hippidion saldiasi with new radiocarbon data referred to early Holocene (8,850 ± 80 year C-14 B.P of Patagonia is reported. Both its peculiar geographic location in a scarcely prospected zone and its radiocarbon age, provide new elements to discuss the previous hypotheses about the extinction of the horses and its relations with the human beings that inhabited the different environments of South America.Presentamos un nuevo registro de Hippidion saldiasi con datación radiocarbónica directa correspondiente al Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (8.850 ± 80 años C-14 AP. Su particular ubicación temporal y geográfica en una zona poco estudiada hasta ahora y su registro reciente, aportan nuevos elementos para discutir las hipótesis previas sobre la extinción de los caballos y su relación con los grupos humanos que colonizaron los diferentes ambientes de América del Sur.

  8. The Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (12th, Santa Cruz, California, April 2-4, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Erin, Ed.; And Others

    Papers on phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics from a conference on formal linguistics include: "Major Class Alternations" (Young-Mee Yu Cho, S. Inkelas); "On Defining Complex Templates (R. Kager); "Sandhi and Syllables in Classical Sanskrit" (B. Kessler); "Catalexis in Word Stress: Evidence from Spanish and…

  9. 77 FR 49863 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB) upon SCMB's becoming a Class III rail carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PBR and... rights over a 31.0-mile rail line (the Line) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line... is not subject to the Board's approval jurisdiction and will not result in SCCRTC acquiring a common...

  10. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... and operating rights over a 31.0-mile rail line (the Line) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP... becoming a Class III rail carrier, Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC & Permian Basin Rys.--Continuance in Control...'s approval jurisdiction and will not result in SCCRTC acquiring a common carrier obligation with...

  11. 76 FR 17664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, City of Scotts Valley and Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Documents You may download a copy of the IPHCP, IAs and related documents on the Internet at http://www.fws... copies of the Draft IPHCP, Draft EA, and/or Draft IAs, should contact the Service by telephone (see FOR..., February 4, 1994; 62 FR 3616, January 24, 1997). Section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and our...

  12. Knowledge management aiming to technology transfer: the challenges face by the tic of the state university of Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Carlos Santos Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the concept of organizational knowledge, and theory models for the creation and management of organizational knowledge that, in many approaches, do not take into account the specificity of each organization and the relationship. The paper analyses the innovation dynamics and the technology transfer from Technological Innovation Centers (TIC to the productive sector. The methodology employed was qualitative and of descriptive nature. The method used in the research was a case study in a TIC well-structured in respect to the constitution of the TICs from the perspective of the Federal Innovation Law nº 10.973 of the Innovation Law of the Bahia State nº 11.174. Barriers for knowledge creation and management that guarantee the effective technology transfer were identified.

  13. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  14. Problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos, provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelina Maribel Díaz Viegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este informe se presentan los resultados de una beca de iniciación a la investigación para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, cuyo objetivo consistió en la identificación de los usos del suelo y las problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos. La metodología utilizada consistió en búsquedas bibliográficas, interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de alta resolución espacial, relevamientos de campo y entrevistas a informantes calificados. Se detectaron como principales problemas ambientales los asociados con la disposición de los residuos urbanos y tratamiento de líquidos cloacales, inundaciones en la rivera del lago Buenos Aires y en zonas urbanas, deslizamiento de laderas en la loma Del Mirador, entre otros. En el informe se explican estas problemáticas, se analiza la legislación vigente y se proponen algunas medidas de mitigación.

  15. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  16. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing water quality and water quantity concerns is an ongoing challenge for communities in the semi-arid southwest. Over pumping of groundwater aquifers and limited surface water resources have created effluent-dominated sections of watersheds. As rapid urbanization increases...

  17. EATING HABITS: A study with adolescents aged 10 to 15, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School in Santa Cruz do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernada Soder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits in adolescence, may suffer several changes as they can vary from one day to another. The objective of this study is to determine the eating habits of adolescents aged 10 to 15 years old. The study comprised 81 students aged between 10 and 15 years, 48 male and 33 female students, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School. The research was carried out through a descriptive exploratory study, addressing the eating habits and weight control, and focusing on the frequency of food consumption per week. The tool for the study was a questionnaire on health and well-being - children and adolescents - eating habits and weight control. According to the results obtained in this study, the consumption of fried foods, pizza, lasagna and treats,were consumed less frequently, being considered among adolescents as a good eating habit, since foods such as these will cause obesity if consumed more frequently and in large quantities. In relation to the consumption of salads and vegetables males (40.5% have the habit of eating more that kind of food, when compared to the females(38.2%. For both genders, adults become more or less prone to obesitywith a more regular consumption of this type of food. Thus, we can see that the teenagers in their diet, prioritize foods they like to eat, and seldom choose foods which are healthier, without worrying about becoming obese adolescents or even in the future, obese adults with poor eating habits.

  18. Water supply and demand management in the Galápagos : A case study of Santa Cruz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources in tourist islands have been severely threatened, especially in the Galápagos Islands, where the increased local population has generated attractive income from the tourist services. In addition, the data regarding water supply and demand are scarce. This study investigates water

  19. Comunidade de insetos visitantes florais de Ocimum selloi Benth (Lamiaceae em Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schoeninger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p55 Este trabalho objetivou listar a comunidade de visitantes florais de Ocimum selloi, indicar os potenciais polinizadores e seus padrões de visitação. A coleta dos visitantes florais ocorreu no ano de 2007, em área antropofizada, sendo analisada a constância e a dominância dos táxons. Coletou-se um total de 653 insetos, pertencentes a sete ordens; Hymenoptera, com 370 indivíduos, foi o grupo mais representativo. Foram identificadas 36 famílias, sendo 12 de Hymenoptera e oito de Diptera, as mais diversas. Apidae foi a família com maior constância e dominância compreendida, principalmente, pela abelha Apis mellifera L., 1758 (n = 223, seguida de Halictidae (n = 107. A maior atividade forrageira foi observada no horário entre as 9h e 11h da manhã. Constatou-se que A. mellifera foi o principal visitante floral e potencial polinizador de O. selloi.

  20. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... fair market value of $53,000. The sale will be conducted as a modified competitive bid auction, whereby... than the Federally approved fair market value of $53,000. Each sealed bid must include a certified... values in the land proposed for sale. The proposed sale would include the conveyance of both the surface...

  1. Catalogación y Normalización de datos de Infraestructura espacial de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Liliana Vazquez

    2015-08-01

    Los resultados del trabajo sientan las bases generales de carácter normativo conforme a las cuales se establecerán las acciones de integración de la IG producida en el Laboratorio de Cartografía, Teledetección y SIG de la UARG – UNPA.

  2. 75 FR 4340 - Plan Revision for the Coronado National Forest, Cochise, Graham, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... change provisions of the 1982 planning rule. The Ecological Sustainability Report that was completed in... will be updated with any new available information. The Social and Economic Sustainability Report that... need for species diversity, ecosystem sustainability, and restoration of desired ecosystem...

  3. Cinchona anderssonii (Rubiaceae), a new overlooked species from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Persson, Claes; Albán, Joaquina

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. It is unique in Cinchona by having the combination of elliptic leaf blades glossy above, distinct circular pit domatia at secondary vein axils, basipetally dehiscent capsules......, and relatively large seeds (8–11 mm long). A taxonomic key for the identification of the Cinchona species occurring in Bolivia is presented....

  4. Market brief : the oil and gas market in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Bolivia and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Bolivia has an estimated 54.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves and 440.5 million barrels of proven oil reserves. The main hope for future economic growth in Bolivia hinges on increasing natural gas exports. Opportunities for Canadian companies exist in exploration, production and pipeline construction. There is also a demand for drilling machinery equipment, pipeline components and services for the expansion of the proposed Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. The largest energy company in Bolivia is Repsol YPF which operates through its subsidiary Empress Petrolera Andina. The largest end-users of oil and gas equipment and services include domestic upstream operators and international oil majors and international exploration and production companies. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth along with the competitive environment, local capabilities, international competition and the Canadian position. Considerations for market-entry in Bolivia were also outlined.

  5. Santa Gertrudis : Pétroglifo

    OpenAIRE

    Puaux , Olivier

    1986-01-01

    Las Milpillas ( site n°95 ), Santa Gertrudis, Municipio de Zacapu, Michoacán. Opéración 1. Groupo B. Estructura B1. Unidad Excavación Noroeste. Pétroglifo dibajo de los escombros, Fachaba Escalinatas. Coordenadas : 19°51'48" 101°49'.

  6. Central hydroelectric of Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo A, German

    2000-01-01

    The paper is related to the construction of an alternating tunnel of conduction to take advantage of the available hydraulic load among the Wiesner Plant and Santa Ana's tanks and of Suba, works required to build a hydroelectric power station with a generation capacity of approximately of 12 MW

  7. Religión, fiestas y centros ceremoniales mayas de la Cruz Parlante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Buenrostro Alba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se describe el principal santo de los mayas de Quintana Roo, la Cruz Parlante, así como los centros ceremoniales y las fiestas tradicionales relacionadas con esta advocación. Se incluyen datos etnográficos que describen el contexto en el que se centra el estudio. La Cruz Parlante permite a los mayas de Quintana Roo seguir existiendo y los protege, pero para ello debe estar custodiada por los propios mayas.

  8. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    à quelque Bradyodonte primitif. Les Actinoptérygiens ne sont représentés que par quelques écailles isolées, du Dévonien terminal, et qui évoquent le genre Moythomasia Les restes de Vertébrés les plus abondants dans les nodules du Dévonien de Bolivie sont d'étranges éléments osseux en forme de flûte de Pan qui sont ici attribués au genre Zamponiopteron n.g. Ces éléments, qui n'ont jamais été signalés ailleurs qu'en Bolivie, peuvent être interprétés comme des nageoires paires ankylosées de quelque Chondrichthyen inconnu Trois espèces ont été reconnues dans ce genre, mais elles correspondent seulement à des types morphologiques et il n'y a aucune certitude quant à leur appartenance à des espèces biologiques différentes. Toute conclusion générale d'ordre paléobiogéographique concernant cette faune serait prématurée Cependant, on doit noter qu'elle comprend un mélange de formes à vaste répartition (Rhénanides, quelques Acanthodiens, Actinoptérygiens de type Moythomasia, des formes dont les affinités sont transpacifiques (Acanthodiens proches de Sinacanthus et des formes peut-être endémiques (Pucapampella, Zamponiopteron. Se describen restos de Vertebrados silúricos y devónicos en varias localidades de Bolivia La mayor parte de los especimenes se conservan en concreciones fosfáticas procedentes del Devónico del Altiplano y de la región subandina Algunos especímenes aislados se encontraron en areniscas o lutitas. Los 'Agnathos' se conocen sólo por unas escamas de Thelodontes del final del Silúrico o Devónico inferior de Seripona, Chuquisaca. Todos los demás restos de Vertebrados se atribuyen a Gnathostomos, en particular a Acanthodios, Placodermos, Chondrichthyos y Actinopterygios. Los Acanthodios son representados por algunos huesos dentígeros de mandíbulas de Ischnacanthidos y por espinas y cinturones pectorales de Climatiidos. Son relativamente abundantes y casi no difieren de los restos de Acanthodios conocidos

  9. Diversity of picornaviruses in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, W. Allan; Khetsuriani, Nino; Peñaranda, Silvia; Maher, Kaija; Venczel, Linda; Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Freire, Maria Cecelia; Cisterna, Daniel; Lema, Cristina L.; Rosales, Patricia; Rodriguez, Jacqueline R.; Rodriguez, Wilma; Halkyer, Percy; Ronveaux, Olivier; Pallansch, Mark A.; Oberste, M. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae is a large and diverse group of viruses that infect humans and animals. Picornaviruses are among the most common infections of humans and cause a wide spectrum of acute human disease. This study began as an investigation of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in a small area of eastern Bolivia, where surveillance had identified a persistently high AFP rate in children. Stools were collected and diagnostic studies ruled out poliovirus. We tested stool specimens from 51 AFP cases and 34 healthy household or community contacts collected during 2002–2003 using real-time and semi-nested RT-PCR assays for enterovirus, parechovirus, cardiovirus, kobuvirus, salivirus, and cosavirus. Anecdotal reports suggested a temporal association with neurologic disease in domestic pigs, so six porcine stools were also collected and tested with the same set of assays, with the addition of an assay for porcine teschovirus. A total of 126 picornaviruses were detected in 73 of 85 human individuals, consisting of 53 different picornavirus types encompassing five genera (all except Kobuvirus). All six porcine stools contained porcine and/or human picornaviruses. No single virus, or combination of viruses, specifically correlated with AFP; however, the study revealed a surprising complexity of enteric picornaviruses in a single community. PMID:23804569

  10. El dilema del arte popular en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupe Cajas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda la comunicación desde las tres interpretaciones más importantes: la tradicionalista, la militar y mercantilista y el arte popular tan inestable, cuestionado y cambiante. Canclini cuestiona la compartamentalización de cultura: popular y de medios y esboza los problemas que plantea la tradicional miopía de no reconocer la universalización y ubicuidad de la cultura de masas. Se agregan otros temas como: ¿Re-intelección de los medios? apuntes sobre un libro de los Mattelart, ¿"Ética" o "Deontología" de la comunicación social?, El lenguaje del vestido y de la fiesta,Talleres de cultura Popular en Santiago de Chile, El dilema del arte popular en Bolivia,¿Sobrevivirán las artesanías aborígenes argentinas?, Los tejedores de El Tintorero, Tecnologías de computación y Tercer Mundo, La cobertura del terremoto en México, La comunicación como quehacer y como problema, la comunicación planificada sirve al desarrollo

  11. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The economy of Bolivia is based mainly on agriculture and resource extraction, making Bolivia one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Approximately 14 per cent of exports are hydrocarbons. Starting in 1996, the oil and gas sector was privatised, resulting in the domination of multinational corporations. It is estimated that the natural gas reserves of Bolivia stand in excess of 2.2 trillion cubic metres. Equipment, materials, and services used in all stages of the oil and gas production and distribution chain are all in demand in Bolivia. Over the medium term, it is expected that pipelines and equipment required for gas-fired power plants represent the most important opportunity in the country. Incentives for vehicle and industrial conversion were included in the new domestic energy plan, as well as the extension of the domestic gas distribution system to 250,000 homes. Canadian geomatics capability could fill the requirements concerning the Bolivian oil and gas assets still in the exploration, development, and documentation stages. Companies with exploration and development contracts, companies producing from commercial fields, refinery operators, producers in the liquid propane gas and compressed natural gas sub-sector, as well as pipeline operators are all considered key players, in addition to the Bolivian Chamber of Hydrocarbons. The customers are sophisticated buyers who purchase based on technical specifications and price negotiations. There are no significant non-tariff barriers, and Bolivia has adopted liberal trade policies. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  12. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty AGENCY: Department of State and Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Government of Bolivia has...-9580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bolivia delivered notice on June 10, 2011, that it was terminating the...

