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  1. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  2. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    and mixed-layer clay. X-ray diffraction analyses verified clinoptilolite as the only zeolite in Nogales Formation samples; they also verified the presence of smectite and illite clay and some kaolinite. Samples which contain greater amounts of clinoptilolite and lesser amounts of smectite have high porosity and SHC in narrow ranges. However, samples with abundant smectite and lesser amounts of clinoptilolite span the entire ranges of porosity and SHC for the formation.All members of the Nogales Formation are fractured and faulted as a result of Tertiary Basin and Range extensional deformation, which was broadly contemporaneous with deposition of the formation. These structures may have significant influence on groundwater flow in the upper Santa Cruz basin because, although many of the sediments in the formation have characteristics indicating they may be productive aquifers based only on porous-media flow, fracturing in these sediments may further enhance permeability and groundwater flow in these basin-fill aquifers by orders of magnitude.

  3. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne

  4. La Ex Hacienda de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Pinto de Estrada

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Ex hacienda Santa Cruz was chosen to show the differences in the geographic and economic structure, and the historic causes that originated them, as an example of ihe situation in the northem part of Campeche.

  5. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  6. Faults--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  8. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  9. Faults--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Bathymetry--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  11. Habitat--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Habitat--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  13. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  14. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Bathymetry--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  16. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  17. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  18. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Santa Cruz, California. The raster data file is included in...

  19. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Fine-Resolution Modeling of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins for Climate Change and Riparian System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Volo, T. J.; Rivera, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the impacts of climate variability and change on the ecological services provided by riparian ecosystems in semiarid watersheds of the southwestern United States. Valuing the environmental and recreational services provided by these ecosystems in the future requires a numerical simulation approach to estimate streamflow in ungauged tributaries as well as diffuse and direct recharge to groundwater basins. In this work, we utilize a distributed hydrologic model known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the upper Santa Cruz and San Pedro basins with the goal of generating simulated hydrological fields that will be coupled to a riparian groundwater model. With the distributed model, we will evaluate a set of climate change and population scenarios to quantify future conditions in these two river systems and their impacts on flood peaks, recharge events and low flows. Here, we present a model confidence building exercise based on high performance computing (HPC) runs of the tRIBS model in both basins during the period of 1990-2000. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available data across the US-Mexico border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely-sensed imagery and government databases. Meteorological forcing over the historical period is obtained from a combination of sparse ground networks and weather radar rainfall estimates. We then focus on a comparison between simulation runs using ground-based forcing to cases where the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to specify the historical conditions. Two spatial resolutions are considered from the WRF model fields - a coarse (35-km) and a downscaled (10- km) forcing. Comparisons will focus on the distribution of precipitation, soil moisture, runoff generation and recharge and assess the value of the WRF coarse and downscaled products. These results provide confidence in

  1. C-CAP Santa Cruz 2001 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents land cover for the San Lorenzo River basin in Santa Cruz County, California derived from high resolution imagery. The land cover features in...

  2. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  4. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on large river basins in the southwestern United States is important given the natural water scarcity in the region. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the hydrological consequences of climate change in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). These river systems support rich ecological communities along riparian corridors that provide habitat to migratory birds and support recreational and economic activities. Determining the climate impacts on riparian communities involves assessing how river flows and groundwater recharge will change with altered temperature and precipitation regimes. In this study, we use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios from WRF at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization using sub-basin partitioning with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely

  5. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  6. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  7. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. SANTA CRUZ, GUANACASTE: LOCAL CULTURE, TOURISM AND GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between local culture of the canton of Santa Cruz, Guanacaste, and the development of tourism in the canton. In a first section explores the origin and development of popular culture in the canton, linking it to traditional farming activities, and then describes the deployment of tourism in Santa Cruz, in order to analyze the popular culture of the canton in a framework of productive activities ranging from farming to tourism, in a context of econo...

  9. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  10. Migration, Informalization and Public Space in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kirshner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I ask how migrant insertion into the local economy, in particular in the informal economy, has led to contestation over public space in Santa Cruz.  Related to this issue, the paper asks what sorts of collective actions are used to defend rights to the use of urban public space, and what are the key points of contention.  In my analysis, I look at theoretical connections between the informal economy and urban space, recent changes in the Santa Cruz local economy ‒including accelerated migration and the burgeoning informal economy‒ and conflicts over uses of public urban space.En este trabajo indago cómo la inserción migratoria en la economía local, particularmente en la economía informal, ha llevado a un debate sobre los usos del espacio público en Santa Cruz. En relación con esta problemática, mi trabajo explora qué tipo de acciones colectivas se utilizan para defender los derechos del uso del espacio público urbano, y cuáles son los puntos claves de conflicto. En mi análisis, exploro las conexiones teóricas entre la economía informal y el espacio urbano, los cambios recientes en la economía local de Santa Cruz ‒incluyendo la migración acelerada y la emergente economía informal‒ y los conflictos sobre usos del espacio urbano público.

  11. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  13. Estudio geocientífico aplicado a la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio, Santa Cruz Geoscientific study applied to the evaluation of urbanisation suitability at the carboniferous basin of Río Turbio, Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereyra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geocientífico para la evaluación de la aptitud para la urbanización en la cuenca carbonífera de Río Turbio. Este estudio incluyó la caracterización de los recursos naturales: suelos, agua y paisaje y la evaluación de áreas de riesgo natural y antrópico, la pérdida de espacios verdes y tierras agrícolas. La zona implicada se encuentra localizada en el extremo SO de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Conforma la llamada cuenca carbonífera del Río Turbio. Las localidades de Río Turbio y 28 de Noviembre exhiben el mayor número poblacional. Estas poblaciones se desarrollaron a partir de la actividad minera y ganadera. En función de las características geológicas, geomorfológicas, bióticas, geotécnicas, hidrológicas y edafológicas, se han diferenciado 7 unidades de paisaje. A partir de la información generada previamente y como insumo básico para la producción del plan de desarrollo urbano, se ha realizado un mapa de aptitud para la urbanización del área. Las unidades de paisaje con mejores posibilidades para la expansión urbana son dos: Morenas con estepa herbácea y planicies glacifluviales con estepa mixta. La unidad paisaje erosivo glaciar con bosque y la unidad terrazas fluviales son aceptables para la urbanización, mientras que las unidades: Cañadones y pendientes aluvio-coluviales, serranías poligenéticas terciarias y mallines y bajos, son inapropiadas para la urbanización, por diferentes motivos.A geoscientific study was accomplished to evaluate suitability for urban developments the in carboniferous basin of the Turbio River. This research included the characterization of natural resources: soil, water and landscape; the evaluation of natural and anthropic hazardous areas and the loss of farming and green lands. The implied area is located in the SW end of the Province of Santa Cruz. It is part of the carboniferous basin of the River Turbio. The towns of Rio Turbio and 28 de Noviembre hold

  14. Noise Evaluation in the Commercial Center of Santa Cruz / RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Taurino Guedes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern cities are characterized, mostly, by excessive concentration of trade and services in central areas, a fact that contributes to many problems, including noise pollution, which resulting in inconvenience and health problems to the population. This study aimed to analyze the level noise in the center of the city of Santa Cruz / RN. Were analyzed 15 spots on the main streets of the city during morning and Verpertine for two weeks, with the analyzer the Multi-Role Model THDL - 400, with INTERVAL of 40 minutes between measurements. It was observed that most points had noise levels above 70 decibels during the period. Therefore, above 65dB, the proposed legislation, requiring increased supervisory processes and environmental education.

  15. Geothermal development plan: Cochise-Santa Cruz counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    A total of five hot springs and 25 thermal wells are located within the combined counties. The water discharged from these hot springs and wells may be suitable for applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Within Cochise county there are two large firms which are capable of using 70/sup 0/C (158/sup 0/F) geothermal water for their process heat requirements but the potential use of geothermal energy in Santa Cruz county is limited due to the absence of industry within the county. The amount of geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development is also predicted using a computer simulation model.

  16. Contaminants as a limiting factor of fish and wildlife populations in the Santa Cruz River, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declining populations of the endangered Gila topminnow in the Santa Cruz River prompted a 1997 study to assess contaminant levels in water, sediment, invertebrates,...

  17. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  18. Evidence of shallow hydrocarbons offshore northern Santa Cruz county, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, H.T.; Nagel, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and hydrocarbon samples indicate that natural hydrocarbon seepage is occurring along the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay fault zones offshore northern Santa Cruz County, California. A variety of anomalous seismic reflection features such as a water-column anomalies, subsurface amplitude anomalies (''bright spots''), and seismic ''smears/wipeouts'' has been observed and mapped. More than 100 water-column anomalies (probably gas seeps) occur in the study area of approximately 270 mi/sup 2/ (700 km/sup 2/). Many of these seismic anomalies are associated with subsurface geologic structures, which suggest hydrocarbon migration from depth. Samples of natural gas collected from a shallow coastal water well contain 74 to 91% methane, 7 to 23% nitrogen, approx.2% carbon dioxide, and < 1% ethane. The methane appears to be thermogenic in origin, having delta/sup 13/C values of -29.51 to -32.55% PDB. Rock dredges from 2,300 ft (700 m) of water in Ascension Submarine Canyon have also recovered oil-saturated sandstones, further suggesting the seepage of hydrocarbons. The shallow occurrence of most of these hydrocarbons are interpreted to be the result of migration from depth along active faults within the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay faults zones.

  19. Monitoring Domoic Acid production by Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking off the Santa Cruz Municipal Warf, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.; Ziccarelli, L.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Certain species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are producers of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA). DA is known to cause amnesic shellfish poisoning also known as domoic acid poisoning, which can lead to permanent brain damage in humans and marine mammals. DA accumulates at higher trophic levels, generally due to consumption of toxic cells or through trophic transfer, and can potentially cause death of both humans and marine wildlife. The Santa Cruz Municipal Warf experiences periodic rises in DA concentrations, which can reach toxic levels in shellfish, fish, and other marine organisms. While these increases in toxicity often occur during Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, several periods of elevated DA have occurred when diatom abundance is restricted and/or dominated by non-toxic species, and there is increasing evidence that DA dissolved in seawater may be prevalent. One theory suggests that senescent or dead Pseudo-nitzschia cells sink to the benthos while retaining their toxin and are buried in sediment following the death of a bloom. Therefore, DA may accumulate in the benthos, where it is eventually released during storms or wave and tide conditions that disturb the sediment. We sampled DA in situ using Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) bags SPATT uses a synthetic resin to capture dissolved DA, allowing for the determination of integrated DA concentrations at known time intervals. The alternative method is mussel biotoxin monitoring, but it is less accurate due to uncertainties in the time of DA accumulation within the mussel, and the lack of uptake of dissolved DA by the mussel. We deployed and collected SPATT off the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf at multiple depths beginning in February 2013. We expect to see increasing DA following the death of a harmful algal bloom. Under pre-bloom conditions, little to no DA has been detected in mussels or surface SPATT, but DA from SPATT is frequently observed at depth, suggesting that the sediment is exposed to

  20. 75 FR 52969 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa... coastal wetland on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. The requisite no-action ``wait period... restoration of palustrine wetlands and deepwater habitat at Prisoners Harbor, as well as remove a...

  1. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  2. Plant Phenology and Climate Change in the Santa Cruz County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S.; Oshiro, J. R.; Fox, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phenology, or the timing of life cycle events, is affected by many variables including climate. To document phenology in grassland and sandhill habitats in Santa Cruz County, we recorded the blooming statuses of all species at 10 sites every 3-4 weeks. These sites were surveyed in the 1990's by botanist Randall Morgan, and have been resurveyed since 2012. We also recorded temperature to examine how it relates to phenology change. We have temperature records dating back to the 1980's from local weather stations, but they do not record data at vegetation height. To compare temperature at the vegetation level with weather station records, we employed data loggers at vegetation height, and recorded soil and leaf temperature. We also measured specific leaf area (SLA), or the ratio of leaf area to the dry mass, for leaves collected in the field because leaf thickness often relates to drought and heat tolerance. We examined the relationship between SLA and phenology differences between the historic and present day surveys; also between groups of species with different ecological traits, including functional group, life cycle, and natives versus non-natives. For the temperature records, preliminary results show that temperatures from the dataloggers and weather stations were significantly correlated. Soil and leaf temperatures are also correlated with data logger temperatures, though not as strongly. Preliminary results show that SLA differs between functional groups, annuals and perennials, and native and non-native species. SLA also relates to whether plants bloom earlier, later, or do not change their phenology over time. Overall, we found that it is important to use multiple sources of temperature data, and that SLA might relate to how different types of plants change their phenology with climate.

  3. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; LaFuente, Carlos; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Calderon, Maritza; Pacori, Juan; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Aparicio, Hugo; Brady, Mark F.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Angulo, Noelia; Marcus, Sarah; Sterling, Charles; Maguire, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. Methods Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants of infected mothers, blood specimens obtained on days 0, 7, 21, 30, 90, 180, and 270 were concentrated and examined microscopically; serological tests were performed for the day 90, 180, and 270 specimens. Maternal and infant specimens, including umbilical tissue, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle and by quantitative PCR. Results Of 530 women, 154 (29%) were seropositive. Ten infants had congenital T. cruzi infection. Only 4 infants had positive results of microscopy evaluation in the first month, and none had positive cord blood microscopy results. PCR results were positive for 6 (67%) of 9 cord blood and 7 (87.5%) of 8 umbilical tissue specimens. PCR-positive women were more likely to transmit T. cruzi than were seropositive women with negative PCR results (P < .05). Parasite loads determined by quantitative PCR were higher for mothers of infected infants than for seropositive mothers of uninfected infants (P < .01). Despite intensive efforts, only 58% of at-risk infants had a month 9 specimen collected. Conclusions On the basis of the low sensitivity of microscopy in cord blood and high rate of loss to follow-up, we estimate that current screening programs miss one-half of all infected infants. Molecular techniques may improve early detection. PMID:19877966

  4. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, Santa Cruz County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... and conservation measures for the federally endangered Ben Lomond spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens...

  5. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  6. PRELIMINARY FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF HUARIPAMPA AND SANTA CRUZ STREAMS: HUASCARÁN NATIONAL PARK, ANCASH, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casana, Jorge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary floristic inventory is provided for the Huaripampa and Santa Cruz streams in the Santa Cruz, Huaripampa and Llanganuco route at the Huascarán National Park, located among the Provinces of Huaylas and Yungay, Deparment of Ancash, Peru. This circuit presents a high concurrence of national and foreigner tourists. It is notable for its landscape scenery, its biological structure and its proximity to the mountains Alpamayo, Artesonraju, Yanapaccha, Pisco, Huascarán and Huandoy. The floristic listing of flowering plants includes 43 families, 98 genera, 139 species and 11 morphospecies that have been identified.

  7. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  8. El registro biológico humano de la costa meridional de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suby, Jorge A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa patagónica constituye un sector de riesgo para el registro arqueológico, asociado a factores naturales y antrópicos. Al mismo tiempo, la conservación de las colecciones bioarqueológicas, destacándose la pérdida de restos óseos e información asociada por escasez de recursos, desconocimiento o falta de atención especializada, representa escenarios de riesgo para el registro. Una de las áreas para las cuales no se dispone hasta el momento de información bioarqueológica es la región que comprende la costa meridional de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Considerando esta ausencia de información, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar y discutir los primeros resultados sobre restos óseos humanos hallados en la región costera próxima a la desembocadura del Río Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, Argentina. Los estudios incluyen el análisis de las situaciones de hallazgo y riesgo de los restos recuperados en acciones de rescate, el reconocimiento y puesta en valor de materiales depositados en el Museo Regional "Carlos Borgialli" (Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Argentina y estudios paleopatológicos. Al mismo tiempo se informan y analizan resultados cronológicos e isotópicos. Los resultados brindan evidencias claras de la ocupación de la región costera al menos durante los últimos 2000 años, consumo de recursos predominantemente terrestres y un estilo de vida que favorece el desarrollo de lesiones articulares, con escasos indicios de estrés sistémico que coinciden con los resultados reportados para la región continental del estrecho de Magallanes.

  9. The role of nitrification in silicate hydrolysis in soils near Santa Cruz, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; White, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Schulz, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In some ecosystems, nitrification (microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrate) may supplant carbonic acid as a source of acidity and drive silicate weathering. Recent studies have explored the impact that ammonium fertilizer addition to soils has on weathering of various mineral types (Pacheco et al. 2013) and demonstrated directly that ammonium addition to soils can increase carbonate weathering (Gandois et al. 2011). Some evidence points to a role for nitrification in silicate weathering at a series of coastal grassland terraces near Santa Cruz, CA. Weathering rates in these soils have been estimated using the byproducts of silicate hydrolysis (Cl--adjusted Na+ and other cations). If carbonic acid from dissolved CO2 is the source of acidity in silicate hydrolysis, bicarbonate should balance the cations produced during weathering. However, in the Santa Cruz soils nitrate is the dominant anion balancing cation concentrations. High concentrations of CO2 (>1%) at depths greater than 1m may provide additional support for nitrification-based silicate hydrolysis at Santa Cruz. We evaluate the role of nitrification in silicate weathering for soils from the Santa Cruz Marine Terrace Chronosequence using a column ammonium-addition experiment and a basic weathering model. The column experiment uses ammonium inputs in excess of natural inputs and measures weathering products in eluted fluids over time. The model incorporates more realistic estimates of ammonium input and explores whether the observed concentrations of cations, nitrate and CO2 seen at Santa Cruz can be explained by nitrification-driven acidity or if other inputs need to be considered. Gandois, L, Perrin, A-S, and Probst, A. 2011. Impact of nitrogenous fertiliser-induced proton release on cultivated soils with contrasting carbonate contents: A column experiment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75 pp. 1185-1198. Pacheco, F, Landim, P, and Szocs, T. 2013. Anthropogenic impacts on mineral weathering: A

  10. EDUCAÇÃO E ETNICIDADE NA REGIÃO DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL- RS. EDUCATION AND ETHNICITY IN THE REGION OF SANTA CRUZ DO SUL - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart Linhares da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações entre educação, etnicidade e mobilidade social em região de colonização alemã no Rio Grande do Sul, sobretudo em Santa Cruz do Sul, Brasil, cidade com forte discurso identitário germânico. Em que pese ser uma cidade caracterizada pelo germanismo, o que se constatou nas pesquisas até aqui realizadas, abrangendo os últimos seis anos, é que a região em questão possui significativa população de não-brancos, embora invisibilizada socialmente e excluída do processo de pertencimento identitário da comunidade regional. As pesquisas realizadas nas escolas municipais, estaduais e privadas na região de Santa Cruz do Sul permitem uma análise pontual das relações entre a educação e a imobilidade social, cujo resultado pode ser avaliado na dinâmica da visibilidade/invisibilidade identitária e processos de exclusão comunitário destes grupos, nomeadamente dos afrodescendentes.The objective of this article is to analyze the relations among education, ethnicity and social mobility in the region of German colonization in Rio Grande do Sul, and mainly in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, a city with strong German identity speech. Taking into consideration that it is a city characterized by Germanism, what was observed in the researches accomplished until now, including the last six years, is that the region in question has a significant population of non-white people, though socially invisible and excluded from the identitary inclusion process of the region community. The researches that were carried out in the private and public – municipal and state – schools in the region of Santa Cruz do Sul permit sharp analysis of the relations between education and social immobility, which result can be evaluated in the identitary visibility/invisibility dynamic and processes of community exclusion of those groups, nominally of Afro-descendants.

  11. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  13. Reshaping production structure in Patagonia Austral. Development options in Santa Cruz and its labor markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Vacca

    2015-12-01

    None the less, the model that has prevailed in the province of Santa Cruz has been characterized by the same research team as subsidizer and of rentier character, noting that most of the population don’t receive their income from their own work on regional productions (coal, oil, gas, mining and industry, but receive income via state transfers, that come from royalties paid by companies from the primary sector, thus ensuring better living conditions for its inhabitants.

  14. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  15. Avifauna (Passeriformes of Santa Cruz province, Patagonia (Argentina: annotated list of species Avifauna (Passeriformes de la provincia de Santa Cruz, Patagonia (Argentina: lista comentada de especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aquiles Darrieu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The birds (Passeriformes of Santa Cruz province, Argentina, are analyzed based on three main sources: specimens housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales of Buenos Aires (MACN, in the Félix de Azara Collection, Buenos Aires (CFA, in the Museo de La Plata, La Plata (MLP, in the Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán (FML and in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington (USNM. The data were obtained from bibliographical citations which include precise localities and from field observations. A list of 75 species belonging to 13 families is included. First records with precise localities are provided for five species. New localities are cited for 64 species.En el presente trabajo se aporta una lista comentada de todas las especies de aves Passeriformes registradas en la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los ejemplares de colección pertenecen al Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales y a la Colección Félix de Azara, ambos de Buenos Aires, al Museo de La Plata, a la Fundación Miguel Lillo de Tucumán y al National Museum of Natural History, Washington. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la literatura, del análisis de especimenes de museos y de observaciones de campo. Esto nos permitió incluir un total de 75 especies pertenecientes a 13 familias. Cinco de ellas no presentaban registros concretos para la provincia, aportándose nuevas localidades para otras 64.

  16. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

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    Joel M Montgomery

    Full Text Available We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1% of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  18. U-Pb geochronology of the Santa Cruz Formation (early Miocene) at the Río Bote and Río Santa Cruz (southernmost Patagonia, Argentina): Implications for the correlation of fossil vertebrate localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Kohn, Matthew J.; Trayler, Robin; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.

    2016-10-01

    The early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation (SCF) in southern Patagonia hosts the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal Age (SALMA), whose age is known mainly from exposures along the Atlantic coast. Zircon U-Pb ages were obtained from intercalated tuffs from four inland sections of the SCF: 17.36 ± 0.63 Ma for the westernmost Río Bote locality, and 17.04 ± 0.55 Ma-16.32 ± 0.62 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz localities. All ages agree with the bounding age of underlying marine units and with equivalent strata in coastal exposures. New ages and available sedimentation rates imply time spans for each section of ∼18.2 to 17.36 Ma for Río Bote and 17.45-15.63 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz (Burdigalian). These estimates support the view that deposition of the SCF began at western localities ∼1 Ma earlier than at eastern localities, and that the central Río Santa Cruz localities expose the youngest SCF in southern Santa Cruz Province. Associated vertebrate faunas are consistent with our geochronologic synthesis, showing older (Notohippidian) taxa in western localities and younger (Santacrucian) taxa in central localities. The Notohippidian fauna (19.0-18.0 Ma) of the western localities is synchronous with Pinturan faunas (19.0-18.0 Ma), but older than Santacrucian faunas of the Río Santa Cruz (17.2-15.6 Ma) and coastal localities (18.0-16.2 Ma). The Santacrucian faunas of the central Río Santa Cruz localities temporally overlap Colloncuran (15.7 Ma), Friasian (16.5 Ma), and eastern Santacrucian faunas.

  19. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  20. Breschini and Haversat, eds.: Analysis of South-Central California Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties. Gary S. Breschmi and Trudy Haversat, eds. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 23, 1988, xiv + 105 pp., 21 figs., 28 tables, $8.70, (paper).

  1. Geologic map of the Rio Rico and Nogales 7.5’ quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Menges, Christopher M.; Gray, Floyd; Berry, Margaret E.; Bultman, Mark W.; Cosca, Michael A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2016-04-15

    The Rio Rico and Nogales (Arizona) 1:24,000-scale quadrangles are located in the Basin and Range Province of southern Arizona, and the southern edge of the map is the international border with Sonora, Mexico.  The major urban area is Nogales, a bi-national city known as “the gateway to Mexico.”  Rocks exposed in the map area range in age from Jurassic through Quaternary.  Major physiographic, geologic, and hydrologic features in the map area include the southern San Cayetano Mountains, Grosvenor Hills, and Sonoita Creek in the northern part, and Mount Benedict and the Mount Benedict horst block in the southcentral part. The horst block is bounded by the Santa Cruz River on the east and Nogales Wash on the west.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of the late Neogene purisima formation, Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Victor M.; Stuart, Robert M.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    1986-09-01

    The magnetic polarity zonation of a late Neogene sedimentary sequence in Santa Cruz County, California, has provided a chronologic framework for studies of the sedimentologic and tectonic processes involved in an episode of basin formation in the vicinity of the San Andreas fault system in central coastal California. The zonation is based on the analysis of samples from 79 horizons in a 300 m thick section of the Purisima Formation and a portion of the overlying Aromas Formation. Although rock magnetic studies support the hypothesis that the primary carrier of the remanence is magnetite, many samples contain a secondary overprint which cannot be completely removed by alternating field demagnetization. Nevertheless, systematic analysis of the behavior of the samples during demagnetization has led to an unambiguous determination of the polarity of each horizon and to the development of a magnetic polarity zonation containing thirteen magnetozones. These magnetozones can be correlated to the magnetic polarity time scale using biostratigraphic constraints provided by diatoms in the lower portion of the section and invertebrates and vertebrates in the upper portion. The studied section is found to span the interval from the Epoch 5/Epoch 6 boundary (6.07 Mya) to the Matuyama/Gauss boundary (2.47 Mya) with a hiatus corresponding to the upper part of the Gilbert epoch (4.5 Mya to 3.5 Mya). This hiatus does not coincide with major regressions in the global sea-level curve and is interpreted as a period of tectonic uplift. The compression which generated this uplift was probably caused by interplay between the San Andreas fault east of the study area and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault west of it.

  3. SECRUHAB -- Habitat polygons for Southeast Santa Cruz Island (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  4. SECRUHAB -- Habitat polygons for Southeast Santa Cruz Island (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  5. Mechanisms of Tectonic Uplift in the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, M. H.; Hilley, G. E.; Rood, D. H.; Finkel, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    GPS velocity measurements in the San Francisco Bay Area limit transpression across the region to San Andreas Fault (SAF) undergoes a local change in orientation by approximately 8-10 degrees. While active seismicity and surface velocities suggest that the restraining bend accommodates the geodetically observed contraction in this area, low temperature thermochronology, uplifted marine terraces, and uplifted Pliocene marine units indicate that contraction and uplift may be more uniformly distributed than can be explained exclusively by the restraining bend. Thus, it is unclear to what degree the geologic strain accommodated throughout this region results from plate-normal contraction versus restraining-bend tectonics. To determine the relative roles of these two factors, we measured cosmogenic radionuclide erosion rates from four basins flanking the southwestern SCM, whose topography results from deformation associated with the SAF. The southernmost basin is seated within the heart of the SCM restraining bend, while basins farther north are located progressively farther away from the bend. Thus, if restraining-bend tectonics dominate the deformation of the area, we expect rapid erosion rates to be focused in these areas, while more uniform rock uplift and erosion rates may be indicative of regional transpression. Erosion rates from basins within the restraining bend are about 0.53 mm/yr, twice as high as those north of the bend (0.24 - 0.31 mm/yr). The clear spatial association of high erosion rates with the restraining bend suggests that at least half of the observed uplift and erosion may result from restraining-bend deformation. Accordingly, relatively uniform erosion rates north of the bend may result from either rock uplift that is driven by isostatic unloading of the upper crust or limited regional transpression.

  6. MICRONUTRIENTES NOS SOLOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcido Kirst

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a fertilidade dos solos do município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, em relação aos micronutrientes zinco, ferro, manganês, cobre e boro, baseado nos laudos técnicos de análise de solo realizados pelo Laboratório de Solos da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, no período de 2001 a 2005. Ao todo, 3548 laudos de solo foram interpretados. As técnicas analíticas para a determinação destas variáveis seguiram a metodologia utilizada pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análises de Solos e Tecido Vegetal do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina (ROLAS. Os resultados indicaram que a avaliação da fertilidade dos solos do município apresentou altas concentrações  dos micronutrientes zinco, cobre, manganês e ferro e concentrações médias de boro, indicando adequadas condições de fertilidade para as culturas predominantes na região.

  7. The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenhagen, Chris; Yanez, Patricio

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the cost of controlling the invasive quinine tree Cinchona pubescens Vahl in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Control costs in ten 400 m2 plots formed the basis for estimating the cost of control over the whole island. In the plots, densities were 2100–24,000 stems/ha (stems >150 cm tall) and 55,000–138,000 stems/ha (all size classes combined). Control involved uprooting small plants, and applying of a mix of metsulfuron methyl and picloram to cut stumps or to mach...

  8. El colegio de estudiantes pobres, o de Santa Cruz del Hierro, de la Universidad de Cervera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio JORDÁN SIERRA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este estudio quiere sacar a la luz la presencia de un centro educativo de no poca importancia en la historia de las Universidades hispánicas. Nos referimos al Colegio de Santa Cruz del Hierro, también llamado Seminario de Estudiantes Pobres, que con sus ciento dieciséis años de existencia (1720-1836 mantuvo y formó a un tercio de la población estudiantil de la Universidad de Cervera.

  9. Desarrollo humano y desarrollo turístico: el caso del cantón de Santa Cruz de Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Morales Zúñiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se analiza la relación existente entre crecimiento económico, generado por las actividades turísticas, y desarrollo humano en el cantón de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. Se realiza un especial énfasis en el proceso de transformación de la estructura económica del cantón de Santa Cruz, desde una economía tradicional, hacia una economía de servicios, y su impacto en el desarrollo humano del cantón.

  10. Desarrollo humano y desarrollo turístico: el caso del cantón de Santa Cruz de Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Morales Zúñiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se analiza la relación existente entre crecimiento económico, generado por las actividades turísticas, y desarrollo humano en el cantón de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. Se realiza un especial énfasis en el proceso de transformación de la estructura económica del cantón de Santa Cruz, desde una economía tradicional, hacia una economía de servicios, y su impacto en el desarrollo humano del cantón.

  11. Estrategias de uso del espacio por grupos cazadores recolectores en la costa norte de Santa Cruz y su interior inmediato

    OpenAIRE

    Zubimendi, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos generales 1. Conocer los rangos espaciales y temporales del uso del espacio por parte de las poblaciones humanas del pasado de los distintos sectores de la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz. 2. Conocer la variabilidad en las formas de uso de la costa y el interior inmediato en la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. 3. Reconocer las formas de uso del espacio costero y el interior inmediato. 4. Interpretar las estrategias de movilidad desarrolladas por l...

  12. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  13. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  14. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  15. EL DESARROLLO DE UN ASENTAMIENTO LACUSTRE EN LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO LERMA: EL CASO DE SANTA CRUZ ATIZAPÁN, MÉXICO CENTRAL (The development of a lake settlement in the upper basin of the Lerma river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kabata

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El valle de Toluca se localiza en la cuenca hidrológica Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, la más extensa de la República Mexicana. A lo largo de su milenaria historia, ha sido reconocido por ser una región donde se encuentran tres ciénagas (Chignahuapan, Chimaliapan y Chicnahuapan, circundadas por volcanes y densos bosques además del río Lerma. La riqueza ambiental de este frío valle favoreció la temprana ocupación de la región, cuyas evidencias arqueológicas se remontan, por lo menos, hasta hace más de 3000 años, durante el Formativo temprano. Hacia 500/600 d. C., las condiciones climáticas se volvieron más secas, provocando el descenso del nivel de agua de las lagunas y permitiendo la colonización del interior de las ciénagas. El sitio arqueológico Santa Cruz Atizapán constituye uno de los asentamientos lacustres que se fundaron en esta zona. Este artículo se enfoca en él, donde los antiguos pobladores se adaptaron a las condiciones del terreno cenagoso y lo transformaron en un lugar habitable, construyendo unos cien montículos sobre los cuales levantaron sus casas-habitaciones. Trata, también, acerca del modo de vida lacustre, donde prevalece la relación simbiótica del hombre con su medio, y sobre el intercambio de productos con otras regiones, que destacan por considerarse de gran relevancia en el desarrollo y consolidación del sitio como centro rector. A pesar de que los montículos dentro de la ciénaga fueron abandonados a fines del Epiclásico cuando las condiciones climáticas provocaron nuevamente un ascenso en el nivel del agua, la parte nuclear del sitio Santa Cruz Atizapán continuó funcionando durante el Posclásico como uno de los centros regionales importantes. ENGLISH: The Valley of Toluca is situated in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago hydrological system, the largest basin of the Mexican Republic. Throughout its history it has been known for its three shallow water lakes or marshes (Chignahuapan, Chimaliapan and

  16. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  17. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross

  18. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Cruz County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Schuster, Robert L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $14.5 million in damages were assessed in Santa Cruz County.

  19. Peso al nacimiento y fotoperíodo en Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Por su ubicación geográfica austral, la provincia de Santa Cruz presenta 2 fotoperíodos (FP: a alta luminosidad (FP1 (Diciembre-Mayo; b baja luminosidad o heliofania (FP2 (Junio-Noviembre. Se analiza la influencia de los FP sobre el peso al nacimiento (PN de los RNV de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Se consideraron únicamente los PN de las gestas a término que transcurrieron el último trimestre completo en cada FP: FP1 (n=11.575; FP2 (n=11.804. Los datos se agruparon por sexo, FP y edad gestacional (EG. Las diferencias entre FP se establecieron con ANOVA. En los dos FP los varones fueron más pesados que las mujeres, sin embargo, se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 de los PN entre FP, siendo los niños y niñas de FP2 más pesados que los de FP1. Paradójicamente la ganancia de peso por EG fue mayor en el FP1, excepto entre EG 38-39. Independientemente del sexo, en ambos FP, los PN no fueron homogéneos para EG 37, 38 y 39, resultando las diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.01. Si bien se han demostrado respuestas biológicas (reproducción, trastornos psicoafectivos, etc. a cambios estacionales del FP en el hombre y los primates, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos de tales respuestas en el crecimiento y desarrollo prenatal. Probablemente la relación entre PN y FP observada en Santa Cruz podría atribuirse, más que al efecto directo del FP sobre el PN, a la influencia de este factor mesológico sobre los comportamientos culturales maternos y domésticos diferenciales entre FP. Estos hallazgos preliminares deberán ser corroborados en poblaciones australes similares incluyendo la consideración de otras variables mesológicas y culturales.

  20. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  1. Escravos na povoação de Santa Cruz na segunda metade do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Würdig Spindler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo evidenciar a presença de escravos na região da Colônia de Santa Cruz (atual município de Santa Cruz do Sul durante a segunda metade do século XIX. Partimos do processo-crime Nº 4776, de 1876, no qual o pardo Lucas, jornaleiro, escravo de Adão Schirmer, foi acusado como autor do homicídio da preta Maria, escrava de Jacob Graeff. Maria, quitandeira, residia na Vila de Santa Cruz. Também utilizamos como fontes os registros da Paróquia de Santa Cruz referentes aos batismos e óbitos de escravos e libertos entre os anos de 1861 e 1886. Concluímos que, apesar de existirem leis provinciais e imperiais que proibiam aos colonos que possuíssem cativos, não se sustenta a tese de que não haviam escravos na região em estudo. Pela documentação consultada foi possível concluir que circularam escravos pela povoação, pela própria Colônia de Santa Cruz e em suas adjacências. Esses escravos não pertenciam a colonos, mas certamente a escravidão não foi estranha aos imigrantes que se estabeleceram pela região. A presente comunicação faz parte do projeto “Senhores, escravos e colonos: redes, conflitos e negociações no Vale do Rio Pardo”.

  2. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  3. Lamniform shark teeth from the late cretaceous of southernmost South America (Santa Cruz province, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Elena R; Egerton, Victoria M; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Lacovara, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage.

  4. Lamniform shark teeth from the late cretaceous of southernmost South America (Santa Cruz province, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Schroeter

    Full Text Available Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage.

  5. COMPATIBILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF GRAFT TOMATO CULTIVAR SANTA CRUZ KADA IN DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zeist

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomato production through the technique of grafting aims to control soil pathogens, induce flowering, and improve tolerance to waterlogging, salinity and alkalinity of the soil. For this work were performed 50 grafts for each type of rootstock, totaling 100 slips and 50 seedlings kept as control. After 15 days of grafting, the seedlings were evaluated on the percentage of picks grafting. The treatment which used the tomato cultivar Cherry Red® as rootstock presented results of vegetative growth (height and volume Cup higher than other treatments. However after transplanting, defective development was observed for plants with grafting when compared to the controls. After 35 days of follow up, there was a low survival rate, being 5% of the plants. According to the results obtained in this work the tomato cultivar Santa Cruz Kada® has good compatibility with the rootstock cultivar Cayenne® pepper and tomato cultivar Cherry Red®

  6. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  7. Fossil woods (Coniferales from the Baqueró Group (Aptian, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel I. Vera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new conifer morphospecies represented by a secondary xylem are reported for the Lower Cretaceous Baqueró Group (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Agathoxylon sp. is characterized by poorly defined growth rings, predominantly uniseriate pitting in the radial wall of the tracheids, cross fields with 1-6 pits and uniseriate rays. These features are shared with the leafy branches described for the unit as Araucaria grandifolia Feruglio emend. Del Fueyo and Archangelsky. The second taxon, Brachyoxylon sp. cf. B. boureaui, possesses poorly defined growth rings, mixed wood with predominantly uniseriate radial pitting, cross fields with 8-26 pits and uniseriate rays. These taxa represent the first fossil woods described for Baqueroan strata.Duas novas morfoespécies de coníferas representadas por xilema secundário são reportadas para o Cretáceo Inferior do Grupo Baqueró (Província de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Agathoxylon sp. é caracterizada por anéis de crescimento poucos definidos, sulcos predominantemente uniseriados na parede radial dos traqueídeos, campos de cruzamento com 1-6 perfurações e raios uniseriados. Estas características são comuns com os ramos frondosos descritos para a unidade como Araucaria grandifolia Feruglio emend. Del Fueyo e Archangelsky. O segundo taxon, Brachyoxylon sp. cf. B. boureaui, possui anéis de crescimento poucos definidos, lenho misto com predominância de sulcos radiais uniseriados, campos de cruzamento com 8-26 perfurações e raios uniseriados. Estes táxons representam a primeira descrição de madeira fóssil para o Grupo Baqueró.

  8. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein 2000...

  9. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein...

  10. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein 2000...

  11. Cofradías y devociones populares en el convento de Santa Cruz la Real de Granada (Confraternities and popular devotions in the convent of Santa Cruz la Real of Granada

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    Miguel Luis López-Guadalupe Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Aunque menos conocida que para otras órdenes, como la franciscana, la presencia de cofradías y devociones arraigadas en la piedad granadina fue un bastión esencial en la vida del convento dominico de Santa Cruz la Real de Granada durante la época moderna. En realidad, la escasez de documentación impide ponderar su magnitud. Con al menos una decena de cofradías o congregaciones, gozó de la firme apuesta confraternal de las órdenes mendicantes. En Santa Cruz la Real, además de la prestigiosa Orden Tercera, hubo otras asociaciones de seglares en torno a la Virgen María, la Pasión de Cristo y diversos santos, entre los que descollaron los propios de la orden. Las noticias fragmentarias conservadas rayan a menudo en milagrería y cándida credulidad, pero manifiestan el vigor de las devociones y de los resortes hábilmente utilizados por los frailes predicadores para extender el carisma propio de la orden dominica.Abstract: Though less known that for other orders, as Franciscan one, the presence of confraternities and devotions established in the religiosity of Granada was an essential base in the life of the Dominican convent of Santa Cruz la Real during the modern age. Indeed the shortage of documentation prevents from weighting its magnitude. With at least ten confraternities or congregations, this convent bet for the popular piety as the other begging orders. Besides the prestigious Third Order, there were in Santa Cruz la Real other associations for laymen concerning the Virgin Mary, the Passion of Christ and diverse saints, some of them Dominicans. The fragmentary news often borders a candid credulity, but they demonstrate the vitality of the devotions promoted by the Dominican order.