  13. 76 FR 74690 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... and Ethnological Material From Bolivia AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Department of... archaeological and ethnological material from Bolivia. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by... archaeological and ethnological material from Bolivia to which the restrictions apply. DATES: Effective Date...

  14. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  15. Desarrollo Local con Gestión Participativa: Presupuesto Participativo Villa El Salvador, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Echegaray; L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLa presente documentación se realiza en el marco del Programa SINPA (Support to the implementation of the National Plans of Action) el cual se viene implementando en la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. El SINPA es un programa piloto de apoyo a la implementación de los acuerdos

  16. Opening up Brazil's hydrocarbon sector - the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which transports natural gas more than 3000 km from Bolivia to Brazil, cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it major challenge. neither of these countries has had a tradition of independent regulation or economic fuel pricing, and the pipeline was the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil. The presentation explains the historical features of the project and how the project was used to open up Brazilian oil and gas sector to private investment and competition. (author)

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Bolivia has an area of 1,098,580 square kilometers. Its capital is La Paz. The western part of the country is dominated by two ranges of the Andes Mountains, the Cordillera Occidental on the vest flank of the high plateau (Altiplano) and the Cordillera Real (or Oriental) on the east flank. The northern Andes average 5,486 meters in elevation; the southern Andes are not as lofty. The Altiplano is 3,658 to A,267 meters high and 129 km. in average width; it is the largest basin of inland drainage in South America and contains the renowned Lake Titicaca on the Peruvian-Bolivian border. The eastern tropical lowlands or pampas (Oriente) comprise about two-thirds of the country, with rain forest in the northern portion. An intermediate zone of valleys and basins lies between the eastern Andes and Oriente. Bolivia differs from other Andean countries, like Chile, Peru and Ecuador, in having large areas of Preeambrian schists, gneisses, migmatites and granites. These crop out in the eastern part of the country. Parts of these rocks contain banded iron formations (i.e., in the Muttin region) and are probably early Precambrian in age. Little systematic exploration for uranium was undertaken in Bolivia until the late 1960's. In 1967, 1968 and 1969 technical assistance was requested from, and provided by, the IAEA. This work led to evaluation of radioactive anomalies in veins of northeast Bolivia and in sandstones in the extreme southern part of the country. Although no uranium reserves are now credited to Bolivia, the geologic possibilities for several kinds of uranium deposits coupled with the relatively limited work done to date suggest that uranium orebodies will be discovered. It is estimated that the potential resources of Bolivia are in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 tonnes uranium

  18. Bolivia. The new nuclear research center in El Alto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in the Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.

  19. Bolivia. The new nuclear research center in El Alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2016-05-15

    Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in the Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.

  20. Determination of favourable areas for uranium prospecting in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, E.

    1981-01-01

    The most prominent geological, lithological, stratigraphic, orogenic, metallogenetic, palaeogeographic and geochemical features favourable for the concentration of uranium deposits in Bolivia are described. This is a generalized study of the features mentioned above and should provide guidelines for eventual better understanding of the geology of Bolivia in general and that of uranium in particular. The purpose here is to demonstrate rational planning, which should be followed by the determination of favourable areas for uranium exploration, by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN), and to provide basic information for the drawing up of contracts with foreign and/or national organizations interested in investing in uranium exploration. (author)

  1. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    in Bolivia, we had no patients with reactivation or transmission through the graft even though many of the patients and donors were serologically positive for Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Decolonization of Bolivia's Antinarcotics Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Hesselroth

    2016-03-01

    Este artículo sostiene que, en el siglo XX, se desarrolló una forma peculiar de colonización en la política antinarcótica de Bolivia, compuesta por rasgos parecidos a los del colonialismo externo e interno. Por una parte, las instituciones internacionales y los Estados Unidos lograron imponer en el país un sistema de control y prohibición del cultivo y consumo de la hoja de coca. Por otra parte,  la élite gobernante apoyada por los EE.UU. impuso su poder y dominio sobre los cocaleros al introducir esta prohibición  y promover la erradicación forzosa de la coca con el auspicio de EE.UU., poniendo en severo peligro los derechos de los  cocaleros. A diferencia de anteriores gobiernos que aceptaron pasivamente las decisiones tomadas en foros internacionales acerca de la clasificación de la hoja de coca como droga ilegal y siguieron con rigor las instrucciones de los EE.UU. acerca de la erradicación de la coca, el gobierno de Evo Morales está actuando para cambiar la situación  en un doble esfuerzo internacional y nacional. Analizando las políticas de este gobierno entre 2006-2014, este artículo sostiene que en el manejo de la política antinarcótica está siguiendo un proceso particular de descolonización para defender los usos tradicionales de la hoja de coca y proteger los derechos sociales, económicos y culturales de las poblaciones andinas involucradas en su producción y/o consumo, y promover el desarrollo económico de las áreas donde se cultiva.

  3. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Meneses, Lidia; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2012-08-02

    The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work

  4. Oil and gas market report. Bolivia. Panorama and perspective for business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mourik, J.A.M.

    1999-10-01

    Bolivia, with its large oil and natural gas potential, is becoming an increasingly important link in South American energy trade. With new fields and pipeline construction, the nation is becoming the natural gas hub for the Southern Cone. In 1998, Bolivia experienced 4,7% GDP growth, the fastest in South America, and Bolivia's best performance since 1988. In addition, Bolivia brought its inflation rate to a 2-decade low of 4,4 %. In addition to tight global capital markets, investments also is expected to decrease due to the completion of the Bolivia to Brazil gas pipeline. This extremely capital-intensive project accounted for a significant portion of Bolivia's investment for 1998 and 1999. Bolivia has made significant economic improvements over the past few years by adopting a series of free market policies. The mayor improvements in economic growth have been made possible primarily through the government's unique capitalization program of key national industries. In addition to the Capitalization Program, Bolivia's economic growth is a result of its involvement in several free trade associations. Bolivia, as well as Chile, is an associate partner of the Mercosur, whose members include Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Bolivia is also member of the Andean Pact, which comprises Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Bolivia's unique involvement in both of these trade groups is allowing it to become an important cornerstone in the integration of the South American continent. Specifically, Bolivia is increasingly becoming an important transport hub within the continent. Energy is one of the main products Bolivia is attempting to transport. According to the government, nearly $5 billion of investment is needed by 2005 so Bolivia can succesfully develop its oil and gas reserves, build pipelines, and construct power plants if it wishes to emerge as the regional hub

  5. Poverty and Nutrition in Bolivia. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Judith; Lopez, Cynthia

    In Bolivia, malnutrition afflicts about 25 percent of children under 3 and 12-24 percent of women. It contributes to high death rates, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and low work productivity. Malnutrition and its effects are particularly severe among poor, rural, and indigenous populations. Malnutrition is both caused by and causes…

  6. Education Reform in Bolivia: Transitions towards Which Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrueta, Jose Antonio; Avery, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the impact of educational reforms on young people in Bolivian society as they transition into adulthood, against the backdrop of globalisation and far-reaching structural changes. Ethnicity and cultural capital are linked in complex ways with social stratification in Bolivia. In a pluricultural society, the language of…

  7. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  8. Bilingual Intercultural Teacher Education: "Nuevos Maestros Para Bolivia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Educational reform efforts in Bolivia have created possibilities for teacher-training institutions to focus on bilingual intercultural education. How teacher trainers and future teachers embark upon this endeavor differs somewhat depending on the sociolinguistic, historical, and institutional contexts of each community. This article reports…

  9. Bolivia: descentralización, crisis social y democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Zuazo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los cambios producidos en la situación sociopolítica de Bolivia a partir de las elecciones de junio de 2002, en las que dos partidos (Movimiento al Socialismo, de Evo Morales, y Movimiento Indígena Pachacutí, de Felipe Quispe de corte indigenista alcanzaron 41 representantes en el Congreso Nacional.

  10. American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia. The Ball State Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, John

    Four American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia are surveyed in this document in connection with a project to provide inservice development in the form of graduate courses, workshops, and consultantships. The four schools were 1) the American Cooperative School in La Paz, serving children of all nationalities from prekindergarten through grade 12…

  11. The Miners' Radio Stations in Bolivia: A Culture of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Examines local community radio stations in rural regions of Bolivia. Finds that active miners' radio has flourished as an entertainment and political medium and that, through their radio stations, miners' organizations have played an important role in shaping the political position of the Bolivian union movement. (KEH)

  12. Cultivating fish for better livelihoods in Bolivia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 févr. 2015 ... Bolivia, a country without access to the sea, has one of the lowest rates of fish consumption in the world despite the high potential for fisheries and fish culture in the Amazon. To increase fish consumption and to make better use of the fisheries and aquaculture potential, the Bolivian government created the ...

  13. Melting glaciers signal climate change in Bolivia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-13

    May 13, 2011 ... Melting glaciers signal climate change in Bolivia ... Global warming is occurring faster at high altitudes, causing the ... and how the local environment was going to change in years to come. ... New economic opportunities and better transportation to markets in La Paz have brought migrants to the area.

  14. The SantaBot experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The video shows how an autonomous mobile robot dressed as Santa Claus is interacting with people in a shopping mall. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially...... interactive mobile agents into public urban transit area. To investigate the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out using a robot capable of navigating autonomously based on the input of an onboard laser scanner. The robot would detect and follow random people, who afterwards were asked to fill out...

  15. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be

  16. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga Rodrigo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55% were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25% and dermatological disorders (24%. Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47% and acute diarrheal diseases (37%. The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The

  17. You're a "What"? Santa Claus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Professional Santas entertain children and adults during the holiday season at all types of events. They work at shopping malls or stores; entertain crowds at parades and tree lightings; and make appearances at holiday parties, charity events, and people's homes. Most Santas work during the Christmas holiday season, which usually lasts from late…

  18. Idiomas, Escuelas y Radios en Bolivia. Cuadernos de Investigacion 3. (Languages, Schools and Radios in Bolivia. Investigative Notes Number 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Javier

    Bolivia has a multilingual population divided among three language families: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara. In practice, however, the country has a monolingual system, since Spanish is the language of government, education, and professional and technical fields, and dominates in urban areas. Quechua and Aymara prevail in rural areas and in native…

  19. The Corrosion control in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline; O controle da corrosao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the techniques and procedures adopted for the corrosion control of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. In buried pipes, the corrosion process may occur on the external surface in contact with the surrounding soil as well on the internal surface in contact with the conveyed fluid, being necessary the simultaneous mitigation of the both processes. (author)

  20. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  1. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The De-Genderization of Knowledge Production: The Case of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Norma

    1994-01-01

    All societies have official knowledge. Life of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 17th-century nun and literary genius, illustrates who discovers knowledge is more important than what knowledge is promulgated. Real issue was not what Sor Juana wrote but whether nun or woman should engage in producing and publishing knowledge. Her efforts have inspired…

  3. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  4. Genetic differentiation between marine iguanas from different breeding sites on the island of Santa Fe (Galapagos Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterbecq, Deborah; Glaberman, Scott; Vitousek, Maren Noelani; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Benavides, Edgar; Wikelski, Martin; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2010-01-01

    We studied patterns of genetic diversity within and among 5 populations (318 individuals) of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the island Santa Fé. Populations were separated by distances of 0.2 to 9.9 km. We sequenced 1182 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region and screened 13 microsatellite loci for variability. We also added data from 5 populations (397 individuals) sampled on 4 neighboring islands (Santa Cruz, Floreana, Espanola, and San Cristobal). The 5 Santa Fé populations, revealed as genetically distinct from populations on other islands, present relatively low levels of genetic diversity, which are similar for both microsatellite (average observed heterozygosity from 0.7686 to 0.7773) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers (haplotypic and nucleotide diversity from 0.587 to 0.728 and from 0.00079 to 0.00293, respectively), and comparable with those observed in similar-sized sampling sites on other islands. There was frequency-based evidence of genetic structure between northern and southern sites on Santa Fé (F(st) of 0.0027-0.0115 for microsatellite and 0.0447-0.2391 for mtDNA), but the 4 southern sites showed little differentiation. Most of the intra-island genetic variation was allocated within rather than between sites. There was no evidence of sex-biased dispersal or population substructuring due to lek-mating behavior, suggesting that these 2 observed behaviors are not strong enough to leave an evolutionary signal on genetic patterns in this species.

  5. Novos Cerambycinae (Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se e ilustram-se espécies novas da Bolívia (Santa Cruz, em Ectenessini, Ectenessa zamalloae sp. nov. e Bomarion amborense sp. nov.; em Eburiini, Beraba pallida sp. nov.; em Piezocerini, Gorybia quadrispinosa sp. nov. e em Tillomorphini, Epropetes bolivianus sp. nov.; da Costa Rica (Guanacaste, Xalitla lezamai sp. nov.New species described and illustrated from Bolivia (Santa Cruz, in Ectenessini: Ectenessa zamalloae sp. nov. and Bomarion amborense sp. nov.; in Eburiini: Beraba pallida sp. nov.; in Piezocerini: Gorybia quadrispinosa sp. nov. and in Tillomorphini: Epropetes bolivianus sp. nov.; from Costa Rica (Guanacaste: Xalitla lezamai sp. nov.

  6. Bolivia's gas heads for Brazil as Argentina waits - and watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    1998-01-01

    The first 1,800 km stretch of a 3,400 km natural gas pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil will start operating in December. First planned 50 years ago, the pipeline has long been expected to result in an immediate surge of gas use in Brazil. However, impending deep recession in Brazil makes this prospect less likely despite the power shortages which indicate the need for considerable gas imports. Initially, most Bolivian gas will flow through Brazil to Argentina. But gas production is expanding rapidly in Argentina and the supply contract with Bolivia ends in 1999. Plans are well advanced to build two gas lines into the south of the Brazil from Argentina. Ultimately, it is anticipated that Argentina, which has abundant reserves and a virtually saturated domestic market, will become the principal source of natural gas for Brazil. (UK)

  7. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  8. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  9. The MAS Six Years in Power in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay of:– The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS, by Sven Harten. London/New York: Zed Books, 2011.– Evo Morales and the Movimiento al Socialismo in Bolivia; The First Term in Context, edited by Adrian J. Pearce. London, Institute for the Study of the Americas, 2011.– El estado de derecho como tiranía, by Luis Tapia. La Paz: CIDES/UMSA, 2011.– From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia: Class Struggle, Indigenous Liberation and the Politics of Evo Morales, by Jeffery R. Webber. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011.– La democracia desde los márgenes: Transformaciones en el campo político boliviano, by María Teresa Zegada, with Claudia Arce, Gabriela Canedo and Alber Quispe. La Paz: Muela del Diablo Editores/CLACSO, 2011.

  10. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-10

    Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.

  11. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  12. Social Movement Mobilization and Hydrocarbon Policy in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Pueblos SEMAPA Servicio Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado CIDOB Confederación Indígena del Oriente de Bolivia CPIB Central de Pueblos...construction of the Sica-Sica Arica oil pipeline through Chile .84 Unfortunately, because of declining expertise, YPFB was unable to produce enough oil to...proposed plan to export natural gas through Chile was also a factor in the mobilizing of the gas wars, because it hit a nationalist nerve.125 This

  13. The Nation State v. Indianist Revitalization Dialectic in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early in 2006, the republic of Bolivia has been ruled by the first indigenous president in that country’s history: the Aymara Evo Morales, union leader and first name in the ballot of the so-called “Movement for Socialism” (MAS. His political rise, electoral victory and government program have drawn considerable attention from international mass media and been the subject of valuable political and sociological analyses. From the perspective of comparative anthropology, the process can be understood as an instance, in the Andean cultural context, of what Anthony Wallace called a “revitalization movement,” triggered by the convergence, at a juncture of crisis begun in 1997, of a number of historical conditions of variable duration in Bolivia as a national project.

    Desde comienzos de 2006, la república de Bolivia cuenta con el primer presidente indígena de su historia: el aymara Evo Morales, dirigente sindical y cabeza de lista del llamado “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Su ascensión política, victoria electoral y programa de gobierno han llamado mucho la atención de los medios informativos internacionales y han sido objeto de valiosos análisis políticos y sociológicos. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología comparada, el proceso se ajusta bien, en el contexto cultural andino, a lo que Anthony Wallace llamara un “movimiento de revitalización”, desencadenado por la convergencia, en un periodo de crisis iniciado en 1997, de varias condiciones estructurales de duración histórica variable en Bolivia como proyecto nacional.

  14. Pragmatic Idealism: Ernesto Che Guevaras Strategic Choice for Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    security could be achieved through a more mature guerrilla movement. B. LITERATURE REVIEW A review of previous analysis and criticism regarding...was, he split his time prior to Bolivia between Tanzania and Czechoslovakia.24 Whether Guevara spent the majority of his time nursing the emotional ...believed it rational to pursue revolution prior to the maturation of a revolutionary movement as long as the objective

  15. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  16. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  17. Appraisal of snakebite incidence and mortality in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Postigo, Jorge R

    2014-06-01

    No information has been yet published on snakebite in Bolivia. The country includes very different ecological situations leading to various epidemiological risks. A study has been carried out to evaluate the incidence and location of snakebite, particularly in relation with altitude, in order to improve management. Investigations on snakebite epidemiology were based on a) cases treated in health facilities as reported by health authorities and b) household surveys carried out in areas with high variations of altitude, in various regions of Bolivia. An average of 700 bites was treated each year in Bolivia (national annual incidence = 8 bites per 100,000 people) with a great disparity between districts. Household surveys showed annual incidences ranged from 30 to 110 bites per 100,000 inhabitants depending on location. Annual mortality ranged 0.1-3.9 per 100,000 people. A significant and constant inverse correlation was shown between snakebite incidence and altitude, which may be explained by both snake and human distributions and activities. Notification of snakebite is useful for improving patient management and informing antivenom distribution. It should also involve the report of deaths and clinical details of envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The debate on family planning and reproductive rights in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, M

    1991-01-01

    Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights.

  19. Searching for Status: New Elites in the New Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that those strategies enabling the recognition and distinction of the elite in Bolivia have collapsed since Evo Morales assumed the country’s presidency in early 2006. Not only have new political elites taken power, the established and inherited societal stratifications have also been affected. Reviewing three emergent groups potentially occupying new elite positions – the progressive blanco-mestizos, the wealthy urban indigenous sectors, and the social movement leaders with their politicized cadres – it is argued that in today’s Bolivia, the political dimensions of anti-elitism have raided the traditional material and culturalsymbolic domains of elite distinction. The political dimensions of anti-elitism might have altered or even largely disqualified the indicators traditionally considered valid in the material and culturalsymbolic domains. Resumen: A la búsqueda de status: las nuevas élites en la nueva BoliviaEn este ensayo se sostiene que en Bolivia las estrategias que permiten el reconocimiento y prestigio de las élites se han derrumbado desde que Evo Morales asumiera la presidencia del país a principios de 2006. No solamente nuevas élites políticas han asumido el poder, sino además se han visto afectadas las estratificaciones sociales establecidas. En la revisión de tres grupos emergentes que ocuparán potencialmente las posiciones de la nueva élite – los mestizos blancos progresistas, los sectores indígenas urbanos ricos y los líderes de movimientos sociales con sus cuadros politizados –, aquí se sostiene que en la Bolivia de hoy las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo se han apropiado del material tradicional y los dominios culturales y simbólicos de las distinciones de élite. Las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo pueden haber alterado e incluso descalificado en gran parte los indicadores considerados tradicionalmente válidos en los dominios material y simbólico-cultural.

  20. Presencia de Stegomastodon (Gomphotheriidae, Proboscidea en el Pleistoceno Superior de la zona costera de Santa Clara del Mar (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gomphotheriidae fossil remains from shore level of Santa Clara del Mar (Mar del Plata, Argentina are described. The comparative morphological and multivariate analysis of the m3 with other South American gomphotheres remains, mainly from Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil, allow their identification as Stegomastodon platensis. This species seems better adapted to live on the middle latitudes and warm climatic conditions. The possible movement routes from north to the most austral zones or areas are discussed. Stegomastodon from South America is a big-size form which is present along the East route and in several shore areas of Ecuador and Peru. In the present work some palaeoecological and palaeogeographical considerations are included. From a radiometric AMS datum, the remains of Santa Clara del Mar are dated in the late Pleistocene (17,880 ± 60 AP.Se describen restos bien conservados de gonfoterios (Mammalia, Proboscidea encontrados en los niveles pleistocenos que afloran en los acantilados costeros de Santa Clara del Mar (Mar del Plata, Argentina. Se analizan algunos de sus caracteres más importantes y se compara con otros gonfoterios provenientes de distintas localidades de Argentina, Brasil y Bolivia. El estudio comparativo, mediante análisis multivariante del m3, permitió su identificación como Stegomastodon platensis. Nosotros consideramos que todos los Gomphotheriidae del territorio actual de Argentina deberían incluirse en un único género y una única especie: Stegomastodon platensis. Esta especie parece estar mejor adaptada a vivir en latitudes medias, y en condiciones climáticas templadas. Se discuten sus posibles vías de desplazamiento desde el norte hacia zonas o áreas más australes. Stegomastodon de América del Sur es una forma de gran tamaño, que se encuentra a lo largo de la ruta del este y en algunas áreas costeras de Ecuador y Perú. En el presente artículo se incluyen algunas consideraciones paleoecológicas y

  1. Santa Maria de Garona NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candas, C.

    2004-01-01

    Three especially significant milestones determine the positive assessment of Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant operation in 2003: the beginning of Project 2019, the quality and safety results in the Refueling Outage, and the good assessment obtained by the plant in the follow-up review of the OSART Mission. The operating factor of 91.52% obtained in 2003 is the Plant's best historical result in a year with a refueling outage. This factor is an indication of reasonable Plant operation throughout the year, and also of the results of the optimization and quality efforts made in preparing and executing the refueling outage. The collective dose indicator is also the best historical datum in year with a refueling outage and keeps our Plant in a relevant position among the world's BWR plants. The objective set by INPO is clearly achieved. The result is the outcome of the improvement studies and ALARA actions taken during job preparation and planning and also of equipment and installation improvements and modernization. The three differential follow-up objective of the NUCLENOR Corporate Project are: Strengthening of the Safety Culture, Operating License Renewal and Improved in-Plant Task Management

  2. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout... Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...

  3. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered... Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. DATES: This rule...

  4. Desigualdades socioeconómicas y mortalidad infantil en Bolivia Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Maydana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las desigualdades socioeconómicas y su relación con la mortalidad infantil en los municipios de Bolivia en 2001. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico a partir de los datos del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de 2001 para los 327 municipios de los nueve departamentos de Bolivia. La variable dependiente fue la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI y las independientes fueron indicadores socioeconómicos indirectos (la proporción de analfabetos mayores de 15 años y las características constructivas y sanitarias de las viviendas. Se describió la distribución geográfica por indicador y se analizó la relación entre la TMI y los indicadores socioeconómicos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el ajuste de modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La TMI estimada para Bolivia en 2001 fue de 67 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Las tasas fluctuaron entre OBJECTIVES: To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. METHODS: An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR; the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses. The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1 000 live births. Rates ranged from < 0.1 per 1 000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1 000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of

  5. Physical ages of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Pilot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Age determinations of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia, have been performed using the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results obtained permit to draw conclusions with regard to the tectono-magmatic evolution of Eastern Cordilleres of Bolivia, and to the prospection and exploration of new deposits in the metallogenetic province

  6. Teacher Education Reform and Subaltern Voices: From Politica to Practica in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, the National Educational Reform in Bolivia instituted reforms that called for a model of education that held at its center the knowledge and languages of Indigenous people. The types of change called for by the reforms in Bolivia signify major transformations in teacher preparation practices and a concerted emphasis on training in…

  7. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  8. Contesting the notion of "The Pink Tide", Case studies of Bolivia and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke; Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika.......Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika....

  9. JOÃO CABRAL E GASTÃO CRUZ: O PULSAR DO TEMPO NO POEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Bezerra de Araújo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the theme of ‘time’ in the poetry of João Cabral de Melo Neto and Gastão Cruz. A moeda do tempo e outros poemas, by Gastão Cruz, and some poems taken from Serial and Museu de tudo, by João Cabral, have been chosen. The comparative study of the literature of both poets provides us a comprehension of the importance of time and memory in their work. The ‘time’ studied in their poems is the time of mankind, the pulse of the existence in each verse, each word, each instant. The verses bring us pieces of life that wobble between past, present and future. The task of the reader is to experience the time and the ethics of these poets whose writing is committed to the aesthetic demand of poetry, without forgetting the soul.

  10. Bibliographic collection conservation of Manguinhos library, Oswaldo Cruz foundation: insect disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Ramos Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Report on the procedures against the rare books Coleoptera infestation at Manguinhos Library, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, including anoxic treatment description, deep cleaning and physical re-organization of the collection. The objective of those procedures was to guarantee for future generation the preservation of that collection, which has great historical value, cause some books have their origin in the XVII Century and are part of the Library patrimony since the beginning of the XX Century.

  11. Micología en Bolivia: Un tema Latente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pacasa-Quisbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El reino de los hongos es uno de los más diversos grupos de organismos en el planeta, están ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza, principalmente en ambientes terrestres y en menor proporción en ambientes acuáticos. Muchos científicos sugieren que el Reino de los Hongos seria hiperdiverso y podría superar los 3.5 M de especies (O’Brien et al. 2005. Muchas especies aun no fueron descritas y podrían estar presentes en ecosistemas tropicales, en ambientes no explorados, aunque también existirían especies cripticas. Bolivia es considerada como uno de los países megadiversos a nivel mundial en riqueza animal, vegetal, insectos y microorganismos, en su amplio territorio contiene diversos ecosistemas que ofrecen una amplia variedad de hábitats de esta riqueza. Las investigaciones micológicas se han concentrado en las ramas médicas y afines, estudiando patógenos de humanos y animales, pero ¿Cuál es el avance de la ciencia micológica en Bolivia con relación con otras ciencias como la Agronomía, Ecología, Medio Ambiente, Fitopatología, entre otras? Se han conseguido importantes avances en la descripción de la diversidad de plantas, animales e insectos, en cambio investigaciones en microbiología del suelo se han concentrado en el uso o aplicación de algún microorganismo benéfico para el control de plagas, enfermedades y promoción del crecimiento de las plantas en nuestro país. El reino de los hongos es hiperdiverso, pero escasamente estudiados en nuestro país, buscando exhaustivamente recursos en Google search con las frases: “diversidad de microorganismos del suelo en Bolivia”, “hongos de Bolivia” y “diversidad de hongos en Bolivia”, hay muy pocas investigaciones y referencias de nuestro país, a pesar de su importancia, la diversidad taxonómica, distribución de especies y funciones que desempeñan en los ecosistemas son poco documentadas en Bolivia. La amplia variedad de ecosistemas de Bolivia podr

  12. Cruz Roja Española: el trabajo con refugiados desde Cruz Roja Alicante (Spanish Red Cross: work with refugees from Alicante Red Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Sánchez, Mar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Cruz Roja surge a raíz de un conflicto bélico con la finalidad de socorrer a las víctimas del mismo y localizar, mediante voluntarios, a los familiares de éstas. Con el paso de los años, la respuesta de Cruz Roja se institucionaliza y se amplia a las diferentes necesidades que emergen de la sociedad. Para uno de los colectivos más vulnerables, como son los refugiados, se crea un Programa específico para dar cobertura a sus necesidades más básicas durante el proceso de protección internacional, acompañándolos en las diferentes dificultades que se les plantea para alcanzar su integración en la ciudad.Abstract: Red Cross comes up with the aim to help victims from an armed conflict, and to locate their families trough volunteers. Trough the years, the Red Cross answer is widen to the different needs rising up in the society. From one of the most vulnerable group, refugees, a specific program has made to cover their basics needs during their international protection process, being with them in the different difficulties found to get integrated in the city.