  12. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley

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    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.

  13. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  14. El consumo de moluscos en la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz

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    Miguel Ángel Zubimendi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se discute el valor de los moluscos en las dietas indígenas de los grupos que ocuparon la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz durante el Holoceno tardío, por medio del potencial alimenticio de los mismos, inferido a partir del análisis del registro arqueológico superficial. Se discute, de esta manera, la imagen arqueológica construida a partir de análisis previos, a la luz de los nuevos resultados centrados en los restos malacológicos. Se considera que la densidad de restos de moluscos en los sitios arqueológicos refleja la importancia dietaria relativa de los mismos. Por ello, se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de especies de moluscos representados arqueológicamente, cuya presencia presumiblemente, responde a decisiones antrópicas orientadas al consumo alimenticio. Por último, se analiza el aporte calórico estimado por especie en el nivel areal. Dado que es imposible establecer valores absolutos para el aporte calórico total representado en cada sitio, se trabaja con porcentajes relativos como aproximación al aporte diferencial de los moluscos a la dieta indígena. Esta metodología exploratoria y experimental, es una herramienta sencilla y operativa de análisis, que permitirá hacer un aporte inicial, para tratar de responder parcialmente a los interrogantes, así como para discutir algunas conclusiones a las que se han arribado previamente.In this paper the value of mussels in the hunter-gatherer diet of the northern coast of Santa Cruz in the Late Holocene is discussed through the alimentary potential inferred from the archaeological record. As such, the archaeological image constructed from previous analyses is discussed in light of new results obtained from the analysis of the mussel remains. The density of mussel shell reflects the relative dietary importance of this resource. In relation to that idea we considered the variability of species represented archaeologically, the presence of which presumably represents the

  15. Factors affecting residents’ support to the development of religious tourism: the case of Santa Cruz (RN, Brazil

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    Gilmara Barros da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the primary stakeholder management - the resident community, with the principal aim to analyze the factors that can to influence the residents’ support to the development of religious tourism in Santa Cruz, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and the existing interrelationships between factors. In order to achieve this objective, it was necessary to use descriptive research, followed by a quantitative approach with application of questionnaires with 422 residents of Santa Cruz-RN city. The study  relied on the variables relationship model proposed by Nunkoo and Ramkissoon (2012, it was also used the technique of Structural Equation Modeling - SEM, aiming to explain the relationships between the constructs studied. Findings suggest that more the residents realize the benefits generated by tourism, as well as trust in government actors in charge of tourism development, the more there will be a propensity to support the development of religious tourism. We conclude that the structural model that best represents the reality of Santa Cruz-RN is composed of the constructs: benefits and costs of  tourism development in the local, as well as the confidence in governmental actors.

  16. Darwin's great patagoniantertiary formation at the mouth of the río Santa Cruz: a reappraisal

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    Ana Parras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theclassical section described by Darwin at the mouth of the Río Santa Cruz was alandmark in the later stratigraphy of the marine Cenozoic of Patagonia.Sedimentological and paleontological studies of rocks from the Monte LeónFormation at the Darwin and Mount Entrance sections - mouth of the Río SantaCruz - suggest that they were deposited in an early Miocene inner shelf tosubtidal - or even intertidal at the top - environment. The base of thesections is covered and the top is unconformably overlain by Quaternarydeposits. The invertebrate fauna (mainly mollusks mentioned herein - theearliest of which were collected by Darwin and described by Sowerby - werecollected from the two sections with a detailed stratigraphic control. Itincludes brachiopods, echinoderms, scaphopods, bivalves, and gastropods. Thesimilarity of this fauna with that one from the sections at Restinga Norte,Cabeza de León, Las Cuevas, Yegua Quemada and Monte Observación, all south ofthe study area, allow correlation with them. In addition to the equivalence ofthe faunas, sedimentological features at all these localities are also thesame. Therefore, all the shell beds involved should be referred to the PuntaEntrada Member of the Monte León Formation. The Monte Observación Member shouldbe restricted to its original use and included as a member at the base of theoverlying Santa Cruz Formation, outcrops at Cerro Monte León and CerroObservación.

  17. Evaluation of the application of the triple bottom line. case study: caldeirão de SANTA CRUZ community (CEARÁ

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    Artur Gomes de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Triple Bottom Line, composed by the Environmental, Social and Economic dimensions, has been widely accepted since its implementation will involve the maintenance or development of factors that lead to sustainability. When defining this concept, Elkington (2012 quoted the director of the Environmental Management Program at the University of Michigan, Stuart Hart, who said that large corporations would be the only organizations that could achieve sustainability. The aim of this work is to verify if sustainability, at a given site, can be achieved without the aid of large organizations. Specifically, the objective is to check the status of the Caldeirão de Santa Cruz Community, located in the state of Ceará / Brazil, in the period between 1926 and 1937. For this evaluation, it was used the Triple Bottom Line model proposed by Elkington (2012. The results indicated that the concept known as Triple Bottom Line was implied in the Caldeirão de Santa Cruz community’s way of living and that was achieved through the work carried out in the community, without the help of any organization. The results also showed that the behavior and the way of living and working of the community bothered some sectors of society.  Keywords: Sustainability; Triple Bottom Line; Caldeirão de Santa Cruz; Ceará.

  18. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  19. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  20. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  1. The Border Environmental Health Initiative-investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched the Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI), a major project encompassing the entire U.S.-Mexico border region. In 2009, a study of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the border region of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, was initiated as part of the BEHI. In this borderland region of the desert Southwest, human health and the ecosystems on which humans rely depend critically on limited water resources. Surface water is scarce during much of the year, and groundwater is the primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. In order to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential consequences to riparian ecosystems and ultimately human health, the USGS is using an interdisciplinary and integrative approach that incorporates the expertise of geographers, hydrologists, biologists, and geologists to track organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing groundwater and surface-water models are being used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport.

  2. Paleoparasitologia en coprolitos del Parque Nacional Perito Moreno, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer algunas de las parasitosis que existían en América precolombina y discutir diversos aspectos ecológico-culturales. El coprolito examinado provino del sitio Cerro Casa de Piedra 5 (CCP5, Parque Nacional Perito Moreno, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Las muestras fueron rehidratadas con fosfato trisódico acuoso y procesadas por sedimentación espontánea. Existieron dificultades para la determinación del origen zoológico del coprolito-cánido o humano-y el análisis de los restos macroscópicos y pelos presentes resultó decisivo. Los resultados evidenciaron un caso de poliparasitismo entre los que se hallaron huevos correspondientes al género Trichuris y a especies del género Capillaria. Otros hallazgos corresponden a huevos atribuibles a ascarididos, eucestodes y ooquistes de coccidios. Se hallaron huevos que no pudieron determinarse si correspondían a ácaros o pentastómidos. La muestra analizada ha aportado información inédita sobre el parasitismo en Patagonia Austral precolombina. Se discute su significado bioantropológico. Los resultados presentados permiten demostrar el valor de la recuperación de coprolitos y sedimentos arqueológicos.

  3. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICA L ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA

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    Inger Sally Padilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequencyof metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationshipwithphysical activityin Chilean immigrants living inRío Gallegos, SantaCruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165womenand 149men were interviewed in RioGallegos in2010,with healthy status in medical records(2000.Anthropometry,blood pressurecontrol,blood testto measureglucose,triglycerides andHDL cholesterol weredetermined.Metabolic syndromewasestablished bycriteria of theNCEPATPIII.Themetabolic syndromehad anoverall prevalenceof 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34.Metabolicsyndromeprevalence was larger in women(32.1%than in men(25.5%.The prevalence ofits componentswere:abdominalobesity56%,low levels ofHDL cholesterol 48.3%, highlevels of triglycerides68.1%,hypertension46.1%and high levels of glucose 72.5%.Inadequate physical activitywas 66.2% (95%CI:60.1 to 71.5.Immigrantshadmorelikelihoodof metabolic syndromeliving in Río Gallegos for 15 yearsormore(β:5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73,p=0.000and withinadequate physical activity(β:3.36,95%CI:1.57to7.21,p=0.002.The prevalenceof metabolic syndrome inChileanimmigrantsliving in RíoGallegosis higherthan that reportedin Argentina andChile.

  4. Macrohabitat of Sonora Chub (Gila ditaenia) in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jeanette; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Physical characteristics and persistence of macrohabitat used by different life stages of Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) were determined by repeatedly measuring distinct reaches in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in 1990 and 1991. At the beginning of summer drought, habitats occupied by adult Sonora chub were deeper and larger than areas with only immature fish and unoccupied areas. The medians of maximum depth were 47.0 cm (1990) and 39.7 cm (1991) for habitats with adults, 21.3 cm (1990) and 22.9 cm (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 14.6 cm (1990) and 19.7 cm (1991) for unoccupied areas. At the end of summer drought, adults occupied habitats that were deeper and larger, and the percent decrease in area and depth was less than areas containing only immature fish or no fish. The medians of percent decrease in maximum depth were 13% (1990) and 21% (1991) for habitats with adults, 48% (1990) and 41% (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 42% (1990) and 33% (1991) for unoccupied areas. By the end of summer drought, habitats with only immature fish were not physically different from unoccupied areas. Loss of total surface area was highest in reaches that contained only immature fish or no fish (range = 36% to 94%). Most Sonora chub lost from evaporating surface waters were immature fish. Ephemeral and unoccupied areas had higher percentages of floating cover and coarser substrates than persistent, occupied areas.

  5. Data collection at the Lockheed Santa Cruz facility using midwave hyperspectral imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, William A.; Schaum, Alan P.; Hinnrichs, Michelle; Massie, Mark A.; Fields, David

    1995-02-01

    From September 12-15, 1994, two midwave hyperspectral imagers (the Infrared Multispectral Sensor (IMSS) of Pacific Advanced Technology and the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) made measurements of particular patches of forest background and a Lockheed Santa Cruz Facility test stand at various times of day and observed the firing of the rocket engine from a sensitive piece of hardware mounted in the Lockheed test stand. The hyperspectral image cubes of the same patch of background observed at various times will be used to investigate the temporal nature of the constituent-temperature interaction. The data of the rocket firing was collected as part of a classified program of the U.S. Army Missile Command. Two sets of data cubes taken of the same background region by IMSS and LIFTIRS simultaneously will be used both to compare the two instruments and to aid in instrument characterization. This paper describes the instruments used in this data collection, the types of backgrounds observed and the experiments performed, and the data collected.

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  7. Estructura y metamorfismo de la formación la modesta en la estancia el tranquilo (Santa Cruz, Patagonia Structure and metamorphism of the La Modesta Formation in the El Tranquilo ranch (Santa Cruz, Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Moreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen los resultados de un relevamiento de las metamorfitas del Paleozoico inferior correspondientes a la Formación La Modesta en la estancia El Tranquilo (Santa Cruz. Estudios estructurales, petrográficos y geoquímicos realizados en esta unidad indican que se trata de esquistos psamíticos y pelíticos cuarzo - muscovítico - cloríticos, que contienen biotita y que poseen evidencias de metamorfismo regional asociado a dos eventos deformacionales. Se ha reconocido al protolito como una sucesión sedimentaria marina homogénea pelítica a psamopelítica, que fue sometida a una temperatura menor a 550° y a una presión que osciló entre 2 y 4 Kb, alcanzando un bajo grado metamòrfico en facies esquistos verdes (grados biotita-granate. Se determinó una esquistosidad S1 regional que es subparalela a las superficies de sedimentación S0. La S1 ha sido afectada por un segundo episodio de deformación, generando una S2/L2 no penetrativa. Estas rocas se diferenciaron de las metamorfitas del área tipo de la Formación La Modesta por sus protolitos de ambiente más profundo y porque el segundo episodio deformacional es más evidente en esta área. Asimismo, esta formación se ha correlacionado con metasedimentitas que se ubican al oeste y sus protolitos sedimentarios podrían integrarse en una cuenca de antearco desarrollada hacia el Pacífico que luego pasó a formar parte del prisma de acreción gondwánico.In this paper are exposed the results of a geological survey about the lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of La Modesta Formation in the El Tranquilo farm in Santa Cruz province. Structural, petrographic and geochemical studies carried out in this rock unit indicated that it includes pelitic and psammitic quartz - muscovite - chorite schists, with blastesis of biotite. These rocks show evidences of a regional metamorphism associated with two deformational events. The protolith has been recognized as a pelitic and

  8. Monitoreo de DDI en el Noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Olguita Vera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 807 alumnos de escolaridad primaria, de ambos sexos, fue estudiado en este monitoreo de bocio endémico en dos localidades del noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz: Perito Moreno (407 niños y Los Antiguos (400 niños. La edad de los escolares osciló entre 6 y 15 años. La palpación tiroidea fue hecha por el conjunto de los médicos participantes. Sin embargo, con la finalidad de aunar criterios con lo realizado previamente (1-17, se tomó como única referencia la palpación de H.N., que se llevó a cabo en la totalidad de los niños estudiados. La definición del grado de bocio fue similar a la utilizada en los otros relevamientos (1. Se determinó la yoduria en muestras casuales de orina emitidas por los niños una vez que fueron palpados (149 de Perito Moreno y 88 de Los Antiguos. Se midió el contenido de yodo en 357 muestras de sal de consumo hogareño de Perito Moreno y en 329 de Los Antiguos. El examen palpatorio de los niños reveló la existencia de bocio grado 1 solamente. La prevalencia de bocio encontrada fue de 4,7 % en Perito Moreno y de 3,5 % en Los Antiguos. Los niveles de yoduria alcanzaron, en Perito Moreno, una media de 124±78,5(DSμg/L y una mediana de 107μg/L, al tiempo que en Los Antiguos la media fue de 175±96μg/L y la mediana de 165μg/L. El contenido de yodo de las sales que aportaron los alumnos, si bien varió según la marca de sal utilizada, tuvieron un nivel relativamente adecuado de yodo en aquellas de consumo masivo. De esta manera, observamos que en la localidad de Perito Moreno el promedio de yodo en la sal, tomada en conjunto, fue de 32,9 ± 9,5 mg/Kg, mientras que para Los Antiguos fue de 28,9 ± 9,6 mg/Kg. Al analizar las concentraciones de yodo <15mg/Kg, observamos que fue del 5,3 % en Perito Moreno y del 9,7% en Los Antiguos. Teniendo en cuenta la línea de corte del 10% que fija el ICCIDD (18 como valor óptimo, podemos observar que la situación de ambas poblaciones es satisfactoria

  9. Source of the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F.; Molinari, I.; Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.

    2014-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 a Mw8.0 interplate earthquake occurred in the Santa Cruz Islands region. The epicenter is located near a complex section of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, where a short segment of dominantly strike-slip plate motion links the Solomon Trench to the New Hebrides Trench. In this region, the Australia plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate with a convergence rate of ~9cm/yr. This earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the city of Lata and several villages located on the Nendo island with tsunami height exceeding 11m (Fritz et al.,2014). The tsunami has been distinctly recorded by 5 DART buoys in the Pacific Ocean and by some tide-gauges at Solomon Islands, Fiji Islands, and New Caledonia. In this work we retrieve the source of the tsunami by inverting the signals recorded by both DART buoys and tide-gauges, and using an earthquake fault model that accounts for the variability of the subduction plate geometry. We compare and discuss our tsunamigenic slip model with previous coseismic slip models obtained by teleseismic data (Hayes et al.,2013) and telesismic data constrained by tsunami records (Lay et al.,2013). Our preferred tsunami source (maximum slip value of ~10m) is located southeast from the hypocenter and the slip direction is in agreement with the convergence direction that becomes progressively more oblique in the NW segment. We find a tsunami source roughly consistent to a possible source of low frequency radiation (http://www.iris.edu/spud/backprojection) and/or to the region of aseismic slip argued by Hayes et al. (2013). However, we do not find significantly tsunamigenic slip in the region of seismic high frequency radiation around the hypocenter.

  10. Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002–2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002–2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January–June) and low (July–December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases. PMID:25706631

  11. Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

  12. Integrated assessment of air pollution using observations and modelling in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M; Soret, Albert; Guevara, Marc; Martínez, Francesc; Gassó, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to analyse the atmospheric dynamics of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife region (Tenerife, Canary Islands). This area is defined by the presence of anthropogenic emissions (from a refinery, a port and road traffic) and by very specific meteorological and orographic conditions-it is a coastal area with a complex topography in which there is an interaction of regional atmospheric dynamics and a low thermal inversion layer. These factors lead to specific atmospheric pollution episodes, particularly in relation to SO2 and PM10. We applied a methodology to study these dynamics based on two complementary approaches: 1) the analysis of the observations from the air quality network stations and 2) simulation of atmospheric dynamics using the WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b and WRF-ARW/HYSPLIT modelling systems with a high spatial resolution (1×1 km(2)). The results of our study show that the refinery plume plays an important role in the maximum SO2 observed levels. The area of maximum impact of the refinery is confined to a radius of 3 km around this installation. A cluster analysis performed for the period: 1998-2011 identified six synoptic situations as predominant in the area. The episodes of air pollution by SO2 occur mainly in those with more limited dispersive conditions, such as the northeastern recirculation, the northwestern recirculation and the western advection, which represent 33.70%, 11.23% and 18.63% of the meteorological situations affecting the study area in the year 2011, respectively. In the case of particulate matter, Saharan dust intrusions result in episodes with high levels of PM10 that may exceed the daily limit value in all measurement station; these episodes occur when the synoptic situation is from the east (3.29% of the situations during the year 2011).

  13. Paleogeodesy of the Southern Santa Cruz Mountains Frontal Thrusts, Silicon Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, F.; Johnstone, S. A.; Mavrommatis, A. P.; Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a method to infer long-term fault slip rate distributions using topography by coupling a three-dimensional elastic boundary element model with a geomorphic incision rule. In particular, we used a 10-m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) to calculate channel steepness (ksn) throughout the actively deforming southern Santa Cruz Mountains in Central California. We then used these values with a power-law incision rule and the Poly3D code to estimate slip rates over seismogenic, kilometer-scale thrust faults accommodating differential uplift of the relief throughout geologic time. Implicit in such an analysis is the assumption that the topographic surface remains unchanged over time as rock is uplifted by slip on the underlying structures. The fault geometries within the area are defined based on surface mapping, as well as active and passive geophysical imaging. Fault elements are assumed to be traction-free in shear (i.e., frictionless), while opening along them is prohibited. The free parameters in the inversion include the components of the remote strain-rate tensor (ɛij) and the bedrock resistance to channel incision (K), which is allowed to vary according to the mapped distribution of geologic units exposed at the surface. The nonlinear components of the geomorphic model required the use of a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which simulated the posterior density of the components of the remote strain-rate tensor and values of K for the different mapped geologic units. Interestingly, posterior probability distributions of ɛij and K fall well within the broad range of reported values, suggesting that the joint use of elastic boundary element and geomorphic models may have utility in estimating long-term fault slip-rate distributions. Given an adequate DEM, geologic mapping, and fault models, the proposed paleogeodetic method could be applied to other crustal faults with geological and morphological expressions of long-term uplift.

  14. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  15. PREVALÊNCIA DE ANEMIA EM ESCOLARES DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL - RS

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    Elisa Inês Klinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A anemia é caracterizada como um processo patológico em que a concentração de hemoglobina está abaixo dos níveis considerados normais e a sua principal causa na infância é a deficiência de ferro. Altas prevalências de anemia e suas consequências à saúde tornam esta patologia um grave problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste trabalho é estimar a prevalência de anemia em crianças e adolescentes, estudantes de escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS. É um estudo transversal realizado com 1.590 crianças e adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 7 a 17 anos, no período de 2011 a 2012. A concentração de hemoglobina foi medida através de espectrofotometria na região do visível, utilizando o método de cianeto de hemoglobina (HiCN. Encontrou-se uma prevalência de 14,3% de anemia. A frequência de casos de anemia foi maior entre as meninas. A prevalência de anemia nos escolares da rede privada foi mais alta em comparação às demais escolas e os adolescentes apresentaram porcentagem superior de anemia quando comparados às crianças (p = 0,042. Com base neste estudo é possível delinear estratégias de saúde pública para prevenção.

  16. Primeros hallazgos paleoparasitológicos en sedimentos del sitio Orejas de Burro, Santa Cruz, Argentina

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    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Paleoparasitología aporta información sobre diversos aspectos de la vida en el pasado, tanto epidemiológicos como ecológicos. Los sitios arqueológicos de Patagonia cuentan con escasos registros de coprolitos sobre los cuales realizar exámenes paleoparasitológicos. Por lo tanto, los sedimentos asociados a los esqueletos frecuentemente son la única fuente probable de muestras en Paleoparasitología. El sitio Orejas de Burro 1 se halla en un cono volcánico ubicado en el sector SE del campo volcánico Pali Aike, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina, y comprende a un enterratorio múltiple dentro de una cueva, y con una antigüedad probable para dicho entierro de 3490±50 años AP. Se examinaron muestras provenientes del contenido abdominal de un individuo, de un área destinada a desperdicios y de un área de huaqueo como control. En el presente trabajo se comunican los primeros hallazgos paleoparasitológicos realizados sobre sedimentos en Argentina y que incluyen restos helmintos pertenecientes a los géneros Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp. y también ooquistes de Eimeria sp. Asimismo, el registro paleoparasitológico de Eimeria cameli es el primero a escala mundial. Se discute sus alcances como una fuente independiente de evidencias empíricas en Paleopatología y en Bioarqueología de la región.

  17. Influence of the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant on surface water in the Santa Cruz River and local aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, H. M.; Brusseau, M. L.; Huth, H.

    2015-12-01

    As water resources become limited in Arizona due to drought and excessive use of ground water, treated wastewater effluent is becoming essential in creating natural ecosystems and recharging the decreasing groundwater supplies. Therefore, future water supplies are heavily dependent of the flow (quantity) and quality of the treated effluent. The Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP) releases treated wastewater from both Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico into the Santa Cruz River. This released effluent not only has the potential to impact surface water, but also groundwater supplies in Southern Arizona. In the recent past, the NIWTP has had reoccurring issues with elevated levels of cadmium, in addition to other, more infrequent, releases of high amounts of other metals. The industrial demographic of the region, as well as limited water quality regulations in Mexico makes the NIWTP and its treated effluent an important area of study. In addition, outdated infrastructure can potentially lead to damaging environmental impacts, as well as human health concerns. The Santa Cruz River has been monitored and studied in the past, but in recent years, there has been a halt in research regarding the state of the river. Data from existing water quality databases and recent sampling reports are used to address research questions regarding the state of the Santa Cruz River. These questions include: 1) How will change in flow eventually impact surface water and future groundwater supplies 2) What factors influence this flow (such as extreme flooding and drought) 3) What is the impact of effluent on surface water quality 4) Can changes in surface water quality impact groundwater quality 5) How do soil characteristics and surface flow impact the transport of released contaminants Although outreach to stakeholders across the border and updated infrastructure has improved the quality of water in the river, there are many areas to improve upon as the

  18. Capacitación como componente de desarrollo productivo en las microempresas: El caso de la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones d...

  19. Sociedades agrícolas en resistencia. Los pueblos de San Miguel, Santa Cruz y San Pedro, 1878-1883

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    Porfirio Neri Guarneros

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies in the state of Mexico involved a form of legal resistance used by indigenous communities in the face of liberal individualization policies of communal property, particularly the federal seizure law of June 25, 1956. In this context, some residents of the towns of Santa Cruz and San Miguel created an agricultural association, as did residents from the town of San Pedro, to retain the collective use of their communal goods and acquire some legal capacity. This condition thus allowed indigenous peoples to present writs of amparo to defend "private" rights.

  20. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

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    Emily C. Sanders

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and surrounding tributaries. The objectives were to (1 assess the water quality in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli by comparing the available data to the water quality criteria established by Arizona, (2 to provide insights into fecal indicator bacteria (FIB response to the hydrology of the watershed and (3 to identify if point sources or nonpoint sources are the major contributors of FIB in the stream. Assessment of the available wastewater treatment plant treated effluent data and in-stream sampling data indicate that water quality criteria for E. coli and fecal coliform in recreational waters are exceeded at all locations of the Santa Cruz River. For the wastewater discharge, 13%–15% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 colony forming units (cfu per 100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliform and 29% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli; while for the in-stream grab samples, 16%–34% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 cfu/100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliforms and 34%–75% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli. Elevated fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were positively correlated with periods of increased streamflow from rainfall. FIB concentrations observed in-stream are significantly greater (p-value < 0.0002 than wastewater treatment plants effluent concentrations; therefore, water quality managers should focus on nonpoint sources to reduce overall fecal indicator loads. Findings indicate that fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations are highly variable, especially along urban streams and generally increase with

  1. La escritora Ana de Zayas y el obispo poblano Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Zayas, Concepción

    2001-01-01

    Estudio de caso sobre la relación entre el obispo de la diócesis angelopolitana, don Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz, y doña Ana de Zayas, escritora que la Inquisición novohispana procesó por alumbrada de 1694 a 1700. Este trabajo analiza principalmente la intervención del prelado a favor de esta mujer, lo cual impidió que ella fuera condenada por el Santo Oficio de México. El artículo se basa en fuentes mexicanas y españolas.

  2. La escritora Ana de Zayas y el obispo poblano Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayas, Concepción

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de caso sobre la relación entre el obispo de la diócesis angelopolitana, don Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz, y doña Ana de Zayas, escritora que la Inquisición novohispana procesó por alumbrada de 1694 a 1700. Este trabajo analiza principalmente la intervención del prelado a favor de esta mujer, lo cual impidió que ella fuera condenada por el Santo Oficio de México. El artículo se basa en fuentes mexicanas y españolas.

  3. Proceso de enfermería: ¿qué significa para las enfermeras de Santa Cruz (Bolivia)?

    OpenAIRE

    José Granero-Molina; Cayetano Fernández-Sola; Maria Hilda Peredo de Gonzales; Gabriel Aguilera-Manrique; Judith Mollinedo-Mallea; Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Las enfermeras bolivianas no han incorporado definitivamente el método científico y las taxonomías a los cuidados. Este estudio cualitativo pretende comprender el significado atribuido al proceso de enfermería por docentes y profesionales del Departamento de Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia). Recolección de datos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y observación participante. Análisis bajo el marco teórico y metodológico del Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Teoría Fundamentada, usando el sof...

  4. Modos de utilización de las TICs por las organizaciones que operan en la Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Prado

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la utilización de las TICs (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) por las organizaciones que operan en el espacio de la Mancomunidad de municipios de la Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia). Se partirá, entonces, de la siguiente hipótesis: el uso de las TICs por parte de estas organizaciones, por causas económicas y estratégicas, está más orientado hacia la toma de contacto con otras organizaciones y determinados segmentos de la población,...

  5. ARTE EN LA ZONA DE HISTÉRESIS: QUEBRADA. LAS CORDILLERAS EN ANDAS DE GUADALUPE SANTA CRUZ Art in the Zone of Hysteresis: Quebrada. Las cordilleras en andas, by Guadalupe Santa Cruz

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    Cecilia Ojeda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este libro de Guadalupe Santa Cruz plantea el problema del desmedrado estatus del arte en un horizonte cultural dominado por la industria del entretenimiento. De este reconocimiento y del diseño vanguardista del libro en sí -concebido como un puente entre el arte y la vida, o como un instrumento de conocimiento privilegiado de lo real- surge una tensión característica del arte contemporáneo. Dicha tensión ha sido definida como el punto de histéresis de la obra artística en la que ésta tiende a conservar una propiedad en ausencia del estímulo que la ha generado, tensión artística que se examina en este ensayo.Quebrada. Las cordilleras en andas examines the issue of the artwork’s diminished status within a landscape dominated by the entertainment industry. From this knowledge and the vanguard design of the book itself -as an instrument of the real-arises a tension that is characteristic of contemporary art. This tension has been compared to the point of hysteresis of an element, in which like a magnetic material it, the work of art, preserves one of its properties in the absence of its stimulus. This essay examines how this tension is produced in the work by Guadalupe Santa Cruz.

  6. Evidencias bioarqueológicas en patagonia meridional: el sitio Orejas de Burro 1 (Pali Aike, provincia de Santa Cruz Bioarchaeological Evidence In Meridional Patagonia: The Orejas De Burro 1 Site (Pali Aike, Santa Cruz Province

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    Gabriela L. L'Heureux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las excavaciones realizadas recientemente en el sitio Orejas de Burro 1, localizado en el campo volcánico Pali Aike, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. En el mismo se recuperó un entierro humano compuesto por cinco individuos de diferentes edades depositados en un único evento de inhumación. La información desarrollada incluye datos estratigráficos, contextuales, bioarqueológicos e isotópicos, que contribuyen a la evaluación de temas mortuorios y biogeográficos discutidos en el Proyecto Magallania.The results from recent excavations at the Orejas de Burro 1 site (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina are presented in this paper. A human burial was recovered with the remains of five individuals from different age groups that were deposited simultaneously. Stratigraphic, contextual, bioarchaeological, and isotopic data are provided. This data contributes to discussions of mortuary behavior and human biogeography currently being developed within the Magallania Project.

  7. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil

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    Barboza Raynner RD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Methods Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. Results A total of 37 animal species (29 families, distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are

  8. Sitios concheros en la costa norte de Santa Cruz: su estructura arqueológica y variabilidad espacial en cazadores recolectores patagónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se presentan los resultados del estudio arqueológico de sitios concheros ubicados en diferentes localidades a lo largo de la costa norte de Santa Cruz (en adelante CNSC). El área de estudio abarca el territorio de litoral atlántico patagónico comprendido entre el límite de las provincias de Chubut y Santa Cruz, al norte y la localidad de Bahía Laura, al sur; a lo largo de aproximadamente 420 km. Este trabajo de tesis se enmarca en el proyecto denominado “Arqueología de la costa ...

  9. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Modro, Anna Frida Hatsue; Costa, Milton de Sousa; Maia,Emanuel; Aburaya, Fernando Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevis...

  10. Slip distribution of the 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake by tsunami waveforms inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Fabrizio; Molinari, Irene; Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 a Mw8.0 interplate earthquake occurred in the Santa Cruz Islands region. The epicenter is located near a complex section of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, where a short segment of dominantly strike-slip plate motion links the Solomon Trench to the New Hebrides Trench. In this region, the Australia plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate with a convergence rate of ~9cm/yr. This earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the city of Lata and several villages located on the main island, Nendo, near the epicenter. The tsunami has been distinctly recorded by 5 DART buoys located in the Pacific ocean. In this work we present the slip distribution of the earthquake obtained by inverting the tsunami signals recorded by the DART buoys. In order to honour the complex geometry of the subducting plate, we use a fault model that accounts for the variability of the strike and dip angles along the slipping surface. We use the Green's function approach and a simulated annealing technique to solve the inverse problem. Synthetic checkerboard tests indicate that the azimuthal coverage of the available DART stations is sufficient to retrieve the main features of the rupture process with a minimum subfault area of about 20x20 km. We retrieve the slip distribution of the Santa Cruz Island earthquake that, at the first order, is consistent with previous slip models obtained by using teleseismic data.

  11. Modos de utilización de las TICs por las organizaciones que operan en la Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Prado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la utilización de las TICs (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación por las organizaciones que operan en el espacio de la Mancomunidad de municipios de la Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se partirá, entonces, de la siguiente hipótesis: el uso de las TICs por parte de estas organizaciones, por causas económicas y estratégicas, está más orientado hacia la toma de contacto con otras organizaciones y determinados segmentos de la población, que a facilitar las comunicaciones del ciudadano común que habita en la Mancomunidad. Palabras clave: TICs; Bolivia; gobierno local. ABSTRACT The aim of this essay is to analyze the application of TIC (Information and Communication Technologies by organizations operating in the Municipalities of the Gran Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Its underlying hypothesis is that the application of TIC by these organizations, because of economic and strategic causes, is more oriented toward entering into contact with other organizations and certain population segments, than to facilitate the communications of common citizens belonging to the participating municipalities. Keywords: NIT; Bolivia; local governments.

  12. Near-Surface Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, From Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Steedman, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Santa Clara Valley (SCV) is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains to the southwest, the Diablo Ranges to the northeast, and the San Francisco Bay to the north (Fig. 1). The SCV, which includes the City of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley, has a population in excess of 1.7 million people (2000 U. S. Census;http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html The SCV is situated between major active faults of the San Andreas Fault system, including the San Andreas Fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast, and other faults inferred to lie beneath the alluvium of the SCV (CWDR, 1967; Bortugno et al., 1991). The importance of the SCV as a major industrial center, its large population, and its proximity to major earthquake faults are important considerations with respect to earthquake hazards and water-resource management. The fault-bounded alluvial aquifer system beneath the valley is the source of about one-third of the water supply for the metropolitan area (Hanson et al., 2004). To better address the earthquake hazards of the SCV, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential seismic sources, the effects of strong ground shaking, and stratigraphy associated with the regional aquifer system. As part of that program and to better understand water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began joint studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the SCV in the year 2000. Such features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local and regional earthquakes sources that may affect

  13. The impact of a prominent rain shadow on flooding in California's Santa Cruz Mountains: A CALJET case study and sensitivity to the ENSO cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F.M.; Neiman, P.J.; Kingsmill, D.E.; Persson, P.O.G.; White, A.B.; Strem, E.T.; Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the California Land-Falling Jets Experiment (CALJET) are used to explore the causes of variations in flood severity in adjacent coastal watersheds within the Santa Cruz Mountains on 2-3 February 1998. While Pescadero Creek (rural) experienced its flood of record, the adjacent San Lorenzo Creek (heavily populated), attained only its fourth-highest flow. This difference resulted from conditions present while the warm sector of the storm, with its associated low-level jet, high moisture content, and weak static stability, was overhead. Rainfall in the warm sector was dominated by orographic forcing. While the wind speed strongly modulated rain rates on windward slopes, the wind direction positioned the edge of a rain shadow cast by the Santa Lucia Mountains partially over the San Lorenzo basin, thus protecting the city of Santa Cruz from a more severe flood. Roughly 26% ?? 9% of the streamflow at flood peak on Pescadero Creek resulted from the warm-sector rainfall. Without this rainfall, the peak flow on Pescadero Creek would likely not have attained record status. These results are complemented by a climatological analysis based on ???50-yr-duration streamflow records for these and two other nearby windward watersheds situated ???20 to 40 km farther to the east, and a comparison of this climatological analysis with composites of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. The westernmost watersheds were found to have their greatest floods during El Nin??o winters, while the easternmost watersheds peaked during non-El Nin??o episodes. These results are consistent with the case study, that showed that the composite 925-mb, meridionally oriented wind direction during El Nin??os favors a rain shadow over the eastern watersheds. During non-El Nin??o periods, the composite, zonally oriented wind direction indicates that the sheltering effect of the rain shadow on the eastern watersheds is reduced, while weaker winds, less water vapor, and stronger stratification reduce the peak

  14. Metasomatic processes within the fertile lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Th.; Mundl, A.; Bjerg, E. A.; Tschegg, C.; Kosler, J.

    2009-04-01

    formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium P-T conditions cover a wide range from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar could be assumed as reasonable, indicating that these xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, in Santa Cruz province is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid-rich silicate melt of alkalibasaltic composition, presumably similar to this, which affected the Cerro Clark xenoliths north of Don Camilo locality. Don Camilo mantle xenoliths, like Tres Lagos, Cerro Redondo and Gobernador Gregores, does not show evidence for interaction of the lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with subduction related components.

  15. Digital Compilation of "Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in Santa Cruz County, California, By Cooper-Clark and Associates, 1975": A Digital Map Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report by Roberts, Sebastian; Barron, Andrew D.; Preface by Brabb, Earl E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale black-and-white map identifying some 2,000 landslides of various types in Santa Cruz County, California, has been converted to a digital-map database that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  16. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  17. Extensive sheep production in the Austral Patagonia: the case of Santa Cruz central zone Producción ovina extensiva en la Patagonia Austral: El caso de la zona centro de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the article is to analyze the central plateau of Santa Cruz in its socio-productive aspects. The main aim of the investigation, from which this work is a partial elaboration, is to establish: on the one hand, the viability of the traditional extensive ovine model in the region; on the other hand, the possibilities that the associative practices have to become the articulador axis of a productive relaunching. Here, we present a first socioeconomic and productive analysis in order to define the scene in which, at the moment, the extensive ovine production takes ahead. We include a description of the new actors who, nowadays, operate in the area of study, standing out among them, the transnational mining companies.El propósito del artículo consiste en analizar la meseta central de Santa Cruz en sus aspectos socioproductivos. El objetivo de la investigación, de la cual este trabajo es una elaboración parcial, se orienta a establecer la viabilidad del modelo vigente en la región -ovino extensivo-, así como las posibilidades de que las prácticas asociativas se constituyan en el eje articulador de un relanzamiento productivo. Aquí presentamos un primer análisis socioeconómico y productivo con la finalidad de definir el escenario en el que actualmente se lleva adelante la producción ovina extensiva. Incluimos una descripción de los nuevos actores que actualmente operan en el centro-norte de la provincia y, especialmente en nuestra área de estudio, destacándose entre ellos las empresas mineras transnacionales.

  18. Explorando la intensidad de uso de las materias primas líticas en Pali Aike (provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina Exploring the reduction intensity of lithic raw materials in Pali Aike (Santa Cruz province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Charlin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general del presente trabajo es evaluar la intensidad de uso a la que estuvieron sujetas las materias primas líticas utilizadas en la manufactura de artefactos en Pali Aike (sector meridional de la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. La muestra analizada comprende artefactos tallados de formatización unifacial y/o con rastros complementarios que fueron recuperados en diversas localidades del campo volcánico con ocupaciones asignadas al Holoceno tardío. Diversas variables son consideradas como indicadores de la intensidad de uso o grado de reducción de las rocas, tales como la longitud de los artefactos al momento del descarte, el grado de fragmentación de los mismos, el porcentaje de corteza que conservan, la cantidad de filos y/o puntas formatizados y/o con rastros complementarios por artefacto, el ángulo de desgaste y la reactivación de los filos y/o puntas. Los resultados obtenidos señalan la existencia de diferencias en la explotación y aprovechamiento de las materias primas líticas en algunas de estas variables, en tanto que otras no ofrecen un comportamiento diferencial o simplemente no resultan sensitivas a estos factores.The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the intensity of human utilization of lithic raw materials in Pali Aike (southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The sample includes artifacts unifacially retouched and/or with macroscopic edge-wear damage from different Late Holocene localities within Pali Aike. The variables considered include the length of the artifacts, fragmentation, amount of retouched and/or wear damaged edges and/or points by artifact, percentage of cortex, and resharpening. The results show that some variables point to differences in the intensity of exploitation of different raw materials, while others are not sensitive to this variation.

  19. Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Norman, Laura A.; Meixner, Thomas; Callegary, James B.

    2012-01-01

    In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, the main reach of the Santa Cruz watershed, located on the Arizona-Mexico border, is discontinuous for most of the year except during large flood events, and therefore the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Calibration is required at multiple locations along the Santa Cruz River to improve model reliability. The objective of this study was to best portray surface water flow in this semiarid watershed and evaluate the effect of multi-gage calibration on flow predictions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated at seven monitoring stations, which improved model performance and increased the reliability of flow, in the Santa Cruz watershed. The most sensitive parameters to affect flow were found to be curve number (CN2), soil evaporation and compensation coefficient (ESCO), threshold water depth in shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (GWQMN), base flow alpha factor (Alpha_Bf), and effective hydraulic conductivity of the soil layer (Ch_K2). In comparison, when the model was established with a single calibration at the watershed outlet, flow predictions at other monitoring gages were inaccurate. This study emphasizes the importance of multi-gage calibration to develop a reliable watershed model in arid and semiarid environments. The developed model, with further calibration of water quality parameters will be an integral part of the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online decision support tool, to assess the impacts of climate change and urban growth in the Santa Cruz watershed.