  13. Macroeconomia do Turismo Argentino em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Meurer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O Estado de Santa Catarina experimentou um considerável crescimento do setor de turismo nas últimas décadas. O fluxo turístico de origem argentina revelou-se um ingrediente importante dessa trajetória. Este artigo focaliza um aspecto pouco explorado, aparentemente, da participação argentina no turismo estadual: a relação entre a situação macroeconômica do país vizinho e a demanda turística por Santa Catarina lá originada. Começa-se abordando brevemente a problemática geral da macroeconomia do turismo. Depois, discorre-se sobre o crescimento desse setor em Santa Catarina, destacando a presença de argentinos. A terceira parte desenvolve uma análise baseada em tratamento estatístico de dados sobre demanda e receita geradas por esses turistas no estado, com exame das correlações envolvendo taxa de câmbio e taxa de crescimento do PIB da Argentina. Palavras-chave: turismo; Santa Catarina; turistas argentinos; economia argentina Abstract The State of Santa Catarina has witnessed a considerable development of its tourist sector in the last decades. The demand from Argentina has proved to be an important factor of that growth. This article deals with a feature of the presence of Argentinians in the state which seems to be scarcely studied: the relationship between the macroeconomic situation of Argentina and the tourist demand in Santa Catarina originated from that country. The first part of the article considers briefly the general issue of tourism macroeconomics. The second one looks upon tourism growth in Santa Catarina, stressing the presence of visitors from Argentine. The third section develops an analysis based on statistical treatment of data concerning demand and income generated by such tourists in Santa Catarina, involving correlations that consider aspects like exchange rate and the rate of GDP increase in Argentina. Keywords: tourism; Santa Catarina; tourists from Argentina; Argentina’s economy

  14. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  15. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno de Bolivia ha tenido desde 1983 un programa nacional para combatir los trastornos por deficiencia de yodo (TDY, que a principios de la década de 1980 afectaban a más de la mitad de la población del país. La principal estrategia empleada de forma sostenida en la lucha contra los TDY es la yodación de toda la sal destinada para consumo humano. En 1996, el Gobierno de Bolivia invitó a un grupo de expertos a revisar, en colaboración con los integrantes del programa dentro del país, cuánto se había avanzado hacia la eliminación de los TDY de todo el territorio nacional. El equipo revisor examinó los datos recolectados mediante las encuestas más recientes sobre la disponibilidad y el uso de la sal yodada y las concentraciones de yodo excretadas por la orina. Sobre la base de criterios internacionales establecidos para estos indicadores, el equipo llegó a la conclusión de que Bolivia había eliminado los TDY como problema de salud pública de alcance nacional, pese a pruebas de que algunas comunidades aisladas de los Andes todavía carecían de una ingesta adecuada de yodo. El equipo hizo recomendaciones para mejorar el programa y garantizar su sostenibilidad. Asimismo, examinó los métodos de producción y el control de la calidad del proceso de yodación y recomendó medidas para reducir la variabilidad del contenido de yodo en la sal.

  16. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno de Bolivia ha tenido desde 1983 un programa nacional para combatir los trastornos por deficiencia de yodo (TDY, que a principios de la década de 1980 afectaban a más de la mitad de la población del país. La principal estrategia empleada de forma sostenida en la lucha contra los TDY es la yodación de toda la sal destinada para consumo humano. En 1996, el Gobierno de Bolivia invitó a un grupo de expertos a revisar, en colaboración con los integrantes del programa dentro del país, cuánto se había avanzado hacia la eliminación de los TDY de todo el territorio nacional. El equipo revisor examinó los datos recolectados mediante las encuestas más recientes sobre la disponibilidad y el uso de la sal yodada y las concentraciones de yodo excretadas por la orina. Sobre la base de criterios internacionales establecidos para estos indicadores, el equipo llegó a la conclusión de que Bolivia había eliminado los TDY como problema de salud pública de alcance nacional, pese a pruebas de que algunas comunidades aisladas de los Andes todavía carecían de una ingesta adecuada de yodo. El equipo hizo recomendaciones para mejorar el programa y garantizar su sostenibilidad. Asimismo, examinó los métodos de producción y el control de la calidad del proceso de yodación y recomendó medidas para reducir la variabilidad del contenido de yodo en la sal.

  17. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  18. A review of forest economics research in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country....

  19. Las voces del coraje. Radios mineras de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridvia Kuncar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las radios mineras bolivianas, uno de los casos más nítidos de autogestión comunicacional en el mundo y la conquista más sólida de espacios participativos por parte de los trabajadores de Bolivia, constituyen un fenómeno poco estudiado y difundido. A más de treinta años de vigencia de estas emisoras, sus protagonistas siguien avanzando en la experiencia de reconvertir el signo de una tecnología dominante -como la radio- en un instrumento para el desarrollo de su propia comunicación.

  20. Changing markets - Medicinal plants in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Moya Huanca, Laura Araseli; Hart, Robbie

    2016-12-04

    Given the importance of local markets as a source of medicinal plants for both healers and the population, literature on market flows and the value of the plant material traded is rather scarce. This stands in contrast to wealth of available information for other components of Bolivian ethnobotany. The present study attempts to remedy this situation by providing a detailed inventory of medicinal plant markets in the La Paz-El Alto metropolitan area, hypothesizing that both species composition, and medicinal applications, have changed considerably over time. From October 2013-October 2015 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 plant vendors between October 2013 and October 2015 in the Mercado Rodriguez, Mercado Calle Santa Cruz, Mercado Cohoni, Mercado Cota Cota, and Mercado Seguencoma and Mercado El Alto in order to elucidate more details on plant usage and provenance. The results of the present study were then compared to previous inventories of medicinal plants in La Paz and El Alto studies to elucidate changes over time and impact of interview techniques. In this study we encountered 163 plant species belonging to 127 genera and 58 families. In addition, 17 species could not be identified. This species richness is considerably higher than that reported in previous studies (2005, 129 species of 55 families; 2015, 94 identified species). While the overall distribution of illness categories is in line with older reports the number of species used per application, as well as the applications per species, were much higher in the present study. Overall, informant consensus was relatively low, which might be explained by the large number of new species that have entered the local pharmacopoeia in the last decade, although some species might simply have been missed by previous studies. In course of the present study it became apparent that even well known species might often be replaced by other apparently similar but botanically unrelated species due to

  1. Santa soja: narrativa documental em fotolivro

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    A partir do fotolivro Santa Soja como objeto e do resgate histórico das práticas jornalísticas de reportagem e de edição por meio de entrevistas com os cinco autores, esta pesquisa busca identificar o fotolivro como formato potencializador do fotodocumentarismo. Para tanto, foi proposta uma localização conceitual sobre o fotolivro, a linguagem e a narrativa fotográfica e sobre a vocação historiográfica e testemunhal da fotografia, a fim de contextualizar uma análise do fotolivro Santa Soja qu...

  2. Pelas trilhas da ILha de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Flavio Leonel Abreu da

    1996-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas O estudo sobre o ecoturismo na Ilha de Santa Catarina vem demonstrar o surgimento de novas modalidades turísticas entre os grupos urbanos. A pesquisa aponta para a intersecção entre lazer, turismo, ecologia e esporte, demonstrando a importân-cia das práticas ecoturísticas na atualidade. A partir de tal perspectiva, as questões de gênero surgem com significativa relevância. Estamos frente...

  3. Modeling forest dynamics along climate gradients in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kruijt, B.; Quispe, J.; Añez, S.; Arora, V. K.; Melton, J. R.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic vegetation models have been used to assess the resilience of tropical forests to climate change, but the global application of these modeling experiments often misrepresents carbon dynamics at a regional level, limiting the validity of future projections. Here a dynamic vegetation model (Lund Potsdam Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) was adapted to simulate present-day potential vegetation as a baseline for climate change impact assessments in the evergreen and deciduous forests of Bolivia. Results were compared to biomass measurements (819 plots) and remote sensing data. Using regional parameter values for allometric relations, specific leaf area, wood density, and disturbance interval, a realistic transition from the evergreen Amazon to the deciduous dry forest was simulated. This transition coincided with threshold values for precipitation (1400 mm yr-1) and water deficit (i.e., potential evapotranspiration minus precipitation) (-830 mm yr-1), beyond which leaf abscission became a competitive advantage. Significant correlations were found between modeled and observed values of seasonal leaf abscission (R2 = 0.6, p days. Decreasing rainfall trends were simulated to reduce GPP in the Amazon. The current model setup provides a baseline for assessing the potential impacts of climate change in the transition zone from wet to dry tropical forests in Bolivia.

  4. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  5. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The genus Attalea (Arecaceae of Bolivia: regional ecologic system affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moraes R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of the Neotropical species of the Arecaceae family, based on the recent contributions to its taxonomy and its relationship with natural landscapes, updates the spatial patterns to which they adapt in their range of distribution. In this case 121 records of specimens of the 11 species of the genus Attalea of Bolivia and their relationship with 30 ecological systems that approximate their scope of distribution at regional level are released. To this end, the geographical coordinates were systematized, verified and corrected. Localities of all the specimens collected from the genus Attalea in order to compare them with ecological systems, using the ArgGis tools. We then elaborate a dendrogram (species vs. ecological systems using the minimum distance method in the R program. The analysis of the relation of the species with the ecological systems highlights a species that does not compose to the southwest amazon: A. eichleri and that is native to ecological systems of the Cerrado. Among the SW Amazonian Attalea species, A. blepharopus (endemic to Bolivia is isolated from the others and the rest subgroup species according to their presence in forests and savannas, in addition to the subandean and alluvial, as it is for A. princeps, which is found in 17 systems (57%. Eight species of Attalea are common with Peru and 10 with Brazil. It is important to relate the hierarchical grouping of the Attalea species with ecological systems in function of landscape dynamics to document their space patterns and also for their conservation.

  7. In Spaces of Marginalization: Dispossession, Incorporation, and Resistance in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Z. Kaup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship conceptualizing primitive accumulation as an ongoing process in global capitalism has noted the difficulties faced in bringing struggles against exploitation and dispossession together. While some scholars suggest that an 'organic link" exists between these conflicts. they have yet to clearly specify the conditions and mechanisms through which such a link can form. Examining cases in Bolivia at the turn of the twenty-first century. I argue that struggles against exploitation and dispossession do not merely converge when facing a common oppressor. but also as the changing forms and geographies of exploitation and dispossession bring people together in more proximate locations. I illustrate that the changing means through which Bolivia was incorporated into the global economy enhanced levels of marginalization and subsequently resulted in patterns of migration that led to a convergence of peasant and proletarian struggles. As both segments of Bolivian society were excluded from the country's major economic sectors. they migrated to the places where they thought they could best satisfy their livelihood needs. But as people continually struggled to meet these needs, these places became spaces of marginalization, and eventually, spaces of resistance.

  8. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  9. A Contribution to the Lichen Family Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota of Bolivia. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microlichens of the family Graphidaceae are important components of the lowland and montane tropical forests in Bolivia. In this paper we present new records for 51 taxa of the family in Bolivia. Leiorreuma lyellii (Sm. Staiger is reported as new for the Southern Hemisphere, while Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl. Vain., Graphis daintreensis (A. W. Archer A. W. Archer, G. duplicatoinspersa Lücking, G. emersa Müll. Arg., G. hossei Vain., G. immersella Müll. Arg. and G. subchrysocarpa Lücking are new for South America. Thirty taxa are reported for the first time from Bolivia. Notes on distribution are provided for most species.

  10. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  11. Pachakuti en Bolivia (2008-2010. Un diario personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dunkerley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing of this personal Diary approaches crucial public “moments” in Bolivian history and connects them with present debates around the exercise of democracy in the context of the New Political Constitution of the State (2006 and of the recently founded Plurinational State (2010. In an effort to embrace a Pachakuti logic, the writing avoids a strict chronological order of the facts, rather unfolding a concern with the ‘historicity’ of where Bolivia now stands and where she might be ‘going.’ The Diary begins on February 7, 2009 (inauguration of the new Political Constitution of the State and concludes on February 13, 2010 (with a report of the British newspaper The Guardian commenting that the government of Evo Morales has created a Space Agency and plans to launch, in 2013, a satellite that will be called Tupac Katari.La escritura de este Diario personal aborda “momentos” públicos cruciales en la historia de Bolivia y los conecta con los debates actuales en torno al ejercicio de la democracia en el contexto de la Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (2006 y del recientemente fundado Estado Plurinacional (2010. En un esfuerzo por darle a la escritura una lógica de Pachakuti, no se sigue el orden cronológico de los hechos, más bien se despliega una preocupación por la historicidad de dónde está parada Bolivia y hacia dónde podría estar yendo.  El Diario se inicia el 7 de febrero de 2009 (inauguración de la nueva Constitución Política del Estado y concluye el 13 de febrero de 2010 (con un reporte del periódico británico The Guardian comentando que el gobierno de Evo Morales ha creado una Agencia Espacial y planea lanzar, en 2013, un satélite que se llamará Tupac Katari.