  20. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  1. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  2. Nearshore disposal of fine-grained sediment in a high-energy environment: Santa Cruz Harbor case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Tonnon, Pieter K.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Current regulations in California prohibit the disposal of more than 20% fine-grained sediment in the coastal zone; this threshold is currently being investigated to determine if this environmental regulation can be improved upon. A field monitoring and numerical modeling experiment took place late 2 009 to determine the fate of fine-grained dredge disposal material from Santa Cruz Harbor, California, U.S.A. A multi-nested, hydrodynamic-sediment transport modeling approach was used to simulate the direction and dispersal of the dredge plume. Result s show that the direction and dispersal of the plume was influenced by the wave  climate, a large proportion of which moved in a easterly direction during wave events. Therefore it is vitally important to accurately simulate the tides, waves, currents, temperature and salinity when modeling the dispersal of the fine-grained dredge plume. 

  3. Génesis de suelos en el valle del río de las Vueltas, provincia Santa Cruz, Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela C. Villegas; Fernando X. Pereyra; Jorge. A. Irisarri; José A. Ferrer; Adriana Viaggio

    2004-01-01

    Se han estudiado los factores de formación de los suelos "material originario" y "relieve", en un sector del oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Austral). El área de estudio se localiza en el valle del río de las Vueltas, entre la laguna del Desierto y el lago Viedma (49°S y 49°30'S y a los 73°O). Se ha observado una estrecha relación entre la variabilidad de los suelos y los fuertes gradientes bioclimáticos y geomorfológicos de la región. Los suelos fueron estudiados según una tra...

  4. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas.

  5. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date.

  6. Estudio comparativo de muestras arqueofaunísticas de guanaco (Lama guanicoe de la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lorena L'Heureux

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo plantea el análisis de los procesos naturales y culturales que intervinieron en la estructuración de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de dos sitios arqueológicos de tierras bajas (Alero del Bosque y El Sosiego 2 y uno de tierras altas (Piedra Quemada localizados en la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz, con el objetivo de evaluar el uso diferencial entre estas áreas. Se analizaron las modificaciones antrópicas predepositacionales y postdepositacionales de naturaleza no antrópica en las muestras de guanaco representadas. Se observó un predominio de especímenes correspondientes a la región del esqueleto apendicular y de individuos adultos (>2 años y una alta fragmentación del material, principalmente en el sitio Piedra Quemada. Los rangos de meteorización fueron amplios en las tres muestras, siendo la media obtenida en la muestra de Alero del Bosque significativamente menor a la de los otros sitios. Las modificaciones óseas postdepositacionales fueron relativamente poco significativas en los conjuntos de Piedra Quemada y Alero del Bosque en comparación con la muestra de El Sosiego 2. Las diferencias esperadas entre los sitios de tierras altas y los de tierras bajas respecto de los perfiles de edad y representatividad diferencial de partes esqueletarias no se verificaron, probablemente como resultado del alto grado de fragmentación de los conjuntos.The aim of this paper is to analyze the natural and cultural processes intervening in the formation of the archaeofaunal assemblages from three archaeological sites, located in very different settings in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin: 1 Alero del Bosque; 2 El Sosiego 2; and 3 Piedra Quemada. The analysis was focused on the post-depositional and anthropic modifications in samples of guanaco bones (Lama guanicoe. Elements from the apendicular skeleton of adult individuals (>2 years old dominated all the assemblages. Most of the bones were highly fractured, especially in the

  7. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1972-09-01 to 1972-11-05 (NODC Accession 7201439)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 01 September 1972 to 05 November 1972. Data were collected by the...

  8. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-06-22 to 1975-09-17 (NODC Accession 7500932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 22 June 1975 to 17 September 1975. Data were collected by Grace...

  9. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-03-08 to 1974-05-21 (NODC Accession 7400454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 08 March 1974 to 21 May 1974. Data were collected by Grace Prudential...

  10. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-05-27 to 1974-10-10 (NODC Accession 7400728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 27 May 1974 to 10 October 1974. Data were collected by Grace...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-05-17 to 1974-06-12 (NODC Accession 7400570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ from 17 May 1974 to 12 June 1974. Data were collected by Grace Prudential Lines as part of the...

  12. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-10-01 to 1974-11-28 (NODC Accession 7400823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ and other platforms from 01 October 1974 to 28 November 1974. Data were collected by the Delta...

  13. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1972-09-01 to 1972-10-09 (NODC Accession 7201316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SANTA CRUZ from 01 September 1972 to 09 October 1972. Data were collected by Grace Prudential Lines as...

  14. APORTES PALEOBOTÁNICOS EN LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE PALEODIETAS. ANÁLISIS DE COPROLITOS DEL CERRO CASA DE PIEDRA, SANTA CRUZ/Palaeobotany contributions in palaeodiets reconstruction. Coprolites analysis of Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Martínez Tosto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los coprolitos son heces fósiles deshidratadas o mineralizadas que contienen inclusiones orgánicas e inorgánicas. El estudio de las inclusiones de origen vegetal de los coprolitos permite conocer los ítems vegetales consumidos por los organismos e inferir la estacionalidad en el uso del sitio. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el contenido de polen y de microrrestos vegetales de un coprolito humano del sitio CCP7 relacionado a una capa arqueológica fechada en 8920±200 C14 (UGA 7383 años AP. El sitio CCP7 está ubicado en la provincia de Santa Cruz (Argentina en el ecotono bosque-estepa. Se realizaron los análisis polínicos y microhistológicos de los restos vegetales del coprolito. Se identificaron 13 tipos polínicos, tres de ellos pertenecientes a la vegetación del bosque y el resto a la estepa. Mediante el análisis microhistológico se identificaron las especies Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum y Gaultheria mucronata. El análisis simultáneo de la información extraída de los datos palinológicos y de los microhistológicos mostró coincidencias parciales entre el contenido de polen y de restos vegetales, permitiendo reconstruir la porción vegetal de la paleodieta e inferir la época del año en que el hombre que dio origen al coprolito estuvo ocupando el sitio CCP7.   Abstract Coprolites are dehydrated or mineralized fossil feces containing organic and inorganic inclusions. The study of plant inclusions of coprolites allows knowing the vegetable items consumed by organisms and inferring the seasonality in the use of the site. This work aims at studying pollen and plant remains from a human coprolite in the CCP7 site related to an archaeological layer dated from around 8920±200 14C (UGA 7383 years BP. CCP7 is located in the province of Santa Cruz (Argentina within the forest-steppe ecotone. Pollen and microhistological analyses of coprolite plant remains were conducted. Thirteen pollen types were identified: three

  15. Chagas' infection in university students of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. A serologic-electrocardiographic study Prevalecia de infección chagásica en universitarios de Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gianella

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to learn the prevalence of Chagas' infection among students from Santa Cruz de la Sierra's universities, a random sample of 372 new students was drawn. All participants have had electrocardiograms (EKG and serologic analysis (IHAT. 64/372 (17.2% had serologic evidence of Chagas' infection, and from those, 10/64 (15.6% had some EKG alterations. Among students presenting negative serologic test, 31/308 (10.1% had EKG alterations. There was no statistical association between Chagas' infection and EKG alterations (X2=1.67, p=0.2. There was a positive association between Chagas' infection and intraventricular conduction defects and this association was higher among the students of 19 years of age or less (O.R. 10.4, pDesde una población de 4600 nuevos estudiantes de la Universidad Estatal de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, se tomó una muestra aleatoria de 372 estudiantes a los que se les realizó un test de hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI para enfermedad de Chagas y un electrocardiograma (ECG convencional. El 17.2% (64/373 tenían el test HAI positivo y de estos el 16.5% (10/64 tenían algún trastorno electrocardiográfico. En el grupo con HAI negativa el 10% (31/308 presentó alguna anormalidad electrocardiográfica. No se observó asociación entre serología positiva para la enfermedad de Chagas y alteración del ECG en general (X2=1.67 p=0.2. Se observó una asociación positiva entre serología para Chagas y trastornos de conducción intraventricular (TCIV y ésta parece intensificarse entre los menores de 19 años con un odds ratio de 10.4 (p<0.05.

  16. Las trayectorias de vida de los jóvenes de Santa Cruz de Tenerife en tiempos de crisis: una aproximación cualitativa

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    Gomer Betancor Nuez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, producto de un proyecto financiado por la Fundación Cajacanariasy la Asociación Cultural TuSantaCruz, analiza las perspectivas juveniles acerca de la realidad social, política y económica que marcan las diferentes trayectorias de vida de la juventud que habita en Santa Cruz de Tenerife. El uso del concepto de joven que hacemos en este trabajo es más abierto de lo habitual, pues concebimos que la juventud es una categoría social atravesada por cuestiones como el origen social, el nivel de estudios y la clase social, por lo que no es un colectivo caracterizado únicamente por un aspecto biológico-generacional.  La metodología utilizada es de tipo cualitativa, concretamente  se ha empleado la técnica denominada grupos de discusión.

  17. Informes, artefactos y huesos públicos: Estudios de impacto ambiental sobre el recurso arqueológico en la provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Juan Bautista Belardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un listado de los EsIA realizados por este equipo de trabajo en la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los mismos involucran distintos tipos de obra: trazas lineales y canteras de explotación de áridos. Se busca dar a publicidad los archivos en los que pueden consultarse los informes y los organismos que resguardan las colecciones.Environmental Impact Assessments lists carried out by this group in Santa Cruz Province are presented. They involve different types of works: lineal traces and quarries. The aim of this report is to publicize the archives, the information and the institutions where the collections are stored and can be consulted.

  18. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  19. Población, territorio y clima como factores de la integración social. El caso de la provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Pamela Sosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo tiene como principal objetivo indagar y describir las características de la integración y diferenciación en la provincia Patagónica de Santa Cruz en dos etapas de desarrollo social de la misma. Antes y después del desembarco de las empresas estatales, el desarrollo minero y militar de la provincia a mediados del siglo XX y el proceso de provincialización e inauguración del sistema democrático formal en ese territorio en 1958. El trabajo sostiene centralmente que Santa Cruz presenta vínculos escasos con instituciones y grupos externos a la provincia y un déficit de integración social a su interior, con distintas intensidades en las diferentes etapas de desarrollo económico, político y social. ABSTRACT The article has as its main objective to investigate and describe the characteristics of the social integration and differentiation in the Patagonic province of Santa Cruz, in two stages of its development. Before and after the coming of the State enterprises, the mining and military development in the province mid-twentieth century, and the provincialization process and inauguration of the formal democratic system in 1958. This work mainly states that Santa Cruz holds scarce ties with institutions and groups external to the province and a social integration deficit within and among its inhabitants, with diverse intensity in the different stages of its economic, politic and social development.

  20. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  1. Pigment analysis from the Deseado Massif: the procurement of raw materials and the production of rock paintings in Cueva Maripe (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de DRX de pigmentos minerales provenientes del sector centro-norte del Macizo del Deseado (provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina). El material analizado comprende muestras recuperadas en diferentes niveles arqueológicos del sitio Cueva Maripe, pequeños fragmentos de pinturas rupestres ubicadas en distintos sectores de la misma cueva y ocres recolectados en afloramientos a escasa ( 50 km) distancia de este sitio...

  2. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  3. Produtividade e qualidade de tomates Santa Cruz e Italiano em função do raleio de frutos Yield and fruit quality of Santa Cruz and Italian tomatoes depending on fruit thinning

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    Fernando H Shirahige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo do tomateiro cultivado em ambiente protegido, com ênfase no raleio de frutos, pode contribuir de forma significativa para a produção de frutos de qualidade superior, expressando assim o potencial de cada cultivar. Foi avaliado o efeito do raleio de frutos na produtividade e seus componentes e em alguns atributos de qualidade de frutos de genótipos de tomateiro dos segmentos Santa Cruz e Italiano de crescimento indeterminado, visando ao consumo in natura. Avaliaram-se 12 genótipos de tomate de mesa (seis híbridos experimentais e seis cultivares e dois modos de condução (plantas conduzidas com e sem raleio de frutos. O experimento foi com parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições. As parcelas foram representadas pelos genótipos e as subparcelas pelos modos de condução. Avaliaram-se o número de frutos por planta, produtividade comercial de frutos, produtividade de frutos não-comercializáveis, massa média do fruto, comprimento e largura do fruto, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação entre SS e AT, teor de ácido ascórbico e teor de licopeno. O raleio dos frutos proporcionou incremento da produtividade comercial, massa média, comprimento e largura do fruto para os híbridos THX-02 e THX-03, do segmento Santa Cruz, e THX-04, THX-05 e Netuno, do segmento Italiano e não mostrou vantagens para a produção e seus componentes para os demais genótipos e características avaliadas. Considerando o raleio de frutos, os genótipos Giuliana e Sahel obtiveram maior produtividade comercial e massa média do fruto. Sem o raleio de frutos, 'Netuno' alcançou maior número de frutos por planta, porém, o híbrido Sahel foi quem se destacou por apresentar maior produtividade comercial e massa média do fruto. O raleio não influenciou a qualidade organoléptica dos genótipos avaliados. 'Avalon' apresentou maior teor de ácido ascórbico que 'Netuno' e

  4. Prevalence of notification of tuberculosis cases in family health strategies in Santa Cruz do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Mariana Almudi Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB, a communicable infectious disease, is a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide, integrating the National List of Compulsory Notification Diseases. Due to the high incidence observed, the city of Santa Cruz do Sul is one of the priority municipalities for disease notification control in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this context, the Family Health Strategies (FHS are important contributors to the notification process, as they are being increasingly used as points of access into the health system and disease control units. This study aims to establish the prevalence of notification of TB cases in FHS units in Santa Cruz do Sul. Methods: The present was an observational, cross-sectional study. Data from families registered in 11 FHS units in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul, related to the year 2013, were used. Results: The total number of reported cases was 17, all of which were aged 15 years or older. The files did not specify the gender of the reported individuals. The prevalence of tuberculosis in the total FHS units analyzed was 0.51/1,000 registered individuals. Conclusion: The high rate of TB cases in the municipality may be related to an increase in the quality of active search of patients, leading to a higher number of notifications by the FHS units. This high rate of notifications is relevant, as it discloses the importance of the FHS in the creation and adoption of preventive measures.

  5. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

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    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  6. Visiones regionales superpuestas y propuesta del Ecosistema Cultural para Santa Cruz de Mompox (Bolívar, Colombia

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    Ana María Osorio Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de Santa Cruz de Mompox (Departamento de Bolívar, Colombia cuyo centro históricofue declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO en 1995, da su nombre a la regiónconocida como Depresión Momposina, a veces confundida con la región de La Mojana ¿Esla Depresión Momposina la misma región de La Mojana? ¿Qué área comprende? Por una parte,se consultan varias fuentes y se identifican diferencias en la delimitación de la región (o regionesque llevan estos nombres y que varían según los actores que las delimiten y la finalidad perseguida.Por otra parte, se propone la aproximación territorial al Ecosistema Cultural Momposinobasada en una propuesta teórica y metodológica que articula las demandas del Centro Históricoal territorio -aquellas relacionadas a las expresiones culturales patrimoniales-, como aporte a lavaloración, protección y gestión patrimonial así como a la planificación regional. Este artículo seenmarca en la investigación Centro histórico y territorio: Ecosistema cultural momposino.

  7. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  8. EL DESARROLLO HUMANO EN SANTA CRUZ (BOLIVIA: DESEQUILIBRIOS TERRITORIALES Y EFECTO NEGATIVO DEL COMPONENTE ECONÓMICO

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    Edoardo Bazzaco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del Índice de Desarrollo Humano de los municipios del departamento de Santa Cruz permite destacar como característica central del proceso de desarrollo humano del departamento cruceño en los últimos veinticinco años su profunda vinculación a los progresos realizados por el conjunto de Bolivia y a los factores económicos que condicionaron esta evolución. En este sentido, el departamento reprodujo y amplificó no sólo el ciclo económico del país, sino también el perfil de desarrollo humano de Bolivia: el valor de su Índice de Desarrollo Humano muestra un fuerte desfase entre un indicador económico débil e indicadores sociales básicos - en las áreas de educación y salud - con valores más elevados. Los valores del IDH, los desequilibrios entre sus distintos componentes (entradas económicas, indicadores de educación y esperanza de vida al nacer, así como las correlaciones negativas rescontradas entre indicadores de pobreza y grado de urbanización municipal, ponen en evidencia importantes asimetrías internas en el departamento y permiten avanzar algunas conclusiones respecto a la sostenibilidad del proceso de desarrollo departamental cruceño.

  9. A new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra: Tardigrada) from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Alfredo A; Brandoni, Diego; Dal Molin, Carlos N

    2013-01-01

    Prepoplanops boleadorensis, a new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada), is described herein. The new taxon is based on a nearly complete specimen recovered from the Cerro Boleadoras Formation (Miocene, Rio Zeballos Group), in northwestern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The shape and length of the predentary region of the skull and the length of the diastema of Prepoplanops boleadorensis differ from those present in the species of Planops. The posterolateral opening of the mandibular canal and the position of the posterior margin of the mandibular symphysis differ from those of species of Prepotherium. In addition, Prepoplanops boleadorensis differs from Planops martini in the size of the humeral tuberosities, the development of the deltoid crest, the position of the distal margin of the humeral trochlea, the shape and position of the olecranon, the development of the femoral epicondyles, and the shape of the medial margins of the patellar trochlea and medial condyle. On the other hand, it differs from Prepotherium potens in the shape of the medial margin of the medial condyle. The recognition of Prepoplanops boleadorensis increases the diversity of Planopinae for the Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina.

  10. N:Si:P atomic ratio in the Santa Cruz Channel, Itamaracá-PE (Northeast Brazil: a nyctemeral variation

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    Montes Manuel de Jesús Flores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the Inlets of Orange and Catuama at the Santa Cruz Channel, Itamaracá-PE, in the rainy and dry seasons, in a nyctemeral cycle, and in a transversal profile, with intervals of three hours between collections. The objective was to determine the spacial and temporal variation of the N:Si:P atomic ratio, and its possible inter-relations and dependencies, as well as the influence of the hydrodynamism provoked by the variation of the tides at different times of the year. Nitrite-N and nitrate-N were higher in the rainy season, while ammonia-N, phosphate-P and silicate-Si were higher in the dry season, which indicated different results than previous studies. The N:P atomic ratio was lower than 16:1, in all seasons and stations, being highest in the rainy season at Inlet Orange. The Si:P atomic ratio was always high. During the observed nyctemeral cycles, the main factors influencing the composition of the physical, chemical and biological parameters were the tide cycles and the meteorological parameters.

  11. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  12. Prevalência de sintomas respiratórios e tabagismo em escolares de Santa Cruz do Sul - RS

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    Viviane Schmidt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is a major public health problem and also responsible for the development of various acute and chronic diseases. Objective: Estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and smoking habits among high school teenagers in Santa Cruz do Sul - RS. Methods: A cross sectional exploratory study with school teenagers who were randomized and responded to questionnaires of respiratory symptoms (Modified from the British Medical Research Council and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, an investigation smoking and Tolerance Questionnaire of Fagestrom. Results: 350 adolescents from 14 to 21 years with average age of 16.7 ± 5.6 years (56.6% female and 43.4% male were evaluated. The prevalence of smoking was 10.6% with no difference between sexes (p = 0.880. In smokers adolescents, the respiratory symptoms prevalence was higher than in nonsmokers on issues addressed in the cough (83.8%, sputum (54.1%, wheezing (45.9% (p = 0.000 and shortness of breath 43.2% (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the age group studied, there was high smoking prevalence as well as increased respiratory symptoms occurrence in adolescents who engage in smoking.

  13. Reproductive period of the swimming crab Callinectes danae at the Santa Cruz Channel, a highly productive tropical estuary in Brazil

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    Marina de Sá Leitão Câmara de Araújo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze reproductive aspects of Callinectes danae in one of the most productive estuarine systems in the Northeast Brazil, Santa Cruz Channel. A total of 1.573 individuals, being 756 females (23 ovigerous and 817 males were examined from January to December 2009. Mature males and females, as well as couples of C. danae, occurred in all months of the year. Ovigerous females occurred in nearly all months. The reproductive activity, based on the macroscopic observation of the gonads, occurs continuously, with distinguishable peaks in February, March and September. Ovigerous females were only recorded nearest to the sea, while couples were only in the inner estuary. Thus, a migration pattern is proposed, with couples mating inside the estuary, followed by a migration of females to the area of greater marine influence for egg laying and, probably, larval release. After this, probably the females of do not return to the estuary, characterizing habitat partitioning. The present study is the first contribution on the reproductive period of C. danae in an estuarine ecosystem of the Brazilian northeast coast, and elucidates some aspects of its reproductive behavior.

  14. Proceso de enfermería: ¿qué significa para las enfermeras de Santa Cruz (Bolivia?

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    José Granero-Molina

    Full Text Available Las enfermeras bolivianas no han incorporado definitivamente el método científico y las taxonomías a los cuidados. Este estudio cualitativo pretende comprender el significado atribuido al proceso de enfermería por docentes y profesionales del Departamento de Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia. Recolección de datos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y observación participante. Análisis bajo el marco teórico y metodológico del Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Teoría Fundamentada, usando el software ATLAS.ti.6.0. De los datos emergieron los siguientes temas: dificultades de implantación del proceso de enfermería; déficit de formación e iniciativa profesional; posición de dominio del médico; carencia de registros; escaso apoyo institucional. Ventajas de implementación: unificar criterios, lenguaje y facilitar el rol propio de enfermería. Se concluye en que las enfermeras depositan sus expectativas profesionales y de mejora de los cuidados en la implementación del Proceso de Enfermería y los Planes de Cuidados, un giro cultural que involucra a docentes, auxiliares y gestores.

  15. Climate Development in Southern Santa Cruz (Argentina) During the last 1600 Years Gained from Proxies of the Salsa-Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaebitz, F.; Wille, M.

    2004-12-01

    The DEKLIM project SALSA: "South Argentinean Lake Sediment Archives and Modelling" investigates lacustrine sediments with an integrated research strategy to understand quaternary ecosystem changes in space and time. SALSA studies are carried out in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field (PAVF; Santa Cruz province, southern Patagonia, Argentina). A few maar-like structures in the PAVF contain permanent lakes varying from 500 to 3700 m in diameter and exhibiting up to 100 m water depth. We will present results from short gravity cores of two different maars: Laguna Potrok Aike and Laguna Azul covering the last 1600-1300 years, respectively. An interpretation integrating the prominent sediment, isotopes and microfossil data from both lakes suggests the following climatic changes during the last 1.6 ka AD: Between the 5th and the 11th century relatively frequent moist/dry fluctuations were noticed. Between the 11th and the 20th century conditions were relatively moist except for a dry/warm period between the 13th and 15th century. The change from dry to moister conditions was dated to the 15th century. Since the middle of the 20th century climate is characterized by increasing drought.

  16. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  17. El represamiento y aluvión del río Santa Cruz, Andes Principales (31°40'S, provincia de San Juan Landslide dam and outburst of the Río Santa Cruz, Main Andes, (31°40'S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio E. D'odorico

    2009-12-01

    , capaces de causar daños materiales a las poblaciones que se localizan aguas abajo. El aluvión del 12 de noviembre de 2005, descargó 32.100.000 m³ en 67 minutos y recorrió 254 km en aproximadamente 12 horas.In the region of the Main Andes of San Juan, exists a high concentration of landslide deposits that can originate natural dams. The outburst of these dams generated by slide is a common process in this morphology. The analyses of satellite imagery and air photos of previous years allow reconstructing the characteristics and the origin of the slides that formed those natural dams. In this region of the Main Andes, the rapid uplift and erosion of the mountain chain has created abrupt slopes and an internal structure in the materials that determined an increase of the susceptibility to the slope collapse without triggers as the seismic activity or precipitations. The objectives of the present work are (1 to analyze the causes that formed the natural dam and produced the landslide dam and development of the Los Erizos lagoon in the middle course of the Santa Cruz river; (2 the outburst of the dam and their consequent flood; and (3 the morphologic characteristic of the study region. The temporary comparison between air photos with satellite imageries indicates that the natural dam was generated by slip of the western hillside of the Santa Cruz mountain range, located below the Cerro Estrella. However, the constant water flow to the lagoon, has increased its water level until reaching the maximum benchmark of the dam, produced the beginning of the lake drainage and weakening of the dam causing the outburst and its consequent flood. Based on satellite imagery, a temporary analysis of the lagoon is presented, indicating that monitoring is an important tool to alert in the whole San Juan river basin for possible natural dikes, preventing hazards to the populations down water. The alluvium of November 12 of 2005, discharged 32.100.000 m³ in 67 minutes and traveled 254 km in

  18. Estratigrafía volcánica del yacimiento argentífero Mina Martha, Macizo del Deseado, provincia de Santa Cruz Volcanostratigraphy of the Martha Mine silver bearing deposit, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Páez Gerardo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento Mina Martha está ubicado en la parte sudoccidental del macizo del Deseado y corresponde a un depósito epitermal argentífero que se encuentra en explotación desde el año 2001. Se encuentra localizado próximo a la localidad de Gobernador Gregores, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. En el área se han reconocido dos unidades geológicas: el Grupo Bahía Laura (J y la Formación Monte León (Tc. Los trabajos realizados permitieron obtener un ordenamiento estratigráfico que hace posible diferenciar, de base a techo, nueve unidades volcánicas para el Jurásico. La estratigrafía volcánica del yacimiento Mina Martha se caracteriza por un ambiente piroclástico episódico dominado por ignimbritas cristaloclásticas soldadas, con pausas y generación de depósitos piroclásticos retrabajados asociados. Este ambiente fue interrumpido por un evento volcánico puntual y de características únicas para el distrito. Este evento altamente explosivo produjo la formación de una caldera y fue acompañado por la depositación de las ignimbritas litoclásticas soldadas. El volcanismo tuvo su origen como consecuencia de la mezcla (mingling de dos magmas de composiciones contrastantes, un magma andesítico comparable a las rocas de la Formación Bajo Pobre, y un magma ácido similar a las rocas de la Formación Chon Aike. Esta mezcla produjo una erupción con la energía necesaria para arrancar grandes fragmentos del basamento metamórfico no aflorante de la región, y le otorgó a estas ignimbritas una característica única para el distrito, la de contener dos tipos de fragmentos pumíceos de composiciones y texturas diferentes. La coexistencia en una misma ignimbrita de dos tipos composicionalmente diferentes de fragmentos pumíceos, comparables con las Formaciones Chon Aike y Bajo Pobre, replantea el esquema estratigráfico tradicional reconocido para el macizo del Deseado donde las rocas de la Formación Bajo Pobre se depositaron con

  19. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  20. Biomarkers in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals with varying severity of cardiomyopathy in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuk, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Marks, Morgan A; Gandarilla, Omar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Vasquez-Villar, Angel; Choi, Jeong; Crawford, Thomas C; Do, Rose Q; Q, Rose; Fernandez, Antonio B; Colanzi, Rony; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2014-10-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of persons with Trypanosoma cruzi infection eventually develop cardiomyopathy. If an early indicator were to be identified and validated in longitudinal studies, this could enable treatment to be prioritized for those at highest risk. We evaluated cardiac and extracellular matrix remodeling markers across cardiac stages in T. cruzi infected (Tc+) and uninfected (Tc-) individuals. Participants were recruited in a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia and assigned cardiac severity stages by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. BNP, NTproBNP, CKMB, troponin I, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TGFb1, and TGFb2 were measured in specimens from 265 individuals using multiplex bead systems. Biomarker levels were compared between Tc+ and Tc- groups, and across cardiac stages. Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created; for markers with area under curve>0.60, logistic regression was performed. Analyses stratified by cardiac stage showed no significant differences in biomarker levels by Tc infection status. Among Tc+ individuals, those with cardiac insufficiency had higher levels of BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 than those with normal ejection fraction and left ventricular diameter. No individual marker distinguished between the two earliest Tc+ stages, but in ROC-based analyses, MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio was significantly higher in those with than those without ECG abnormalities. BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels rose with increasing severity stage but did not distinguish between Chagas cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies. Among Tc+ individuals without cardiac insufficiency, only the MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio differed between those with and without ECG changes.

  1. Diagnosis of the quality of water supplied to the locality of Santa Cruz, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    Dayana R. C. Vilaça

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic sanitation comprises several services that are essential to the maintenance of people's health and well-being. The populations that have an appropriate water supply, sewage collection and treatment, proper garbage disposal, among other services, are protected from diseases and have access to a minimum comfort to live in a safe way. In spite of the importance of these services, to the extent to be characterized as “basic”, several populations, national or worldwide, suffer for the lack or the complete privation of sanitation, live without access to quality water, their waste is thrown under open air and their garbage is disposed in inappropriate sites, what causes health and environmental impacts. This work is being accomplished in a community called Santa Cruz, located in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, and aims to carry out a survey about the local sanitary reality, especially about the quality of the water supplied to the population. 100 inhabitants of that community were interviewed and answered a questionnaire. Among the results, 22% of the interviewees consume the water that comes to their homes without any type of treatment, 47% consider the supply water as being of poor quality and 7% don't own home water tanks. After the interviews, bacteriological and physicochemical water analyses were performed in fifteen samples collected in the community. The test results indicated that the collected water was out of the drinking water standards, and therefore, inappropriate for human consumption.

  2. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  3. Submarine-fan facies associations of the Eocene Butano Sandstone, Santa Cruz mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1984-06-01

    The Eocene Butano Sandstone was deposited as a submarine fan in a relatively small, partly restricted basin in a borderland setting. It is possibly as thick as 3000 m and was derived from erosion of nearly Mesozoic granitic and older metamorphic rocks located to the south. Deposition was at lower bathyal to abyssal water depths. The original fan may have been 120-to 160-km long and 80-km wide. Outcrops of submarine-canyon, innerfan, middle-fan, and outer-fan facies associations indicate that the depositional model of Mutti and Ricci Lucchi can be used to describe the Butano Sandstone.

  4. A micromorphological evaluation of pedogenesis on Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Estudio micromorfológico de la edafogénesis en la Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Avaliação micromorfológica da génese de solos da Ilha de Santa Cruz (Galápagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Stoops

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin sections of about 200 horizons or layers, representing 60 soil profiles in the coastal area and on the windward slopes of Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Islands were analysed. Based on the fabric and the composition of the groundmass and the presence of pedofeatures in individual layers or horizons, clusters of similar material are made and 7 units and 3 subunits distinguished. Plotting these units on a survey map gives a good insight in the spatial distribution of soil materials, expressing different combinations of parent material and precipitation. In the coastal area and the lowest slopes, with a summer dry climate, respectively reddish and greyish and brown materials with a porphyric c/f related distribution pattern and striated b-fabrics, and often with fragmented illuvial clay coatings are observed. The coarse material contains mainly holocrystalline basalt fragments, unweathered in the coastal area, or basalt derived individual minerals. The micromass has a halloysitic-smectitic composition. On the higher slopes, with a permanent moist climate, materials have also a porphyric or fine monic c/f related distribution pattern, but the b-fabric is undifferentiated and no illuvial features are present, gibbsitic features sometimes occur and the micromass consists mainly of halloysite and gibbsite. Subunits are distinguished here according to the microstructure, and the quantity and type of coarse material. Mesocrystalline basalt, often vesicular, dominates over holocrystalline, pointing to the influence of scoria. Soils on the higher slopes are more strongly weathered than those on the drier lower slopes and the coastal area. In depressions in the higher areas, materials with a yellowish or brownish grey micromass with a striated b-fabric, and well developed limpid illuvial clay coatings and impregnative iron oxide nodules occur. The micromass has a halloysite-smectite composition. Contrary to existing hypotheses the reddish soils in the

  5. «Todos somos iguales». La Revolución de la Igualdad en Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 1876-1877

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    Schelchkov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Equality Revolution in Santa Cruz (1876-1877, also known as the equality movement, was a conflict between the pairing of the common urban class and local elites who defended a development formula that championed a modern age that balanced the social values of the traditional and patriarchal society, and other local elites who benefited from the boom of free-market capitalism. The political actions of the egalitarians was influenced by the ideology of romantic socialism in its different stages and combined legal formulas with pressure from peasant militia and civil uprisings. The disruption between the project defending a selfmanaged local way of life and local/state modernization priorities led to a state of repression rarely seen in XIX century Santa Cruz society.La Revolución de Igualdad en Santa Cruz (1876-1877 o movimiento igualitario fue un conflicto entre el binomio formado por las capas plebeyas urbanas y las elites locales, defensoras de la fórmula del desarrollo que abogaba por una modernidad en equilibrio con los valores sociales de la sociedad patriarcal y tradicional, y otras elites locales, beneficiarias del auge del capitalismo de libre cambio. La actuación política de los igualitarios estuvo influenciada por las ideas del socialismo romántico en todas sus etapas y combinó formas legales con presión armada montonera y sublevación popular. El desajuste entre este proyecto de defensa de un autogestionado modo de vida local y las prioridades locales/estatales de modernización provocó una represión del mismo pocas veces vista en la sociedad cruceña en el siglo XIX.

  6. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153 Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevistados, 82,75% pertenceram à Classe Insecta, as demais citações foram pertencentes ao Reino Fungi e a outras Classes do Reino Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia e Reptilia. Os “insetos” foram definidos, como bichos pequenos, nojentos ou perigosos. Em contato com os “insetos”, 76% dos entrevistados admitiram matá-los e a maior razão para tal reação foi o dano psicológico causado pela presença destes animais (65%. Para 78% dos entrevistados, os “insetos” foram seres sem importância positiva. Devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre os seus aspectos positivos, a percepção dos “insetos” por alunos e professores residentes da região de Santa Cruz do Xingu está relacionada, principalmente, à atribuição de qualidades negativas a estes animais, provocando reações de agressividade contra os “insetos” assim que percebidos no ambiente.

  7. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley Charles Darwin y las glaciacionesmás antiguas de Patagonia: los bloques erráticos del alto valle del Río Santa Cruz

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    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.No obstante haber sidoreinterpretado el ambiente depositacional asignado por Darwin a los grandesbloques erráticos y rodados del valle del río Santa Cruz, siguen vigentes susobservaciones geomorfológicas y estratigráficas. Los grandes bloques erráticosque describe coronando la terraza de Condor Cliff y dispersos en el fondo delvalle inmediatamente al este de esta localidad (Sitios 2 y 3, soninterpretados ahora como indicadores de la máxima expansión glaciaria de la Patagonia. Bloques similares, aunque de dispar litología, acumulados sobre una terraza másbaja situada río arriba (Sitio 4, se vinculan actualmente a morenas y terrazasglacifluviales de la Penúltima Glaciación. Finalmente, al bloque erráticodescubierto por Darwin en el tramo inferior del valle del río Santa Cruz (Sitio1, se le suman otros -de reciente descubrimiento- que probablemente den cuentade un evento catastrófico atribuible al vaciamiento de un gran lago glaciardurante el último interglaciar.

  8. Notificações de acidentes de trabalho com material biológico: um estudo no município de Santa Cruz do Sul / RS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Trabalhadores da área da saúde estão constantemente expostos ao risco de acidentes ocupacionais envolvendo material biológico. Dessa forma o objetivo do estudo foi elaborar um perfil dos trabalhadores acometidos por acidentes de trabalho com material biológico no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, através do número de notificaçõesrealizadas nos sistemas de informação. Metodologia: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo e de abordagem quantitativa, comcoleta de dados dos anos de 2008 a 2010, em prontu...

  9. El templo de la Santa Cruz de Enrique de la Mora y Félix Candela en San Luis Potosí

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Rubio, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    La arquitectura para el culto religioso tiene una aportación de Enrique de la Mora y Félix Candela a San Luis Potosí, que inició en los años sesenta, cuando los promotores del Fraccionamiento Industrial Aviación –fuera de los límites de la mancha urbana de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí– encargaron un proyecto dedicado a la Santa Cruz a ambos arquitectos. El diseño estructural y el arquitectónico de este templo se conjugaron para producir una obra arquitectónica original de calidad, con nuevas ...

  10. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón Botella, Herminia; Afonso Vargas, José A; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Leles, Daniela; González Reimers, Emilio; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4) were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344) were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  11. Investigación económica y laboral del mercado turístico de la provincia de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Soledad Villanueva; Daniel Alberto Schinelli

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación se propone realizar un diagnóstico actualizado sobre diversos sectores productivos en la dinámica socio-económica de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Particularmente el turismo se presenta como una actividad emergente y de gran importancia en la economía provincial. Sin embargo se advierte la inexistencia de información actualizada y sistematizada que englobe el funcionamiento del sector turístico, su relevancia económica y laboral, como también estudios de zonificac...

  12. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Gijón Botella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4 were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344 were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  13. REGIONAL DYNAMICS ORGANIZATION OF URBAN LABOR MARKETS: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE LABOR MARKETS IN THE TOWNS OF MICRO-REGION OF SANTA CRUZ DO SUL (RS

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    Marco Andre Cadoná

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how regional development dynamics affect the organization of labor markets, but also the working conditions of people living labor. Taking as empirical reference research conducted in towns of micro-region of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS, whose economy is heavily dependent on tobacco agro-industrial production, attentive to how regional particularities contribute to defining the forms of employability and the use of force-of-work, but also and even the forms of unemployment. Keywords: Regional dynamics. Labor market. Employment. Unemployment. Working conditions.

  14. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of International policy or urban development requires consideration of the impacts of these decisions on Ecosystem Services, or the values that humans receive from the ecosystem, including market-land price, environmental, and human well-being values. Hedonic modeling helps to identify the market land price, considering the price is determined by multiple factors affecting it. In U.S. portions of the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed (SCW), situated at the Arizona-Sonora International border, natural amenities like the riparian corridor and green space have been documented as positive amenities that boost local real estate.

  15. Integrated hydrologic model of Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Faunt, Claudia C.; Lear, Jonathan; Lockwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population, agricultural development (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available groundwater resources in the Pajaro Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This study provided a refined conceptual model, geohydrologic framework, and integrated hydrologic model of the Pajaro Valley. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that are being considered in the revision and updates to the Basin Management Plan (BMP). The Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) was designed to reproduce the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system and related climatic factors, permitting an accurate assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform the new BMP and help to improve planning for long-term sustainability of water resources. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, reevaluation of the previous model transformed into MODFLOW, implementation of the new geohydrologic model and conceptual model, and calibration of the transient hydrologic model.

  16. Ocurrencia de materiales piroclásticos en suelos de tres sectores del oeste de Santa Cruz

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    Daniela D. Villegas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las características de los materiales originarios de origen cinerítico, su variabilidad espacial, participación relativa e influencia en la génesis de los suelos en tres sectores del centro oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los mismos se hallan localizados en El Chaltén, en la Bahía Túnel del Lago Viedma y en la península Maipú del Lago San Martín (49°00'-49°36'S y 73°30'-72°00'W. Los suelos presentes en la región pertenecen a los Órdenes Andisol, Aridisol, Entisol, Espodosol, Histosol, Inceptisol y Molisol. La participación de materiales de origen piroclástico constituye un rasgo común en todos los suelos reconocidos. Estos materiales están intercalados o mezclados con sedimentos arenosos de orígen fluvial, glacifluvial, glacilacustre o eólico. Debido a la alta morfodinámica de la región, la variabilidad de los materiales originarios es un aspecto característico de la misma. Se han estudiado cinco niveles de cineritas en suelos entre los 20 y 150 cm de profundidad. Las cenizas estudiadas tienen composición mesosilícea y ácida (traquiandesítica, andesítica, traquidacítica y riolítica. En la fracción arena fina y muy fina (74 a 125 m observada al microscopio óptico predominan de fragmentos líticos volcánicos, a los que le siguen en importancia las plagioclasas y en proporción mucho menor el vidrio volcánico. Se reconoce una similitud entre la composición química de las tefras analizadas con datos preexistentes correspondientes a los volcanes chilenos Lautaro, Hudson y Monte Burney.

  17. Sepse neonatal na unidade de terapia intensiva neopediátrica do hospital Santa Cruz: Rio Grande do Sul

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    Kéli Oliveira Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As Infecções Hospitalares (IH representam grave problema assistencial à saúde, devido a elevada incidência, letalidade significativa, aumento do tempo de internação e alto consumo de medicamentos. A identificação das vias de transmissão e dos microrganismos causadores, é fundamental para esta prevenção. Assim, realizou-se um estudo de caráter transversal prospectivo de natureza clínica, realizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neopediátrica (UTI-NEO do Hospital Santa Cruz/RS, com intuito de caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes recém-nascidos (RNs internados neste setor com diagnóstico de sepse, de abril a julho de 2010, identificando condutas adotadas pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao diagnóstico desta patologia. Métodos: foram incluídos no estudo RNs internados no setor de UTI-NEO, com idade inferior ou igual a 28 dias de vida e quenão tenham recebido alta hospitalar desde o momento de sua internação; com patologia infecciosa relacionada a hospitalizaçãoe notificado pela Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH. Resultados: Durante o período de coleta, encontrou-se 48pacientes internados no setor, onde 13 (27,08% pacientes foram notificados pela CCIH da instituição com suspeita de IH. Destes13 pacientes, 7 (53,85% RNs foram diagnosticados com sepse neonatal precoce e 6 (46,15% pacientes com sepse neonatal tardia.A frequência relativa entre hemocultura positiva e coletada nos casos de sepses presumidas representou a taxa de 25% de sucesso.Conclusões: Espera-se que o estudo gere reflexões quanto à temática, incentivando parcerias entre a CCIH e equipe de saúde,objetivando-se melhorias do sistema de informação, advogando para uma recuperação mais rápida e completa do paciente.

  18. Living in an estuary: Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804, habitat use and behavioural pattern at the Santa Cruz River, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Loizaga de Castro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, suffer bycatch in fisheries and are target of dolphin-watching activities along Patagonia. Here we described dolphins' habitat use and behavioural pattern at the estuary of Santa Cruz River. Behavioural observations were made from vantage points using a spotting scope. Boat surveys were conducted randomly from Puerto Santa Cruz to the mouth of the river to analyze the habitat use. The survey area was divided into 1 km² cells and characterized with depth and benthic slope. The described behaviours for the Commerson's dolphin were: travelling, slow travelling, milling, resting, socializing, stationary swimming and diving. A new behavioural context was assigned to diving, a behaviour that showed a high frequency during downing tide, suggesting a benthic foraging strategy. Additionally, we found a strong influence of the tide on Commerson's dolphin behaviour. Habitat use models indicated that dolphins prefer shallow water inside the estuary. The knowledge of the behavioural patterns and the habitat use of these endemic species, in this unexplored area, provide tools for management and conservation purposes.

  19. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  20. Effects of environmental amenities and locational disamenities on home values in the Santa Cruz watershed: a hedonic analysis using census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav; Frisvold, George; Norman, Laura

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we used the hedonic pricing method to measure the effects of natural amenities on home prices in the U.S-side of the Santa Cruz Watershed. We employed multivariate spatial regression techniques to estimate how difference factors affect median home values in 613 census block groups of the 2000 Census, accounting for spatial autocorrelation, spatial lags, and/or spatial heterogeneity in the data. Diagnostic tests suggest that failure to account for the hedonic model can be classified as (1) physical features of the housing stock, (2) neighborhood characteristics, and (3) environmental attributes. Census data was combined with GIS data for vegetation and land cover, land administration, measures of species richness and open space, and proximity to amenities and disamenities. Census block groups close to the US-Mexico border of airports/air bases were negative. Results suggest that policies to maintain biodiversity and open space provide economic benefits to homeowners, reflected in higher home values. Future research will quantify the marginal effects of regression explanatory variables on home values to assess their economic and policy significant. These marginal effects will be used as input indicators to discern potential economic impacts of various scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). Future research will also expand this effort into the Mexican-portion of the watershed.

  1. Trace element concentrations in Raillietina micracantha in comparison to its definitive host, the feral pigeon Columba livia in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carles

    2010-01-01

    The use of systems involving bird parasites as bioindicators of environmental pollution has been scarcely studied in comparison to other models involving fish and rodent parasites, which have been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their bioaccumulation capacities. The present study evaluated the accumulation of nine trace elements in the cestode Raillietina micracantha and in its host Columba livia collected from the densely populated city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Samples (kidney, liver, pectoral muscle, feathers, and R. micracantha) of 27 infected C. livia were selected for trace element analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Element levels in pigeon tissues revealed some degree of pollution in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, particularly by Pb and Zn. Pb and Mn mean concentrations were higher in R. micracantha than in the pigeon's soft tissues, with subsequent high bioaccumulation factors for Pb (kidney = 15.38, liver = 10.38, muscle = 79.83) and Mn (kidney = 6.81, liver = 7.52, muscle = 19.89, feathers = 6.11), among others. The negative relations detected for As concentrations between liver and R. micracantha emphasize a possible role of the cestode in As detoxification in host tissues. Considering the obtained bioaccumulation factors, the system R. micracantha/C. livia is proposed as another promising bioindicator system to evaluate environmental toxic element exposure, particularly Pb and Mn, in areas where pollution levels are still relatively low and where both common species are present.

  2. Territorio y ganadería en la Patagonia Argentina: desertificación y rentabilidad en la Meseta Central de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa brevemente las características que asume el proceso de desertificación en la Patagonia Austral, con énfasis en la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Se hacen referencias a la ocupación del territorio santacruceño por el ganado ovino, a fines del siglo XIX y con más intensidad a principios del siglo XX, y el impacto que ello conllevó, especialmente el desencadenamiento de un proceso erosivo (desertificación, producido básicamente por el pastoreo constante (sobrepastoreo del pastizal natural. También se encuentran referencias al sector ganadero y su participación en el producto bruto geográfico (PBG de Santa Cruz y, hacia el final, un análisis comparativo de la cantidad de animales que el productor estima que puede sostener en su campo y la cantidad que el Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, con base en relevamientos de pastizal, calcula que podría mantener.

  3. Paleodietas humanas en el sur del Golfo San Jorge (provincia de Santa Cruz a partir del análisis de isótopos estables

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    Zilio, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan datos cronológicos y de isótopos estables de δ15N y δ13C de colágeno y apatita de restos óseos humanos provenientes del sector santacruceño del golfo San Jorge. El objetivo es explorar la importancia relativa del consumo de recursos marinos y terrestres durante el Holoceno tardío en la dieta de las poblaciones cazadoras-recolectoras. Los resultados se discuten en el marco de las investigaciones previas realizadas en el sector meridional de la costa norte de Santa Cruz, entre la ría Deseado y la localidad Bahía Laura. En concordancia con lo esperado, los datos isotópicos obtenidos corresponden al rango de valores disponibles para el área señalando dietas fundamentalmente mixtas a lo largo del Holoceno tardío. En el marco de esta investigación, se caracterizó demográfica y morfológicamente a la colección bioantropológica del Museo del Hombre y su Entorno de la ciudad de Caleta Olivia, Santa Cruz, contribuyendo al proceso de puesta en valor y acondicionamiento de las colecciones depositadas en instituciones locales.

  4. LA ACTIVIDAD TURÍSTICA EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA CRUZ Y SU IMPRONTA EN EL ESPACIO. EL CASO DE EL CALAFATE Y EL CHALTÉN

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    Mónica Viviana Norambuena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda las transformaciones espaciales sufridas en los asentamientos humanos del área cordillerana de la provincia de Santa Cruz producto de la actividad turística particularmente en los del departamento Lago Argentino. El Chaltén y El Calafate son los asentamientos que desarrollan el turismo como base de su economía. El incremento de la actividad se debe a los cambios en el sistema productivo provincial en las últimas décadas, netamente ganadero en El Calafate a principios y mediados del siglo XX. Asimismo, las razones geopolíticas que dieron origen a El Chaltén, hoy han pasado a ser parte de su historia, ya que el turismo es la principal actividad que desarrolla el asentamiento. Esta actividad en la provincia se ha incrementado a partir de la década del 1990 impulsada por los Estados nacional, provincial y municipal que llevan adelante políticas de promoción en el sector. Por otra parte, en estos asentamientos, el auge turístico trae aparejado consecuencias sociales y ambientales dado el crecimiento acelerado de los mismos en cuanto a la población que se radica, la falta de infraestructura básica y equipamiento son los principales sin dejar de mencionar la especulación inmobiliaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las transformaciones espaciales en los asentamientos del oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz particularmente los del departamento Lago Argentino a partir del incremento de la actividad turística en el área en las últimas décadas. Teóricamente, se recurrió a Roberto C. Boullón en Planificación del espacio turístico, a diferentes apuntes de Eduardo Salinas Chávez, y a Leslie Scovenna en el Gran Libro de Santa Cruz entre otras. Se utilizaron diversas páginas en Internet información proporcionada por la Subsecretaria de Turismo de la Provincia de Santa Cruz. Para el análisis de las transformaciones se realizo una caracterización del emplazamiento de los asentamientos en cuesti

  5. El deslizamiento de rocas y detritos sobre elrío Santa Cruz y el aluvión resultante por el colapso del dique natural, AndesCentrales de San Juan Rock-debris landslide on Santa Cruz river andresulting flash flood by collapse of the natural dam, Central Andes of SanJuan

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    Laura Perucca

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante el verano de 2005 un gran deslizamiento derocas y detritos ubicado en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de Santa Cruzobturó el valle del río Santa Cruz, en el sudeste de la provincia de San Juan(31º40'12''S; 70º16'18''O. Este deslizamiento originó una presa natural en laquebrada del río y formó un lago de volumen considerable. El 12 de noviembre de2005, probablemente por la enorme presión generada por la masa de agua contrala presa, se produjo el colapso parcial del dique natural, originándose uninesperado aluvión que provocó numerosas pérdidas económicas en las principaleslocalidades del departamento Calingasta y daños considerables en uno de losproyectos más relevantes de la provincia de San Juan, el dique Caracoles sobreel río San Juan. Debido a los costos elevados que implicaría la toma de medidasde mitigación en esta zona montañosa alejada y casi inaccesible, lasprincipales medidas que se pueden tomar se refieren a sistemas de alertatemprana de aluviones agua abajo, el monitoreo hidrológico en la presa y un seguimientosatelital anual para conocer la evolución del deslizamiento.During summer of 2005, a large debris-rockslide occluded the Santa Cruz river valley, from the west slope of theCordillera de Santa Cruz in southeast of San Juan province (S31º40'12'';W70º16'18''. The landslide originated a natural dam in Santa Cruz river andformed a lake of considerable volume. The 12th of November of 2005, probably byeffect of the pressure generated by the same mass of water against the dam, thepartial collapse of this natural dam took place, causing a violent andunexpected flash flood and generating several economic losses in the mainlocalities of Calingasta department and considerable damages in one of the mostrelevant projects of the San Juan province, Caracoles dam, developed in the SanJuan river. Because of the high costs of taking physical remediation measuresto the natural dam in this very farest and almost

  6. The Santa Barbara Basin is a symbiosis oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, J M; Buck, K R; Farmer, M A; Bowser, S S

    2000-01-06

    It is generally agreed that the origin and initial diversification of Eucarya occurred in the late Archaean or Proterozoic Eons when atmospheric oxygen levels were low and the risk of DNA damage due to ultraviolet radiation was high. Because deep water provides refuge against ultraviolet radiation and early eukaryotes may have been aerotolerant anaerobes, deep-water dysoxic environments are likely settings for primeval eukaryotic diversification. Fossil evidence shows that deep-sea microbial mats, possibly of sulphur bacteria similar to Beggiatoa, existed during that time. Here we report on the eukaryotic community of a modern analogue, the Santa Barbara Basin (California, USA). The Beggiatoa mats of these severely dysoxic and sulphidic sediments support a surprisingly abundant protistan and metazoan meiofaunal community, most members of which harbour prokaryotic symbionts. Many of these taxa are new to science, and both microaerophilic and anaerobic taxa appear to be represented. Compared with nearby aerated sites, the Santa Barbara Basin is a 'symbiosis oasis' offering a new source of organisms for testing symbiosis hypotheses of eukaryogenesis.

  7. Palinología y paleoambientes en el perfil de Bajo Comisión (Cretácico, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina Palynology and paleoenvironments of the Bajo Comisión section, Cretaceous of Santa Cruz province, Argentina

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    Sergio Archangelsky

    2012-06-01

    marine sector in the lower half of the profile. Pteridophytes (abundant Anemiaceae and gymnosperms (mainly Classopollis dominate throughout the column, while angiosperms are represented by scarce and moderately varied primitive types. The environment was dominated by deltaic sedimentation (prodelta-deltaic front-subaqueous plains with a moderate marine influence in the lower part of the column, becoming typically continental (sub-aerial- fluvial at the upper half of the section. The stratigraphic distribution of 80 selected species shows a gradual and constant change in the composition of the palynological assemblage. Two main biostratigraphic units are characterized by first and last appearences of several taxa. Further subdivisions that may have biostratigraphic significance are also suggested. Finally, comparisons with other palynofloras of the Austral Basin in Santa Cruz province, are made.

  8. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the coastal Monte Léon and Santa Cruz formations (Early Miocene) at Rincón del Buque, Southern Patagonia: A revisited locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.; Krapovickas, Verónica; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Zapata, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentological, ichnological and paleontological analyses of the Early Miocene uppermost Monte León Formation and the lower part of the Santa Cruz Formation were carried out in Rincón del Buque (RDB), a fossiliferous locality north of Río Coyle in Santa Cruz Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is of special importance because it contains the basal contact between the Monte Léon (MLF) and the Santa Cruz (SCF) formations and because it preserves a rich fossil assemblage of marine invertebrates and marine trace fossils, and terrestrial vertebrates and plants, which has not been extensively studied. A ˜90 m-thick section of the MLF and the SCF that crops out at RDB was selected for this study. Eleven facies associations (FA) are described, which are, from base to top: subtidal-intertidal deposits with Crassotrea orbignyi and bioturbation of the Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies (FA1); tidal creek deposits with terrestrial fossil mammals and Ophiomorpha isp. burrows (FA2); tidal flat deposits with Glossifungites ichnofacies (FA3); deposits of tidal channels (FA4) and tidal sand flats (FA5) both with and impoverish Skolithos ichnofacies associated; marsh deposits (FA6); tidal point bar deposits recording a depauperate mixture of both the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies (FA7); fluvial channel deposits (FA8); fluvial point bar deposits (FA9); floodplain deposits (FA10); and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits of the floodplain where terrestrial fossil mammal remains occur (FA11). The transition of the MLF-SCF at RDB reflects a changing depositional environment from the outer part of an estuary (FA1) through the central (FA2-6) to inner part of a tide-dominated estuary (FA7). Finally a fluvial system occurs with single channels of relatively low energy and low sinuosity enclosed by a broad, low-energy floodplain dominated by partially edaphized ash-fall, sheet-flood, and overbank deposits (FA8-11). Pyroclastic and volcaniclastic materials throughout the

  9. Paleoseismic investigations in the Santa Cruz mountains, California: Implications for recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Pantosti, D.; Okumura, K.; Powers, T. J.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1998-08-01

    Trenching, microgeomorphic mapping, and tree ring analysis provide information on timing of paleoearthquakes and behavior of the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz mountains. At the Grizzly Flat site alluvial units dated at 1640-1659 A.D., 1679-1894 A.D., 1668-1893 A.D., and the present ground surface are displaced by a single event. This was the 1906 surface rupture. Combined trench dates and tree ring analysis suggest that the penultimate event occurred in the mid-1600 s, possibly in an interval as narrow as 1632-1659 A.D. There is no direct evidence in the trenches for the 1838 or 1865 earthquakes, which have been proposed as occurring on this part of the fault zone. In a minimum time of about 340 years only one large surface faulting event (1906) occurred at Grizzly Flat, in contrast to previous recurrence estimates of 95-110 years for the Santa Cruz mountains segment. Comparison with dates of the penultimate San Andreas earthquake at sites north of San Francisco suggests that the San Andreas fault between Point Arena and the Santa Cruz mountains may have failed either as a sequence of closely timed earthquakes on adjacent segments or as a single long rupture similar in length to the 1906 rupture around the mid-1600 s. The 1906 coseismic geodetic slip and the late Holocene geologic slip rate on the San Francisco peninsula and southward are about 50-70% and 70% of their values north of San Francisco, respectively. The slip gradient along the 1906 rupture section of the San Andreas reflects partitioning of plate boundary slip onto the San Gregorio, Sargent, and other faults south of the Golden Gate. If a mid-1600 s event ruptured the same section of the fault that failed in 1906, it supports the concept that long strike-slip faults can contain master rupture segments that repeat in both length and slip distribution. Recognition of a persistent slip rate gradient along the northern San Andreas fault and the concept of a master segment remove the requirement that

  10. Reservas naturales urbanas en el sur de Santa Cruz (Argentina: importancia, caracterización del uso público e incidencia sobre las comunidades vecinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Decristófaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información de tres Reservas Naturales Urbanas del sur de Santa Cruz (Argentina: Laguna Nimez (El Calafate, Reserva Costera Urbana (Río Gallegos y Cerro de La Cruz (28 de Noviembre, acerca de su importancia, usos públicos y percepción que poseen los vecinos y visitantes sobre las mismas. Se realizó una investigación de corte cuantitativo (cuestionario a visitantes y vecinos y cualititativo (entrevistas a informantes clave. Las reservas cumplen un importante rol educativo y recreativo, que se visualizó en la oferta de actividades para sensibilizar a sus habitantes y por el alto porcentaje de visitantes residentes y recurrencia al lugar, principalmente en la RCU y Cerro de La Cruz. La RCU es la única que posee plan de manejo finalizado y un Centro de Interpretación Ambiental asociado, que concentra cada vez más visitantes (en total, desde su apertura, 10.989 personas. Laguna Nimez a su vez, es la única que realiza cobro de entradas y vende productos al público (guías, manuales, postales, etc., reinvirtiéndose las ganancias para el mantenimiento y funcionamiento, lo que la torna autosustentable. En todas, el turismo fue percibido por los encuestados como un beneficio para la ciudad, pese a que en la actualidad, sólo Laguna Nimez muestra un perfil en este sentido. Es la que recibe un mayor flujo de visitantes no residentes (91% de los encuestados, siendo 56% extranjeros. Empero, se destaca el aporte de las tres reservas como nuevos espacios para la recreación y el aprendizaje, motivaciones identificadas como importantes por los visitantes y vecinos.

  11. ESTUDO MULTIDIMENSIONAL DAS CONDIÇÕES DE VIDA DO IDOSO QUE FREQUENTA OS SERVIÇOS DA UNISC CAMPUS SANTA CRUZ, RS

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    Zelia Natalia Coletti Ohlweiler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta parte dos resultados da pesquisa intitulada Estudo multidimensional das condições de vida do idoso que freqüenta os serviços da Unisc – campus de Santa Cruz do Sul, realizada com indivíduos de 60 anos ou mais. O estudo tem por objetivo descrever o perfil biopsicossocial do idoso que freqüenta os serviços da Unisc. Dentre os resultados obtidos, observou-se que os idosos pesquisados estão inseridos na categoria das pessoas que sofrem de doenças não transmissíveis associadas ao estilo de vida. Palavras-chave: condições de vida; perfil biopsicossocial do idoso; envelhecimento. * Adélia Rosane Muller; Fabiane Bastiani; Fabiano Bender Panta; Gláucia Kronbauer e Mônica Wietzke.

  12. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  13. Suelos, factores de formación y procesos pedogenéticos en el centro oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Villegas; F.X. Pereyra; J.A. Ferrer

    2007-01-01

    Se estudian los suelos, los factores y los procesos pedogenéticos más influyentes en su génesis, en el centro-oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (49°00' y 49°36'S - 73°30' y 72°00'O). La localidad de El Chaltén se halla incluida en el ámbito de estudio. Esta región presenta una amplia diversidad de las propiedades del medio físico, principalmente relieve, material originario, clima (precipitaciones), biota (vegetación) y suelos. En virtud de la variabilidad del manto pedológico la región pue...

  14. Los recursos naturales y culturales, 28 de Noviembre, Güer Aike, Santa Cruz: su importancia turística y patrimonial

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    Jessica Tamara Paillán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, tiene por objetivo, identificar los recursos naturales y culturales, que puedan contribuir al desarrollo integral, de la localidad 28 de Noviembre, en la Provincia de Santa Cruz. Esta región contiene recursos naturales muy variados, entre los que se destacan los geológicos, forestales y faunisticos. Y a pesar de ser una localidad relativamente joven, cuenta con una historia cultural muy interesante, posiblemente porque la población del lugar proviene de diferentes lugares del país y del exterior. Ademas se consideran las diferentes actividades económicas de la región, con el propósito de revalorar e incorporar nuevas actividades que impulsen el desarrollo local basadas en lo natural, tradicional, y en las innovaciones tecnológicas del sector.

  15. Acción bactericida de la laguna minero-medicinal "Santa Cruz de las Salinas" Chilca, Lima-Perú

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    Gloria Chacón Roldán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio trata de la acción bactericida in vitro e in vivo del agua de la laguna minero-medicinal "Santa Cruz de las Salinas", Chilca. Investigaciones realizadas en el período Febrero 1977 -Julio 1979 en el Instituto de Salud, Lima, han probado que esta agua ejerce acción bacteriostática y bactericida sobre un germen altamente patógeno para el organismo humano de tipo Gram negativo (Cepa So/mone/Ia typhy TY2. Pruebas de toxicidad de esta agua en el organismo animal se han hecho inoculando 2 grupos de ratones por vías endovenosa e intraperitoneal, demostrando que no ejerce acción tóxica, más bien produce una acción estimulante sobre las células sanguíneas. Se han elaborado 17 Cuadros y 37 figuras.

  16. Análise de mobilidade do sistema viário do campus sede da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul

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    Elpidio Oscar Benitez Nara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, the study of mobility is considered an area of fundamental importance for the management of cities by exerting direct influence on access to services, on economic development, on environmental conservation, and on the quality of life of the population. Deficiencies in public transport services and lack of incentives for non-motorized means of transport create difficulties for the flow of vehicles in cities and lead to gridlock. Hence, in this study we present a project for optimizing the flow of vehicles within the campus of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul to improve mobility. We gathered data of the area under study – local transport services, traffic, and user behavior – and used this information to simulate the flow of vehicles and identify critical points and improvements that can be made to improve the road system on campus.

  17. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  18. Biometría del esqueleto postcraneal en muestras del Holoceno tardío de la Cuenca del Lago Salitroso (provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Barrientos, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es presentar la información osteométrica correspondiente al esqueleto postcraneal de una muestra de 18 individuos adultos de diferente sexo y edad, provenientes la cuenca del lago Salitroso (N.O. de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los mismos fueron recuperados a partir de la excavación de chenques y hoquedades naturales sobre roca, con un rango de edades radiocarbónicas situado entre ca. 2500 y 300 años AP. El presente estudio se integra a una investigación de mayores alcances orientada a analizar la evolución de las poblaciones humanas del centro-sur de la Patagonia continental durante el Holoceno tardío. En este estudio se consideraron 45 variables métricas correspondientes a 10 unidades anatómicas del esqueleto postcraneano (húmero, radio, cúbito, clavícula, fémur, tibia, peroné, escápula, sacro y coxal. A nivel de la localidad, se establecieron comparaciones basadas en análisis uni y multivariados entre el conjunto de entierros más antiguo (ca. 2500-1800 años AP con el más reciente (ca. 1000-300 años AP, con la finalidad de detectar diferencias significativas entre ambas submuestras cronológicas. Finalmente, se analizaron los datos regionales en relación con la variabilidad registrada en otras muestras de Patagonia continental (Chubut y sur de Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego.

  19. Determination of the fault plane and rupture size of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake, Bolivia, 5.2 Mw, by relative location of the aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Vera, C.; Assumpção, M.; Minaya, E.; Aliaga, P.; Avila, G.

    2016-11-01

    The Central Andes of southern Bolivia is a highly seismic region with many active faults, that could generate earthquakes up to 8.9 Mw. In 2013, an earthquake of 5.2 Mw occurred in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in the sub-Andean belt, close to the Mandeyapecua fault, one of the most important reverse faults in Bolivia. Five larger aftershocks were reported by the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and 33 smaller aftershocks were recorded by the San Calixto Observatory (OSC) in the two months after the mainshock. Distances between epicenters of the events were up to 36 km, which is larger than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude. Using data from South American regional stations and the relative location technique with Rayleigh waves, the epicenters of the five larger aftershocks of the Santa Cruz series were determined in relation to the mainshock. This method enabled to achieve epicentral locations with uncertainties smaller than 1 km. Additionally, using data of three Bolivian stations (MOC, SIV and LPAZ) eight smaller aftershocks, recorded by the OSC, were relocated through correlation of P and S waves. The results show a NNW-SSE trend of epicenters and suggest an E dipping plane. The maximum distance between the aftershocks is 14 km, which is not consistent with the expected subsurface rupture length, in accordance with the magnitude of the mainshock. The events are located away from the Mandeyapecua fault and show an opposite dip, demonstrating that these events were generated by another fault in the area, that had not been well studied yet.

  20. Caracterización del ambiente atmosférico en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 2000 a 2004

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    Elena López Villarrubia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El carácter insular de las ciudades de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife, su meteorología y la proximidad del continente africano que favorece la llegada de material particulado de origen natural sobre las islas, determinan unas especificidades en su calidad del aire. El objetivo de este artículo es la caracterización de la contaminación atmosférica durante los años 2000 a 2004 como indicador de exposición de los habitantes de estas dos ciudades. Métodos: Se elaboraron los siguientes indicadores de contaminación: promedios de 24 horas de PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 y O3; máximo de las 17 medias móviles octohorarias diarias de O3 y CO; máximo horario diario de SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5. También se calcularon los niveles de la moda gruesa de partículas, como la diferencia entre los valores de PM10 y PM2,5 (PM10-2,5. Se identificaron episodios de intrusión africana. Resultados: En Sta Cruz de TF los promedios de SO2 (14ug/m3N y de O3 (44,4 ug/m3N fueron superiores respecto a los de Las Palmas de GC (8 y 28,3 ug/m3N. Los promedios de NO2 en Las Palmas de GC: 45,8 ug/m3N fueron superiores a los de Sta. Cruz de TF: 30,3 ug/m3N. Debido a las intrusiones africanas, algunos días superaron los 600 ug/m3 de PM10 y los 200 de PM2.5 en ambas ciudades. Conclusiones: Se identifica un patrón de calidad del aire con episodios de polvo mineral africano que en superficie afecta a todas las fracciones granulométricas, una estacionalidad diferente a las ciudades europeas respecto al ozono, así como un patrón de contaminación urbano-industrial en Sta. Cruz de Tf y netamente urbano en Las Palmas de GC. Se hace necesario tener en cuenta estos resultados para analizar su posible impacto sobre la salud de los ciudadanos de las Islas Canarias y establecer sistemas adecuados de vigilancia.

  1. Variabilidade espacial de variáveis geobiofísicas nas nascentes da bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão Santa Cruz Spatial variability of geobiophysical variables in the springs of the Ribeirão Santa Cruz watershed

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    Marcelo de C. Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, em Lavras, MG, caracterizar a estrutura e a magnitude de dependência espacial de variáveis ambientais nas nascentes da bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão Santa Cruz, por métodos de interpolação geoestatística. Os métodos de interpolação por krigagem ordinária e inverso da potência da distância (IPD foram utilizados para representar altitude, vazão, áreas de recarga e de vegetação de 175 nascentes perenes em 86,99 km² de área. Observou-se melhor desempenho da estimação por krigagem quando comparado ao método IPD.The objective of this study was to characterize the structure and the spatial dependence magnitude of geobiophysical variables in the springs of the Ribeirão Santa Cruz stream watershed, Lavras, MG, using geostatistical interpolation methods. Ordinary kriging system and inverse power distance (IPD interpolation methods were used to map the altitude, flow, areas of recharge and vegetation of 175 perennial springs in an area of 86.99 km². Better peformance was observed with estimation using the kriging method as compared to the IPD method.

  2. CAMBIOS EN EL TAMAÑO DE EXOESQUELETOS CALCÁREOS DE MOLUSCOS DURANTE EL HOLOCENO TARDÍO: ARQUEOMALACOLOGÍA DE CONCHEROS EN LA COSTA NORTE DE SANTA CRUZ, PATAGONIA ARGENTINA (Size Change of Calcareous Exoskeletons of Molluscs during the Late Holocene: Archaeomalacology of Shell Middens on the Northern Coast of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina

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    Heidi Hammond

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En la costa norte de Santa Cruz, Patagonia Argentina, los concheros son una de las evidencias arqueológicas de ocupación por cazadores-recolectores. Se realizaron estudios biométricos sobre exoesqueletos calcáreos de moluscos recuperados en concheros con el fin de evaluar la existencia de una tendencia/patrón de cambio en el tamaño a lo largo del tiempo. Los resultados permitieron reconocer una reducción en el tamaño medio de las conchas a lo largo del Holoceno tardío. Se discuten las implicancias paleoambientales, ecológicas y/o culturales. Finalmente, se avanza en la discusión sobre la dinámica de ocupación humana y el uso de los recursos. ENGLISH: On the northern coast of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina, shell middens form part of the archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer occupation. We performed biometric studies on calcareous exoskeletons of molluscs recovered in shell middens in order to evaluate the existence of a trend or pattern of size change over time. The results allowed us to recognize a reduction in size change over the course of the late Holocene. We discuss the paleoenvironmental, ecological and/or cultural implications of these findings. Finally, we relate the discussion to the dynamics of human occupation and resource use.

  3. Tendencias preliminares en el registro arqueológico del curso medio y superior del arroyo El Lechuza, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina Preliminary trends in the archaeological record of the middle and upper courses of El Lechuza Arroyo, Santa Cruz province, Argentina

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    Nora Viviana Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan aquí los resultados exploratorios de los trabajos realizados en el curso medio y superior del arroyo El Lechuza, localizado en el norte del río Santa Cruz (provincia de Santa Cruz. Se trata de un área con abundantes afloramientos volcánicos, con alturas entre ca. 550 y 870 msnm. Los resultados preliminares obtenidos apuntan hacia el aprovisionamiento local y explotación tanto de algunas materias primas líticas como de recursos faunísticos. Las evidencias procedentes del análisis de instrumentos líticos y óseos sugieren un cierto tiempo de estadía en el área, si bien no es posible precisar aún el carácter de estas ocupaciones humanas.This paper presents the preliminary results of surveys carried out around the middle and upper El Lechuza Arroyo. This area is located between ca. 550 and 870 m above-sea-level, with abundant volcanic outcrops. Lithic and faunal results point to local provisioning and processing of lithic and faunal resources. The results also suggest that hunter-gatherers remained in the area for some time, although we still do not know the nature of these occupations.

  4. The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Study: Wind Measurements and Modeling Resolving Coastal Mesoscale Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, C. E.; Koracin, D.

    2002-12-01

    The importance of winds in driving the coastal ocean has long been recognized. Pre-World War II literature links wind stress and wind stress curl to coastal ocean responses. Nevertheless, direct measurements plausibly representative of a coastal area are few. Multiple observations on the scale of the simplest mesoscale atmospheric structure, such as the cross-coast variation along a linear coast, are even less frequent. The only wind measurements that we are aware of in a complicated coastal area backed by higher topography are in the MMS sponsored, Santa Barbara Channel/Santa Marina basin study. Taking place from 1994 to present, this study had an unheard of dense surface automated meteorological station array of up to 5 meteorological buoys, 4 oil platforms, 2 island stations, and 11 coastal stations within 1 km of the beach. Most of the land stations are maintained by other projects. Only a large, a well funded project with backed by an agency with the long-view could dedicate the resources and effort into filling the mesoscale "holes" and maintaining long-term, remotely located stations. The result of the MMS funded project is a sufficiently dense surface station array to resolve the along-coast and cross-coast atmospheric mesoscale wind structure. Great temporal and spatial variation is found in the wind, wind stress and the wind stress curl, during the extended summer season. The MM5 atmospheric mesoscale model with appropriate boundary layer physics and high-resolution horizontal and vertical grid structure successfully simulates the measured wind field from large scale down to the lower end of the mesoscale. Atmospheric models without appropriate resolution and boundary layer physics fail to capture significant mesoscale wind features. Satellite microwave wind measurements generally capture the offshore synoptic scale temporal and spatial scale in twice-a-day snap shots but fail in the crucial, innermost coastal waters and the diurnal scale.

  5. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a particularly challenging test case for the currently developed, GIS-based two-phase dynamic mass flow model r.avaflow. Whilst the test

  6. Caracterización de los rasgos esenciales de la identidad profesional de los trabajadores sociales, que integraban el Consejo de Graduados en Trabajo Social de la Provincia de Santa Cruz, durante los años 1970-1980

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    Lorena Lucia Julieta Meoniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo da cuenta de los avances realizados en la línea de indagación dedicada al estudio de los rasgos de la identidad profesional de los Trabajadores Sociales adscriptos al Consejo de Graduados en Trabajo Social de la Provincia de Santa Cruz durante los años 1970-1980. Para dicho análisis se tuvo en cuenta los datos y materiales aportados por la sistematización de los Libros de Actas N° 1 y 2 del Consejo Profesional de Graduados en Trabajo Social de la Provincia de Santa Cruz, incluyendo asimismo la lectura de los avances teóricos producidos por el equipo de trabajo del proyecto de investigación en el cual participamos como becadas.

  7. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    OpenAIRE

    Charles van Riper III; Floyd Gray; James Callegary; Katie Hirschboeck; Amy McCoy; Matt Weber; Nita Tallent-Halsell; William Labiosa; Laura Norman

    2010-01-01

    Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework t...

  8. Localidades típicas de micromamíferos en Patagonia: el viaje de J. Hatcher en las nacientes del río Chico, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pardiñas, Ulises Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Un estudio detallado del itinerario seguido por J. B. Hatcher y O. A. Peterson en las nacientes del río Chico, Santa Cruz, Argentina, permite discutir la procedencia geográfica de los holotipos de Ctenomys robustus J. Allen, 1903, Ctenomys sericeus J. Allen, 1903, Oxymycterus microtis J. Allen, 1903, Reithrodon hatcheri J. Allen 1903, Euneomys petersoni J. Allen, 1903 y Notiomys vestitus alleni Osgood, 1925. De esta forma se discute y restringen sus terrae typicae contribuyendo al conocimient...

  9. Evaluación espacial y temporal de la diversidad de los ascomicetes dulceacuícolas del canal turístico Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, México Spatial and temporal evaluation of the diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes from the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico

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    Allan Chavarria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la diversidad de los ascomicetes del canal Santa Cruz, considerado el de mayor importancia turística en Xochimilco, Distrito Federal. En 2007 se realizaron 2 muestreos en las épocas de menor y mayor precipitación. En el márgen del canal se establecieron 4 estaciones de muestreo con diferente grado de urbanización y en cada una se sumergieron bloques de madera de Virola sp., Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei y Abies religiosa durante 8 semanas. Se midió la temperatura, el pH, el oxígeno disuelto, la materia orgánica y el fósforo, y se determinó el número más probable de bacterias coliformes del agua. Para evaluar los datos, se aplicaron el índice de diversidad de Shannon y el índice de similitud de Sørensen. La mayor diversidad de ascomicetes (H' = 1.152 se registró en la tercera estación, ubicada en la zona de viveros con flores y la menor diversidad (H' = 0.976 se obtuvo en la primera estación, localizada frente al embarcadero Santa Cruz, ambos valores de diversidad coincidieron con el grado de urbanización y con los datos fisicoquímicos y bacteriológicos. La temporada de lluvias presentó la diversidad más baja debido probablemente al efecto de la precipitación en este ambiente acuático.The diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes was determined in the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico. Two surveys were conducted in 2007 during the dry and wet season. Four sampling sites were selected in the channel margin, based on the level of urbanization. At each sampling site, wood panels of Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei and Abies religiosa were submerged during 8 weeks. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, organic matter, phosphorus and most probable number of coliform bacteria were determined. Results were evaluated using the diversity index of Shannon and the index of similarity of Sørensen. The highest Ascomycete diversity

  10. Avaliação de genótipos de tomateiro tipo Santa Cruz no período de ver��o, em Araguari, MG Evaluation of tomato genotypes (Santa Cruz type during the summer season, in Araguari, MG, Brazil

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    José Ricardo Peixoto

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Jordão (município de Araguari, MG, na época do verão (período das águas, com o objetivo de verificar o desempenho agronômico de genótipos de tomateiro tipo Santa Cruz. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com 16 tratamentos (genótipos e quatro repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída por duas fileiras com 12 plantas cada, no espaçamento de 1,00 m entre linhas e 0,55 m entre plantas (1 planta/cova. Efetuaram-se 17 colheitas, sendo a primeira aos 69 dias após o transplante. Vários genótipos apresentaram um bom desempenho agronômico, principalmente Saladinha, Débora Plus, SM-16 e Atlas, podendo ser cultivados no período de verão. Apenas Saladinha e Atlas ultrapassaram 140 g de peso médio, destacando-se também em frutos do tipo extra AA. Observou-se uma correlação significativa e negativa com r = -0,52 e -0,54 na primeira avaliação, e r = -0,55 e -0,45 na segunda avaliação para a produção total e produção comercial, respectivamente, em relação à incidência de geminivírus nos diferentes genótipos. Os híbridos Saladinha e SM-16 apresentaram o menor número de plantas viróticas, enquanto Santa Clara Importada, Santa Clara, Jumbo AG-592 e IAC Santa Clara, apresentaram o maior número.A field experiment was carried out in the Jordão farm in Araguari, MG, Brazil, during the summer season, to evaluate the agronomic potential of genotypes (Santa Cruz type of tomato. A randomized block design was used with 16 treatments (genotypes and four replicates. The experimental plot was made up of two lines (1.00 m between lines and 0.55 m between plants with 12 plants each (1 plant/pit. Seventeen harvests were made, starting 69 days after transplanting. Several genotypes as Saladinha, Débora Plus, SM-16 and Atlas had a good agronomic performance, being recommended to be cultivated in the region, in the summer season. Classified as AA type, the Saladinha

  11. Subjetividades educativas en jóvenes próximos a egresar de la secundaria en Puerto Santa Cruz y Piedra Buena ante la potencial ejecución de proyectos de represas en el Río Santa Cruz

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    Mauro Victor Guzmán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente Informe Científico Técnico se presentarán resultados que exploran la dimensión educativa de la juventud en Piedra Buena y Puerto Santa Cruz. Comunidades que serán impactadas en su dimensión simbólica y material a partir de los proyectos de Represas sobre el Río Santa Cruz. El informe intenta una aproximación etnográfica que buscará reflexionar en torno a las siguientes preguntas: ¿Qué lugar ocupa la educación de la juventud en la perspectiva de los actores locales claves de la comunidad local ante el próximo impacto de Proyectos de Represas?; ¿Qué representaciones tienen los jóvenes en situación de aula acerca de su escenario actual y futuro con respecto a la educación superior y el mundo del trabajo previo al impacto intensivo de los Proyectos de Represas? Las principales conclusiones nos muestran la necesidad de rescatar el optimismo que los jóvenes en situación de aula demuestran ante un escenario local que potencialmente se podría convertir en adverso, en cuanto a la realización de sus proyectos de vida vinculados a la continuidad de estudios superiores e inserción en el mundo del trabajo; si es que no se comienzan a construir políticas públicas con eje en la juventud que permitan poner en valor a este capital social que tiene el territorio para su desarrollo local.