  12. Cohen-Cruz, Jan (org., Radical Street Performance: An International Anthology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pato de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jan Cohen-Cruz foi membro do New York City Street Theatre/Jonah Project entre 1971 e 1972. Organizou workshops de teatro em prisões, hospitais psiquiátricos e centros comunitários. É co-organizadora de Playing Boal: Theatre, Therapy, Activism e os seus artigos, baseados na performance activista e performance comunitária, foram publicados nas revistas TDR, High Performance, American Theatre, Urban Resources, Women and Performance, The Mime Journal e na antologia But Is It Art?. Jan é também pr...

  13. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  14. Las minas de magnesita del Puerto de la Cruz Verde (Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe; Puche Riart, Octavio; Jordá Bordehore, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Las ruinas de una mina de magnesita, localizada en el Puerto de la Cruz Verde, próxima a Zarzalejo y al Monasterio de El Escorial, es el objeto de este trabajo. Los edificios auxiliares, el transformador y las bocaminas se hallan en buen estado de conservación. Todo esto hace que sea necesario un proyecto de protección y restauración, dado el interés cultural y paisajístico que tiene este enclave

  15. Hacia la obra de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Ansaldo Briones, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este caso pedagógico es describir y recopilar la experiencia de una vida dedicada a la enseñanza de la literatura. La precisión se hace sobre la obra de la poeta mexicana colonial Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, considerada la mayor exponente de las letras de Hispanoamérica hasta la llegada del siglo XX. Su obra es compleja, rica barroca y requiere de un ingreso cuidadoso y pedagógicamente planificado. El encuentro con el Constructivismo y la Pedagogía de la Comprensión le dieron h...

  16. Discursos de otredad, conflictos políticos y movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne Marie Ejdesgaard

    2006-01-01

    Sociale bevægelser, demokrati, deltagelse og konflikt. Bogen undersøger de sociale bevægelsers rolle som aktører i de politiske forandringsprocesser i Bolivia i begyndelsen af det nye årtusind...

  17. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  18. ¿Qué ocurrió realmente en Bolivia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to dispute the explanations which assume that the process Bolivia is going through is similar to the processes other Latin–American countries are experiencing. These perspectives suggest the triumph of Evo Morales in the presidential elections of December 2005 was produced by the failure of the neoliberal policies carried out in this region during the period following the debt crisis of the eighties. Showing data that reveal that the bolivian economic performance in the neoliberal period was better compared to the performance of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, this article offers an alternative explanation, which not denying the poverty of the bolivian majorities, asserts that the breakdown of the political system and the parties that alternated in power for twenty years is the main factor explaining the rise of the first indigenous president.

  19. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las causas de la deforestación para un conjunto representativo de municipios bolivianos. La literatura sobre economía ambiental insiste en la importancia de los factores físicos y sociales. Nos centramos en el último grupo de variables. Nuestro objetivo es identificar los mecanismos causales entre estos factores de riesgo y el problema de la deforestación. Con este fin, se presenta una estrategia de análisis para identificar mecanismos de causalidad espacial, basada en una secuencia de los multiplicadores de Lagrange. Los resultados que obtenemos para el caso de Bolivia confirman sólo parcialmente la visión tradicional del problema de la deforestación. De hecho, sólo encontramos signos inequívocos de causalidad en relación con la estructura de los derechos de propiedad.

  20. Bolivia-Brazil natural gas project: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the natural gas reserves in Bolivia and Brazil is discussed. The development of these reserves is being conducted by the Private Corporation for Gas Development. The Corporation was created to promote participation of the private sector in an area that was exclusively managed by federal or state governments. In order to promote participation by the private sector and at the same time to motivate foreign investors, the corporation is conducting a program of activities and studies that includes a legal and institutional analysis, a feasibility study in accordance with the viewpoints of the private sector, and also the structure of a business development plan, according to the perspective of private investors

  1. DIFFERENTIAL SPECTRUM OF NEUTRONS AT CHACALTAYA-BOLIVIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayta, R.; Zanini, A.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Spectrometer Experiment installed at Chacaltaya Cosmic Rays Observatory (68 deg. O, 16.2 deg. S), located in Bolivia, at 5230 m.a.s.l. This experimental system is constituted by passive detectors which register the flux of neutrons, in an energy range of 10 KeV-20 MeV. Using the unfolding code BUNTO a peak around 1 MeV of the characteristic spectrum of neutrons was obtained. Experimental values, observed during April of 2008, are compared with similar ones carried out in 1997 at the same place, in order to look for eventual changes due to local atmosphere. A similar experiment was also carried up at the Laboratory of Testa Grigia-Italy (45.56 deg. N, 7.42 deg. E,. 3480 m.a.l.s). Data of both stations allow us to compare the spectra in order to explain the difference of neutron flux of these two stations.

  2. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  3. Geography and culture matter for malnutrition in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rolando; Aguilar, Ana María; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of health problems and malnutrition in Bolivia is exceptionally high, even in comparison to other underdeveloped countries. This study analyzes the relationship between a two measures of child health--height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores--and a set of physical and cultural determinants of child nutrition, including mother's characteristics, household assets and access to public services. The ultimate aim is to identify the most important determinants of child health and to measure the relative impact of each factor on the height and weight z-scores. A sequential strategy was adopted in order to estimate a two-equation linear model with correlated error terms. A major finding points to geographical and cultural variables as main causes of nutritional status and highlights the role of mother's anthropometrical characteristics. This study uses data on over 3000 children gathered from a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).

  4. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (pdepression, and unwanted pregnancies. Many cases of suicide......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  5. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Somos nosotros, somos gobierno. Experiencia de movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quiroga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social movements in the public arena had to do with neoliberalism´s negative consequences. Different actors with different interests worked together against the system, which became their “common antagonist”.  On the one hand, after years of autonomous organization, these social movements won social recognition and increased their power. On the other, political parties and trade unions lost legitimacy.  In December 2005, a faction of the Bolivian social movements won the general elections, and Evo Morales (the cocalero movement´s leader became the first Aymara president in Bolivian history. How to manage this government it is one of the majors challenges the social movements confront in today’s Bolivia. La emergencia de movimientos sociales en la esfera pública está ligada a las consecuencias negativas del neoliberalismo.  Actores sociales provenientes de distintos sectores y con intereses distintos unieron fuerzas contra un sistema que se convirtió en el “antagonista común”.  Después de años de organización autónoma, estos movimientos lograron reconocimiento político e incrementaron su poder de gestión, mientras los partidos políticos y los sindicatos perdían legitimidad.  En diciembre 2005 una facción de los movimientos sociales ganó las elecciones generales y Evo Morales (líder del movimiento cocalero se convirtió en el primer Presidente aymara de la historia de Bolivia. Cómo gestionar este gobierno constituye hoy día uno de los mayores retos que enfrentan los movimientos sociales.

  7. The exploitation of obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz, Argentina: Results from La María and Cerro Tres Tetas and a regional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Cueto

    2016-09-01

    Results from this work strengthen the idea that the groups which lived in the Central Plateau knew about and exploited an obsidian source known as Pampa del Asador. A raise in the use of this raw material throughout time is recorded, reaching its peak in the late Holocene. We identified two different moments in the exploitation of obsidian at the regional level. During the final Pleistocene and early Holocene, obsidian would not have played a relevant role in the organization of technology. Production sequences indicate that tools probably were entered to the sites already manufactured. During the middle and late Holocene nodules and cores could have been brought into the sites. The strategies involved in their reduction are in broad terms similar to those implemented with local raw materials; there is no evidence that obsidian had more value in any way. On the other hand, it is also not possible to state that there was just an eventual exploitation of this raw material. We believe that obsidian was acquired during mobility circuits which enabled the contact between different groups.

  8. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  9. Cinemática de la extensión jurásica vinculada a la Provincia Silícea Chon Aike, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Japas, Maria Silvia; Sruoga, Patricia; Kleiman, Laura Elena; Gayone, María Rosario; Maloberti, Alejandro L.; Comito, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    La Provincia Silícea Chon Aike, de vasta distribución en Patagonia, plataforma continental y Península Antártica, representa un megaevento volcánico ocurrido en tiempos jurásicos (188-152 Ma), cuyo emplazamiento estuvo controlado por una tectónica extensional. El análisis cinemático llevado a cabo a partir de fallas y zonas de cizalla frágil-dúctil en cuatro localidades (El Dorado- Monserrat, Norte de Cerro Vanguardia y El Fénix, en la comarca del Deseado; y Lago Ghío, en la Cordillera Patagó...

  10. Evaluación de la Atención Primaria en Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil: Método de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Meneghelli Cebrelli Pletsch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La organización del primer nivel de atención de la salud, de acuerdo con los principios y atributos de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS, mejora los problemas de salud que enfrenta el individuo y el colectivo. Para ello, se necesita estructura y proceso de trabajo adecuado, cuya evaluación se utilizarán para la gestión de la salud. Objetivo: Presentar el problema y discutir el método de recolección de datos de dos estudios de evaluación de la APS. Método: descripción paso a paso de la preparación de cuestionarios, la selección y capacitación de los entrevistadores, la recopilación de datos, control de calidad, dificultades y soluciones encontradas. Resultados: Los instrumentos de recolección de datos fueron bien comprendidas por los encuestados y se podría aplicar sin mayores problemas, pocos ajustes eran necesarios debido a la programación de los entrevistadores y los participantes. Conclusión: El conjunto de información de este artículo puede ser utilizada para guiar a los nuevos investigadores en el campo de la salud y sus consideraciones son útiles para evitar las posibles dificultades encontradas por los Estados.

  11. Furniture and paintings in the houses of the marqueses de Santa Cruz de Marcenado (Asturias between the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis Ramón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using unpublished archival documents, the author studies and analyses in detail the collections of furniture and paintings left at the time of their deaths by Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa and his daughter Jacinta in their houses in the town of Pola de Siero and the capital, Oviedo (Asturias. Both furniture and paintings were destroyed —or perhaps dispersed— during the Napoleonic Wars, when la Rúa’s house in Oviedo was repeatedly sacked. Nevertheless, the inventories here transcribed perfectly demonstrate the wealth displayed by the Asturian nobility of the period, which can be verified by comparing these inventories with those of other families related to the Vigil de Quiñones, for example the Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

    A través de documentos inéditos de archivo, se analizan y estudian en detalle los conjuntos de muebles y la colección de pintura que quedaron a la muerte de don Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa y de su hija Jacinta, en sus casas de la villa de Pola de Siero y Oviedo (Asturias. Tanto los muebles como los cuadros se destruyeron o quizá dispersaron durante la Guerra de Independencia, cuando la Casa de la Rúa de Oviedo fue saqueada en reiteradas ocasiones. No obstante, los inventarios transcritos en este artículo ilustran perfectamente la riqueza de la que hacía gala en Asturias la nobleza de la época, como se comprueba comparando los inventarios estudiados con los de otras familias emparentadas con los Vigil de Quiñones, por ejemplo los Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

  12. El represamiento y aluvión del río Santa Cruz, Andes Principales (31°40'S), provincia de San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio E. D'odorico; Daniel J. Pérez; Nicolás Sequeira; Luis Fauqué

    2009-01-01

    En la región de los Andes Principales sanjuaninos, existe una alta concentración de deslizamientos, cuyos depósitos han originado represamientos naturales. El colapso de estos diques generados por movimientos de ladera es el proceso evolutivo más probable de estas geoformas. El análisis de imágenes satelitales y fotos aéreas permite reconstruir las características y el origen de los deslizamientos que formaron esos diques naturales. En esta región de los Andes Principales, el rápido levantami...

  13. Watershed Analysis of Runoff and Erosion Potential on Santa Cruz Watershed (Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico): Impact of Climate and Land Cover Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southwest Ecosystem Service Program (SwESP) is part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s newly undertaken Ecological Service Research Program (ESRP) to examine the variety of ways in which landscapes including crop lands, conservation areas, wetlands, lakes, and ...

  14. Ethnoecological knowledge of the artisan fishermen of octopi (Octopus spp. in the community of Coroa Vermelha (Santa Cruz Cabrália, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are quite diverse ecosystems that carry out several ecological functions and plays a relevant socioeconomic role. The artisan fishing of octopi (Octopus spp. is practiced for the survival of part of the inhabitants of Coroa Vermelha community, in the south of the state of Bahia. We intended to study the knowledge of the octopi fishermen of Coroa Vermelha using the comprehensive ethnoecological proposal of Marques. The data were collected between July, 2006 and April, 2008 through direct observation and from interviews with fishermen met by chance and through the "native specialists" criterion. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out following an itinerary of pre-established questions about the activity of octopi capture, and the biological and ecological aspects of the resource. The data showed that the fishermen have knowledge about biological and ecological aspects of the octopi. Two capture techniques are used: octopus fishing (polvejamento in the reefs and through diving. Two specific folk are recognized: the "normal octopus" (Octopus insularis and the "east octopus" (Octopus macropus (?. The intervieews demonstrated ecological knowledge sometimes compatible with the scientific literature, mainly in which concerns the trophic ecology and behavior of the octopi.Os recifes de coral são ecossistemas muito diversos que realizam várias funções ecológicas e possuem um relevante papel socioeconômico. A pesca artesanal de polvo (Octopus spp. é realizada para a sobrevivência de uma parte da população da comunidade de Coroa Vermelha, no Sul do Estado da Bahia. A intenção deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento dos pescadores de polvos de Coroa Vermelha, usando a proposta da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques. Os dados foram coletados entre julho de 2006 e abril de 2008 através da observação direta e entrevistas com pescadores encontrados oportunisticamente e com os especialistas "nativos". Vinte entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas seguindo um roteiro de perguntas pré-estabelecidas sobre a atividade de captura polvos, e os aspectos biológicos e ecológicos do recurso capturado. Os dados demonstraram que os pescadores têm conhecimento sobre alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos dos polvos. Duas técnicas de captura são utilizadas: pesca sobre o recife (polvejamento e através de mergulho. Dois específicos do povos são reconhecidos: o polvo "normal" (Octopus insularis e o polvo "de leste" (Octopus macropus (?. Os entrevistados demonstraram conhecimento ecológico, por vezes, compatíveis com a literatura científica, principalmente no que diz respeito à ecologia trófica e comportamento dos polvos.

  15. Heterogeneidad en las prácticas agrarias como estrategia de adaptación a los procesos globales. Caso de Santa Cruz (Chilapa, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabás Vásquez Agustín

    2009-01-01

    procesos de cambios y las relaciones establecidas entre los actores sociales, así como su relación con los recursos naturales, en el marco de la modernidad y su incidencia en las estrategias sociales de reproducción campesina. En la diversificación de las prácticas agrarias, donde se combinan las culturalmente apropiadas por la población para asegurar la subsistencia, y las prácticas recientemente introducidas que buscan el desarrollo lo cal se encuentran los cultivos de maíz y jitomate, la producción ganadera, del petate y del mezcal; prácticas que han fortalecido redes que permiten la cohesión social.

  16. Sedimentología e icnología de la formación río Mayer, cuenca Austral, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Richiano, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis doctoral se centró en el estudio sedimentológico e icnológico de las sedimentitas marinas de la Formación Río Mayer, depositada en el Cretácico inferior de la Cuenca Austral. Dicha cuenca se ubica en el extremo suroccidental de la Patagonia abarcando un sector de Sudamérica que incluye el sur de Argentina y Chile, y representa una de las más importantes cuencas productoras de hidrocarburos de Argentina. El área de estudio contempla la región entre los lagos San Ma...

  17. MOTIVATION AND BARRIERS: perception of aged that they participate of groups of Third Age of Santa Cruz do Sul do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quélin Garske

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective to describe the reasons that take the aged ones to practice physical activities in the Third Age Groups and the barriers that hinder them. Thirty aged citizens were subject of this research. The methodological approaching was an exploratory descriptive study, in witch was applied a questionnaire about motivation and barriers for the physical activity practice. As result, it was evidenced that the motivation of the aged ones for physical activity practice is related to: To congregate and meet with other people; to feel itself carried through; to feel themselves mentally more alert and to improve and keep the health. As for the barriers, they exist, in diverse aspects: social, physical and psychic. Although they exist, for these aged ones it did not became something that completely hindered them to go to the group and to practice physical activities. In conclusion, although the difficulties that the aged ones find day after day, the motivation and the barriers are related to the perception of each one, which can become an important and definitive factor for the assiduity or desistance of these individuals in the third age group.

  18. A atuação feminina nos Conselhos da Mulher: um estudo dos Conselhos de Pelotas e de Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Marione Schulz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como proposta refletir sobre a atuação feminina em Conselhos Municipais da Mulher. A primeira parte apresenta uma concisa revisão da literatura que discute a legitimidade da representação dos atores presentes nos fóruns de deliberação de políticas públicas no Brasil; a segunda parte inicia com breve apresentação da pesquisa que investigou os Conselhos da Mulher de dois municípios do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, seguida dos dados resultantes do questionário aplicado às conselheiras; por fim, algumas considerações são apresentadas visando configurar o perfil das conselheiras e de pensar os dados à luz da discussão sobre legitimidade da representação.

  19. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  20. Two new species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus) in Peru and Bolivia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-01-25

    To date, the subgenus Rhomboconnus Franz of Euconnus Thomson was represented by ten species known to occur in Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. For the first time Rhomboconnus is reported to occur in Peru and Bolivia, and two new species are described: Euconnus wari sp. n. (Peru) and E. inkachakanus sp. n. (Bolivia). The latter species is the largest representative of Rhomboconnus, with body length exceeding 3 mm.

  1. Solar cells for Bolivia. Two project supported by the Dutch Ministry of Development Assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassing, P.; Rijssenbeek, W.; De Winter, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1992 the Netherlands Development Assistance (NEDA) supports the energy sector in Bolivia, South-America. Next to support on the policy level demonstration projects in the field of renewable energy are financed successfully. Two solar energy projects form the start of a broad introduction of Solar Home Systems in rural areas of Bolivia. The main obstacle is the financing of the plans. 3 refs

  2. Bolivia: Del “proceso de cambio” a los cambios en el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ybarnegaray Ortiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del conflicto en torno al TIPNIS desde la perspectiva de una consultora independiente y activista cultural radicada en Bolivia. En su desarrollo, el artículo contextualiza históricamente el conflicto del TIPNIS y lo sitúa dentro del proceso social y político que hoy vive Bolivia. La autora se detiene en el análisis de “lo que revela el conflicto” y en los desafíos políticos que le plantea al gobierno del MAS, problematizando sustancialmente el  “proceso de cambio” anunciado el año 2005, durante la campaña electoral que condujo a Evo Morales a la Presidencia de Bolivia.        This article offers a detailed analysis of the conflict around the TIPNIS from the point of view of an independent consultant and cultural activist based in Bolivia. In its development, the article historically contextualizes the conflict of the TIPNIS locating it within the social and political process that today lives Bolivia. The author pauses in the analysis of “which substantially reveals the conflict” and in the political challenges that it poses to the government of the MAS, problematizing the “process of change” announced in 2005, during the electoral campaign that lead to Evo Morales to the Presidency of Bolivia

  3. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  4. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  5. Economic approach of pipelines: TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia) case; Analise economica de gasoduto: o caso TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Celso P.; Pettendorfer, Erick P. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is offer to the industry an example of successful project finance in an emergent country. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was projected to develop an industry of natural gas in Brazil. The total costs invested was around US$ 1, 5 billion (Brazilian side) and BID, BIRD, CAF, BEI, BNDES- Finame, Marubeni, Mediocredito with main lenders. There are tree contracts with Ship or Pay clauses that are the main guarantees of the project. We will describe the mains variables of this project and the economic model that was created to calculate the tariff and project all financial reports of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. (author)

  6. Language and organizational culture in the Oswaldo Cruz institute 1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Franklin Hanes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n1p230 The medical literature consumed and produced by the Oswaldo Cruz Institute and the circulation of its personnel in foreign institutions from its beginnings in 1900 through the Vargas coup d’état in Brazil in 1930 testify to the complex, multilingual and international nature of scientific networking in and beyond the belle époque and challenge notions of behavior associated with colonial economic models. To explore the parameters of the Institute’s early organizational culture with respect to language, three of its publications from this period will be examined: a 1911 promotional booklet in German, which details the Institute’s journal holdings and the publications of its researchers; a 1929 English-language travelogue of leprosy treatment centers worldwide; and the journal Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1909-, which published articles in five languages during this period. The results indicate that the Institute’s flexible, avidly multilingual language policy, partially the result of Brazil’s peripheral, neutral political situation, led to a very strong multilateral position in the scientific community that provided both visibility and recognition as a full peer in the then-internationally emerging field of Tropical Medicine.

  7. Foreignizing translation of cultural words in the novel The Death of Artemio Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Kastelic Vukadinović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses cultural words in the Slovenian translation of the novel The Death of Artemio Cruz by Carlos Fuentes. There are a number of cultural words in the analysed text that have no exact equivalents in other languages and cultures. These are also elements that contribute to the foreignization of the target text and show us the textual world as exotic and unknown. However, it is interesting that in a lot of cases the reader does not feel disoriented, because there are enough references in the text that he can understand what is needed. Moreover, the explanations in the footnotes help the reader a lot in those parts where the monologue of Artemio Cruz adopts an essayistic tone and the great questions about Mexico and the Mexicans arise. The reader thus has the feeling that he is losing himself in the whirlwind of Mexican history. These passages are difficult to understand (both in the original and the translation due to the narrative techniques of the author and not so much to the realia. The translator of the studied text, Alenka Bole Vrabec, tends to choose the transfer of cultural words in order to retain some local colour, even when she could find equivalents in Slovenian or, at least, adapt the words to writing in accordance with the rules of the Slovenian language. These decisions accentuate the foreignizing character of the translation.

  8. Modernization projects in Santa Maria e Garona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, R.; Alutiz, J. I.; Garcia Sanchez, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows a vision of the Santa Maria de Garona power Plant modernization guidelines and it also presents the most significant projects deployed in the last decade at the power plant grouped in mechanics projects, electrical projects, instrumentations projects and IT projects. At the same time three projects are explained in more detail: the change of one of the main transformers, the evolution from paper recorders to paperless video graphic recorders and the new plant data information system. (Author)

  9. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  10. Descentralización, Poderes Locales y Participación Social en Educación en Bolivia. Los Casos de Tarabuco y La Paz (1997-2003. Decentralization, Local Powers and Social Participation in Education in Bolivia: The Cases of Tarabuco and La Paz (1997-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Yapu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Declaración de ministros de educación de países iberoamericanos en Santa Fe de Bogotá, 4-6 de noviembre de 1992, la descentralización educativa ha sido un tema recurrente de las reformas educativas en los países iberoamericanos, donde en algunos de ellos las experiencias de descentralización antecedieron a esta Declaración y en otros fueron posteriores. Las reformas educativas desarrolladas en los últimos años asociaron la descentralización educativa a la participación social y la mejora de la calidad educativa, entre otros temas. Este artículo aborda precisamente estos aspectos, interrogándose sobre qué tipo de descentralización estaría vigente en Bolivia, cuáles serían sus características en cuanto a la participación social y cómo estaría incidiendo en la calidad educativa. Se ha optado por un enfoque de análisis de las micropolíticas y de las prácticas sociales de los actores, apoyándose metodológicamente en dos estudios de caso: La Paz y Tarabuco (Bolivia. El artículo sugiere que tanto las políticas de descentralización educativa como los enfoques teóricos de análisis desde las ciencias sociales han avanzado poco en explicar el fenómeno de las relaciones sociales de poder a nivel local que afecta a la naturaleza de cualquier proceso de descentralización, porque en los poderes centrales del Estado persiste una hegemonía del enfoque gerencialista y una visión esencialmente burocrática de la educación. Since the Declaration of ministers of education of iberoamerican countries held in Santa Fe de Bogotá, November 4-6, 1992, the decentralization of education has been a recurrent subject of educational reforms in Latin American countries, where in some of them the experiences of decentralization have preceded said Declaration while in others they have followed it. The educational reforms that have come about within the last years associate the decentralization of education with social participation

  11. The Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz of Jaime Bleda: a bedside book for Calderón?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Sáez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper explores the possible knowledge that some authors of the Golden Age may have about certain treatises of historical, philosophical and political nature, besides the well-known relations with other literary works, like the critics frequently have pointed out. So, this investigation compares the series of miracles that appear in La devoción de la cruz of Calderón with the book Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz of Jaime Bleda, a religious treaty that Calderón might recalled in order to write some passages of this comedy. Overall, this paper reveals data about the prodigious miscellany that may serve to other studies about this matter. Resumen:Este trabajo explora el posible conocimiento que algunos autores del Siglo de Oro pudieron tener de ciertos tratados de tema histórico, filosófico, político, etc., al margen de las relaciones con otras obras literarias, frecuentemente estudiadas por la crítica. Así, se pone en diálogo la serie de milagros que aparecen en La devoción de la cruz de Calderón con los Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz de Jaime Bleda, un repertorio de milagros que Calderón pudo recordar a la hora de escribir algunos pasajes de esta comedia. Conjuntamente se da noticia de esta miscelánea de prodigios, que puede resultar de gran utilidad para otros estudios.

  12. Las hermandades y cofradías de la Vera Cruz en el País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Fernández, Ernesto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the period in which the first foundations of the Brotherhoods and Fraternities of the True Cross took place in the Basque Country and assess the importance that the cult of the Cross had in this region. In addition, we examine carefully and systematically the evident relations between the fraternity of the True Cross in Bilbao and the fraternity of the True Cross in Vitoria, for whose foundation in 1538 there is documented evidence. This study shows that the statutes of the fraternity of the True Cross in the town of Vitoria were taken into account by those who decided to set up the same fraternity in the town of Bilbao in the middle of the sixteenth century.En este artículo se analiza y valora el período en que se produjeron en el País Vasco las primeras fundaciones de las Hermandades y Cofradías de la Vera Cruz, así como la importancia que tuvo el culto a la Cruz en este territorio. Al mismo tiempo se examinan, de manera más precisa y sistemática, las relaciones manifiestas de la cofradía de la Vera Cruz de Bilbao con la cofradía de la Vera Cruz de Vitoria, cuya fundación está documentada en 1538. De este estudio se deriva que los estatutos de la cofradía de la Vera Cruz de la ciudad de Vitoria fueron tenidos en cuenta por quienes en la villa de Bilbao decidieron instituir dicha cofradía a mediados del siglo XVI.

  13. SANTAS CRUZES” LOCUS DE NUCLEAÇÃO DE RESTAURAÇÃO AMBIENTAL. METODOLOGIA POR ABANDONO E REGENERAÇÃO ESPONTÂNEA, UM RISCO PARA O BIOMA MATA ATLÂNTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Silva Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma expressão cultural-religiosa “Santa Cruz” (altar com descarte de imagens de valor sacro para a Igreja Católica tem possível valor deletério sobre o Hotspot ambiental Mata Atlântica, na região Metropolitana do Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte Paulista. Material e Métodos: foi construído um modelo de Santa Cruz similar às encontradas na Mata Atlântica e, durante seis meses (outono/inverno foram medidas as alterações de pH do solo e a retenção de água, pós chuva e em período de seca, pelas imagens de gesso. Os resultados mostraram que nesses lócus o pH do solo oscilou entre 6,3 e 7,0; a umidade retida nas peças de gesso aumentou a massa das imagens em ambos os períodos.Concluiu-se que estas Santas Cruzes podem se transformar em ambientes semelhantes ao modelo de nucleação por abandono usado para a recomposição florestal de áreas degradados, mas também permite o desenvolvimento de Espécies Invasoras ao Bioma, oferecendo riscos antrópicos ao Hotspot.