  12. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

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    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  13. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: comparative study of children and adolescents of the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

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    Matheus Cezar Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify possible differences in the levels of physical activity related to the socio-economic conditions of schoolchildren in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. It is of transversal-descriptive character, and its subjects are 350 schoolchildren, aged 7 to 17, of both genders. For data collection a previously validated and adapted questionnaire was used, while the chi-quadrat-test was used for statistical analysis. Significant statistical differences were detected in the manner of locomotion, with regard to the school level and socio-economic status, for both genders. The results showed that students from urban areas and of inferior socio-economic levels showed more active in this respect. In the practice of physical activities, the results pointed to a reverse relation of this variable with the socio-economic level. At school level, a prevalence of inactive subjects from the rural area was observed. The difference in the form of locomotion and the physical activities of the evaluated schoolchildren, both at school level and at their socio-economic level, demonstrates different profiles of schoolchildren, which should be considered in future intervention programs.

  14. Tectonics and Unroofing of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California, from Low-Temperature Thermochronology and Catchment-Averaged 10Be-Derived Denudation Rates (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, G. E.; Burgmann, R.; Dumitru, T. A.; Ebert, Y.; Fosdick, J. C.; Le, K.; Levine, N. M.; Wilson, A.; Gudmundsdottir, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present eleven Apatite Fission Track (AFT) and Apatite (U-Th)/He (A-He) analyses and eighteen catchment-averaged cosmogenic 10Be denudation rates from the Santa Cruz Mountains (SCM) that resolve the unroofing history of this range over the past several Myr. This range lies within a restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault (SAF), which appears to be fixed to the crust on the northeast side of the fault based on previous work. In this view, the topographic asymmetry of the SCM reflects the advection of material southwest of the right-lateral SAF through a zone of uplift centered on the restraining bend, while material northwest of the fault remains trapped this zone. Northeast of the fault bend in the Sierra Azul block of the SCM, AFT ages adjacent to the SAF appear completely reset during the Pliocene, and show partial resetting at the periphery of the block. This suggests that total exhumation exceeded 3-4 km within the heart of the block and was SCM are near mass flux steady state over the timescales captured by the CRN (~1.5-6.5 ka). Nonetheless, the extent of topography in areas far from the bend suggests that there may be some component of regional fault-normal contraction and/or that this steady state has not been fully attained because of geomorphic lags and isostatic adjustments.

  15. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  16. Discurso ritual prehispánico y manipulación misionera: la 'oración de Manco Capac al señor del cielo y tierra' de la relación de Santa Cruz Pachacuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DISCOURS RITUEL PREHISPANIQUE ET MANIPULATION MISSIONNAIRE : LA “PRIERE DE MANCO CAPAC AU SEIGNEUR DU CIEL ET DE LA TERRE” DE LA RELACION DE SANTA CRUZ PACHACUTI Les textes religieux en quechua contenus dans la Relación (1613? de Joan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti ont été considérés jusqu’à présent comme authentiquement incasiques. Á travers une analyse du premier d’entre eux, la “prière de Manco Capac au Seigneur du ciel et de la terre”, dans le contexte linguistique et culturel évangélisateur, nous croyons montrer qu’il est en réalité le fruit d’une manipulation missionnaire de la langue, l’histoire et la tradition religieuse indigènes, destinée a prouver aux catéchumènes que leurs anciens souverains avaient conçu, grâce à leur raison naturelle et à la Providence, le Dieu que les espagnols venaient leur prêcher. Se ha venido considerando los textos religiosos en quechua contenidos en la Relación (¿1613? de Joan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti como auténticamente incaicos. Analizando el primero de ellos, la “oración de Manco Capac al Señor del cielo y tierra”, dentro del contexto lingüístico y cultural evangelizador, creemos mostrar que es en realidad fruto de una manipulación misionera de la lengua, la historia y la tradición religiosa indígenas destinada a demostrar a los catecúmenos que sus antiguos soberanos concibieron, gracias a su razón natural y a la Providencia, al Dios que los españoles venían a predicarles. PRE-HISPANIC CEREMONIAL LECTURE AND MISSIONARY MANIPULATION: “MANCO CAPAC’S PRAYER TO THE HEAVEN AND EARTH LORD” IN THE RELACIÓN BY SANTA CRUZ PACHACUTI. The original religious documents in the quechua language of Relación by Joan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti (1613?, has been considered as legitime inca. Through analyzing the first one, 'Manco Capac's prayer to the Heaven and Earth Lord' reserved to the linguistic and cultural evangelizing settings, we believe to prove that it truly is an outcome

  17. Multiple metal sources in the glaciomarine facies of the Neoproterozoic Jacadigo iron formation in the “Santa Cruz deposit”, Corumbá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angerer, Thomas; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Walde, Detlef; Galen P. Halverson; Boyce, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Rapitan-type banded iron formation (BIF) in the Banda Alta Formation (Fm) of the Neoproterozoic Jacadigo Group in Brazil was deposited in a redox-stratified, marine sub-basin, which was strongly influenced by glacial advance/retraction cycles with temporary influx of continental freshwater and upwelling metal-enriched seawater from deeper anoxic parts. These new finding are based on new stratigraphic, whole-rock geochemical, and stable Fe and C isotope data from the “Santa Cruz” hematite ...

  18. Holocene Intermediate Water Variability in the Northeast Pacific: A Santa Barbara Basin 14C Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friddell, J. E.; Thunell, B.; Guilderson, T.; Roark, B.

    2009-05-01

    Pairs of benthic and planktonic foraminiferal 14C dates from the Santa Barbara Basin, offshore southern California, are used to assess millennial-scale hydrographic changes in the northeast Pacific during the Holocene. Current models of North Pacific Intermediate Water formation during the last glacial and the Holocene vary widely in their predicted relationships between thermal conditions in the north Pacific, 14C age and oxygen content of the Santa Barbara Basin's sub-sill bottom waters, and productivity in the basin's surface waters. Using benthic-planktonic 14C age differences as a proxy for North Pacific Intermediate Water influence on the basin's bottom waters and biogenic silica and sedimentary bioturbation as records of past productivity and bottom-water oxygenation, we test our data against these various models. It appears that the different models can be reconciled by invoking bifurcation of eastward-moving intermediate water along the North American coast: Changes in the benthic-planktonic 14C age difference and other proxies in Santa Barbara Basin can be explained by movement of the bifurcation point to the north or south during warm and cool intervals of the Holocene. Inferred behavior of water at intermediate depths on the northeast Pacific margin is compared with surface conditions and with records of deep circulation from the North Atlantic, with the Santa Barbara Basin records supporting surface and intermediate connection between the two ocean basins at millennial time scales during the Holocene.

  19. Cross-sectional analysis of self-efficacy and social capital in a community-based healthy village project in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Osato, Keiichi; Miranda, Cesar; Condore, Julia; Siles, Roxana

    2015-06-20

    An assessment of self-efficacy and social capital may have the potential to detect an effect of dynamic, complex and comprehensive collective actions in community-based health promotion. In 2003, a healthy village project was launched in Santa Cruz, Bolivia with technical assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The originally developed FORSA (Fortalecimiento de Redes de Salud) model accounted for participatory processes in which people could improve their health and well-being through individual behavioral changes and family/community-driven activities. This study aimed to examine the extent of self-efficacy and social capital obtained via project activities by a cross-sectional analysis. We randomly selected 340 subjects from the healthy village project site and 113 subjects from a control area. Both groups were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire. Self-efficacy was assessed with a General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), while social capital was measured as the frequency of formal group participation in community meetings during the past three months, perceived social solidarity, and general trust. The study results showed that the participants in the project site had higher self-efficacy and social capital compared to those in the control site. The number of times a subject participated in the health committee activities was positively associated with the self-efficacy scale. Regarding social capital, females and lower-educated people were more likely to have had more frequent participation in formal groups; males and higher-educated participants showed less formal group participation, but more generosity to contribute money for the community. The main perceived benefit of participation in formal group activities varied among individuals. The findings suggest that people in the healthy village project site have higher self-efficacy, especially those with active participation in the health committee activities. To recruit

  20. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  1. Estimación de la estatura en muestras del Holoceno Tardío del N.O. de Santa Cruz: problemas metodológicos

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    Béguelin, Marien

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Un tema muy debatido ha sido el de la estatura de las poblaciones aborígenes tardías del sur de Patagonia la cual, de acuerdo con los estándares europeos del siglo XVI, ha sido descripta como excepcional. Una muestra osteológica recientemente recuperada que permite aproximarse a este problema, es la procedente del lago Salitroso (N.O. de la provincia de Santa Cruz. La misma, constituida por un mínimo de 60 individuos de diferente sexo y edad, corresponde a distintos momentos del Holoceno tardío (ca. 2500 a 300 años 14C AP. La estimación de la estatura a partir de medidas lineales de huesos largos de muestras arqueológicas constituye un problema complejo, debido a la gran variedad de ecuaciones existentes en la literatura. Las mismas, derivadas de diferentes muestras de referencia, producen resultados muy disímiles que, en nuestro caso de estudio, varían (valores medios entre 168 y 177 mm en individuos masculinos y entre 162,7 y 165 mm en femeninos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es discutir una serie de criterios (v.g. proximidad genética, similitud ambiental y de proporciones corporales entre la muestra problema y la de referencia que resulten aplicables en el proceso de selección de las ecuaciones, con el fin de derivar estimaciones mas adecuadas y realistas de la estatura en muestras arqueológicas.

  2. Timing of large earthquakes during the past 500 years along the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon, near Watsonville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A paleoseismic investigation across the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon indicates that four surface‐rupturing earthquakes have occurred there during the past ~500  years. At this site, right‐lateral fault slip has moved a low shutter ridge across the mouth of the canyon, ponding latest Holocene sediments. These alluvial deposits are deformed along a narrow zone of faulting. There is excellent evidence for a 1906 (M 7.8) and three earlier earthquakes consisting of well‐developed fissures, scarps, and colluvial wedges. Deformation resulting from the earlier earthquakes is comparable to that from 1906, suggesting they also were large‐magnitude events. The earthquake prior to 1906 occurred either about A.D. 1750 (1711–1770) or A.D. 1855 (1789–1904), depending on assumptions incorporated into two alternative OxCal models. If the later age range is correct, then the earthquake may have been a historical early‐to‐mid‐nineteenth‐century earthquake, possibly the A.D. 1838 earthquake. Both models are viable, and there is no way to select one over the other with the available data. Two earlier earthquakes occurred about A.D. 1690 (1660–1720) and A.D. 1522 (1454–1605). Using OxCal, recalculation of the age of the reported penultimate earthquake reported from the Grizzly Flat site, located about 10 km northwest of Mill Canyon, indicates it occurred about A.D. 1105–1545, earlier than any of the past three earthquakes, and possibly correlates to the fourth earthquake at Mill Canyon.

  3. El estado, las normas y las reformas. El sistema educativo como escenario de materialización de discursos e internalización de prácticas sociales: el caso Santa Cruz

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    Sonia Raquel Bazán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se relaciona con los estilos de funcionamiento institucional a más de diez años de sancionada la Ley Federal de Educación y su implementación en la provincia de Santa Cruz, analizados en el proyecto de investigación ?Las normativas educativas y su incidencia en el funcionamiento cotidiano de la escuela? (UNPA ? UART 2009. Nos interesa abordar el trabajo docente en las escuelas bajo el enfoque de las regulaciones impuestas desde los discursos reformistas y el proceso de internalización de las mismas por parte de los actores de las instituciones escolares. El proyecto se desarrolló en dos etapas, siendo estas la recopilación y análisis de las normativas vigentes en el ámbito educativo de Santa Cruz y la valoración del impacto de las normativas en los estilos de funcionamiento de las escuelas. En esta primera parte se analizaron las prescripciones y orientaciones generales de la ?voz oficial? como pilar fundamental en la configuración de una cultura política educativa y en la construcción cotidiana de lo escolar. Se consideraron para ello, las atribuciones asignadas al Sistema Educativo Nacional desde los orígenes del Estado Argentino, como parte de un proceso extendido a todo Occidente, y en particular, las normativas que configuraron el Sistema Educativo Provincial, desde los inicios mismos de la historia de la Provincia de Santa Cruz en tanto tal, hasta el contexto reformista de los años 90.

  4. Nuevos datos, viejas colecciones: los conjuntos óseos de Cerro Casa de Piedra Cueva 5 (Parque Nacional Perito Moreno, Santa Cruz New data, old collections: Cerro Casa de Piedra 5 bone assemblages (Perito Moreno National Park, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E. De Nigris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un nuevo análisis de las colecciones óseas de Cerro Casa de Piedra Cueva 5, emplazado en el Parque Nacional Perito Moreno, provincia de Santa Cruz. Las muestras óseas fueron recuperadas en excavaciones sistemáticas realizadas en la década del ´80 y se ubican temporalmente en el Holoceno medio y tardío (ca. 2500-6500 años. El principal objetivo de este estudio es identificar las posibles variaciones existentes en el aprovechamiento de los recursos faunísticos con el fin de alcanzar un mayor entendimiento de las estrategias que implementaron las sociedades cazadoras recolectoras en torno a la utilización de los recursos de origen animal. Los resultados señalan al guanaco (Lama guanicoe como la especie dominante si bien el huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus forma parte importante de la dieta. En ambos ungulados se observa un predominio del esqueleto apendicular por sobre el axial y una gran diversidad de marcas de procesamiento compatibles con situaciones de consumo. Sin embargo, a pesar de estas regularidades se han registrado también diferencias en el aprovechamiento de las presas a través del tiempo.This paper presents the results of a new analysis of bone collections from Cerro Casa de Piedra Cueva 5. The archaeological site is a large cave positioned on the north side of a volcanic hill located on the southern bank of Roble river (900 masl in a transitional area between the forest and the shrubby Patagonian steppe within the Perito Moreno National Park, northwest of Santa Cruz, Argentina. The occupational sequence is formed by four stratigraphic layers radiocarbon dated between ca. 2500 and 6500 years BP. Bone samples had been recovered during the 1980s but have received no attention since. The main aim of this paper is to identify continuities and changes in faunal resource consumption to better understand hunter-gatherer strategies during the Middle and Late Holocene. The analyzed

  5. A FORMAÇÃO ATRAVÉS DA PEDAGOGIA DA ALTERNÂNCIA EM AGROECOLOGIA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DA ESCOLA FAMÍLIA AGRÍCOLA DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Guterres Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho desenvolve um estudo de caso da Escola Família Agrícola de Santa Cruz do Sul, que utiliza no seu processo de ensino e aprendizagem a metodologia viva da Pedagogia da Alternância e possui no seu enfoque teórico o incentivo a uma agricultura de menor impacto socioambiental, na perspectiva da Agroecologia. Com o advento dos Centros Educativos Familiares de Formação em Alternância, constituídos pelas Casas Familiares Rurais, Casas Familiares do Mar, Escolas Comunitárias Rurais...

  6. PRODUTOS DO INTEMPERISMO E AVALIAÇÃO DO NÍVEL DE DETERIORAÇÃO EM ROCHAS ORNAMENTAIS DA FORTALEZA DE SANTA CRUZ (NITERÓI, RJ

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    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI 10.12957/tamoios.2012.5084RESUMO A Fortaleza de Santa Cruz, magnífico exemplo da arquitetura dos tempos da chegada dos europeus ao nosso continente, começou a ser construída por volta de 1555 na entrada da Baía de Guanabara (Niterói, RJ com blocos de gnaisse facoidal local. De modo geral, rochas empregadas em construções em ambientes litorâneos e urbanos são expostas ao sal marinho, bem como, aos poluentes CO2, S e N e, em decorrência disso, os processos relacionados ao intemperismo podem causar danos consideráveis a essas construções. Na Fortaleza de Santa Cruz foram identificados diversos tipos de crostas (negra, de sal, orgânica, “flowstones” e estalactites como produtos do intemperismo. A intensidade dos processos é diferente nos três pavimentos que compõem a Fortaleza, levando a níveis distintos de deterioração dos blocos de rocha, em função da circulação, teor de umidade e de sal no ar em cada pavimento. Palavras-chaves: intemperismo; rochas ornamentais; crosta negra; dissolução.ABSTRACT The Santa Cruz Fort, a magnificent example of architecture at the time of arrival of the Europeans to our continent, began to be constructed at about 1555 at the entrance of the Guanabara Bay (Niterói, RJ with local blocks of augen gnaiss. In general, rocks employed in constructions in coastal and urban environments are exposed to sea derived salts and pollutants such as CO2, S and N and, as consequence of that, weathering related processes can cause considerable damage to these constructions. In the Santa Cruz Fort, various types of crusts (black, salt, organic, flowstones and stalactites have been identified as weathering products. The intensity of such processes is different in the Fort’s three main floors and that leads to distinct deteriorations levels of the blocks of rock in each floor, a function of air circulation, humidity and salt content.Keywords: Weathering; building stones; black crust; dissolution. 

  7. Estudio de las estrategias de aprovisionamiento y utilización de los recursos líticos por grupos cazadores-recolectores en la costa norte de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrústolo, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis constituye una de las tantas vías de entrada al estudio de los grupos cazadores-recolectores que ocuparon la Costa Norte de la provincia de Santa Cruz durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Particularmente, el mismo se focalizó en la margen sur de la ría Deseado y su territorio adyacente. Los estudios líticos realizados están centrados en el análisis de las estrategias de aprovisionamiento, circulación y utilización de dichos recursos. Conceptualmente, esta...

  8. Investigación económica y laboral del mercado turístico de la provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Natalia Soledad Villanueva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto de investigación se propone realizar un diagnóstico actualizado sobre diversos sectores productivos en la dinámica socio-económica de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Particularmente el turismo se presenta como una actividad emergente y de gran importancia en la economía provincial. Sin embargo se advierte la inexistencia de información actualizada y sistematizada que englobe el funcionamiento del sector turístico, su relevancia económica y laboral, como también estudios de zonificación que permitan determinar la potencialidad del espacio turístico provincial a fin de abordar políticas de desarrollo turístico. Objetivos: • Actualizar y analizar información secundaria vinculada al sector turístico, referente a oferta y demanda turística. • Diseñar y aplicar instrumentos metodológicos para la recolección de información primaria. • Elaborar y aplicar encuestas vinculadas al mercado laboral. • Identificación de zonas y corredores turísticos. Metodología: Revisión y análisis bibliográfico y documental del sector turismo en la provincia. Se elaboraron y completaron fichas de relevamiento de atractivos y centros turísticos. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a responsables de empresas turísticas a fin de conocer las características del mercado laboral. Se elaboró un mapa de zonas y corredores turísticos de la provincia. Conclusiones: Se ha elaborado y actualizado una base de datos referente a la oferta (atractivos y centros y demanda. Se identificaron siete zonas turísticas y sus corredores de comunicación. Los centros mejor dotados en infraestructura y equipamientos son Río Gallegos, El Calafate y El Chaltén. En éstos dos últimos se realizaron entrevistas a hoteleros para conocer aspectos propios de la dinámica laboral turística.

  9. Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del Rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz

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    Florencia Anahí Becerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Se presenta información sobre la condición actual de las aves playeras migratorias en un sector del estuario, adyacente a la ciudad de Río Gallegos, que está sujeto a diversos cambios provenientes del uso urbano. Desde marzo de 2011 a enero de 2012, se realizaron 52 visitas a 5 estaciones de muestreo, recorriéndose transectas perpendiculares a la costa. La diversidad específica fue mayor en primavera, superando en más del doble al resto de las estaciones. Del análisis comparativo entre los resultados obtenidos y estudios previos, surgió que la riqueza específica no presentó cambios, manteniéndose entre 8/9 especies. Los cambios más notables en la comunidad no obstante, se presentaron en la abundancia máxima por especie y uso del hábitat, excepto el Ostrero Austral que mantuvo su abundancia, resultando dominante (Frecuencia de Ocurrencia= 92%. El resto de las especies disminuyeron drásticamente el uso del área, como el Playerito Rabadilla Blanca (99%, Becasa de Mar (96,3% y Playero Rojizo (97,4%, en relación a registros históricos de 1997/99. Los hábitats más utilizados fueron el sustrato limo-arcilloso y el arenoso, mientras que la marisma fue la de menor uso, a pesar de que existen reportes anteriores de uso frecuente por varias especies. Se discuten las posibles causas de estos cambios y se efectúan recomendaciones, como la necesidad de mantener un mosaico de diferentes tipos de hábitats, la estructura del sustrato y la Reserva Costera Urbana, siendo necesario la planificación y estudio previo ante cualquier acción antrópica que altere el natural equilibrio erosivo-sedimentario de estos frágiles ecosistemas.

  10. Estratigrafía volcánica del yacimiento argentífero Mina Martha, Macizo del Deseado, provincia de Santa Cruz

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    N. Páez Gerardo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento Mina Martha está ubicado en la parte sudoccidental del macizo del Deseado y corresponde a un depósito epitermal argentífero que se encuentra en explotación desde el año 2001. Se encuentra localizado próximo a la localidad de Gobernador Gregores, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. En el área se han reconocido dos unidades geológicas: el Grupo Bahía Laura (J y la Formación Monte León (Tc. Los trabajos realizados permitieron obtener un ordenamiento estratigráfico que hace posible diferenciar, de base a techo, nueve unidades volcánicas para el Jurásico. La estratigrafía volcánica del yacimiento Mina Martha se caracteriza por un ambiente piroclástico episódico dominado por ignimbritas cristaloclásticas soldadas, con pausas y generación de depósitos piroclásticos retrabajados asociados. Este ambiente fue interrumpido por un evento volcánico puntual y de características únicas para el distrito. Este evento altamente explosivo produjo la formación de una caldera y fue acompañado por la depositación de las ignimbritas litoclásticas soldadas. El volcanismo tuvo su origen como consecuencia de la mezcla (mingling de dos magmas de composiciones contrastantes, un magma andesítico comparable a las rocas de la Formación Bajo Pobre, y un magma ácido similar a las rocas de la Formación Chon Aike. Esta mezcla produjo una erupción con la energía necesaria para arrancar grandes fragmentos del basamento metamórfico no aflorante de la región, y le otorgó a estas ignimbritas una característica única para el distrito, la de contener dos tipos de fragmentos pumíceos de composiciones y texturas diferentes. La coexistencia en una misma ignimbrita de dos tipos composicionalmente diferentes de fragmentos pumíceos, comparables con las Formaciones Chon Aike y Bajo Pobre, replantea el esquema estratigráfico tradicional reconocido para el macizo del Deseado donde las rocas de la Formación Bajo Pobre se depositaron con

  11. Estúdio prospectivo de la enfermedad de chagas en recien nacidos con infección placent aria por Trypanosoma cruzi (Santa Cruz-Bolivia

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    Esperanza Azogue

    1991-06-01

    . These observations show a high frequency of congenital T. cruzi infection in Santa Cruz.

  12. Inventario y clasificación de manifestaciones basálticas de Patagonia mediante imágenes satelitales y SIG, Provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Elizabeth Mazzoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Las mesetas basálticas constituyen un rasgo típico del paisaje patagónico. Su génesis está vinculada a derrames de lavas máficas que se produjeron en distintos períodos efusivos durante el Terciario y Cuaternario. De acuerdo a su edad, la morfología de los mantos lávicos ha sido modificada por diferentes procesos erosivos. Las coladas más antiguas han quedado sobreelevadas decenas a centenas de metros por procesos de inversión del relieve. En la zona de contacto entre el manto basáltico y la roca subyacente se originan manantiales que brindan un aporte de agua extra al ambiente patagónico extracordillerano, favoreciendo el desarrollo de pastizales húmedos (mallines que constituyen un recurso natural de alto valor económico, ecológico y escénico. Con el fin de contar con una herramienta que permita evaluar su importancia hidrológica, se llevó a cabo un inventario de estas formas volcánicas en la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Para ello se aplicaron técnicas de procesamiento digital e interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de mediana resolución espacial. Los resultados se expresaron cartográficamente y mediante bases de datos, integrándose la información en un entorno S.I.G. Los datos obtenidos para cada campo volcánico, referidos a aspectos topográficos, geológicos y geomorfológicos, superficie del campo lávico y presencia de mallines en sus laderas y áreas próximas, fueron analizados estadísticamente. La información así generada permitió obtener una caracterización general de estas formas del paisaje y diseñar un sistema de clasificación, además de corroborar su importancia en la localización y desarrollo de los mallines.

  13. Thickness of Santa Fe Group sediments in the Espanola Basin south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, as estimated from aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the southern Espa?ola basin south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, weakly magnetic Santa Fe Group sediments of Oligocene to Pleistocene age, which represent the primary aquifers for the region, are locally underlain by moderately to strongly magnetic igneous and volcaniclastic rocks of Oligocene age. Where this relationship exists, the thickness of Santa Fe Group sediments, and thus the maximum thickness of the aquifers, can be estimated from quantitative analysis of high-resolution aeromagnetic data. These thickness estimates provide guidance for characterizing the ground-water resources in between scattered water wells in this area of rapid urban development and declining water supplies. This report presents one such analysis based on the two-step extended Euler method for estimating depth to magnetic sources. The results show the general form of a north-trending synclinal basin located between the Cerrillos Hills and Eldorado with northward thickening of Santa Fe Group sediments. The increase in thickness is gradual from the erosional edge on the south to a U-shaped Santa Fe embayment hinge line, north of which sediments thicken much more dramatically. Along the north-south basin axis, Santa Fe Group sediments thicken from 300 feet (91 meters) at the hinge line near latitude 35o32'30'N to 2,000 feet (610 meters) at the Cerrillos Road interchange at Interstate 25, north of latitude 35o36'N. The depth analysis indicates that, superimposed on this general synclinal form, there are many local areas where the Santa Fe Group sediments may be thickened by a few hundred feet, presumably due to erosional relief on the underlying Oligocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Some larger areas of greater apparent thickening occur where the presence of magnetic rocks directly underlying the Santa Fe Group is uncertain. Where magnetic rocks are absent beneath the Santa Fe Group, the thickness cannot be estimated from the aeromagnetic data.

  14. Provincia de Santa Cruz, República Argentina: Políticas estatales en educación a distancia mediante el uso de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Hector Ferro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente es el Informe Final de la Beca de Investigación para alumnos de Postgrado que fuera otorgada al autor mediante Resolución Nro. 0354-R-UNPA. Es una actividad descriptiva que recoge información acerca de la Educación a Distancia mediada por Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, observando políticas estatales concretas: las de la Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, y las que lleva a cabo, en el mismo campo, el Estado provincial en Santa Cruz. Se trata de ver de qué manera organismos del Estado pusieron en acción procesos que promueven la circulación de conocimiento en una sociedad específica, sobre la base de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación. Asimismo, se incluye una descripción histórica del desarrollo económico de la provincia de Santa Cruz, así como un estado del mismo en la actualidad, a efectos de hacer visible la importancia básica de la acción estatal en dicho proceso.

  15. Evaluación del recurso aves como base para el desarrollo del turismo ornitológico en el corredor RN40 tramo Río Turbio – Gobernador Gregores (Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Almendras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta un diagnóstico actualizado sobre los recursos existentes para la observación de aves como actividad turística en el corredor de la Ruta Nacional 40, en el tramo entre la Cuenca Carbonífera Río Turbio y la ciudad de Gobernador Gregores (Santa Cruz y su zona de influencia, con el fin de sentar las bases para su planificación y desarrollo en sus diversas modalidades, en función de las aptitudes y capacidades del medio. En la actualidad, se identificaron dos tipos de observadores, según su grado de interés en la actividad, que los denominamos recreacionistas y especialistas. Para estos últimos, destacamos 17 especies de aves que por su limitada distribución, endemismo o singularidad, constituyen las más buscadas por los observadores que visitan Santa Cruz. Algunas de estas especies presentan una distribución geográfica muy acotada, por lo cual resultan en una ventaja comparativa respecto a otros lugares que ofertan el producto aves. Se presenta además una jerarquización de la potencialidad que presentan diferentes sitios identificados en este tramo para el desarrollo del turismo ornitológico.

  16. TERRAIN, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. HYDRAULICS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. SURVEY, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. Inventario y clasificación de manifestaciones basálticas de Patagonia mediante imágenes satelitales y SIG, Provincia de Santa Cruz Inventory and classification of basaltic occurrences of Patagonia based on satellite images and G.I.S, province of Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mazzoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Las mesetas basálticas constituyen un rasgo típico del paisaje patagónico. Su génesis está vinculada a derrames de lavas máficas que se produjeron en distintos períodos efusivos durante el Terciario y Cuaternario. De acuerdo a su edad, la morfología de los mantos lávicos ha sido modificada por diferentes procesos erosivos. Las coladas más antiguas han quedado sobreelevadas decenas a centenas de metros por procesos de inversión del relieve. En la zona de contacto entre el manto basáltico y la roca subyacente se originan manantiales que brindan un aporte de agua extra al ambiente patagónico extracordillerano, favoreciendo el desarrollo de pastizales húmedos (mallines que constituyen un recurso natural de alto valor económico, ecológico y escénico. Con el fin de contar con una herramienta que permita evaluar su importancia hidrológica, se llevó a cabo un inventario de estas formas volcánicas en la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Para ello se aplicaron técnicas de procesamiento digital e interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de mediana resolución espacial. Los resultados se expresaron cartográficamente y mediante bases de datos, integrándose la información en un entorno S.I.G. Los datos obtenidos para cada campo volcánico, referidos a aspectos topográficos, geológicos y geomorfológicos, superficie del campo lávico y presencia de mallines en sus laderas y áreas próximas, fueron analizados estadísticamente. La información así generada permitió obtener una caracterización general de estas formas del paisaje y diseñar un sistema de clasificación, además de corroborar su importancia en la localización y desarrollo de los mallines.Basaltic plateaus are a typical feature of the Patagonian landscape. Their origin is associated with basaltic flows that took place in different effusive periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary. According to the age, morphology of the different lava fields has been modified

  20. Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil Medicinal plants used for oral health in the Santa Cruz neighborhood, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliza Meireles Borba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Mato Grosso, populações tradicionais recorrem ao uso de espécies vegetais como alternativa terapêutica. Na cidade de Chapada dos Guimarães, o bairro Santa Cruz se destaca por abrigar famílias nascidas em áreas urbanas ou rurais que conservam esses conhecimentos transmitidos por gerações. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade local, indicações terapêuticas, preparos e modos de uso visando a manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal. Foram entrevistados 40 residentes, através de abordagem qualitativa, usando entrevista semi-estruturada. As espécies catalogadas foram depositadas para identificação no UFMT/Herbário Central. Foram citadas 87 espécies pertencentes a 48 famílias utilizadas na saúde bucal, encontradas no bioma Cerrado ou cultivadas nas residências. Conforme as afecções bucais citadas, as espécies utilizadas são: para erupção dentária: camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.; candidíases, estomatites, gengivites e afta: açafrão (Crocus sativus L.; dor de dente: arnica-da-serra (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng. Robinson. A folha foi a parte da planta mais usada e o chá, por decocção, modo de preparo mais comum. Pessoas idosas, líderes comunitários, parteiras e benzedeiras entrevistados apresentaram um maior conhecimento sobre o assunto. Constatou-se que a comunidade utiliza espécies vegetais, nativas do cerrado ou exóticas, com finalidade terapêutica para manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal, sendo uma alternativa tradicional, econômica e atuante.In the State of Mato Grosso, traditional populations turn to the use of many plant species as a therapeutic alternative. In the city of Chapada dos Guimarães, the Santa Cruz neighborhood is well known for harboring families from urban and rural communities who preserve this knowledge passed down through many generations. The objective of this research was to survey the medicinal plants used

  1. Sistema penitenciário e educação: a situação do presídio regional de Santa Cruz do Sul / The penitentiary system and the education: the situacion in the regional penitentiary of Santa Cruz of the Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Virginia Coutinho Areosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é um estudo acerca do Sistema Prisional e sua interface com a Educação, onde buscou-se verificar se existe alguma relação entre a escolaridade, e o tipo de delito cometido, tomando-se por base que a falta de escolarização é um dos motivos que influenciam a delinqüência. Para a realização da pesquisa utilizou-se uma metodologia quantitativa, onde foram pesquisados os387 prontuários dos apenados do Presídio Regional de Santa Cruz do Sul, no dia 01 de setembro de 2005. Os resultados nos mostram que a faixa etária com maior incidência é de 18 a 31 anos, os crimes mais cometidos são assaltos e furtos, e a maioria deles possuem ensino fundamental incompleto, não podendo ser constatado, nessa pesquisa, uma relação direta entre o nível de escolaridade e o tipo de delito cometido.Abstract The present article is a study concerning the Prisional System and of the Education, where it searched to verify the relation between the age, the index of escolaridade and, the type of delict. For the accomplishment of the research a quantitative methodology was used, where the 387 handbooks of the imposed a fine on ones had been searched, in day 01 of September of 2005. The results in show them that the etária band with bigger incidence is of 25 the 31 years, the committed crimes more are assaults and roberies, and the majority of them possesss incomplete basic education, not being able to be evidenced, in this research, a direct relation enters the level of escolaridade and the type of delict.

  2. Caracterización geosísmica de un sector de traza de la Ruta Nº 40: Provincia de Santa Cruz - Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Imhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar las distintas calidades de terrenos subyacentes para el proyecto de pavimentación de la Ruta Nacional Nº 40, en la provincia de Santa Cruz, se llevaron a cabo tareas de prospección sísmica de refracción. La finalidad que se persiguió fue estudiar el grado de escarificabilidad del subsuelo bajo la traza mencionada, a lo largo de una extensión de 5000 m, comprendidos en dos secciones cercanas entre sí. Esta determinación permite calcular costos de voladuras o escarificables. La zona de estudio se caracteriza por presentar un paisaje típico de estepa patagónica, con presencia de coladas basálticas indicando vulcanismo antiguo. En la superficie se observó suelos aluvionales finos a medios con presencia en ocasiones de orgánicos y además en algunos sitios grandes bloques de basalto. Se realizaron 50 tendidos sísmicos, los cuáles fueron distribuidos a lo largo de la traza en forma continua. En cada uno de los tendidos se efectuaron lecturas de ida, vuelta, desde el punto central hacia los extremos y 2 tiros lejanos; la configuración de geófonos y disparos se determinó en campo en pruebas previas y de acuerdo a la disponibilidad de espacio. En general la longitud de los perfiles estuvo situada entre 25 y 100m y la separación entre geófonos fue de 5m, con objeto de garantizar el detalle de la investigación. La distribución y cantidad de disparos que se utilizó tuvo por objetivo calcular con precisión velocidades aparentes y de esta forma las verdaderas, calcular inclinaciones de refractores, delimitar el refractor profundo con la mayor precisión posible y asegurar una profundidad de investigación de por lo menos 15 metros. En el procesamiento se procedió a la determinación de los primeros arribos; éstos se representaron en función de las distancias mutuas entre geófonos, en la forma habitual de dromocronas para la posterior ayuda a la interpretación. Una vez efectuado el trazado de las

  3. Historical Climate and Streamflow Trends in Santa Ana River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, D.; Sultana, R.; Tang, V.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana River watershed, located in Southern California, is the home of more than 5 million people. Population is projected to double within the next 50 years in the 2,650 square miles watershed. With prolonged drought conditions, and projected climate change, a strong concern exists about sustainable water supply of the area. In this study, historic climate and streamflow trend from water year 1965 to 2014 is analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Climate trends are studied using annual rainfall, and annual average maximum and minimum temperature at 5 and 4 weather stations, respectively. Three of the precipitation stations show precipitation is decreasing in the watershed while minimum and maximum temperature has an increasing trend at three stations (p < 0.05). To assess whether streamflow and stream-channel characteristics are tended to increase or decrease monotonically with time, four variables - (1) annual maximum peak, (2) annual mean, (3) low to moderate and (4) moderate to high maximum peak streamflow were tested at 20 stream gauge sites. Only at 5 stream gage stations, significant streamflow trend is observed. At two stream gages, annual peak and annual average streamflow is increasing and at two stations, annual average streamflow has a decreasing trend. Low to moderate peak streamflow is increasing at two gage locations but there is no monotonic trend in moderate to high flows. As precipitation is decreasing in some part of the watershed, the effect of increasing urbanization in the area can be attributed for the localized increase in mean and peak streamflow. The trend analysis in weather and stream gage data will be presented in detail.

  4. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles van Riper III

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM, to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  5. Estudio de un rastro de huellas de Saurópodo del yacimiento de las Cuestas I (Santa Cruz de Yanguas, Soria, España). Implicaciones taxonómicas

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El yacimiento de Las Cuestas I (Santa Cruz de Yanguas, Soria), de la Aloformación Huérteles (Cuenca de Cameros) cuenta con casi 600 icnitas de dinosaurios, la mayoría agrupadas en 51 rastros: de terópodos, de ornitópodos y sobre todo de saurópodos. Entre ellos destaca LCU-I-37 por tener 28 pares de pisadas (pie-mano), de saurópodo con señales de dedos y por haberse encontrado algunos de sus contramoldes, tanto de las huellas de los pies como de las manos, con magníficas réplicas de sus uñas. ...

  6. Análisis de seguridad y salud ocupacional en el equipo de investigación a cargo del proyecto puesta en valor del patrimonio cultural del noreste de Santa Cruz a través del turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Beatriz Bravo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El equipo de investigación al que la becaria se incorpora, indaga el patrimonio cultural del noreste de Santa Cruz. Su plan de formación buscaba vincular el objeto de análisis con la Tecnicatura Universitaria en Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo que la alumna estudia. Resultó prioritario trabajar en el análisis de las condiciones propias de desempeño del equipo de investigación en relación a la seguridad, con el anhelo de contribuir al desarrollo de un sistema de gestión de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional –recientemente iniciado- para posteriormente, adaptarlo a los diversos sitios y lugares de patrimonio cultural regionales.

  7. Estado de situación de los sitios arqueológicos en relación con el turismo en Santa Cruz (Argentina. La visión del arqueólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Flavia Elena Carballo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los circuitos turísticos no convencionales como Patagonia reciben cada vez mayor interés mundial debido a que no sólo promueven el atractivo natural de la región, sino también la visita a lugares en los que se encuentran bienes arqueológicos. Cualquier actividad que no considere medidas que mitiguen las acciones que se ejerzan sobre el registro arqueológico le producirá un daño irreversible. Si bien la problemática referida al turismo y patrimonio arqueológico usado como recurso turístico ha sido debatida muy ampliamente por décadas a nivel nacional y en la provincia de Santa Cruz, aún no se logra una tarea conjunta entre las instituciones involucradas en la preservación de los bienes arqueológicos. En este trabajo se hace referencia a un estado de la cuestión en la provincia de Santa Cruz y se delinea una metodología que contempla los criterios de una adecuada preservación del registro arqueológico para una correcta regulación de la oferta al público. Entre otros elementos de enfoque, se encuadra la situación en una necesaria perspectiva a escala de ordenamiento y planificación territorial, como marco más general para insertar la problemática, en pos de un equilibrio entre conservación y desarrollo.

  8. Presencia de vectores de leishmaniosis cutánea y visceral en la Isla de Santa Cruz de Mompox, Departamento de Bolívar, Colombia Vectors of cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniosis in San Cruz de Mompox island, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Vélez Bernal

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó una prospección entomológica en la Isla de Santa Cruz de Mompox entre los días 23 y 29 de diciembre de 1993, con el fin de determinar si se trata de una zona de riesgo potencial de Infección por Leishmania; para ello se practicaron capturas de flebotomíneos en sitios de reposo diurno y con trampas de luz tipo CDC y Shannon, colocadas simultáneamente en el perl y el extradomicilio. Se colectaron 367 ejemplares de flebotomíneos cuya Identificación demostró por primera vez la presencia en la Isla de siete especies de Lutzomyia entre las cuales se encuentran Lu. panamensis y Lu. gomezi, vectoras de leishmaniosis cutánea y Lu. evansi vectora principal de la forma visceral en la Costa Caribe Colombiana; el hallazgo demuestra que la isla es una zona de riesgo potencial para leishmaniosis cutánea y visceral.

    An entomological survey was carried out at the island of Santa Cruz of Mompox between December 23 and 29, 1993, In order to determine if there is a potential risk for Leishmania infection. Phlebotominae were captured at sites of diurnal rest as well as using CDC and Shannon light traps, simultaneously located at extra and peridomiciliary sites. 367 specimens were collected, among them 7 species of Lutzomyia including Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi vectors of cutaneous leishmaniosis; also Lu. evansi, the main vector of visceral leishmaniosis In the Colombian Caribbean Coast. This is the first report implicating this island as a potential risk site for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniosis.

  9. Construction of two wind power plants of the company ENERCON GmbH of the type E-40 with a capacity of 600 kW each in the vicinity of the city Pico Truncado in the state Santa Cruz, Argentina. Final report; Aufbau von zwei Windenergieanlagen der Firma ENERCON GmbH vom Typ E-40 mit einer Leistung von jeweils ca. 500 kW in der Naehe der Stadt Pico Truncado im Bundesstaat Santa Cruz, Argentinien. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, M.

    2001-07-01

    The project included the delivery of two wind power plants of the type ENERCON E-40 with a capacity of 600 kW each to Argentina as a replacement for an existing, deactivated wind park consisting of 10 plants. The site of the wind energy plants is located in the vicinity of the city Pico Truncado in the state Santa Cruz. The frame of the project consisted of signing a contract with the city administration of Pico Truncado, disassembling the existing wind park, preparing the site for the construction of the two 600 kW plants, installing them and putting them into operation as fast as possible. The aim of the project was to point the way for wind energy at an early stage in the expanding South American markets for regenerative energy. Furthermore the export successes of ENERCO in Brasilia were supposed to be transferred to Argentina. The present project was a model example for the extension of ENERCON activities in South America. (orig.) [German] Das Vorhaben umfasste die Lieferung von zwei Windenergieanlagen des Typs ENERCON E-40 mit einer Leistung von je 600 kW nach Argentinien als Ersatz fuer einen bestehenden, ausser Betrieb befindlichen Windpark von 10 Anlagen. Der Standort der Windenergieanlagen liegt in der Naehe der Stadt Pico Truncado im Staate Santa Cruz. Es galt im Rahmen des Projektes einen Vertrag mit der Stadtverwaltung von Pico Truncado zu schliessen, den bestehenden Windpark abzubauen, den Standort fuer den Neubau der beiden 600 kW Anlagen vorzubereiten sowie diese schnellstmoeglich zu installieren und in Betrieb zu nehmen. Ein Ziel des Vorhabens war es, in den aufstrebenden suedarmerikanischen Maerkten fuer regenerative Energie fruehzeitig ein Zeichen fuer die Windenergie zu setzen. Zudem sollten die Exporterfolge ENERCONs in Brasilien auch auf den Nachbarstaat Argentinien uebertragen werden. Das vorliegende Projekt hatte somit Modellcharakter fuer die Erweiterung der ENERCON Aktivitaeten in Suedamerika. (orig.)

  10. El deslizamiento de rocas y detritos sobre elrío Santa Cruz y el aluvión resultante por el colapso del dique natural, AndesCentrales de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Perucca

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante el verano de 2005 un gran deslizamiento derocas y detritos ubicado en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de Santa Cruzobturó el valle del río Santa Cruz, en el sudeste de la provincia de San Juan(31º40'12''S; 70º16'18''O. Este deslizamiento originó una presa natural en laquebrada del río y formó un lago de volumen considerable. El 12 de noviembre de2005, probablemente por la enorme presión generada por la masa de agua contrala presa, se produjo el colapso parcial del dique natural, originándose uninesperado aluvión que provocó numerosas pérdidas económicas en las principaleslocalidades del departamento Calingasta y daños considerables en uno de losproyectos más relevantes de la provincia de San Juan, el dique Caracoles sobreel río San Juan. Debido a los costos elevados que implicaría la toma de medidasde mitigación en esta zona montañosa alejada y casi inaccesible, lasprincipales medidas que se pueden tomar se refieren a sistemas de alertatemprana de aluviones agua abajo, el monitoreo hidrológico en la presa y un seguimientosatelital anual para conocer la evolución del deslizamiento.

  11. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan Reconnaissance of hydrothermal alteration with the ASTER sensor, in the middle course of Río Santa Cruz (31°40' S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  12. Study of the Santa Catarina aquifer system (Mexico Basin) using magnetotelluric soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouteau, Michel; Krivochieva, Stefka; Castillo, Ramiro Rodriguez; Moran, Tomas Gonzalez; Jouanne, Virginie

    1994-02-01

    A tensor magnetotelluric test survey was carried out in the region of Santa Catarina, located in the Chalco sub-basin of the Mexico Basin. The objective was to define the stratification at depth with an emphasis on the geometry of the main aquifer of that region which is partially known from DC resistivity soundings and drilling. High-quality magnetotelluric soundings could be recorded in the immediate vicinity of large urban zones because the sub-surface is very conductive. Interpretation shows that the solid bedrock is located at a depth of at least 800 m to the south and 1300 m to the north; it could, however, be much deeper. Using complementary DC resistivity sounding and well-logging data, three main layers have been defined overlying the bedrock. These layers are, from surface to bottom, an unsaturated zone of sand, volcanic ash and clay about 10 m thick, followed by a very conductive (1.5 ohm·m) 200 m thick layer of sand and ash with intercalated clay, saturated with highly mineralized water, and finally a zone with resistivity increasing gradually to 60 ohm·m. The investigated deep aquifer constitutes most of this third layer. It consists of a sequence of sand, gravel, pyroclastites and mainly fractured basalts. MT resistivity soundings and magnetic transfer functions also indicate that a shallow resistive structure is dipping, from the northwest, into the lacustrine deposits of the basin. This geologic feature is likely to be highly permeable fractured basaltic flows, which provide a channel by which water contaminated by the Santa Catarina landfill may leak into the basin.

  13. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  14. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  15. PERFIL TABÁGICO E CLÍNICO DOS PORTADORES DE DOENÇA PULMONAR OBSTRUTIVA CRÔNICA QUE PARTICIPAM DE PESQUISA CLÍNICA EM SANTA CRUZ DO SUL - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma de Borba Schneiders

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e Objetivos: A Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC, que tem como principal fator de risco o tabagismo, se instala de forma lenta, progressiva e irreversível. Inicialmente a doença é assintomática e para os que permanecem fumando seu agravamento é mais acelerado. Desta forma, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as características sociodemográficas, história tabágica e função pulmonar dos portadores de DPOC, que participam de pesquisa clínica em Santa Cruz do Sul (SCS, RS. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 46 portadores de DPOC participantes do grupo de Reabilitação Pulmonar do Hospital Santa Cruz dos quais foram analisados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, história tabágica e prova de função pulmonar pela espirometria. Resultados: Os 46 portadores de DPOC foram distribuídos em ex-fumantes (n=34 e fumantes (n=12 com predomínio do sexo masculino, idade adulto avançada, etnia caucasiana, elevado número de pacientes com ensino fundamental incompleto e de baixa renda. O histórico familiar de DPOC foi mais expressivo nos fumantes e a presença de doenças respiratórias na infância foi igualmente distribuída entre os grupos. O tempo de tabagismo nos portadores de DPOC foi menor em ex-fumantes (p=0,004 e os mesmos apresentaram-se no estado mais grave da doença (pela relação VEF1/CVF; p=0,044 em comparação com os fumantes. Conclusão: Portadores de DPOC que participaram de pesquisa clínica em SCS foram frequentemente adultos de etnia caucasiana com alta carga tabágica (tanto fumantes quanto ex-fumantes e histórico familiar de DPOC. Os portadores de DPOC fumantes encontravam-se em estágio mais leve da doença. DESCRITORES: DPOC; Tabagismo; Epidemiologia; Avaliação.

  16. Valoración del impacto de efluentes minero industriales del carbón en el arroyo San José de Río Turbio en Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efluentes descargados al arroyo San José de Río Turbio al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina quedaron caracterizados mediante un análisis estadístico multivariado realizado con parámetros fisicoquímicos determinados sobre ellos (Caballero A. Dicho análisis permitió su diferenciación cualitativa y la identificación de los aportes que ocasiona cada uno de ellos. En éste trabajo se ha procedido en primer lugar a determinar la calidad de los vertidos y del agua del arroyo a partir de una escala de valoración. Dicha escala se confeccionó usando las conclusiones del análisis estadístico mencionado y la comparación de los valores obtenidos con los límites máximos de vuelco establecidos para la provincia de Santa Cruz (ley N° 2658, los Niveles guía argentinos de calidad de agua ambiente y los Niveles guía de la ley de protección Ambiental Nº 24585 (Código de minería argentino. Finalmente para valorar el impacto ocasionado por los efluentes minero industriales, se tomó en consideración además de la calidad, otros factores relevantes tales como caudal, tipo de vertido, intermitencia y peligrosidad; adoptando un modelo matemático particular que permitió asignar un puntaje asociado a una escala cualitativa. Como conclusión se pudo determinar mediante una metodología científica que el impacto ocasionado por las descargas minero industrial de carbón al curso de agua varía en un rango de alto a muy alto y esta determinada principalmente por aquellas provenientes de la planta depuradora de carbón y la central térmica.

  17. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  18. Prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad y factores asociados con valor predictivo-preventivo en escolares de 6 a 11 años de Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina

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    Inger Sally Padilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina la información de sobrepeso-obesidad en escolares es escasa. Los objetivos de este estudio son analizar la prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad y determinar los factores con valor preventivo en escolares de Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Se trata de un estudio de prevalencia. Se aplicó un muestreo probabilístico mixto. 1.645 escolares de 6 a 11 años fueron entrevistados con sus padres. El diagnóstico nutricional se hizo con el índice de masa corporal siguiendo los criterios del International Obesity Task Force. Las prevalencias de sobrepeso-obesidad encontradas fueron altas, 25,6% (IC95%, 23,5, 27,7 y 13,8% (IC95%, 12,1, 15,5 respectivamente, semejantes a resultados nacionales y superiores a otros estudios provinciales y latinoamericanos. Se construyó un modelo de predicción mediante análisis de regresión multivariado considerando como variable dependiente al exceso de peso. El modelo final incluye, tener un hermano o ninguno, alto consumo de comidas rápidas y alto consumo de gaseosas.

  19. Estudio microscópico y radioscópico de indicadores de salud bucal en una muestra de restos óseos de cazadores-recoletores tardíos del Lago Salitroso (noroeste de Santa Cruz

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    García Guraieb, Solana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En un trabajo reciente se realizó un estudio de salud bucal en una muestra de restos humanos perteneciente a cazadores recolectores tardíos (entre ca. 1200-350 años AP provenientes de chenques en la cuenca del lago Salitroso (Noroeste de Santa Cruz. Mediante la inspección visual se estudiaron 21 individuos de distinto sexo y edad, observándose bajas prevalencias de caries, abscesos, pérdida de dientes antemortem y altos grados de desgaste dental. Estos resultados coinciden con lo observado en otras muestras de cazadores-recolectores con dietas con una baja proporción relativa de alimentos vegetales ricos en azúcares y almidones. Teniendo en cuenta este antecedente, el objetivo del presente trabajo es ampliar los estudios de salud bucal mediante la incorporación de nuevos casos, nuevas variables (v.g. enfermedades periodontales y la diversificación de las técnicas de análisis utilizadas, principalmente a través del empleo de la radioscopía como técnica complementaria a la inspección visual. Este estudio permitirá, por un lado, estimar la concordancia entre las observaciones obtenidas a través de ambas técnicas de análisis y, por el otro, evaluar la persistencia de las tendencias observadas anteriormente en el comportamiento de estos indicadores

  20. Estudio de adecuación fisiológica y salud bucal de restos óseos de cazadores recolectores del holoceno tardío del lago Salitroso (noroeste de Santa Cruz

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    Guráieb, Ana Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de los estudios de salud y adecuación fisiológica de la cavidad oral, efectuados sobre una muestra de 30 individuos de distinto sexo y edad, correspondientes a grupos cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno tardío de la cuenca del lago Salitroso (Noroeste de Santa Cruz. Se emplearon técnicas macroscópicas y radiológicas para evaluar la prevalencia de caries, pérdida de dientes antemortem, abscesos y enfermedad periodontal. Asimismo, sólo de forma macroscópica, se relevó la prevalencia de cálculo dental y el grado de desgaste de la corona. Se observaron bajas prevalencias de caries, abscesos y pérdidas de piezas antemortem, altos grados de desgaste y moderadas frecuencias de cálculo dental. Se compararon estos resultados con aquellos obtenidos para otros grupos cazadores-recolectores. Los datos obtenidos en el lago Salitroso coinciden con lo observado para grupos con dietas altamente abrasivas y de bajo contenido de alimentos cariogénicos. Metodológicamente, la inclusión de técnicas radioscópicas permitió refinar el diagnóstico de abscesos, aunque mostró una baja sensibilidad para la detección de caries.

  1. Avaliação da compatibilidade entre processos produtivos e os ecossistemas locais pela determinação da capacidade suporte dos recursos hídricos: um estudo de caso em Santa Cruz do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa descreve a aplicação de métodos ecotoxicológicos para avaliar a capacidade de suporte do rio Pardinho, município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, frente ao lançamento de efluentes de diferentes origens: estação de tratamento de esgoto doméstico, frigorífico de suínos, indústria de alimentos (massas e biscoitos, indústria de curtimento de couro, indústria têxtil e lavanderia hospitalar. Os resultados obtidos permitiram identificar que em uma situação na qual qualquer um destes efluentes fosse lançado neste corpo receptor, mesmo que de forma isolada, resultaria em sérios prejuízos ambientais decorrentes de efeitos agudos e crônicos. A baixa vazão deste recurso hídrico reduz por conseqüência a sua capacidade de suportar impactos deste tipo, denunciando uma completa incompatibilidade entre as atividades geradoras destes resíduos e o ecossistema local. Assim, a alternativa para compatibilizar estes fatores passa pela otimização de processos industriais e a implantação de políticas voltadas ao reuso de águas no processo, de forma a minimizar o volume de efluente gerado e a sua ecotoxicidade.

  2. Gestión de residuos en un emprendimiento minero carbonífero caso de estudio: Yacimientos Carboníferos Río Turbio (YCRT Río Turbio, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Luís Abiuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un diagnostico ambiental basado en la información disponible, se propone un Procedimiento de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Domésticos y Especiales (RSD, RSE y medidas de manejo ambiental, con el fin de mejorar en breve plazo la situación actual de YCRT (Yacimientos Carboníferos Río Turbio Río Turbio, Santa Cruz, producto de años de un manejo ambiental deficiente. Dada la perspectiva a partir del año 2005, de un progresivo mejoramiento de las condiciones generales del yacimiento, a raíz de una decisión del gobierno nacional y la incorporación definitiva del carbón de Río Turbio a la matriz energética nacional, con la inminente construcción de una Central Térmica de 240 Mw. en Río Turbio que se conectara al Sistema Interconectado Nacional, cobra vital importancia el tratamiento del pasivo ambiental de YCRT, así como la planificación de los aspectos ambientales vinculados a su desarrollo actual y futuro.

  3. Digital single-channel seismic-reflection data from western Santa Monica basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normark, William R.; Piper, David J.W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Triezenberg, Peter; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2006-01-01

    During a collaborative project in 1992, Geological Survey of Canada and United States Geological Survey scientists obtained about 850 line-km of high-quality single-channel boomer and sleeve-gun seismic-reflection profiles across Hueneme, Mugu and Dume submarine fans, Santa Monica Basin, off southern California. The goals of this work were to better understand the processes that lead to the formation of sandy submarine fans and the role of sea-level changes in controlling fan development. This report includes a trackline map of the area surveyed, as well as images of the sleeve-gun profiles and the opportunity to download both images and digital data files (SEG-Y) of all the sleeve-gun profiles.

  4. El turismo en Santa Cruz y una caracterización del empleo generado. Su análisis en el epicentro turístico de la provincia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Blasco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone analizar la sustentabilidad del desarrollo de la actividad turística desde el punto de vista del empleo, tomando en cuenta su importante contribución hacia la economía regional. Al analizar la actividad turística y su dinámica, se avanza hacia una caracterización de la estructura empresaria predominante, y en dicho marco, su vinculación con el empleo.Estudios anteriores permitieron caracterizar la estructura productiva de la Provincia de Santa Cruz, los efectos de la transformación económica de los años ´90 y su evolución posterior a las crisis de los años 2001/2002 y la iniciada en el 2008.La tarea investigativa incluye la recopilación y actualización de datos e información estadística para el sector de actividad en lo económico y laboral, el procesamiento de la información producida, y el análisis y elaboración de los informes correspondientes.En tal sentido se ha trabajado con información cuali-cuantiativa para los diferentes niveles de análisis considerados, relevando, sistematizando y analizando información secundaria y documental relacionada al sector. Asimismo, y en cuanto a instrumentos metodológicos para la recolección de información primaria sectorial, se han diseñado encuestas semi estructuradas vinculadas al mercado laboral y demandas específicas por sector, las que fueron aplicadas sobre informantes calificados de la región.Si bien históricamente ha destacado en la Provincia de Santa de Santa Cruz lapreponderancia del sector primario -particularmente de la rama petrolera-, en los últimos años se ha podido relevar un fuerte crecimiento del sector turístico como emergente de una nueva dinámica productiva.La principal ventaja comparativa la ofrece el producto “glaciares”, el cual emerge como excluyente en las preferencias de los visitantes, constituyéndose las ciudades de El Calafate y El Chalten como epicentro turístico de la región.Se estudia la

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  6. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  7. Sedimentary pyrite δ34S differs from porewater sulfide in Santa Barbara Basin: Proposed role of organic sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Morgan Reed; Sessions, Alex L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-08-01

    Santa Barbara Basin sediments host a complex network of abiotic and metabolic chemical reactions that knit together the carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles. From a 2.1-m sediment core collected in the center of the basin, we present high-resolution profiles of the concentrations and isotopic compositions of all the major species in this system: sulfate, sulfide (∑H2S), elemental sulfur (S0), pyrite, extractable organic sulfur (OS), proto-kerogen S, total organic and dissolved inorganic carbon, and total and reducible iron. Below 10 cm depth, the core is characterized by low apparent sulfate reduction rates (biogeochemical cycles and redox structure in sedimentary paleoenvironments.

  8. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  9. Implicancias del conflicto Ameghino-Moreno sobre la colección de mamíferos fósiles realizada por Carlos Ameghino en su primera exploración al río Santa Cruz, Argentina Implications of the Ameghino-Moreno conflict on the collection of fossil mammals made by Carlos Ameghino during his first exploration of the Santa Cruz river, Argentina

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    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre de 1887, Carlos Ameghino, Ayudante Preparador de Paleontología del Museo de La Plata, retornaba de una fructífera expedición a las barrancas del río Santa Cruz, encomendada por el Director de dicha institución, Francisco P. Moreno. Hacia fines de ese año, Florentino Ameghino, Secretario Subdirector del Museo de La Plata, dio a conocer dichos hallazgos describiendo sucintamente 122 taxones de los cuales 110 eran nuevas especies. Al poco tiempo, Florentino era exonerado del Museo, negándosele el acceso a las colecciones. No obstante, en 1889 Ameghino amplió sus descripciones y figuró 74 de los taxones de 1887. En 1891 Florentino Ameghino explicó que sus descripciones y figuras de 1889 se basaron en apuntes y croquis realizados antes de ser exonerado. Llamativamente, muchos de los ejemplares figurados se encuentran depositados en la Colección Naci onal Ameghino, alojada en el Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia". En 1980, basándose en este impensado destino de los fósiles, Larry Marshall concluyó que Florentino Ameghino se habría apropiado de una parte de la colección de 1887 y sobre ésta basó su obra de 1889. Las evidencias aquí presentadas avalan la apropiación de ejemplares propuesta por Marshall y brinda un marco de referencia para evaluar la conformación de las series tipo de las especies de 1887. Por último, revelan de que forma el contexto histórico, la competencia entre instituciones y los anhelos personales se conjugaron para romper lo que debió haber sido una asociación científica de excelencia.In September 1887, Carlos Ameghino, Assistant Preparator of Paleontology at the Museo de La Plata, returned to the museum after a successful expedition to the banks of the Santa Cruz River. He had been commissioned by the director of this institution, Francisco P. Moreno, to carry out this fieldwork. By the end of that year, Florentino Ameghino, Assistant Director of the museum

  10. Depositional tracts and stratigraphic architecture of the Itajaí Basin sedimentary sucessions (Neoproterozoic, northeastern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Michel Silva Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Itajaí Basin show depositional trends and a stratigraphic framework characteristics of foreland basin system. The sedimentary environments have developed in basin conditions ranging from deep marine context, transitional shallow marine, to continental. Stratigraphic architecture comprises three depositional tracts (DT: DTI - submarine fans system that records the initial basin sedimentation and involves frontal and distal turbiditic deposits; DTII - transitional to shallow marine depositional system that represents the efective infill fase of basin, and includes deltaic succession with braided channels dominated plain; and DTIII - fluvial braided and alluvial fan depositional system that comprises the final stage of basin sedimentation. Arkoses and greywacke of the DTI present paleocurrent unimodals patterns and general trend to south-southeast, suggesting source area from Santa Catarina Granulitic Complex. The sandstones and conglomerates of DTII and DTIII have opposite paleocurrent pattern, indicating source area from both Metamorphic Brusque Complex and Florianópolis Batolith. Integration of paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic data, with previous information (U-Pb in detrital zircon, allowed a consistent interpretation on the sedimentary evolution and detrital sources of the basin and represent a progress on the discussions on the knowledge of the Itajaí Basin and its significance in the evolutionary context of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  11. Integrating TDEM and MT methods for characterization and delineation of the Santa Catarina aquifer (Chalco Sub-Basin, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivochieva, Stefi; Chouteau, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys were undertaken in the region of Santa Catarina, located in the Chalco Sub-Basin of the Mexico Basin. The objective was to constrain the geometry of the fresh water aquifer and confirm the continuity of the basaltic flows between the volcano and the sedimentary basin. In order to define the stratification at depth with an emphasis on the geometry of the main aquifer, 11 MT and 5 TDEM soundings were recorded along a north-south profile. Interpretation of MT soundings show that the bedrock is located at a depth of at least 800-1000 m. Using TDEM apparent resistivity curves to constrain the high frequency MT data, three main layers were defined overlying the bedrock. These layers are, from the surface to bottom, a 20- to 40-m-thick layer of sands, ash and clay, followed by a very conductive 200-m-thick layer of sand and ash, saturated with highly mineralized water and, finally, a zone with gradually increasing resistivities, corresponding to the main aquifer. The TDEM data, the magnetic transfer functions and the 2D MT model also indicate that a shallow resistive structure is dipping, from the northwest, into the lacustrine deposits of the basin. This feature is likely to be highly permeable fractured basaltic flows, evidenced also in one of the water wells. To verify the presence of fractured basalts below the volcano ranges, 38 TDEM soundings were collected on the flanks of the Santa Catarina range. Layered models obtained from the TDEM soundings enabled an assessment of a major conductive zone (1-10 Ω m) at depth. Two hypothesis are envisaged and the nature of this zone is attributed either to a clayey layer or to fractured basaltic flows. If the latter possibility is confirmed, this continuous zone could provide a channel by which the water contaminated by the Santa Catarina landfill may leak into the basin.

  12. Distinguishing between water column and sedimentary denitrification in the Santa Barbara Basin using the stable isotopes of nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, D. M.; Robinson, R.; Knapp, A. N.; van Geen, A.; McCorkle, D. C.; Brandes, J. A.; Thunell, R. C.

    2003-05-01

    Below its sill depth, the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is commonly suboxic ([O2] ˜ 3 μM), with only brief periods of ventilation. Associated with development of suboxia, the concentration of nitrate decreases with depth into the basin without an associated decrease in phosphate, indicating that a substantial fraction of the nitrate supplied to the basin is removed by denitrification. Coincident with the decrease in nitrate concentration across the "redoxcline" (the interface between oxic and suboxic waters) within the SBB, there is an increase in the 15N/14N of that nitrate, as would be anticipated from the isotopic fractionation associated with denitrification. However, the increase in 15N/14N of nitrate is much smaller than occurs in the open eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) for a comparable amount of nitrate loss. Both the concentrations of N species within the basin and measurements of nitrate 18O/16O suggest that the lower-than-expected 15N enrichment in the suboxic SBB involves denitrification, rather than being due to some unknown source of low-15N/14N N to the deep SBB. Calculations with a range of models of nitrate supply and consumption indicate that the degree of nitrate consumption in the basin is too small for differences in water circulation to explain the isotopic differences between the Santa Barbara Basin and the open ETNP. Previous studies indicate that the isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification is negligible due to nitrate diffusion in sediment pore waters. Thus we infer that the small magnitude of the isotopic enrichment of SBB water column nitrate is due to the importance of sedimentary denitrification within the basin. Assuming that water column and sedimentary denitrification have isotope effects of 25 and 1.5 per mil, respectively, our results suggest that sedimentary denitrification accounts for more than 75% of the nitrate loss within the suboxic SBB.

  13. Coccolithophore response to climate and surface hydrography in Santa Barbara Basin, California, AD 1917–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grelaud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The varved sedimentary AD 1917–2004 record from the depositional center of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB, California was analyzed with monthly to annual resolution to yield relative abundances of six coccolithophore species representing at least 96% of the coccolithophore assemblage. Seasonal/annual relative abundances respond to climatic and surface hydrographic conditions in the SBB, whereby (i the three species G. oceanica, H. carteri and F. profunda are characteristic of the strength of the northward flowing warm California Counter Current, (ii the two species G. ericsonii and G. muellerae are associated with the cold equatorward flowing California Current, (iii and E. huxleyi appears to be endemic to the SBB. Spectral analyses on relative abundances of these species show that all are influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and/or by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. Increased relative abundances of G. oceanica and H. carteri are associated with warm ENSO events, G. muellerae responds to warm PDO events, and the abundance of G. ericsonii increases during cold PDO events. Morphometric parameters measured on E. huxleyi, G. muellerae and G. oceanica indicate increasing coccolithophore calcification from ~1917 until 2004 concomitant with rising pCO2 and sea surface temperature in the region of the SBB.

  14. La resignificación del contenido agua en geografía. Un análisis de los diseños curriculares del ciclo básico en la provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Ariel Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se basa en la descripción y análisis de los diseños curriculares, intenta resignificar el contenido agua en el ciclo básico de la secundaria, brindando luego a la comunidad educativa una serie de propuestas didácticas que puedan resultar interesantes para los docentes y alumnos sobre el desarrollo curricular de dicho contenido.La idea de trabajar esta temática en las escuelas surge a partir de la importancia que se le otorga al contenido agua en diversos ámbitos extra escolares concediéndole a éste un valor significativo como recurso fundamental para la vida, fuente de energía, uso recreativo ó como un bien económico, entre otros.Por tal motivo y viendo que este trabajo tiene un marcado acento en la temática agua y que además nos encontramos con una variada información sobre la misma, se busca saber cuál es la significatividad que le otorga el Estado en sus diseños curriculares y libros de textos, cuál los docentes y cómo es recepcionada y trabajada toda esta información. En este sentido el trabajo tiene como objetivo resignificar el contenido agua en los programas, planificaciones y diseños curriculares, con la finalidad de poner en valor su discusión en el ámbito escolar, siendo este recurso importante en la provincia de Santa Cruz.Para finalizar, lo que se pretende también es brindar a toda la comunidad educativa propuestas didácticas innovadoras contextualizadas, con la idea de trabajarlas en clase y generar aprendizajes significativos en torno al uso, valoración y cuidado del agua.

  15. Ecología trófica de una especie endémica de Patagonia Sur: el Ostrero Austral (Haematopus Leucopodus en el estuario del Río Gallegos (Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Juan Pablo Leiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecología trófica de una especie endémica de Patagonia sur: el Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Este estudio contribuye con información sobre la variación poblacional del Ostrero Austral, el comportamiento alimentario y su dieta en un sector del estuario del río Gallegos, durante el año 2010. Asimismo, se presentan las variaciones temporales en la densidad, biomasa y longitud máxima de valvas de la población de alme-jas (Darina solenoides disponibles, en la zona llamada Orenaike. La abundancia máxima de ostreros fue de 650 en el mes de marzo y el mínimo de 15 individuos en octubre. La tasa media de alimenta-ción fue de 0,67 presas/min. Los ostreros dedicaron 93,20% del tiempo a la búsqueda de alimento; mientras que el resto se distribuyó entre manipulación e ingesta de la presa, y una pequeña proporción (0,56% al acicalamiento o descanso. Las principales presas fueron los moluscos bivalvos Darina solenoides y Mytilus edulis platensis las cuales aportaron en conjunto casi el 60% de la dieta. Los poliquetos también resultaron importantes, contribuyendo con más del 40% a la alimentación. La densidad media de almejas disponibles en el sustrato fue de 56,08 ind/m2, la biomasa media de 0,189 g/ind y el largo de valva promedio de 24,89 mm. Las dimensiones medias de las presas seleccionadas por el ostrero fueron 28,25 mm de largo máximo y 12,98 mm de alto para Darina solenoides y 26,43 mm de largo máximo y 13,55 mm de alto para Mytilus edulis platensis, lo que estaría indicando que es una especie altamente selectiva en relación a las dimensiones de sus presas. La biomasa media de las presas consumidas fue de 0,194 g de peso seco/almeja.

  16. Perfil antropométrico e a relação da flexibilidade com a dor e desconforto em trabalhadores da indústria de Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Nepomuceno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhadores industriários estão expostos a diversas situações que podem agravar a sua saúde. A promoção da saúde no trabalho é de extrema importância e exige intervenção interdisciplinar. Objetivo: identificar o perfil antropométrico e a relação de flexibilidade com a presença de dor e desconforto em trabalhadores da indústria do município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com trabalhadores industriários. Na avaliação antropométrica foram analisados índice de massa corporal e percentual de gordura, já para a flexibilidade foram realizados os testes do manguito rotador e sentar e alcançar. A dor e desconforto foi identificada através de uma figura do corpo humano onde eles referiam estes sintomas. Resultados: a maioria dos industriários apresentam excesso de peso (56,4% e bom percentual de gordura (49,2%, porém possuem resultados inadequados de flexibilidade de ombro (71,0% e parte posterior de tronco e pernas (64,6% e presença de dor e desconforto em ombros (50% e costas (26,6%. Ao relacionar a flexibilidade com a presença de dor e desconforto, percebe-se que as variáveis não se relacionam diretamente. Considerações finais: o perfil dos trabalhadores da indústria se caracteriza por excesso de peso, baixa aptidão na flexibilidade e presença de dor e desconforto. Sobre a dor e desconforto observa-se uma tendência de associação entre níveis de flexibilidade inadequada e a presença destes sintomas.

  17. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  18. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  19. Biologia dos Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) da bacia hidrográfica de Ratones, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Ratones hidrografic basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yara Maria Rauh Müller; Evelise Maria Nazari; Dib Ammar; Eduardo Cargnin Ferreira; Ingrid Thaís Beltrame; Cristiane Pacheco

    1999-01-01

    Biological aspects of palemonids, collected from March, 91 to December, 95 in the Ratones Hidrographic Basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, have been investigated. Individuals of different sizes of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Weigmann, 1836), Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium olfersii (Weigmann, 1836), Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880), Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 and Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871) were registered. These prawns, showed reproductive str...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, ARIZONA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  2. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-11-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  3. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDRAULICS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. The analysis of remote sensing data to delineate landsystem tracts in proglacial valleys in the Río Santa Basin, Cordillera Blanca, Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro Perez, R. A.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Río Santa Basin is an important glacially-influenced basin of social, economic and cultural importance to the country of Perú. It produces a large portion of Peru's hydroelectricity, is an important agricultural area, and hosts two major mining complexes. The Río Santa receives its water from precipitation, glacial runoff from over 450 glaciers draining the Cordillera Blanca, and groundwater discharge. Despite being the largest tropical glacier ice field in the world, the area of glacial coverage in the Cordillera Blanca has decreased from 825 km2 in 1930 to 528 km2 in 2003. It is estimated that glacial runoff contributes 10-20% of the Río Santa's annual flow but during the dry season it can contribute up to 66% of water flow with groundwater supplying the remainder. The contribution of glacial meltwater makes the Río Santa less susceptible to discharge variability caused by inter-annual variation in precipitation. Due to decreased meltwater contributions, the urban centers and rural communities in the basin are expected to face severe water scarcity in the future, especially during the dry season. This poster will show the results of a remote sensing survey, using Google Earth and LiDAR data, to delineate landsystem tracts and components in several proglacial valleys in the Cordillera Blanca. The results of this survey allow detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape which will in turn allow a better understanding of the glacial history and subsurface geology of the area. These findings will better inform current hydrogeological models used to determine the sustainability of water resources in the Río Santa basin. Understanding the landsystem architecture, sedimentology and subsurface stratigraphy of the basin will also allow these models to more accurately predict the impact that future climate change will have on water resources and the people of the Río Santa basin.

  6. 3D Fault Geometry and Basin Evolution in the Northern Continental Borderland Offshore Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, C. S.; Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C.

    2007-12-01

    Grids of recently released high-quality industry multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data, combined with bathymetry and offshore well data are used to map digital 3D fault surfaces and stratigraphic reference horizons in the northern Continental Borderland offshore of southern California. This area experienced large-scale oblique crustal extension and translation associated with the initiation and development of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The 3D surfaces of structure and stratigraphy can thus be used to better understand and evaluate regional patterns of uplift, subsidence, fault interaction and other aspects of plate boundary deformation. Our mapping in Santa Cruz basin and on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge reveals an unusual pattern of faulting, folding and basin subsidence. This subsidence is significant (up to 3-4 km since early-Miocene time) and is responsible for the development of several major Borderland basins. Vertical motions can be estimated from an early-Miocene unconformity that likely represents a paleo-horizontal, near-paleo-sea-level erosional surface. As such, it can be used to reconstruct Borderland forearc geometry prior to rifting, subsidence and subsequent basin inversion. Major findings to date include: (a) a better characterization of the complex 3D geometry and pinch-out of the eastern edge of the northern forearc Nicolas terrane and its implications for Borderland basin development, plate reconstructions, and vertical motions associated with oblique rifting; (b) recognition that the East Santa Cruz Basin fault, previously thought to be a predominantly high-angle, large- displacement right-slip fault representing the eastern edge of the Nicolas terrane, is in fact a series of reactivated right-stepping, NE-dipping reverse-separation faults; (c) discovery that NW-striking faults associated with Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge bend west into a horse-tail structure to interact with and contribute to the southern frontal

  7. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  8. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  9. Seafloor character from air-photo data-Santa Barbara Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Seafloor character was derived from interpretations of aerial photograph-derived kelp-distribution data available for Santa Cruz Island in the Santa Barbara Channel,...

  10. Estratigrafía y sedimentología de las unidades del Cretácico superior-Paleógeno aflorantes en la margen sureste del lago Viedma, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene units cropping out at the south-eastern margin of Lake Viedma, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Marenssi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste del lago Viedma afloran sedimentitas del Cretácico superior y Paleógeno de la cuenca Austral. En el perfil de Barrancas Blancas se describen 28 m de areniscas y fangolitas amarillentas correspondientes al Miembro La Asunción de la Formación Anita que son cubiertas en forma concordante y transicional por 390 m de areniscas y pelitas grisáceas de la Formación Cerro Fortaleza. Las primeras representan la progradación de ambientes de plataforma marina dominada por el oleaje mientras que las segundas atestiguan la sedimentación en ambientes transicionales, fluviales y fluviales con acción mareal. La evolución general de los paleoambientes sedimentarios y secuencias depositacionales, la procedencia de las areniscas y direcciones de paleocorrientes indican que estas rocas fueron depositadas durante la etapa de cuenca de retroarco (sag. En el cerro Pirámides se hallan presentes sedimentitas terciarias que se disponen en contacto tectónico sobre las rocas de la Formación Cerro Fortaleza. El escaso espesor preservado de las areniscas verdes de la Formación Man Aike (Late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary rocks of the Austral Basin crop out on the south-eastern margin of Lake Viedma. In the Barrancas Blancas section, 28 m of yellowish sandstone and mudstone of the La Asunción Member of the Anita Formation are transitionally covered by 390 m of greyish sandstone and mudstone of the Cerro Fortaleza Formation. The former represent a prograding barred nearshore system, whereas the latter correspond to paralic, fluvial and fluvial-tidal sedimentation. The evolution of the depositional sequences, sedimentary palaeoenvironments, sandstone provenance and palaeocurrents indicate that the sediments were deposited during the back-arc (sag stage of the basin. At Cerro Piramides, Tertiary sedimentary rocks rest with fault contact on top of the Cerro Fortaleza Formation. The limited thickness (<1m preserved of greenish sandstone of the

  11. Discerning Between Water Column and Sedimentary Denitrification in the Santa Barbara Basin Using the Nitrogen Isotopes of Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, A. N.; Sigman, D. M.; van Geen, L.; McCorkle, D. C.; Brandes, J. A.; Thunell, R. C.

    2001-05-01

    Below its sill depth, the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is seasonally anoxic, making the basin suitable for denitrification in both the water column and the sediments. Deviations of nitrate and phosphate concentrations from Redfield ratios provide quantitative estimates of the nitrate consumed by denitrification in the SBB. However, there are no integrative constraints on whether denitrification occurs predominantly in the water column or in the sediments. Associated with a sharp increase in the nitrate deficit across the oxic/anoxic interface within the SBB, there is an increase in the d15N of water column nitrate, as would be expected from denitrification. However, given the size of the nitrate deficit, the increase of d15N of nitrate is much smaller than would be expected from the accepted intrinsic isotope effect of denitrification of 20-30 per mil, assuming a Rayleigh model for uptake. In situations where both transport and removal are important, the Rayleigh model provides only an approximation of the actual fractionation. However, model calculations suggest that transport within the water column cannot explain the observed d15N discrepancy in the SBB. Benthic lander studies of Puget Sound sediments have demonstrated that the isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification is negligible, due to the effects of substrate diffusion in sediment porewaters (Brandes and Devol, 1997). We present new porewater measurements from the Carolina slope in the North Atlantic that confirm this conclusion for other sedimentary environments. Thus, we infer that the small magnitude of the isotopic enrichment of SBB water column nitrate is due to the importance of denitrification in the sediments relative to the water column. Assuming that water column and sedimentary denitrification have isotope effects of 25 and 0 per mil, respectively, model calculations indicate that sedimentary denitrification accounts for more than 75% of the nitrate loss within the anoxic Santa Barbara Basin.