  14. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 . The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author)

  15. Cultivation of minor tuber crops in Peru and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pietilä

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A collection mission of three Andean tuber crops, oca (Oxalis tuberosa, Oxalidaceae, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus, Basellaceae and añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum, Tropaeolaceae, was carried out in southern Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. This article deals with the observations made during this mission. 55 ulluco fields were visited. In general, the fields are small, 240m2 on average, and they are mostly situated on mountain slopes. The fields are fertilized with animal dung; chemical fertilizers are quite rare. In the fields, people work with hoes ang ploughs as they did hundreds of years ago. Mechanization of agriculture would prevent full utilization of the mountainous area of the Andes. Ulluco is usually interplanted with other crops, usually, many forms of ulluco in one field. Because of crop rotation description of the fields is partly valid for the cultivation of other crops, too. Due to drastic climatic variation, cultivation of mixed varieties maybe the best way to guarantee some yield. When results of the investigations are wished to benefit developing countries, knowledge of social, agricultural and environmental factors is of great value.

  16. Men and Women Facing Political Violence in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Beaucage

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I propose to outline the stories of violence between men and women from the countryside and low-income neighborhoods in the cities, based on 33 interviews conducted in Bolivia in the summers of 2005 and 2006. I don’t consider «violence» as a universal concept, but rather as a combination of representations related to widely distributed practices within society. I will clearly point out the commonalities between men and women, on the one hand, and among inhabitants of the country and the city, on the other. One of the common characteristics of all is the perception of living in a dangerous world. Women place a considerably bigger emphasis on dangers of a supernatural kind, as well as damages cause by symbolic violence, such as «badmouthing.» The inhabitants of poor urban environments place more importance on delinquent violence, and take measures to confront it. Both sexes refer to gender violence within the family, but it is women who cite lived experiences to that respect. In terms of causes for the violence, in the city both sexes seem to be incorporating into their imagination elements of academic discourse about structural violence

  17. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Signs of η Carinae Outburst in Artifacts of Ancient Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teames, Sallie

    Recent HST and X-ray photos of η Carinae reveal the bipolar gaseous lobes--the Homunculus Nebula--created by the star's "Great Eruption of 1843." From debris gases on the outskirts beyond the two gaseous lobes, astrophysicists surmise an earlier outburst. The 1999 Chandra X-ray photo of the horseshoe-shaped outer nebula surrounding the bipolar lobes indicates an earlier outburst occurring over a thousand years ago. Because η Carinae is so far south, it is entirely possible that the outburst would not have been seen by the Chinese and other observers in the northern hemisphere. Researchers are looking for possible recordings by early southern hemisphere observers. Pre-Incan artifacts excavated in Bolivia may provide an answer. In the script and artwork carvings on a monolith stone statue, an artifact of the Tiahuanacan culture, are signs possibly depicting the earlier outburst of η Carinae--the recordings of a star that suddenly brightened in their night sky. Two small stones from the same era and also found on the south shore of Lake Titicaca may also show depictions related to this brightening.

  19. Chagas Disease Vector Control in Tupiza, Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Guillen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy domestic and peridomestic infestations of Triatoma infestans were controlled in two villages in southern Bolivia by the application of deltamethrin SC25 (2.5% suspension concentrate at a target dose of 25 mg a.i./m². Actual applied dose was monitored by HPLC analysis of filter papers placed at various heights on the house walls, and was shown to range from 0 to 59.6 about a mean of 28.5 mg a.i./m². Wall bioassays showed high mortality of T. infestans during the first month after the application of deltamethrin. Mortality declined to zero as summer temperatures increased, but reappeared with the onset of the following winter. In contrast, knockdown was apparent throughout the trial, showing no discernible temperature dependence. House infestation rates, measured by manual sampling and use of paper sheets to collect bug faeces, declined from 79% at the beginning of the trial to zero at the 6 month evaluation. All but one of the houses were still free of T. infestans at the final evaluation 12 months after spraying, although a small number of bugs were found at this time in 5 of 355 peridomestic dependencies. Comparative cost studies endorse the recommendation of large-scale application of deltamethrin, or pyrethroid of similar cost-effectiveness, as a means to eliminate domestic T. infestans populations in order to interrupt transmission of Chagas disease

  20. Geografía y clima de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available GEOGRAPHIE ET CLIMAT DE BOLIVIE. La Bolivie est divisée en sept unités physiographiques : la Cordillère Occidentale, la Cordillère Orientale, l’Altiplano, le Subandin, la Plaine, le Bouclier Brésilien, les Serranías Chiquitanas. Le climat en Bolivie est très varié et il est dépend essentiellement de la latitude, de l’altitude, de l’existence de montagnes élevées, de la présence de plaines et surtout de la circulation des alizés. La distribution des précipitations s’explique par le mouvement des principales masses d’air actives en Amérique du Sud. Les températures, selon la latitude, sont distribuées en trois régions : tropicale, subtropicale et tempérée. Dans le contexte de la physiographie et du climat, l’usage actuel de la terre en Bolivie est analysé en soulignant le potentiel productif des forêts, ainsi que des terres cultivées divisées en quatorze zones agroécologiques caractérisées par leur extension, leur production et le risque de sécheresse et de gelées. Le climat joue un rôle prépondérant surtout au niveau de l’agriculture de la région andine où les gelées d’origine statique et dynamique causent en permanence des dégâts aux plantes. Se describe con detalle las siete unidades fisiográficas en las que se divide el país: Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Oriental, Altiplano, Subandino, Llanuras, Escudo Brasileño, Serranías Chiquitanas. El clima reinante en Bolivia es muy variado y depende fundamentalmente de la latitud, la altitud, la existencia de elevadas montañas, la presencia de zonas planas y sobre todo de la circulación de los alisios. La distribución de las precipitaciones se explica por el movimiento de las principales masas de aire activas en América del Sur. Las temperaturas se relacionan a tres regiones latitudinales climáticas: tropical, subtropical y templada. Dentro del contexto de la fisiografía y la climatología se remarca el uso que tiene actualmente la tierra en

  1. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  2. Reformas constitucionales y competencia política en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2017-03-01

    El presente artículo explica  las  causas  y  efectos del cambio institucional en contextos políticos en los que no hay garantía sobre el cumplimiento estricto de  las reglas.  Analizando  la  reforma  política  de  2005  que  posibilitó  (por primera vez  que   en   Bolivia   los   prefectos   o  gobernadores  puedan  ser elegidos por voto popular,  se  halla  evidencia  que  indica  que  cuando  hay crisis  de  legitimidad,  las  coaliciones  declinantes  impulsan  cambios inclu-yentes  que  reducen   sus   futuras   pérdidas  electorales  y  no  pueden  ser revertidos por las coaliciones ascendentes que llegan al poder. No obstante, éstas intentan limitar el grado de inclusión de las reglas a través de cambios normativos de menor nivel que disminuyen la competencia política.

  3. Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.

  4. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  6. Primary healthcare providers' views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Orozco, M.; Ibarra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods: Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicarag...

  7. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  8. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  9. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  10. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Bolivia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Bolivia estimates that the Speculative Uranium Resources of that country fall within the range of 100 to 107 500 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the southwestern part of the Central Brazilian Shield. Other potentially favourable geologic environments include Palaeozoic two mica granites and their metasedimentary hosts, Mesozoic granites and granodiorites as well as the intruded formations and finally Tertiary acid to intermediate volcanics. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 13 million be spent on exploration in Bolivia over a five-year period. The majority of this expenditure would be for airborne and surface exploration utilising geologic, magnetometric, radiometric, and geochemical methods and some pitting, trenching, tunneling and drilling to further evaluate the discovered occurrences. (author)

  12. POLITICAL STABILITY IN BOLIVIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MARITIME CLAIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO COLOMA ROJAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between Bolivian internal crisis and the claims the President of Bolivia has argued against Chile about the lack of territorial access to the sea, in order to demonstrate the existence of a connection between them. By analyzing the successive institutional changes in the political and economic level, seeing them as factors that affect the Bolivian internal stability, is impossible any examination that may use the same criteria to justify the misunderstandings that have occurred between Chile and Bolivia in the last three decades because for the maritime issue. In the other hand, the existing empiric evidence regarding the popularity of the President and the social conflict situation in Bolivia shows that both indicators are not always related to the Bolivian offensives against Chile due to the maritime issue.

  13. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Santa Marta's Big Marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, Juan

    1991-01-01

    The ecological degradation of Santa Marta's Big Marsh and their next areas it has motivated the realization of diagnosis studies and design by several state and private entities. One of the recommended efforts for international advisory it was to develop an ecological model that allowed the handling of the water body and the economic test of alternative of solution to those ecological problems. The first part of a model of this type is in turn a model that simulates the movement of the water inside the marsh, that is to say, a hydrodynamic model. The realization of this was taken charge to the civil engineering department, on the part of Colciencias. This article contains a general explanation of the hydrodynamic pattern that this being developed by a professors group. The ecological causes are described and antecedent, the parts that conform the complex of the Santa Marta big Marsh The marsh modeling is made and it is explained in qualitative form the model type Hydrodynamic used

  14. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  15. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  16. Grazing and climatic variability in Sajama National Park, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yager, K.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sajama National Park, the first protected area in Bolivia, includes five indigenous communities with a primary production base of pastoralism. The semi-arid region of the Central Andes is one of the most extreme areas of human occupation at 4200 meters altitude and affected by high climatic variability. This paper studies the relations between climate variability, resilience, biodiversity of pastures and pastoral production in Sajama National Park. We present a botanical study of palatable pasture herbs between two years, one humid (2006 and the other dry (2007. Thirty vascular plants were recorded. The number of species and the cover of iro (Festuca ortophylla peak in areas of intermediate disturbance; areas that are at a medium distance from camelid corrals. On the other hand, the cover of ephemeral plants between tussocks increases in high disturbance areas. This is interpreted as a result of the tradeoff between the damage of grazing and the benefit of the fertilization produced by the herding animals. The local people clearly perceive strong impacts of climate change, combined with changes in management and human pressures. The social dynamics and production management, combined with climate warming, water reduction, and the increasing variability of surface water regimes create potential risks for the local sustainability of pastoralism.

    El Parque Nacional Sajama, la primer área protegida de Bolivia, incluye a cinco comunidades indígenas con una base de producción principalmente de ganadería. Esta región semi-árida de los Andes Centrales es una de las áreas más extremas de ocupación humana a 4200 metros de altura y es afectada por una alta variabilidad climática. Este trabajo considera las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, resiliencia, biodiversidad de pastos y la producción ganadera en el Parque Nacional Sajama. Presentamos un estudio botánico de las comunidades de hierbas palatables a lo largo de dos a

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Bolivia. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jacques; Mueller-Kahle, Eberhard

    1982-08-01

    The uranium exploration done so far in Bolivia has been carried out by COBOEN, partly with IAEA support, and AGIP S.p.A. of Italy, which between 1974 and 1978 explored four areas in various parts of Bolivia under a production sharing contract with COBOEN. The basic objective of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) is to 'review the present body of knowledge pertinent to the existence of uranium resources, to review and evaluate the potential for discovery of additional uranium resources, and to suggest new exploitation efforts which might be carried out in promising areas in collaboration with the country concerned'. Following the initial bibliographic study which formed Phase I of IUREP, it was envisaged that a further assessment in cooperation with, and within, the country concerned would provide a better delineation of areas of high potential and a more reliable estimate as to the degree of favourability for the discovery of additional uranium resources. It was planned that such work would be accomplished through field missions to the country concerned and that these field missions and the resulting report would be known as the Orientation Phase of IUREP. The purpose of the Orientation Phase mission to Bolivia was a) to develop a better understanding of the uranium potential of the country, b) to make an estimate of the Speculative Resources of the country, c) to delineate areas favourable for the discovery of these uranium resources, d) to make recommendations as appropriate on the best methods for evaluating the favourable areas, operating procedures and estimated possible costs, e) to develop the logistical data required to carry out any possible further work, and f) to compile a report which would be immediately available to the Bolivian authorities. The mission reports contains information about a general introduction, non-uranium exploration and mining in Bolivia, manpower in exploration, geological review of Bolivia, past uranium

  18. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobero, R A; Peabody, J W

    2006-11-01

    In 2003, Peru and Bolivia reported the highest annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the Americas. Neighboring Colombia and Chile had lower annual incidence rates despite their proximity. To determine what factors contribute to differences in TB incidence rates among Chile, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Multiple sources of literature dating between 1990 and 2005 were used and World Health Organization TB control guidelines were consulted for policy level comparisons. Comprehensive implementation of the DOTS strategy is the main factor explaining the differences in TB incidence rates, even after considering socio-economic factors. Cross-national comparisons suggest ways to improve regional DOTS implementation.

  19. Fattige vandløb på Bolivias Andes-højslette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes.......På Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes....

  20. Valor monetario de la leche materna en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Aguayo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar el volumen de leche materna consumido por los niños bolivianos de < 36 meses de edad y el valor monetario de la sustitución de dicho volumen de leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales. Métodos. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta la distribución de la población infantil por grupos de edad, la prevalencia de las diferentes prácticas de lactancia materna (exclusiva o parcial en cada grupo de edad, el volumen promedio de leche materna consumido por los lactantes de un grupo de edad determinado y el costo de la producción y sustitución de la leche materna. Resultados. Los lactantes bolivianos consumen anualmente más de 161 millones de litros de leche materna, lo que representa un volumen promedio de 573 mL/día por cada lactante menor de un año. El valor monetario de la leche materna consumida por los lactantes bolivianos asciende a US$ 274 millones anuales. El costo promedio de sustituir la leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales en un lactante amamantado adecuadamente el primer año de vida asciende a US$ 407. Discusión. Para que la formulación y consolidación de políticas y programas de protección, promoción y apoyo a la lactancia materna sean una realidad, los líderes políticos de Bolivia han de tomar conciencia del enorme valor monetario de la leche materna.

  1. Ocorrência de Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no município de Cruz Alta, RS, Brasil Occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in equines in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Adriel Zanette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no município de Cruz Alta, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos e sinais clínicos da infecção. A tripanosomose ocorreu em uma propriedade rural no município de Cruz Alta. Ao exame clínico, observou-se que quatro dos animais apresentavam marcha oscilante, com incoordenação dos membros posteriores. No entanto, eles estavam em bom estado nutricional, sem febre, bem hidratados e alimentavam-se normalmente. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue das éguas para hemograma, sendo identificado aumento das proteínas plasmáticas, leucocitose, eosinofilia e linfocitose em animais com sinais clínicos. No esfregaço sangüíneo periférico, observou-se a forma flagelada do T. evansi em três dos eqüinos.This study aimed at describing the occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in equines from the city of Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, relating epidemiological aspects and clinical signs of the infection. The tripanosomiasis occurred in a rural area of Cruz Alta, RS. Clinical signs presented by four animals were stiff and incoordinated gait of the pelvic members, although they were in good nutritional status, without fever, well-hydrated and eating normally. Blood samples were collected from the mares for hemogram. Increased levels of plasmatic proteins, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and limphocytosis were observed in animals with clinical signs. Flagellated forms of T. evansi were observed in the blood smear of three animals.

  2. Genetic differences between mestizo populations of Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    plus grand assortiment de type caucasien chez les métisses péruviens rapportés dans la littérature. Ces découvertes pourraient avoir un impact en ce qui concerne l’efficacité de moyens d’immunisation modernes grâce aux vaccins d'ADN sur la population andine, et aussi en ce qui concerne l’identification de groupes à risque pour certaines conditions médicales. DIFERENCIAS GENÉTICAS ENTRE POBLACIONES MESTIZAS DE BOLIVIA Y PERÚ. Existe escasa información acerca del fondo genético de las poblaciones de Perú y Bolivia. Estudios han mostrado que los mestizos presentan varios alelos del sistema mayor de histocompatibilidad originalmente descritos en tribus amerindias genéticamente aisladas, y que los mestizos de Perú y Bolivia están genéticamente cercanamente relacionados. Mediante la técnica de transferencia de línea reversa, se realizó la tipificación de alelos de histocompatibilidad de Clase I (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw así como de Clase II (HLA-DRB1 y HLA-DQB1 en 57 mestizos bolivianos. Los sujetos provinieron mayormente de La Paz (la ciudad principal en los Andes Bolivianos, además de otras tres ciudades importantes situadas en el Valle Central Boliviano (Sucre, Tarija y Tupiza. La comparación de la frecuencia de los alelos de los mestizos bolivianos con datos disponibles de la literatura acerca de mestizos peruanos, reveló que los alelos de Clase I HLA-Cw*01, y B*40 se encontraban en mayor proporción en el grupo de mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuadrado = 4.87 p<0,05 y chi-cuadrado = 7,56 p<0,01 respectivamente. Con respecto a los alelos de clase II, HLA-DRB1*1101 y DRB1*1302 se encontraron en mayor frecuencia en los mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuad = 5,12 p<.05 y chi-cuad = 3,8 p = 0.05 respectivamente, mientras que el alelo HLA-DQB1*0402 fue significativamente mayor en los mestizos bolivianos (Chi-cuad = 47,2 p<.0001. Las diferencias en las frecuencias de alelos encontradas, y la ausencia o presencia de algunos alelos en cualesquiera de los grupos, puede

  3. Transforming Mature Tourism Resorts into Sustainable Tourism Destinations through Participatory Integrated Approaches: The Case of Puerto de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transforming mature tourism resorts has evolved toward a greater involvement of public authorities and away from the mere renovation of public spaces. Authorities today are required to lead the reorganization of tourism activities through the development of co-operative networks between all stakeholders involved. In this paper, a participatory integrated approach has been designed and implemented in collaboration with Spanish authorities and the tourism sector to propose a strategy to achieve the renovation of tourism resorts. This methodology was applied to Puerto de la Cruz, the oldest tourism destination in the Canary Islands and a clear paradigm of a consolidated resort. The objective is to define and implement policies to transform Puerto de la Cruz into a more sustainable tourism destination.

  4. [Brazilian scientists visit the Amazon: The scientific journeys of Oswaldo Cruz and Carlos Chagas (1910-13)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickardt, Júlio César; Lima, Nísia Trindade

    2007-12-01

    The article analyzes reports from two scientific journeys into the Amazon conducted by the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1910 and 1913, under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz and Carlos Chagas, respectively. These reports contributed to the construction of representations and images of the region. Field observations not only provided data for the study and control of tropical diseases but also had a hand in the movement to denounce the serious sanitation conditions under which rubber workers labored. Journeys through the Amazon valley put the scientists in direct contact with the environment and with sick populations; these travels also made them face the huge challenges of learning about malaria and trying to control it. Analyses of these reports are part of studies on 'portraits of Brazil', which raise issues within the history of public health policies. In this endeavor to reveal the process by which scientific records are constructed, we worked with primary sources,from manuscripts to official texts.

  5. Bolivia; 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The staff report for Bolivia’s 2009 Article IV Consultation describes economic developments and policies. The impact of the global recession on Bolivia has been milder than in other countries in the region. Lower commodity exports and remittances have resulted in a sharp narrowing of the external current account surplus. The financial system has been barely affected by the global crisis owing to its limited integration with international capital markets. As the economy gathers momentum, a tig...

  6. Monitoramento da qualidade da água tratada por sistema de desfluoretação de águas subterrâneas do campus da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC, cidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pappis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da água com níveis de flúor acima do permitido pela Portaria nº 2914/2011 do Ministério da Saúde (1,5 mg L-1, é um dos principais fatores que levam à fluorose dental, principalmente em comunidades mais distantes, onde o acesso a água potável de boa qualidade é restrito. Neste contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do carvão ativado de osso bovino (capacidade de adsorção de 1000 mg g-1, na adsorção de íons fluoreto de águas subterrâneas que são usadas para o abastecimento público. Amostras da água de poços artesianos localizados no campus da UNISC com uma concentração de fluoretos entre 2,3 e 3,4 mg L-1 foram coletadas e analisadas semanalmente, considerando as seguintes variáveis: condutividade elétrica, pH, turbidez, e seus fluoretos. Os resultados indicaram que os cinco filtros foram altamente eficientes para remover parcialmente o flúor, tratando em média 15.398 ± 3.487 litros de água (Coeficiente de Variação, CV=22,6%, dentro do especificado pela portaria nº 2914/2011, a qual determina que a concentração de íons fluoretos na água para o consumo humano seja menor ou igual a 1,5 mg L-1. Desta forma, provamos a eficiência do carvão ativado de osso na adsorção dos íons fluoretos da água, destacando que o sistema de desfluoretação pode ser utilizado para uso coletivo, tanto em escolas como universidades.

  7. Modernization projects in Santa Maria e Garona; Proyectos de modernizacion en Santa Maria de Garona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, R.; Alutiz, J. I.; Garcia Sanchez, M.

    2011-07-01

    This article shows a vision of the Santa Maria de Garona power Plant modernization guidelines and it also presents the most significant projects deployed in the last decade at the power plant grouped in mechanics projects, electrical projects, instrumentations projects and IT projects. At the same time three projects are explained in more detail: the change of one of the main transformers, the evolution from paper recorders to paperless video graphic recorders and the new plant data information system. (Author)

  8. Scientific collections, tropical medicine and the development of entomology in Brazil: the contribution of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M Romero

    2008-12-01

    The entomological collection of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz is one of the most representative of neotropical insects, comprising a diverse variety of specimens of distinct taxonomic groups, including those not linked to research in tropical medicine. The present work retraces the history of the collection and reports on its main actors and their professional relationships, emphasizing the peculiarity of such an important collection still being housed in a medical research institution.

  9. Mujer y escritura en la época de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca NOGUEROL JIMÉNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo rastrea la existencia de escritoras coetáneas a sor Juana Inés de la Cruz que, como la monja mexicana, lucharon contra la alienación a la que eran sometidas por su condición de mujeres escritoras. A través de una serie de estrategias retóricas muy similares a las utilizadas en la «Respuesta a sor Filotea de la Cruz», las españolas María de San José, María de Zayas, la inglesa Mary Astell y la colombiana Francisca Josefa del Castillo, demostraron en distinto grado hasta qué punto el ser humano ha luchado a lo largo de su historia por conformarse como sujeto frente a un pensamiento –en este caso, la misoginia– que frustra sus intentos de expresión.ABSTRACT: This article seeks out the existence of female writers contemporary to sor Juana Inés de la Cruz who, like the Mexican nun, fought against the alienation to which they were subjected by their condition as women writers. Through a series of rethorical strategies very similar to the one’s applied in «Respuesta a sor Filotea de la Cruz», the Spanish women writers María de San José and María de Zayas, the English Mary Astell and the Colombian Francisca Josefa del Castillo demonstrated, to differing degrees, the exent to which human beings have fought throughout history to establish themselves as a subject facing a frame of mind –namely, misogyny–, that frustates their efforts of expression.

  10. Bullying entre escolares: um estudo descritivo na cidade de Cruz Alta/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bueno do Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a prevalência de vítimas de bullying, suas características comportamentais e os sentimentos associados de estudantes de escolas públicas. Isto por que, o tema tem chamado a atenção de docentes em todo o país, sendo estas reflexões uma forma de contextualizar o cotidiano dos alunos sobre este aspecto, analisando os resultados obtidos com outros estudos na área que utilizaram a mesma metodologia. Para isso, utilizou-se o questionário da instituição inglesa Kidscape, tendo como entrevistados 459 alunos de ambos os sexos, matriculados de 5ª a 8ª série, em três escolas públicas estaduais da cidade de Cruz Alta–RS. Através dos dados obtidos, pode-se constatar que o bullying está presente nas escolas do município, tendo como reflexo alunos desmotivados para frequentar o ambiente escolar em virtude das agressões sofridas diariamente, dentre muitos outros aspectos discutidos no estudo. Diante disso, torna-se necessário um engajamento da comunidade escolar e por parte do Estado políticas públicas voltadas para o tema em questão.Abstract This study aimed to examine the prevalence of bullying victims, their behavioral characteristics and the associated feelings of public school students. This is why the issue has drawn the attention of teachers across the country, and this work is a way to contextualize the daily lives of students on this aspect. For this, we used the questionnaire from English institution Kidscape, as having interviewed 459 students of both sexes, enrolled from 5th to 8th grade in three public schools in the city of Cruz Alta-RS. Through the data obtained, it can be seen that bullying is present in the local schools, with the reflection unmotivated students to attend the school environment because of these daily abuses, among many other aspects discussed in the study. Given this, it is necessary engagement of the school community and by the state public policies aimed at the

  11. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que

  12. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  13. Danilo Cruz Vélez y la superación de la metafísica de la subjetividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Leonardo Prada Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Cruz V lez valora el intento de Edmund Husserl de liberar a la filosof a de todos los supuestos, espec ficamente de la creencia cotidiana en la exis- tencia del mundo, tambi n conocida como tesis general de la actitud natural. Para Edmund Husserl, el p unto de partida de la filosof a es la negaci n de dicha tesis, la epoj , que posibilita la vuelta del yo a s mismo, erigi ndolo, tal como lo hizo la duda met dica de Ren Descartes siglos atr s, como lo nico verdadero en lo cual se puede fundamentar todo lo que hay. Es esto ltimo lo que, precisamente, m s critica Danilo Cruz V lez, que el padre de la fenomenolog a no se dio cuenta del supuesto principal en el cual estaba todav a inmerso: la metaf sica de la subjetividad. De ah que el fil sofo cal- dense exponga el pensamiento de su maestro, Martin Heidegger, el cual no despreci la actitud natural, sino que la valor como punto de partida del filosofar. Desde esa diferencia, seg n Danilo Cruz V lez, el l sofo de la Selva Negra logr superar la metaf sica de la subjetividad, al no usar el concepto de representaci n, tan ligado a la vista, sino al proponer el concepto de utili- zaci n de, valga la redundancia, tiles, m s ligado a la mano. La cuesti n es: logr salir Martin Heidegger, realmente, de la metaf sica de la subjetividad?

  14. Rural/Urban Differences in Child Growth and Survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Forste, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In Bolivia, a third of rural children are stunted, and rural infants are twice as likely to die before age 2 than urban infants. National survey data indicate child survival and development are related to maternal education and literacy, community sanitation practices, access to health care, and socioeconomic status. Parental knowledge about…

  15. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  16. Digital Inclusion of Secondary Schools' Subject Teachers in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Iskra; Fabre, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The government of Bolivia planned to introduce information technology in secondary education through establishing computer labs in schools and through granting each subject teacher a laptop. This initiative was tested for the first time in 2012 with three public schools in La Paz. Most of the subject teachers have never used a computer before. The…

  17. DNA damage and photosynthetic inhibition induced by solar ultraviolet radiation in tropical phytoplankton (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, EW; Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Andrade, M; Zaratti, F

    Experiments were conducted during October 1998 in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (16 degrees S, 68 degrees W, 3810 m a.s.l), to determine the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on phytoplankton photosynthetic rates and DNA damage. Water samples were taken daily and incubated ir? situ or in

  18. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3918, č. 1 (2015), s. 128-140 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Bolivia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  19. The sensitivity of wet and dry tropical forests to climate change in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kruijt, B.; Hickler, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bolivia's forests contribute to the global carbon and water cycle, as well as to global biodiversity. The survival of these forests may be at risk due to climate change. To explore the associated mechanisms and uncertainties, a regionally adapted dynamic vegetation model was implemented for the

  20. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into