  12. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  13. ANÁLISE TEMPORAL DO USO DO SOLO E COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS ÍNDICES DE VEGETAÇÃO NDVI E SAVI NO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA CRUZ DO RIO PARDO – SP USANDO IMAGENS LANDSAT-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar DEMARCHI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The current essay intends to analyze the temporal soil use evolution in the city of Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo – SP through the supervised classification of the satellite images Landsat-5 TM according to the maximum likelihood, as well as verify the mapping accuracy by Kappa coefficient, compare the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indexes in different understanding factors for the canopy substrate and determine the vegetal cover percentage in all methods used on 05-26-2007, 01-07-2009 and 04-29-2009. The Maxver classification showed clearly several spatial changes in the soil use in the considered period. The most appropriated vegetation indexes were the NDVI and SAVI – 0,25 factor, which showed similar values of vegetal cover percentage, but discrepant in respect to the inferred value for MAXVER classification.

  14. Methane consumption in waters overlying a hydrate-associated mound in the Santa Monica Basin : a project synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, M.B.; Mau, S.; Valentine, D.L.; Reed, J.H. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Hallam, S.J.; Yang, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the role of methane hydrates in the global carbon cycle and climate change requires an understanding of methane consumption in hydrate-associated environments. A dual-component microbial biofilter consumes up to 80 per cent of methane produced in the marine environment. Throughout most of the oceans around the world, anaerobic methane oxidation within sediment prevents large quantities of methane from leaving the seafloor. However, in regions of increased methane production, methane is released to the water column. The water column component of the marine biofilter for methane is the largest uncharacterized global sink for methane. This study combined geochemical and molecular biology to develop a quantitative understanding of methane consumption in the marine water column of the Southern California Bight. The paper presented geochemical data demonstrating that the degree of basin enclosure and basin-scale circulation patterns, were first order controls on methane oxidation rates in the Santa Monica Basin (SMB). The paper also presented genetic data showing similarities and differences in methanotrophic communities in distinctive horizons within the SMB water column. It described the study site, sampling, and methods as well as the preliminary findings. A contrast was observed between methane concentration and methane turnover time profiles. It was concluded that although methane concentration is a first-order control on methanotrophic activity, community concentration, dilution and seeding control the broad scale efficacy of methane consumption. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

    Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (δD et δ18O) et le tritium d

  16. Subsurface recharge to the Tesuque aquifer system from selected drainage basins along the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, Maryann

    1995-01-01

    Water budgets developed for basins of five streams draining the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico indicate that subsurface inflow along the mountain front is recharging the Tesuque aquifer system of the Espanola Basin. Approximately 14,700 acre-feet of water per year, or 12.7 percent of average annual precipitation over the mountains, is calculated to leave the mountain block and enter the basin as subsurface recharge from the drainage basins of the Rio Nambe, Rio en Medio, Tesuque Creek, Little Tesuque Creek, and Santa Fe River. About 5,520 acre- feet per year, or about 12 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio Nambe drainage basin; about 1,710 acre- feet per year, or about 15 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio en Medio drainage basin; about 1,530 acre- feet, or about 10 percent of average annual precipi- tation, is calculated to enter from the Tesuque Creek drainage basin; about 1,790 acre-feet, or about 19 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Little Tesuque Creek drainage basin; and about 4,170 acre-feet per year, or about 12 percent average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Santa Fe River drainage basin. Calculated subsurface recharge values were used to define maximum fluxes permitted along the specified-flux boundary defining the mountain front of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in a numerical computer model of the Tesuque aquifer system near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  18. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  19. Temperature, salinity, radioisotopes, sediments, and other data from Phase II Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Monitoring Program in the Santa Maria Basin, California from 21 Oct 1986 to 08 Mar 1987 (NODC Accession 8900198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the data collected for the California Phase II OCS Monitoring Program of the Santa Maria Basin by Dr. Hyland from Battelle Ocean Science and...

  20. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    sand and small vegetated sand dunes are forming. There are no trees on the beach; those on the cliffs are pine, cypress, eucalyptus and various...centerline. It would create in essence a 1- to 2-foot wide "concrete/grout curtain" inside the center of the Jetty structure. The materials used in the east

  1. 3D Structural and Stratigraphic Architecture of the Northwest Santa Barbara Basin: Implications for Slope Stability and Submarine Landslide Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A.; Brothers, D. S.; Kluesner, J.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple submarine landslides have been documented on the north flank of the Santa Barbara Basin and such failures are considered capable of generating local tsunami hazards to the Santa Barbara region. Past 2D seismic reflection data has provided a general view of the regional framework geology resulting from north-south compression, but fails to identify along-strike variations of faults and folds. This study uses industry 3D seismic reflection data encompassing the slope surrounding the 3.8 km2-Gaviota submarine landslide to investigate structural and stratigraphic controls of slope failure in this region. The 3D depth-migrated volume shows a complex network of faults that result in both broad and local zones of compression, folding, and uplift along the slope. One localized zone of enhanced anticlinal folding and uplift associated with small-scale thrust faults is located directly beneath the Gaviota slide, while another is beneath a seafloor fissure west of the slide inferred to represent incipient failure. New high-resolution 2D transects constrain the character of shallow deformation above the locally uplifted blocks. 3D isopach maps indicate the seafloor fissures trend along a key threshold of thickness between the seafloor and a shallow horizon; the fissures are also coincide with an apparent zone of shallow, gas-charged strata that onlap the steeply dipping flanks of local anticlinal deformation. Because the seafloor gradient near the Gaviota slide is significantly lower than the internal friction angle for fine-grained marine sediments, we propose that a combination of active deformation, sediment compaction, and gas charging acted to precondition the slope of the Gaviota landslide for failure by reducing the shear strength. Similar factors occur beneath intact sections of the slope adjacent to the slide, which should be considered prone to future landsliding.

  2. Analyses of hydrocarbons in BLM sediment intercalibration sample from Santa Barbara basin and spiked with API South Louisiana crude oil. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, J W; Tripp, B W; Sass, J

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report is made of a BLM intercalibration sediment sample from the Santa Barbara basin spiked with South Louisiana crude oil. The two subsamples reported were analyzed by a procedure described in the appendix for which a separate abstract was written. Because of the high oil content of the sediment the usual thin layer chromatography procedure resulted in an overloaded plate. An appendix was indexed separately. (JSR)

  3. A late Eocene-early Oligocene transgressive event in the Golfo San Jorge basin: palynological results and stratigraphic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, José M.; Foix, Nicolas; Guerstein, Gladys Raquel; Guler, Maria Veronica; Irigoyen, Martin; Moscoso, Pablo; Giordano, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A new Cenozoic dataset in the subsurface of the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Santa Cruz province) allowed to identify a non-previously recognized transgressive event of late Eocene to early Oligocene age. Below of a marine succession containing a dinoflagellate cyst assemblage that characterizes the C/G palynological zone of the Chenque Formation (early Miocene), a 80–110 m thick marine succession contains a palynological assemblage integrated by Gelatia inflata, Diphyes colliger...

  4. Geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin -- Proceedings of the 5th annual Espa?ola basin workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 7-8, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents abstracts of technical studies that are focused on the hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin, a major subbasin of the Cenozoic Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande, Rio Chama, Santa Fe River, and their tributaries carry important surface water in the Espa?ola basin. Sediments and interbedded volcanic rocks fill the Espa?ola basin and form extensive aquifer systems for ground water. Surface and ground water provide the principal sources of water for most residents of the basin, including people in the cities of Santa Fe, Espa?ola, and Los Alamos as well as Native Americans in several Pueblos. The abstracts describe results of technical studies that were presented either as poster exhibits or oral presentations at the fifth-annual Espa?ola basin workshop, held March 7-8 of 2006 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The principal goal of this workshop was to share information about ongoing studies. The Espa?ola basin workshop was hosted by the Espa?ola basin technical advisory group (EBTAG) and sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the Water Research Technical Assistance Office of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Abstracts in this report have been grouped into six information themes: Basic Water Data, Water Quality and Water Chemistry, Water Balance and Stream/Aquifer Interaction, Data Integration and Hydrologic Model Testing, Three-Dimensional Hydrogeological Architecture, and Geologic Framework. Abstracts submitted by U.S. Geological Survey authors in this report have had their technical content peer reviewed before they were included in the report. Technical reviews were not required for abstracts submitted by authors outside the USGS, although most did receive peer reviews within their originating agencies. Taken together, the abstracts in this report provide a view of the current status of hydrogeologic research within the Espa?ola basin.

  5. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  6. Spontaneous vegetation on overburden piles in the Coal Basin of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, R.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Leal-Filho, L.S.; Hennies, W.T. [University of Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this work was to select indigenous vegetal species for restoration programs aiming at the regeneration of ombrophilous dense forest. Thirty-five spoil piles located in the county of Sideropolis, Santa Catarina, that received overburden disposal for 39 years (1950-1989) were selected for study because they exhibited remarkable spontaneous regrowth of trees compared to surrounding spoil piles. Floristic inventory covered the whole area of the 35 piles, whereas survey on phytosociology and natural regeneration studies were conducted in 70 plots distributed along the 35 piles. Floristic inventory recorded 83 species from 28 botanical families. Herbaceous terricolous plants constituted the predominant species (47.0%), followed by shrubs (26.5%), trees (19.3%), and vines (7.2%). Severe chemical (acidic pH and lack of nutrients) and physical (coarse substrate and slope angle of 40-50{sup o} characteristics displayed by the overburden piles constituted limitations to floristic diversity and size of indigenous trees, indicating the need for substrate reclamation prior to forest restoration.

  7. Biologia dos Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda da bacia hidrográfica de Ratones, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of Palaemonidae (Crustacea, Decapoda from the Ratones hidrografic basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Maria Rauh Müller

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of palemonids, collected from March, 91 to December, 95 in the Ratones Hidrographic Basin, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, have been investigated. Individuals of different sizes of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Weigmann, 1836, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium olfersii (Weigmann, 1836, Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880, Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 and Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871 were registered. These prawns, showed reproductive strategies, typical of the Palaemonidae (Rafinesque, 1815, associated to species particularities, and seem to adapt to different environmental conditions.

  8. Calcification of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and carbonate ion concentration: Results from the Santa Barbara Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Emily B.; Thunell, Robert C.; Marshall, Brittney J.; Holm, Jessica A.; Tappa, Eric J.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Baoshan

    2016-08-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal calcification intensity, reflected by shell wall thickness, has been hypothesized to covary with the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Here we use both sediment trap and box core samples from the Santa Barbara Basin to evaluate the relationship between the calcification intensity of the planktonic foraminifera species Globigerina bulloides, measured by area density (µg/µm2), and the carbonate ion concentration of seawater ([CO32-]). We also evaluate the influence of both temperature and nutrient concentration ([PO43-]) on foraminiferal calcification and growth. The presence of two G. bulloides morphospecies with systematically different calcification properties and offset stable isotopic compositions was identified within sampling populations using distinguishing morphometric characteristics. The calcification temperature and by extension calcification depth of the more abundant "normal" G. bulloides morphospecies was determined using δ18O temperature estimates. Calcification depths vary seasonally with upwelling and were used to select the appropriate [CO32-], temperature, and [PO43-] depth measurements for comparison with area density. Seasonal upwelling in the study region also results in collinearity between independent variables complicating a straightforward statistical analysis. To address this issue, we use additional statistical diagnostics and a down core record to disentangle the respective roles of each parameter on G. bulloides calcification. Our results indicate that [CO32-] is the primary variable controlling calcification intensity while temperature influences shell size. We report a modern calibration for the normal G. bulloides morphospecies that can be used in down core studies of well-preserved sediments to estimate past [CO32-].

  9. Budgets and behaviors of uranium and thorium series isotopes in the Santa Monica Basin off the California Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei.

    1991-12-16

    Samples from three time-series sediment traps deployed in the Santa Monica Basin off the California coast were analyzed to study the flux and scavenging of uranium and thorium series isotopes. Variations of uranium and thorium series isotopes fluxes in the water column were obtained by integrating these time-series deployment results. Mass and radionuclide fluxes measured from bottom sediment traps compare favorably with fluxed determined from sediment core data. This agreement suggests that the near-bottom sediment traps are capable of collecting settling particles representative of the surface sediment. The phase distributions of {sup 234}Th in the water column were calculated by an inverse method using sediment trap data, which help to study the variations of {sup 234}Th scavenging in the water column. Scavenging and radioactive decay of {sup 234}Th are the two principal processes for balancing {sup 234}Th budget in the water column. The residence times of dissolved and particulate {sup 234}Th were determined by a {sup 234}Th scavenging model.

  10. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  11. Coarse-grained sediment delivery and distribution in the Holocene Santa Monica Basin, California: Implications for evaluating source-to-sink flux at millennial time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, B.W.; Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.M.; Covault, J.A.; Graham, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing accumulations of coarse-grained terrigenous sediment from deep-marine basins to evaluate the relative contributions of and history of controls on sediment flux through a source-to-sink system has been difficult as a result of limited knowledge of event timing. In this study, six new radiocarbon (14C) dates are integrated with five previously published dates that have been recalibrated from a 12.5-m-thick turbidite section from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1015 in Santa Monica Basin, offshore California. This borehole is tied to high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles that cover an 1100 km2 area of the middle and lower Hueneme submarine fan and most of the basin plain. The resulting stratigraphic framework provides the highest temporal resolution for a thick-bedded Holocene turbidite succession to date, permitting an evaluation of source-to-sink controls at millennial (1000 yr) scales. The depositional history from 7 ka to present indicates that the recurrence interval for large turbidity-current events is relatively constant (300-360 yr), but the volume of sediment deposited on the fan and in the basin plain has increased by a factor of 2 over this period. Moreover, the amount of sand per event on the basin plain during the same interval has increased by a factor of 7. Maps of sediment distribution derived from correlation of seismic-reflection profiles indicate that this trend cannot be attributed exclusively to autogenic processes (e.g., progradation of depocenters). The observed variability in sediment accumulation rates is thus largely controlled by allogenic factors, including: (1) increased discharge of Santa Clara River as a result of increased magnitude and frequency of El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from ca. 2 ka to present, (2) an apparent change in routing of coarse-grained sediment within the staging area at ca. 3 ka (i.e., from direct river input to indirect, littoral cell input into Hueneme submarine canyon), and (3

  12. Índices de calidad de agua del río Cucabaj ubicado en el municipio de Santa Cruz del Quiché, Quiché y la influencia en los costos de tratamientos de potabilizaciónWater quality index of Cucabaj River located in the municipality of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lisett Aldana Aguilar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El río Cucabaj es una de las fuentes principales de agua que abastece junto a los ríos Tabil y Aguacate a 1,352 hogares del área urbana del municipio de Santa Cruz del Quiché. Este rio recorre parte de los municipios de Santa Cruz del Quiché y Chiché. Es tributario del río Durazno y pertenece a esta microcuenca. En el periodo de estudio el caudal osciló entre 0.009-0.1004 m3/seg. Gran proporción de este caudal se capta y recorre alrededor de 9 km. hacia la planta de tratamiento para su potabilización ubicada en la salida a San Pedro Jocopilas. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo mostrar la variabilidad temporal del recurso hídrico, determinando el índice de calidad del agua e índice de contaminación del río Cucabaj, así como los costos de desinfección utilizando hipoclorito de calcio. El monitoreo del rio fue realizado por un periodo de diez meses, de abril 2012 a enero 2013, según el índice de calidad de agua que muestra en una escala de 0-100 puntos, que suman los resultados de nueve parámetros y clasifica el agua del río Cucabaj en la categoría de media a buena (contaminada a levemente contaminada para uso humano, por lo que antes de su consumo debe de aplicarse tratamientos de potabilización. El mes con mayor caudal fue septiembre con 0.1004 m3/seg, particularidad que influyó considerablemente en presentar el valor más bajo en calidad y uno de los valores más altos en contaminación por materia orgánica. Esta característica se asocia principalmente a la presencia de coliformes totales. En cuanto a los costos de desinfección por hipoclorito de calcio, no se establecieron diferencias significativas en función de la cantidad de caudal.

  13. DIAGNÓSTICO DE UN PROYECTO EDUCATIVO SOBRE LA ESTRATEGIA DEL EJERCICIO FÍSICO Y LA PARTICIPACIÓN PRÁCTICA DE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA DIRIGIDO A UN GRUPO DE ADULTOS DE LA COMUNIDAD DE BOLSÓN DE SANTA CRUZ, GUANACASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Revuelta Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue de evaluar la viabilidad y factibilidad de desarrollar un proyecto de intervención en la comunidad de Bolsón de Santa Cruz de Guanacaste, Costa Rica, que involucre la educación y participación activa de la comunidad con el objetivo de promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables, en búsqueda de mejorar la calidad de vida de los participantes y por consiguiente reducir los índices de sedentarismo y un mayor control sobre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. La muestra de participantes estaba compuesta por n= 25 (24 mujeres y 1 hombre, con edades promedio de 33,72 ± 11,65 años, todos ellos residentes de la Comunidad de Bolsón de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. Los sujetos se sometieron en forma voluntaria a completar el cuestionario DJK. Dentro de los resultados obtenidos se encuentra que un 88 porciento de los encuestados mencionan que no existe un proyecto de actividad física; a su vez el 100 por ciento desea recibir información y participar de los talleres de actividad física; se encuentra también que el 56 porciento está dispuesto a pagar por recibir este tipo de servicios en su comunidad. En cuanto a las actividades de interés que a los encuestados les gustaría realizar, dentro de las de mayor porcentaje se presentan con más del 80 por ciento el baile, la caminata y las actividades al aire libre. Al mismo tiempo, se encuentra que un 68 porciento tienen alguna patología o lesión. Por los resultados obtenidos, se cumple con la expectativa planteada de determinar el grado de interés y posibilidad de desarrollar el proyecto de intervención planteado y se refleja que el 100 por ciento de la población se puede involucrar en el mismo, procurando que al implementar este tipo de acción, se fortalezca la posibilidad de informar y dar la idea a los usuarios, basado en su propia experiencia sobre la importancia de optar por estilos de vida saludables en su diario vivir. ABSTRACT The purpose of this

  14. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  15. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  16. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  17. 76 FR 67395 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Pacific Ocean, particularly the area south of San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Anacapa Islands; and north of San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, and Santa Catalina Islands where an increase in vessel traffic has..., precautionary areas, and deep-water routes. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The Coast...

  18. Planktonic foraminiferal shell weight reflects sea surface temperature over the past 150 years in Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. K.; Clayman, L.; Weaver, J.; Schimmelmann, A.; Hendy, I. L.

    2011-12-01

    Size-normalized foraminiferal shell weight has been used as a proxy for past carbonate ion concentration in seawater, assuming that reduced carbonate ion concentration and pH lead to lower calcification rates and lighter, thinner shells. Previous research suggested that the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and ocean acidification over the last century has resulted in lower shell weight, but this has not yet been documented at high resolution. Here, we present an approximately annual record of size-normalized shell weight and Mg/Ca of the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides to investigate the relationship between shell weight and sea surface temperature in Santa Barbara Basin, California (34° 16.847' N, 120° 02.268' W), over the last 150 years. Results indicate that foraminiferal shell weight is inversely correlated with instrumental sea surface temperature since 1850. Foraminiferal shell weights were highest between 1900 and 1920, corresponding to the lowest instrumental and Mg/Ca-derived sea surface temperatures. Shell weights gradually decreased to their lowest values after the mid-1970s, coincident with northeast Pacific warming as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation shifted from cool to warm phase. G. bulloides Mg/Ca temperatures also gradually increased after 1970, from 13 ± 1°C to 14.5 ± 1°C. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the lowest shell-weight foraminifera, those deposited since the mid-1970s shift, exhibit a distinctive smooth shell texture devoid of spine bases, in contrast with higher shell-weight foraminifera, which have numerous spine bases and large pores. The smooth-shell surface morphology is replicated in laboratory dissolution experiments, consistent with removal of an outer layer of calcite during shell thinning and partial dissolution of G. bulloides. These results suggest that G. bulloides calcification rates were related to sea surface temperatures over the last 150 years, and that shells deposited

  19. High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ∼260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (∼1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions

  20. Chirp seismic-reflection data of field activity 2014-645-FA; Santa Cruz Basin offshore Santa Barbara, southern California from 2014-11-12 to 2014-11-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2014 to explore to explore marine geologic hazards offshore of southern California....

  1. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  2. Effects of limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations on runoff and sediment yields in the Upper Permanente Creek basin, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K.M.; Hill, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    High sediment loads below headwater areas of the Permanente Creek drainage basin, Santa Clara County, California, have caused flood-control problems in downstream lowland areas. Measured sediment yields in Permanente Creek, which drains areas affected by limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations, were 14 times greater than yields from the West Fork Permanente Creek, which primarily drains parkland. Part of this large disparity in yields is the result of higher runoff/unit of drainage area in the Permanente Creek Basin. Results of rainfall-runoff modeling indicate that the tendency for higher runoff from Permanente Creek results from natural differences in basin physiography. Runoff during periods of high streamflow (when most sediment is transported) is dominated by subsurface flow, which is not affected by human activities. Although artificial features created by human activities seem to have had only minor effects on runoff, they apparently have had major effects on sediment availability. Artificial features accounted for 273 acres (89%) of the 307 acres of active erosional landforms mapped in 1984. Increased availability of sediment in the Permanente Creek basin appears to be indicated by elevated intercepts of sediment-transport curves. A comparison of sediment-transport curves for the West Fork Permanente Creek with similar curves for the Permanente Creek basin under natural conditions suggests that the sediment yield from Permanente Creek is about 3.5 times higher than it would be under natural basin conditions. The increased yield apparently is due to an increase in sediment availability rather than an increase in runoff. (USGS)

  3. Status of groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed, November 2006--March 2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) Upper Santa Ana Watershed (USAW) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA USAW study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined as the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the USAW study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 90 wells during November 2006 through March 2007, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed based on data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the USAW study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or

  4. Análise Multitemporal da Cobertura Florestal da Microbacia do Arroio Grande, Santa Maria, RS Multitemporal Analysis of Forest Cover in the Arroio Grande Small Hydrological Basin, Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Juliano Kleinpaul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise multitemporal da cobertura florestal da microbacia do Arroio Grande, Santa Maria, RS. Foram utilizadas quatro imagens de satélite: LANDSAT 5 (1987, LANDSAT 5 (1995, LANDSAT 7 (2002 e CBERS 2 (2005. As imagens foram classificadas empregando-se o algoritmo Bhattacharya. Após a classificação das imagens, foi realizado o cruzamento dos mapas temáticos. Como resultado, obteve-se mapas com os seguintes usos da terra: cobertura florestal, regeneração e desmatamento, ou seja, as florestas que permaneceram inalteradas de uma época para outra, as que regeneraram e as que foram desmatadas. Para um período de 18 anos, a cobertura florestal aumentou 10,24% na área da microbacia, passando de 14.135,42 ha (40,01% em 1987 para 17.752,20 ha (50,25% em 2005. Isto ocorreu devido à entrada em vigor do Código Florestal Estadual, à conscientização dosproprietários rurais e à implantação em maiorescala de povoamentos de espécies exóticas no estado. 
    This work aims to carry out a multitemporal analysis of the forest cover of Arroio Grande small hydrological basin located in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Four satellite images were used: LANDSAT 5 (1987, LANDSAT 5 (1995, LANDSAT 7 (2002 and CBERS 2 (2005. The images were classified according to the Bhattacharya algorithm. After the classification of such images, the crossing of the thematic maps was accomplished. Maps with different land uses were obtained: unaffected forest cover, regeneration and deforestation for the period 1987 – 2005. During 18 years, the forest cover increased 10,24% in the basin area, changing from 14.135,42 ha (40,01% in 1987 to 17.752,20 ha (50,25% in 2005. This happened because the State Forest Law has become effective as well as the rural owners’ consciousness and also due to increment of exotic forest plantations in the State. 

  5. Monitoring Effects of Wildfire Mitigation Treatments on Water Budget Components: A Paired-Basin Study in the Santa Fe River Watershed, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    A paired basin study in the Upper Santa Fe River watershed following forest restoration measured water budget components in a treated and untreated basin. The paired basin study was established to investigate questions that have arisen with regards to changes in the amount and timing of water yield following forest treatments. Precipitation, stream flow, soil moisture, chloride concentrations in precipitation and stream flow were measured to quantify the water budget components. While the study is ongoing, the results from six water years show a high degree of confidence in the techniques applied. The total inflow from precipitation for each integration period minus the outflow of stream flow, evapotranspiration, recharge and soil moisture leaves a remainder of less than 1%, thus most of the water is accounted for. Volume-weighted chloride concentration in precipitation ranges from 0.20 to 0.23 mg/L for the three integration periods. The annual volume-weighted chloride concentration in stream flow for the same periods ranges from 2.18 to 3.32 mg/L in the treated basin and 0.93 to 1.35 mg/L in the control basin. Based on the ratio of chloride in precipitation to the concentration in stream flow, evapotranspiration is estimated to be about 90 to 96 percent in the treated basin and 76 to 85 percent in the untreated basin for the three integration periods of the ongoing investigation. Higher evapotranspiration rates in the treated basin may be due to the change in vegetation or to a greater area at a lower elevation with a west facing slope. While no increase in stream flow in the treated basin from the forest treatments has been detected, the intensity of runoff appear to be reduced from pre-treatment to post-treatment conditions. With continued monitoring as the vegetation reestablishes to the desired "restored" condition, we will be able to track changes in the water budget.A paired basin study in the Upper Santa Fe River watershed following forest restoration

  6. Spatial representation of turbidity lobes and channels in outcrops of Apiuna region, Itajai Basin, Santa Catarina, Brazil; Representacao espacial de lobos e canais turbiditicos em afloramentos da regiao de Apiuna, Bacia de Itajai, Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joao Paulo Pessoa dos [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara. Gerencia de Avaliacao e Acompanhamento Geologico], e-mail: jppessoa@petrobras.com.br; Bettini, Claudio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: bettini@geologia.ufrj.br; Moraes, Marco Antonio Schreiner [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello. Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Petrologia

    2007-11-15

    While developing a new field, properties including thickness, area, porosity, permeability, heterogeneity of the reservoirs, determine the spacing, number, orientation and operational function of the wells. The uncertainty associated with the geological model, in the early stages of field development, is commonly high, due to the limited amount of data available directly from the new petroleum field. Thus, the use of geological information obtained from analog outcrops is used to complement the field data. New technologies allow geologists to build geological models that could not only satisfy geological aspects, conforming to the interpretation of sedimentary record, but also represent quantitative aspects such as reservoir properties distributions. This work aims at producing three-dimensional models from analog outcrops, which can be used to complete morphological (sedimentological and stratigraphic) and petrophysical parameters collected in the reservoir. Such outcrop models can improve subsurface 3D models, and hence optimize the production process. According to current geologic and statistical data, the majority of the yet unexplored and of the already known Brazilian petroleum reserves occur in reservoirs formed by deep-water sediment-gravity flows. Accordingly, the focus of this research are turbidity outcrops located in the Itajai Basin, in Santa Catarina state, named the Apiuna 1 and Apiuna 2 outcrops. The final result is a set of numerical models representing part of the Apiuna turbidity system (channels and lobes) in three-dimensional form. (author)

  7. Diferenciación de efluentes minero industriales del carbón y poblacionales mediante el uso de la estadística multivariada: un análisis sobre las descargas al arroyo San José de Río Turbio en la provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante décadas efluentes poblacionales y minero industriales del carbón han sido descargados en el arroyo San José ubicado en Río Turbio, al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina, inutilizándolo para cualquier uso. La demanda de agua que se generará a partir de los planes de expansión de la actividad productiva y la que se originará por el aumento poblacional, hace necesario que se realicen acciones para recuperar cursos afectados, tomando como punto de partida la identificación y caracterización de efluentes descargados. Los estudios realizados previamente se han basado en un tratamiento global o en muestreos puntuales sin difereciar, cuantificar o cualificar en forma sistemática las alteraciones ocasionadas por los distintos aportes. En éste trabajo se identificó los diferentes vertidos al arroyo y se determinó parámetros fisicoquímicos durante dos campañas (invierno y verano que permitieron caracterizar los individuos a partir de un tratamiento estadístico multivariado de los datos. Los resultados arrojaron valores de pH dentro del rango de la neutralidad o ligeramente básicos y la alcalinidad, otro de los factores que determinan la disolución de metales, dio valores que les confiere a las aguas capacidad amortiguadora beneficiosa. Como conclusión estadística general, los efluentes quedaron diferenciados principalmente entre los que aportan importantes cantidades de sólidos y metales totales en suspención (Planta depuradora de carbón y la Central térmica, de los que no lo hacen (Minas en explotación y abandonadas y efluentes Poblacionales. Éstos últimos se caracterizaron además por una elevada alcalinidad y contenidos de cloruros,calcio y dureza.

  8. Evaluación del potencial uranífero del volcanismo jurásico (complejos Bahía Laura y El Quemado, provincia de Santa Cruz, mendiante espectrometría gamma terrestre y geoquímica de rocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Kleiman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los relevamientos radimétricos constituyen una herramienta rápida para medir concentraciones de uranio (U, torio (Th, y potasio (K en las rocas y resultan muy útiles para la exploración de minerales radioactivos. En este trabajo, se evalúa la distribución del uranio en volcanitas jurásicas de la provincia de Santa Cruz, utilizando datos de espectrometría gamma terrestre y de geoquímica de rocas, con el objetivo de determinar su potencial para formar yacimientos. Se seleccionaron cinco zonas con antecedentes de valores radimétricos elevados e información geológica detallada. Las mediciones se realizaron con un espectrómetro de rayos gamma portátil (Exploranium-GR 320® en andesitas, ignimbritas, riolitas, áreas silicificadas, tobas de caída y sedimentos lacustres de los complejos Bahía Laura y El Quemado. Los resultados obtenidos son similares en todas las zonas relevadas: los valores radimétricos muestran buenas correlaciones con los datos químicos de roca para el K y el Th y menores para el U. Los procesos de diferenciación magmática, cristalización en fase vapor, alteración hidrotermal y alteración supergénica se reflejan en la distribución de estos elementos. Los contenidos de U se incrementan en las rocas más vítreas, en zonas de silicificación hidrotermal y en zonas de fractura, características a considerar en futuros relevamientos. La naturaleza calcoalcalina con impronta de arco del magmatismo jurásico no es de las más favorables para el enriquecimiento de uranio y para contener importantes mineralizaciones. Sin embargo, el ambiente extensional, la presencia de calderas con facies levemente enriquecidas en uranio y torio así como la de actividad hidrotermal, son factores positivos para la exploración por uranio.

  9. Caravaca de la cruz (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Andrés Sarasa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La pequeña ciudad histórica de Caravaca de la Cruz aprovecha la ventaja cualitativa que le ofrece la reliquia medieval de la Vera Cruz para convertirse en una ciudad turística. El mito religioso de la Cruz, tras la celebración en 2003 del Año Santo Jubilar, le permite crear un producto turístico que cambia la imagen de la ciudad. Este cambio se refleja en el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo que se hace de los actores y escenarios del citado producto turístico. Todo ello matizado por la percepción que los residentes tienen de la transformación operada.

  10. Lithospheric Mantle heterogeneities beneath northern Santa Cruz province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Don Camilo, an area located on the North margin of the Deseado Masiff in Patagonia, comprise spinel bearing lherzolites, harburgites and dunites, wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and gabbros. The most common rock type in our collection is spinel-lherzolite followed by dunites. Harzurgites, wehrlites and gabbros are less widespread. Spinel-lherzolites and harzburgites have protogranular textures whereas dunites have equigranular to equigranular tabular textures. There are two kinds of dunites: mantle dunites and cumulate dunites. The olivine mg# in the mantle dunites vary within a narrow range, from 90.5 to 91.5 and the NiO content from 0.39 to 0.42 wt%, whereas in the cumulate dunites the mg# ranges from 87 to 90.5 and the NiO content from 0.22 to 0.40 wt%. Both types of dunites contain fine grained interstitial diopside. Hydrous phases, besides one sample that contains amphibole, were so far not found. The spinel peridotites have whole rock REE abundances depleted in LREE [(La/Yb)N=0.34-0.85)] and the dunitesare LREE enriched [(La/Yb)N=3.49]. LA-ICP-MS analyses of cpx show that a number of the studied spinel peridotite xenoliths experienced cryptic metasomatism. Three groups of xenoliths have been recognized according to REE and other incompatible trace element patterns in cpx: group I has depleted LREE abundances, group II is highly enriched in LREE (La=20-30 x C1) and group 3 has moderate LREE enrichments. The core of some clinopyroxenes in group II has depleted LREE similar to those in group I, apparently representing relictic cores not affected by metasomatism. In addition the metasomatized clinopyroxenes are significantly enriched in Sr, Th and U. Evidently, the metasomatic agent was a H2O-rich fluid (high LREE, Sr, Th and U). Clinopyroxene Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary largely from 0.702671 to 0.705788 and from 0.51229 to 0.513251 respectively. Mantle and cumulate dunites have experienced modal metasomatism. In both types of dunites the interstitial clinopyroxene appears to be of metasomatic origin. The clinopyroxene from cumulate dunites has depleted LREE abundances and low HREE indicating that they have been formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites has enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium conditions cover a wide range, from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar can be assumed as reasonable, indicating that xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths, in the order of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the Lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid rich silicate melt presumably similar to that which affected the xenoliths from Cerro Clark locality, north of Don Camilo. The clinopyroxenes with the highest Sr and lowest Nd isotopic signatures suggest that the metasomatism was an old event apparently not associated to the interaction of the Lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with downgoing Nazca and Antarctic plates.

  11. Avances en la agenda urbana : Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Steinberg (Florian); M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEste libro tiene como objetivo principal, presentar algunos trabajos del SINPA que contribuyeron y representan “Avances en la Gestión Urbana”. Estos artículos son fruto de la experiencia del proyecto SINPA como aporte a los cambios y procesos de fortalecimiento de la gestión urbana en el

  12. DCS Terrain Submission for Santa Cruz,CA - CW (NAVD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. Avances en la agenda urbana : Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Steinberg (Florian); M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEste libro tiene como objetivo principal, presentar algunos trabajos del SINPA que contribuyeron y representan “Avances en la Gestión Urbana”. Estos artículos son fruto de la experiencia del proyecto SINPA como aporte a los cambios y procesos de fortalecimiento de la gestión urbana en el

  14. Geologic Maps and Structure Sections of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley and southern Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Brabb, E.E.; Helley, E.J.; Colon, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (scvmf.ps, scvmf.pdf, scvmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  15. Respuesta de la poetisa a la muy ilustre Sor Filotea de la Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Juana Inés de la Cruz , Sor, 1651-1695

    2006-01-01

    Fue escrita por Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz en marzo de 1691, como contestación a todas las recriminaciones que le hizo el obispo de Puebla, Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz, bajo el seudónimo de Sor Filotea de la Cruz. No fue publicada hasta 1700, en Fama y obras póstumas del Fénix de México (Madrid: Manuel Ruiz de Murga). El obispo advierte que ninguna mujer debió afanarse por aprender de ciertos temas filosóficos. En su defensa, Sor Juana señala a varias mujeres doctas, como Hipatia de Alejand...

  16. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  17. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Jimena, E-mail: jcazenave@inali.unl.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A. [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A. [Dto. Bioquimica Clinica-CIBICI-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre esq Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  18. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons,

  19. Magnetization in the South Pole Aitken basin: Implications for the lunar dynamo and true polar wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Bethell a , c a Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064, USA b Red Sky ...space varies burial depth in km, agnetic dipole moment in Am 2 , magnetic dip (inclination) in de- rees downward from the horizontal, and declination...Santa ruz / NASA Ames University Affiliated Research Center, Aligned esearch Program and ( 3) Red Sky Research, LLC. Thanks to Rob oe and Gary

  20. A History of Warming Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Acidification Recorded by Planktonic Foraminifera Geochemistry from the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.; Bizimis, M.; Buckley, W. P., Jr.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Chartier, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemistry of foraminiferal shells has been widely used to reconstruct past conditions of the ocean and climate. Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenically produced CO2 has resulted in an increase in global temperatures and a decline in the mean pH of the world's oceans. The California Current System is a particularly susceptible region to ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes that also cause a reduction in seawater pH. The trace element concentration of magnesium and boron in planktonic foraminiferal shells are used here as proxies for temperature and carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), respectively. Newly developed calibrations relating Mg/Ca ratios to temperature (R2 0.91) and B/Ca ratios to [CO32-] (R2 0.84) for the surface-mixed layer species Globogerina bulloides were generated using material collected in the Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap time-series. Using these empirical relationships, temperature and [CO32-] are reconstructed using a 0.5 meter long multi-core collected within the basin. 210Pb activities were used to determine a sedimentation rate for the core to estimate ages for core samples (sedimentation rate: 0.341 cm/yr). A spike in 137Cs activity is used as a tie-point to the year 1965 coinciding with the peak of nuclear bomb testing. Our down-core record extends through the mid-19th century to create a history of rising sea surface temperatures and declining [CO32-] as a result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  1. Association among active seafloor deformation, mound formation, and gas hydrate growth and accumulation within the seafloor of the Santa Monica Basin, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Normark, W.R.; Ussler, W.; Caress, D.W.; Keaten, R.

    2008-01-01

    Seafloor blister-like mounds, methane migration and gas hydrate formation were investigated through detailed seafloor surveys in Santa Monica Basin, offshore of Los Angeles, California. Two distinct deep-water (??? 800??m water depth) topographic mounds were surveyed using an autonomous underwater vehicle (carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp sub-bottom profiler) and one of these was explored with the remotely operated vehicle Tiburon. The mounds are > 10??m high and > 100??m wide dome-shaped bathymetric features. These mounds protrude from crests of broad anticlines (~ 20??m high and 1 to 3??km long) formed within latest Quaternary-aged seafloor sediment associated with compression between lateral offsets in regional faults. No allochthonous sediments were observed on the mounds, except slumped material off the steep slopes of the mounds. Continuous streams of methane gas bubbles emanate from the crest of the northeastern mound, and extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonate pavements and chemosynthetic communities mantle the mound surface. The large local vertical displacements needed to produce these mounds suggests a corresponding net mass accumulation has occurred within the immediate subsurface. Formation and accumulation of pure gas hydrate lenses in the subsurface is proposed as a mechanism to blister the seafloor and form these mounds. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-06-29

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of

  3. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, María J; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-11-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems.

  4. Histopathological changes in the gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus from the Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Ileana C; Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Bistoni, María de Los Angeles

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the histopathological changes in gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus inhabiting the Salado River basin. Fish were collected in four different sampling stations. The histological lesions in the tissues were examined under light microscopy and evaluated with quantitative analyses. The morphometric analysis of the gills showed a significant shortening of secondary lamellae and a lower percentage of area for gas exchange in fish from station 1 (an urban area, located near the mouth of the Salado River) in comparison with fish gills from the reference site (station 4, a relatively pristine area). Moreover, a significantly higher area occupied with necrotic foci and the occurrence of an important inflammatory response were observed in fish liver of station 1 than the samples caught from other stations. Thus, histopathological evidences showed differences among sites, which could be related to different environmental conditions.

  5. Elaboración y aplicación de una guía de Estrategias Metodológicas cognitivas “pensamiento innovador” para el desarrollo de la iniciación a la matemática en las niñas y niños de primer año de educación básica de la unidad educativa héroes del Cenepa de la comunidad Atapo Santa Cruz, parroquia Palmira, cantón Guamote, provincia Chimborazo período 2013- 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenesaca Naula, María Sara

    2015-01-01

    El tema denominado elaboración y aplicación de una guía de estrategias metodológicas cognitivas “Pensamiento Innovador” para el desarrollo de la iniciación a la matemática en las niñas y niños de Primer Año de Educación Básica de la Unidad Educativa Héroes del Cenepa de la comunidad Atapo Santa Cruz, parroquia Palmira, Cantón Guamote, provincia Chimborazo período 2013- 2014, se realizó con el objetivo de seleccionar y priorizar estrategias que se encamine a desarrollar la capacidades cogn...

  6. Extending the High-Resolution Global Climate Record in Santa Barbara Basin: Developing a More Continuous Composite Section from Overlapping Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, R. J.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Pak, D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Cannariato, K. G.; Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Hopkins, S. E.; Team, S.

    2005-12-01

    More than thirty ~2 to 5m-long piston cores were recovered from an eroded, breached anticline on the Mid-Channel Trend of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB). Precision placement of cores enabled us to build several composite stratigraphic sections of overlapping cores. This was accomplished by continuous shipboard evaluation and feedback between pre-existing and concurrently acquired high-resolution seismic data and immediate sedimentologic core analysis to determine subsequent core locations. Overlap was confirmed by correlated stratigraphic patterns of alternating laminated vs. massive intervals, gray flood layers, spectrophotometric and MST density/porosity data. These cores were acquired to provide a semi-continuous, composite paleoceanographic record of the Quaternary SBB and the California Margin that extends beyond the fertile ODP Site 893 core, to possibly as old as 450 to 600 ka, an age previously unreachable by conventional methods. Most cores were mantled by glauconitic sand or a thin carbonate hardground encrusted with sessile organisms, including solitary corals. Underlying the condensed Holocene sand or hardground deposits are alternating layers of Pleistocene laminated and massive/bioturbated sediment with minor sand and sandy clay layers. The style, continuity, and variability of laminated fabric and the nature of bedding contacts are similar to that observed at ODP Site 893 where glacial episodes were associated with oxygenated, bioturbated sediment and interglacial and interstadial sediment were associated with dysoxic, laminated sediment. Laminated sediment comprises 38% of the hemipelagic deposits which is nearly identical with the ratio of laminated to massive sediment over the past 160 ky at Site 893. By extrapolation, despite accumulating in a mobile, deforming, active margin basin, the earlier Pleistocene deposits seem to record similar behavior to the last 160 ky recorded at ODP Site 893. In some intervals, gray layers are thicker and more

  7. CNOOC Cooperates with Santa Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Sanyong; Wang Keyu

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporatian (CNOOC) signed the Petroleum Contract for 15/34 Block in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of South China Sea and the Petroleum Contract for 23/28 Block in the Beibu Gulf of South China Sea with Santa Fe Resources Inc. of the United States in Beijing on January 16, 1997.

  8. Coexistence of halloysite and kaolinite: a study on the genesis of kaolin clays of Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa T.G. de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin at Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil was formed from alteration of volcanic acid rocks. Halloysite clays dominate the clay fraction of the matrix of the kaolin body, whereas a poorly crystalline kaolinite is abundant in veins. Some primary blocky structures have high amounts of illite, in one mine, but in general, only low contents of illite-smectite, illite, chlorite-vermiculite, vermiculite and quartz were identified in the clay fraction of the samples. Toward the top of the mines, hematite and lepidocrocite appear in horizontal red and ochre colored levels and the amount of kaolinite increases compared to halloysite. The vertical zoning of alteration levels, the changes in mineralogy, the positive correlation between depth and Cation Exchange Capacity of the clays, the preservation of different types of rock textures in the kaolin bodies, the dominant tube morphology of the halloysite clays indicate a supergene genesis for the deposits. Criteria to distinguish between supergene and hypogene kaolin are discussed. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the cross sections of halloysite tubes showed polygonal forms that are ascribed to be transitional between kaolinite and halloysite. It is proposed that some of the kaolinite of these deposits be inherited from the dehydration of halloysite tubes.O caolim da Bacia de Campo Alegre, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, formou-se da alteração de rochas vulcânicas ácidas. A haloisita predomina na fração argila da matriz do corpo de caolim, enquanto a caolinita, de baixa cristalinidade, é abundante nos veios. Algumas estruturas em blocos, primários, têm altos teores de ilita em uma mina, mas no geral, somente foram identificadas, na fração argila das amostras, baixas quantidades de ilita-esmectita, ilita, clorita-vermiculita, vermiculita e quartzo. Em direção ao topo das minas aparecem hematita e lepidocrocita em níveis vermelhos e ocres e as quantidades de caolinita

  9. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  10. Multichannel minisparker seismic-reflection data of field activity 2014-645-FA; Santa Cruz and Catalina Basins, offshore southern California from 2014-11-12 to 2014-11-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains processed, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 2014 to explore marine geologic hazards offshore of...

  11. Development of water facilities in the Santa Ana River Basin, California, 1810-1968: a compilation of historical notes derived from many sources describing ditch and canal companies, diversions, and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    This report traces by text, maps, and photographs, the development of the water supply in the Santa Ana River basin from its beginning in 1810 or 1811 to 1968. The value of the report lies in the fact that interpretation of the hydrologic systems in the basin requires knowledge of the concurrent state of development of the water supply, because that development has progressively altered the local regimen of both surface water and ground water. Most of the information for the earlier years was extracted and condensed from an investigation made by W. H. Hall, California State Engineer during the years 1878-87. Hall's study described irrigation development in southern California from its beginning through 1888. Information for the years following 1888 was obtained from the archives of the numerous water companies and water agencies in the Santa Ana River basin and from the various depositories of courthouse, county, and municipal records. The history of water-resources development in the Santa Ana River basin begins with the introduction of irrigation in the area by the Spanish, who settled in southern California in the latter part, of the 18th century. The first irrigation diversion from the Santa Ana River was made in 1810 or 1811 by Jose Antonio Yorba and Juan Pablo Peralta. Irrigation remained a localized practice during the Mexican-Californian, or rancho, period following the separation of Mexico from Spain in 1821. Rancho grantees principally raised cattle, horses, and sheep and irrigated only small· plots of feed grain for their livestock and fruit crops for household use. The breakup of the ranchos through sales to Americans, who were migrating to California in ever-increasing numbers following the acquisition of California by the United States in 1848, marked the beginning of a rapid increase in water use and the beginning of widespread irrigation. Many water companies and water agencies were organized to divert the surface flow of the Santa Ana River and

  12. Santa Muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, A.; The Photographers' Gallery; Trolley Books; Bar-Tur Foundation; Arts Council England

    2015-01-01

    The origins of Santa Muerte - a religion/cult that has been denounced as satanic by the Mexican Catholic Church - can be dated back hundreds of years. It was developed through a syncretism between indigenous Mesoamerican and Spanish Catholic beliefs and practices. Only in the last decade however has it become more predominant in Mexican society, where many commentators have noted its rise with the killing and violence associated with the war between rival drug cartels and the Mexican Governme...

  13. Cruz e Sousa: As Expansibilidades do Emparedado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Tadeu Fonseca

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina alguns aspectos da relação entre literatura e “raça” na obra de Cruz e Sousa e em sua recepção crítica. Considerando seu texto “Emparedado” uma expressão poética de identidade cultural, este artigo aproxima a obra de Cruz e Souza do pensamento político de Frantz Fanon.

  14. Large vertical motions and basin evolution in the Outer Continental Borderland off Southern California associated with plate boundary development and continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Schindler, C. S.; De Hoogh, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Continental Borderland offshore southern California occupies a strategic position along the continental margin. It was the locus of ~75% of Pacific-North America displacement history, it helped accommodate the large-scale (>90°) tectonic rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges province, and is still accommodating potentially 20% of PAC-NAM plate motion today. As such, it represents an ideal natural laboratory to investigate plate boundary evolution and basin development associated with transform initiation, oblique continental rifting, transrotation and transpression. We have been using newly released grids of high-quality industry multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data, combined with multibeam bathymetry and offshore well data to map and construct digital 3D fault surfaces and stratigraphic reference horizons over large parts of the Outer Continental Borderland. These 3D surfaces of structure and stratigraphy can be used to better understand and evaluate regional patterns of uplift, subsidence, fault interaction and other aspects of plate boundary deformation. In the northern Outer Borderland, mapping in Santa Cruz basin, and across both Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz-Catalina ridges reveals a pattern of interacting high-and low-angle faults, fault reactivation, basin subsidence, folding, and basin inversion. Subsidence since early-Miocene time is significant (up to 4 km) and is much larger than predicted by simple thermal cooling models of continental rifting. This requires additional tectonic components to drive this regional subsidence and subsequent basin inversion. Farther south, a more en echelon pattern of ridges and basins suggests a distributed component of right-lateral shear also contributed to much of the modern Borderland seafloor topography, including major Borderland basins. Vertical motions of uplift and subsidence can be estimated from a prominent early-Miocene unconformity that likely represents a regional, paleo-horizontal, near

  15. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Basin: Monterey County X San Benito County X Santa Cruz County X South Central Coast Air Basin: San Luis Obispo County X Santa Barbara County (AQMA portion) X Santa Barbara County (non-AQMA portion.../Attainment Santa Cruz County Unclassifiable/Attainment North Coast Air Basin Unclassifiable/Attainment...

  16. Oligosaccharides isolated from Agave vera cruz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Dorland, L.; Kamerling, J.P.; Satyanarayana, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The structures of naturally occurring and enzymically synthesized oligosaccharides, consisting of fructose and glucose residues and having d.p. 3–8, in the stem of Agave vera cruz have been investigated by using methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and p.m.r. spectroscopy. The naturally occurrin

  17. Santa Teresa y sus cartas, historia de los sentimientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egido, Teófanes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical reflection on a peculiar dimension of St. Teresa of Jesus: the expression of her feelings in her writings, particularly in her abundant letters. The article focuses on the sense of humor, the joyfulness, and the importance of laughter in St. Teresa language, and also on the feeling of endearment with her family, with her order, with fray Juan de la Cruz. Ample space is dedicated to the tenderness towards girls in her convents. St. Teresa of Jesus appears as transgressor of 16th century social behaviours.Reflexión histórica sobre una dimensión peculiar de santa Teresa de Jesús: la expresión de sus sentimientos en sus escritos, de forma más especial en sus cartas abundantes. El artículo se centra en el sentido del humor, de la alegría, en la importancia de la risa en el lenguaje de santa Teresa y en el sentimiento de ternura con su familia, con su orden, con fray Juan de la Cruz. Se dedica un espacio amplio a la ternura hacia las niñas en sus conventos. Aparece santa Teresa de Jesús como trasgresora de los comportamientos sociales del siglo XVI.

  18. La Virgen del Rosario del convento de Santa Cruz la Real en la Granada barroca (The Virgen del Rosario of Santa Cruz la Real convent in Granada baroque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús López-Guadalupe Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A pesar de la escasez de fuentes documentales, se ensaya una reconstrucción de la historia devocional de la Virgen del Rosario de Granada que la convierte en un ejemplo eminente de la religiosidad popular barroca. En ella interaccionan los intereses pastorales de la orden dominica con la renovación de la imagen de la monarquía hispánica. En este proceso el auge de la devoción a la Virgen del Rosario la proyecta hasta el crucero de la iglesia y sirve de estímulo a la conclusión de las obras del templo.Abstract: Despite the scarcity of documentary sources, a reconstruction of the devotional history of the Virgen del Rosario of Granada make it an outstanding example of Baroque popular religiosity. In this case the pastoral interest of the Dominican order and the renovation of the image of the Spanish monarchy are related. In this process the growth of devotion to the Virgen del Rosario projected her to the transept of the Church and gives encouragement to the completion of its construction.

  19. Sedimentary evolution of Rio do Rastro formation (permian-triassic of the Parana Basin) at central south portion of Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Evolucao sedimentar da Formacao Rio do Rastro (Permo-Triassico da Bacia do Parana) na porcao centro sul do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Roldan, Luis Fernando; Steiner, Samar dos Santos; Chamani, Marlei Antonio Carrari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica]. E-mail: lvwarren@yahoo.com; Almeida, Renato Paes de; Hachiro, Jorge; Machado, Romulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2008-06-15

    Between the Late Carboniferous and the Early Triassic, the south portion of the Gondwana Supercontinent witnessed the development of intracratonic basins related with the coeval Sanrafaelic Orogeny. The continuous subsidence and consequent generation accommodation space resulted in the formation of a large confined water body and the accumulation of a transgressive regressive sequence between the Late Permian and the Early Triassic. The progradational nature of the upper portion of this sequence, represented by de Rio do Rasto e Piramboia formations, culminated with the complete filling of the water body. In the south-eastern portion of Santa Catarina State (Southern Brazil), the Rio do Rasto Formation overlies the Teresina formation and is overlain by the Piramboia formation, both contacts being characterized by lithological transition. The lower portion of the Rio do Rasto Formation is characterized by architectural elements deposited in offshore environments subject to storm action. A marked change of the color of the pelitic facies, from gray to red and purple occurs at the top of the unit. At this stratigraphic level, there is also a predominance of deltaic and eolian architectural elements. The intercalation of near shore and offshore architectural elements can be explained by the strong auto cyclic character expected in deltaic depositional systems and by the variation of relative rates of base-level rise. The occurrence of eolian architectural elements interbedded with subaquatically deposited sediments on the second third of the unit can be considered an evidence of continentalization to the top, materialized as the transition to the Piramboia desert system. (author)

  20. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearanc

  1. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The

  2. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the Santa Barbara Basin during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and early Little Ice Age based on diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2015-01-01

    Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages documented in a high-resolution time series spanning 800 to 1600 AD in varved sediment recovered in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC (34°16.845’ N, 120°02.332’ W, water depth 588 m) from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reveal that SBB surface water conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA) were not extreme by modern standards, mostly falling within one standard deviation of mean conditions during the pre anthropogenic interval of 1748 to 1900. No clear differences between the character of MCA and the early LIA conditions are apparent. During intervals of extreme droughts identified by terrigenous proxy scanning XRF analyses, diatom and silicoflagellate proxies for coastal upwelling typically exceed one standard deviation above mean values for 1748-1900, supporting the hypothesis that droughts in southern California are associated with cooler (or La Niña-like) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Increased percentages of diatoms transported downslope generally coincide with intervals of increased siliciclastic flux to the SBB identified by scanning XRF analyses. Diatom assemblages suggest only two intervals of the MCA (at ~897 to 922 and ~1151 to 1167) when proxy SSTs exceeded one standard deviation above mean values for 1748 to 1900. Conversely, silicoflagellates imply extreme warm water events only at ~830 to 860 (early MCA) and ~1360 to 1370 (early LIA) that are not supported by the diatom data. Silicoflagellates appear to be more suitable for characterizing average climate during the 5 to 11 year-long sample intervals studied in the SPR0901-02KC core than diatoms, probably because diatom relative abundances may be dominated by seasonal blooms of a particular year.

  3. Influence of urbanisation on water quality in the basin of the upper Uruguay River in western Santa Catarina, Brazil Influência da urbanização sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Zeni Ternus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the limnological characteristics of rivers flowing through urban and rural areas in the upper Uruguay River basin in western Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. METHODS: Sampling sites in the tributaries were selected along the longitudinal gradient and the different use of the soil in adjacent areas. Samples were collected bimonthly from March 2005 to August 2006. The following were analysed: depth, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus were analysed. RESULTS: In most of the rivers analysed, we found a continuum from the spring to the river mouth that was characterised by a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, COD, phosphorus, alkalinity, nitrite and nitrate. However, an alteration from this pattern was found in rivers passing through urban areas. This deviation was due to high organic matter input poured into the rivers from these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Degraded riparian forest was observed along most of the bodies of water, which facilitates the entry of pollutants. Although the studied area suffers from intense farming activity (agriculture and livestock and has the highest concentration of swine livestock in the country, the rivers that were most altered from their natural state were those that were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents from urban development.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as características limnológicas de rios que atravessam áreas rurais e urbanas na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pontos nos afluentes, obedecendo ao gradiente longitudinal e diferente uso do solo das áreas adjacentes. As amostragens foram bimestrais de março de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Foram analisadas as variáveis profundidade, pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido (OD

  4. Spectral reflectance and soil morphology characteristics of Santa Rita Experimental Range soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Karim Batchily; Donald F. Post; R. B. Bryant; Donald J. Breckenfeld

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) soils are mostly transported alluvial sediments that occur on the piedmont slope flanking the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. The major geomorphic land forms are alluvial fans or fan terraces, but there are also areas of residual soils formed on granite and limestone bedrock, basin floor, stream terraces, and flood plains. The...

  5. Un nuevo retrato de Juan Pantoja de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre Fazio, Julia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The author attributes an early 17th century Spanish portrait of an unknown young lady in a French private collection to Juan Pantoja de la Cruz.

    Atribución de un retrato español de joven dama desconocida de principios del siglo XVII, conservado en una colección particular francesa, a Juan Pantoja de la Cruz.

  6. Response of diatoms and silicoflagellates to climate change in the Santa Barbara Basin during the past 250 years and the rise of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David; Field, David B.; Finney, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms and silicoflagellate assemblages were examined in two year-increments of varved samples spanning the interval from 1748 through 2007 in Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) box core SBBC0806 to determine the timing and impact of possible 20th century warming on several different components of the plankton. Diatoms (Thalassionema nitzschioides =TN) and silicoflagellates (Distephanus speculum s.l. =DS) indicative of cooler waters and a shallow thermocline begin to decline in the 1920s and persistently compose a lower percentage of the assemblage in the SBB by about 1940. Prior to 1940, TN constituted on average ~30% of the Chaetoceros-free diatom sediment assemblage and DS on average ~36% of the silicoflagellate assemblage. Between 1940 and 1996 these relative abundances were ~20% (TN) and ~8% (DS). These results are consistent with results from planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians that indicate an influence of 20th century warming on marine ecosystems before most scientific observations began. Cooling of surface waters coincident with the one of the strongest La Niña events of the 20th century (and a return to negative PDO conditions) in late 1998 brought about a return to pre-1940 values of these cool water taxa (TN ~31%, DS ~25%). However, this recent regional cooling appears to have been accompanied by profound changes in the diatom assemblage. Pseudo-nitzschia australis, and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, diatom species associated with domoic acid, a neurotoxin that causes shellfish poisoning and marine mammal deaths, rapidly became dominant in the SBB sediment record at the time of the regional cooling (1999) and increased substantially in numbers as a bloom-forming taxon (relative to Chaetoceros spores) in 2003. Prior to 2003 diatom blooms recorded in the SBB sediment record consisted predominantly of Chaetoceros spores and less commonly of Rhizosolenia-related species (Neocalyptrella robusta and R. setigera). Fecal pellets dominated by valves of P. australis

  7. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  8. Final Report for Contract N00014-91-J-1815 (University of California, Santa Cruz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-10

    caffeic, vanillic, gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, 4- hydroxybenzoic, and o-pyrocatechuic acids). Previous studies with leaf extracts suggest that...steroid sulfates isolated from sponges [12, 13, 14] demonstrated that the sulfate group was required for antimicrobial activity of these compounds...MeOH and extracted with CH2 C12. Bioassays of these fractions indicated antifouling activity was principally localized in the H20 extract . 6

  9. Linking departmental priorities to knowledge management: the experiences of Santa Cruz County's Human Services Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Arley

    2012-01-01

    Federal welfare reform, local service collaborations, and the evolution of statewide information systems inspired agency interest in evidence-informed practice and knowledge sharing systems. Four agency leaders, including the Director, Deputy Director, Director of Planning and Evaluation, and Staff Development Program Manager championed the development of a learning organization based on knowledge management throughout the agency. Internal department restructuring helped to strengthen the Planning and Evaluation, Staff Development, and Personnel units, which have become central to supporting knowledge sharing activities. The Four Pillars of Knowledge framework was designed to capture agency directions in relationship to future knowledge management goals. Featuring People, Practice, Technology and Budget, the framework links the agency's services, mission and goals to the process of becoming a learning organization. Built through an iterative process, the framework was created by observing existing activities in each department rather than being designed from the top down. Knowledge management can help the department to fulfill its mission despite reduced resources.

  10. Results after first year of automated wind measurements in Santa Cruz, southern Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, R.B. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Centro de Investigacion, Rio Gallegos (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    The first year of automated measurements of wind intensity and direction in the campus site of the UNPA in Rio Gallegos, Argentina, produces interesting results and could be of benefit as an experimental background for the assessment of the economic potential of wind energy in local areas. The results show the strong stational variations of wind, with extreme intensities in summer and long periods of calm in winter. Also clear are the main directions of wind, with W-SW predominant. Measurements were taken with a calibrated pulse anemometer (NRG 40HC) and an analog output wind vane (NRG 100P), mounted on a 10m high steel tubular tower, coupled to a laboratory data logger with programmable configuration. The measurements compared successfully with results from other commercial measurement systems mounted in the area in the meantime. (author)

  11. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...); northern Mexican garter snake (Thamnophis eques megalops) and Huachuca springsnail (Pyrgulopsis thompsoni.... Tuggle, Regional Director, Region 2, Albuquerque, New Mexico. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ...

  12. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia. The objec......The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia...

  13. Teaching Cases in Management - Decisões Financeiras na Empresa Biscoitos Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wegner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of the financial situation of an enterprise in the food sector which has cash flow difficulties resulting from its fast growth and from hastening decisions, such as the acquisition of a competitor, which generated new levels of production and commercialization and consequently the need for more working capital. Faced with the urgency to obtain resources to overcome the immediate cash difficulties, alternatives are presented for evaluation by students in order to choose the best option. The learning emphasis is on the calculation of the effective cost of capital for different proposals of raising resources and their consequences for the enterprise’s cash flow during the period analyzed. The case can be used in undergraduate and graduate programs, in courses aiming to stimulate discussions about the decision-making process of financial alternatives.

  14. DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL Y DESIGUALDADES REGIONALES EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA CRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Schweitzer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Patagonia austral es un espacio con dinámicas migratorias muy fuertes particularmente luego del 2003 y un medio natural frágil, las actividades económicas, la oferta de servicios y las condiciones para la reproducción de la población se asientan en el aprovechamiento de una significativa dotación en recursos naturales distribuidos desigualmente y en mayor parte no renovables. La línea orientadora que se sigue en la ponencia es producto de la evolución de actividades de investigación y transferencia por parte de los autores en torno a las temáticas de las relaciones entre poderes y territorios, en particular en el campo del ordenamiento y el desarrollo territorial. Tomando como punto de partida conceptos clave como el de desarrollo territorial y analizando las estrategias y articulaciones de los grupos dominantes, el estado y sociedades en el área de estudio, en los últimos años y en aproximaciones desde distintas escalas, la ponencia apunta a analizar los proyectos de territorio a partir del estudio de las iniciativas hacia los territorios por parte del estado y las empresas y reflexionar sobre las situaciones conflictivas y las resistencias desde las sociedades regionales.

  15. Budgeting postglacial sedimentation history on the Santa Cruz, California mid-continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E.E.; Eittreim, S.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Field, M.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Fallon, S.J.; Anima, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiling and surface texture mapping of the central California continental shelf, reveal a prominent subsurface reflector interpreted as a low stand erosion surface and an overlying mudbelt that covers 421 km2 of the mid-shelf in depths of 40-90 m. Radiometric and sedimentologic analyses of samples from vibracores taken along the seaward edge of the mudbelt show that initial deposition above the pre-Holocene erosion surface began ca. 14.5 ka. These data and model results of sea-level history, tectonics, and the Monterey Bay littoral sediment budget support the notion that the entire midshelf deposit was formed during the postglacial transgression. An alternative explanation, that land-use activities while providing important boundary conditions for modeling shoreface evolution.

  16. Gobernabilidad en Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Pautas para mayor transparencia y democracia local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andia Fernández (Luis); H.C. Cossio (Hedim); J-P. Feldis Bannwart (Jean-Paul); F. Méndez Egüez (Fransisco)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA partir de los años ochenta se inició una nueva etapa democrática en Bolivia, después de quince años de alternar entre gobiernos dictatoriales y constitucionales. La profundización de la democracia fue prolongada (1978-1982), costosa, lenta y complicada. El desarrollo de las democracias

  17. Fortalecimiento institucional al municipio de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); C. Acioly (Claudio); F. Steinberg (Florian); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl programa de Apoyo para la Implementación de los Planes Nacionales de Acción SINPA (Support for Implementation of National Plans of Action) surge para dar cumplimiento a las políticas y directrices proclamadas durante la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos

  18. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  19. DRAFT DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  20. 75 FR 44806 - Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... viewed at the same address or at the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 1 Marshlands... the message. Fax: Attn: Sandy Osborn, (916) 414-6497. U.S. Mail: Pacific Southwest Region, Refuge... priority invasive vegetation, propagating and/or reintroducing listed plants, and improving outreach to...

  1. The history of neurosurgery in Bolivia and pediatric neurosurgery in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F; Dabdoub, Carlos B

    2013-09-25

    The practice of neurosurgery in Bolivia began thousands of years ago with skull trepanation. This procedure dates from the earliest period of the Tiwanaku culture, a preInca civilization. Neurosurgical development in Bolivia has its origins in the late 19(th) century and can be divided in two stages. At the beginning, before the advent of neurosurgery as a discipline, some general surgeons performed procedures on the skull and brain. Formal neurosurgery in Bolivia was developed with the arrival of neurosurgeons trained in the United States and some countries of South America. The Bolivian Neurosurgical Society was created in 1975. Nowadays, our national society has 74 members. It is affiliated with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies and the Latin American Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. Presently, neurosurgery in Bolivia is similar to that seen in developed countries. In this sense, government programs should dedicate more financial support to establish specialized healthcare centers where the management of complex central nervous system lesions could be offered. In contrast, we believe that encouraging the local training of young neurosurgeons is one of the most important factors in the development of neurosurgery in Bolivia or any other country.

  2. A large and complete Jurassic geothermal field at Claudia, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2014-04-01

    Late Jurassic geothermal deposits at Claudia, Argentinean Patagonia, are among the largest (40 km2) and most varied in the Deseado Massif, a 60,000 km2 volcanic province hosting precious metals (Au, Ag) mineralization generated during diffuse back arc spreading and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both siliceous sinter and travertine occur in the same stratigraphic sequence. Deposits range from those interpreted as fluvially reworked hydrothermal silica gels, to extensive apron terraces, to a clustering of high-temperature subaerial vent mounds. Paleoenvironmentally diagnostic textures of sinters include wavy laminated, bubble mat and nodular fabrics, and for travertines comprise fossil terracette rims, wavy laminated, bubble mat, spherulitic, oncoidal, and peloidal fabrics. Of special note is the presence of relatively large (to 25 cm high), inferred subaqueous "Conophyton" structures in travertines, which serve as analogs for some Precambrian stromatolites and imply the presence of relatively deep pools maintained by voluminous spring discharges. The Claudia geothermal field is geographically and geologically linked to the Cerro Vanguardia epithermal project (total resource of ~ 7.8 million ounces Au equivalent) via proximity, similar veins, and structural linkages, making it an especially large and relevant prospect for the region. The combined Claudia-Cerro Vanguardia hydrothermal system likely represents a fortuitous alignment of focused fluid flow and structure conducive to forming a giant epithermal ore deposit, with respect to size, ore concentration and potentially duration, in the Late Jurassic of Patagonia.

  3. La capilla de la Santa Vera Cruz (costumbres menestrales en Lima virreinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La pequeña iglesia de la Veracruz responde a algunas singularidades que laconvierten en un caso interesante para la historia del arte en Lima. La historiade su construcción y de la función a la que finalmente fue destinada, evidencianaspectos que deben considerarse acerca de la dinámica que acompañabaestos procesos, así como de los hechos alrededor del contexto, el sector socialpara el cual se produjeron y las implicancias que como monumentos tuvieronpara la población. El edificio, por ejemplo, alberga una cofradía que este añocumplirá 462 años de existencia, una de las más antiguas instaladas en la ciudad.

  4. Gobernabilidad en Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Pautas para mayor transparencia y democracia local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andia Fernández (Luis); H.C. Cossio (Hedim); J-P. Feldis Bannwart (Jean-Paul); F. Méndez Egüez (Fransisco)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA partir de los años ochenta se inició una nueva etapa democrática en Bolivia, después de quince años de alternar entre gobiernos dictatoriales y constitucionales. La profundización de la democracia fue prolongada (1978-1982), costosa, lenta y complicada. El desarrollo de las democracias

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, ARIZONA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  6. 76 FR 13427 - Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Santa Cruz County, CA; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... document is also available at the Watsonville Main Public Library, 275 Main Street, Suite 100, Watsonville... hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We..., interpretation, wildlife observation, and photography programs will be improved and/or expanded. The selected...

  7. Fortalecimiento institucional al municipio de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); C. Acioly (Claudio); F. Steinberg (Florian); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl programa de Apoyo para la Implementación de los Planes Nacionales de Acción SINPA (Support for Implementation of National Plans of Action) surge para dar cumplimiento a las políticas y directrices proclamadas durante la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos

  8. Oswaldo Cruz e a controvérsia da sorologia Oswaldo Cruz and the serology controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Carreta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fim de analisar a discussão sobre a eficácia do soro antipestoso produzido pelo Instituto de Manguinhos no começo do século XX, faz-se breve apreciação da atuação de Oswaldo Cruz à frente da Diretoria de Saúde Pública e, em seguida, aborda-se a polêmica propriamente por meio da sua correspondência com Miguel Pereira, Vital Brazil, Chapot Prévost e Francisco Fajardo. Evidencia-se, nessas cartas, o grau de incerteza e experimentação que marcava a bacteriologia no Brasil daquele momento, embora, publicamente, ela se apresentasse como conhecimento seguro e inquestionável. Mostra-se como argumentos de natureza extracientífica interferem no desenvolvimento de pesquisas e na aceitação dos produtos médicos.This analysis of the discussion surrounding the efficacy of the plague serum produced by Manguinhos Institute in the early twentieth century begins with an overview of Oswaldo Cruz's service as head of the Public Health Directorship (Diretoria de Saúde Pública. The controversy itself is then addressed, through an exploration of correspondence exchanged by physicians Oswaldo Cruz, Miguel Pereira, Vital Brazil, Chapot Prévost, and Francisco Fajardo. Their letters reveal how bacteriology in Brazil was then marked by uncertainty and experimentation, even while this field of knowledge publicly touted itself as safe and incontestable. The article shows how arguments of an extra-scientific nature interfere with both research development and the acceptance of medical products.

  9. Slip history of the La Cruz fault: Development of a late Miocene transform in response to increased rift obliquity in the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander; Kunk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America plates in northwestern México since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, its rifted margins preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes and an opportunity to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. We map rift-related structures and syn-tectonic basins on southern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin. We integrate analysis and geochronology of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins and mapping of crosscutting relationships to characterize the style and timing of fault activity. On southern Isla Tiburón, an early phase of extension initiated between 19-17 Ma and 12.2 Ma. Subsequently, these normal faults and related basins were cut by the La Cruz strike-slip fault and buried by deposits of the La Cruz basin, an elongate, fault-controlled trough coextensive with the La Cruz fault. Crosscutting relationships show that the NW-striking La Cruz fault accrued 5 ± 2 km of dextral slip 8-4 Ma. The La Cruz fault and parallel Tiburón transform were kinematically linked to detachment faulting that accommodated latest Miocene to Pliocene oblique opening of the offshore Upper Tiburón pull-apart basin. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburón was synchronous with the 8-6 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along > 1000 km of the reconstructed Pacific-North America plate boundary. This transition coincides with the commencement of a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative plate motion that increased the obliquity of the Gulf of California rift and formed the Gulf of California shear zone. The record from the proto-Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic

  10. Ilha de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Nopes, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia E Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia Política Este trabalho tem como foco de análise o processo de modernização na Praia dos Ingleses, um bairro atual situado no extremo norte da Ilha de Santa Catarina. Como referencial teórico da modernidade, utilizamos pensadores contemporâneos como Berman, Giddens e Habermas; para estes autores a modernização é compreendida como um fenômeno comple...

  11. Early Neogene unroofing of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta along the Bucaramanga -Santa Marta Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraquive Bermúdez, Alejandro; Pinzón, Edna; Bernet, Matthias; Kammer, Andreas; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Sarmiento, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Plate interaction between Caribbean and Nazca plates with Southamerica gave rise to an intricate pattern of tectonic blocks in the Northandean realm. Among these microblocks the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) represents a fault-bounded triangular massif composed of a representative crustal section of the Northandean margin, in which a Precambrian to Late Paleozoic metamorphic belt is overlain by a Triassic to Jurassic magmatic arc and collateral volcanic suites. Its western border fault belongs to the composite Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault with a combined left lateral-normal displacement. SE of Santa Marta it exposes remnants of an Oligocene marginal basin, which attests to a first Cenoizoic activation of this crustal-scale lineament. The basin fill consists of a sequence of coarse-grained cobble-pebble conglomerates > 1000 m thick that unconformably overlay the Triassic-Jurassic magmatic arc. Its lower sequence is composed of interbedded siltstones; topwards the sequence becomes dominated by coarser fractions. These sedimentary sequences yields valuable information about exhumation and coeval sedimentation processes that affected the massif's western border since the Upper Eocene. In order to analyse uplifting processes associated with tectonics during early Neogene we performed detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, detrital thermochronology of zircon and apatites coupled with the description of a stratigraphic section and its facies composition. We compared samples from the Aracataca basin with analog sequences found at an equivalent basin at the Oca Fault at the northern margin of the SNSM. Our results show that sediments of both basins were sourced from Precambrian gneisses, along with Mesozoic acid to intermediate plutons; sedimentation started in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene according to palynomorphs, subsequently in the Upper Oligocene a completion of Jurassic to Cretaceous sources was followed by an increase of Precambrian input that became the dominant

  12. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  13. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  14. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  15. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  16. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  17. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  18. The Santa Ana Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, David, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    One of the priority interests of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation is to connect the knowledge and resources of institutions with communities in order to improve the quality of life in community. Partnerships achieve uncommon results. In Santa Ana, California, an unusual partnership of public schools, community college, universities, community…

  19. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PEDRO RIVER BASIN: Copper Creek SANTA CRUZ RIVER BASIN: Agua Caliente Wash Nogales Wash Sonoita Creek... RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road...

  20. DESPACHO DE PAN HERMANOS CRUZ [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX COMENTA JUANITA CRUZ QUE SU MADRE NACIÓ EN 1914, Y CUANDO ERA PEQUEÑA RECUERDA QUE YA EXISTÍA LA PANADERÍA ANTIGUA. CONSERVA TAMBIÉN LOS TABLONES Y LAS MADERAS EN EL QUE SE PONÍAN EL PAN PARA QUE FERMENTARA. EN EL PATIO DE LA CASA DE UNO DE LOS HERMANOS, CONTIGUA A LA PANADERÍA, ESTA LA ANTIGUA AMASADORA QUE HAN REUTILIZADO COMO MACETERO. ESTA FICHA ESTÁ VINCULADA A LA NÚMERO 9514, "PANADERÍA DE LOS HERMANOS CRUZ". Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO ...

  1. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  2. Santa and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Barthel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Happy end-of-the-year evening and night events provide good opportunities to explain the phases of the moon. The need for such moon phase education is once again demonstrated, through an investigation of illustrations on Santa Claus and Christmas gift wrap and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: The Netherlands and the USA. The moon on Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of knowledge concerning the physical origin of the moon phases, or lack of interest in understanding, is found to be widespread in The Netherlands but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Definitely incomplete, but surely representative lists compiling both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift wrap and children's books are also presented.

  3. Utilização do mecanismo de transposição de peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara por camarões (Palaemonidae), bacia do rio Mucuri, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of Santa Clara Power Plant fish lift by Palaemonidae shrimps, Mucuri River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo dos S. Pompeu; Fábio Vieira; Carlos B. Martinez

    2006-01-01

    Durante a operação do elevador para peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara, de novembro de 2003 a março de 2004, todos os crustáceos palaemonídeos adultos que utilizaram o mecanismo foram contados e o número de jovens estimado. Duas espécies foram registradas: Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) e Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836). A utilização do mecanismo por adultos foi bastante restrita, com apenas 185 exemplares registrados. Porém, o número de jovens de M. carcinus utilizan...

  4. "La Cruz del tío Ignacio", yacimiento Achelense, en Belver de los Montes, Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis BENITO DEL REY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se estudia una colección de artefactos líticos recogidos en el yacimiento de «La Cruz del tío Ignacio-, en Belver de los Montes (Zamora. Dichos objetos son analizados, aquí, bajo los aspectos tecnológicos y tipológicos, principalmente los núcleos, las lascas y la macroindustria (cantos tallados, triedros, hendidores y bifaces. Estos últimos útiles constituyen la parte mejor representada de la industria. El conjunto de artefactos analizados puede atribuirse, por sus características técnicas y tipológicas, al Achelense medio, que se encuentra, abundante, en toda la zona de la cuenca media occidental del Duero, y que está uniformado por la forma y el tamaño de la materia prima (el canto rodado de cuarcita, por la técnica y por la tipología.ABSTRACT: We try to analyse in this article a collection of stone artifacts gathered in the site of «La Cruz del Tío ignacio» (Belver de los Montes, Zamora, Spain. We analyse these objects under two perspectives, taking into account both the technological and the typological aspects and we concéntrate on core-tools, flake-tools and the macroindustry of pebble-tools, trihedral picks, cleavers and handaxex. These latter artifacts represent the best part of the industry. All these objects as a wole could be ascribed tot he Middle Acheulian if we take into consideration their technical and topological characteristics. Abundante samples of this period can be found all over the western middle basin of the River Duero. All these samples are standardized both by the form/size of the raw material (pebble of quartzite and by technological and typological elements.

  5. Qualidade da água em região alterada pela mineração de carvão na microbacia do rio Fiorita (Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610 Water quality in disturbed area by coal mining, Fiorita river basin (Siderópolis, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1610

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Santo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A mineração de carvão constitui importante atividade econômica na região sul catarinense. A área da bacia hidrográfica do rio Fiorita (Município de Siderópolis, SC foi intensamente minerada e atualmente apresenta inúmeros locais com rejeitos, estéreis de mineração e lagos ácidos. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo verificar os efeitos da mineração de carvão na qualidade da água dos corpos de água na microbacia do rio Fiorita. As análises gráficas e multivariada (“cluster” sugerem que a microbacia apresenta um gradiente horizontal, com redução da qualidade da água em direção à parte baixa da bacia, com diminuição do pH e elevação nos valores de acidez total, condutividade elétrica, Eh e nos teores de sólidos totais, sulfato, alumínio, cálcio, ferro II e total, magnésio e manganês. Esses dados sugerem o efeito da concentração de metais. Como primeira aproximação, de acordo com a Resolução Conama 20 de 1986, as águas da microbacia do rio Fiorita apresentam-se com elevado grau de comprometimento de sua qualidade e de uso restrito. Também são apresentadas considerações visando contribuir com subsídios à recuperação ambiental da área em questãoCoal mining is an important economical activity in the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The em>Fiorita River basin (municipality of Siderópolis was heavily mined out and nowadays several places with mining spoils and sterile soil, as well as acid lakes, can be found in its area. This study aimed to carry out an environmental diagnosis on the water bodies quality in that region. Graphic and cluster analysis suggested that the Fiorita River basin was compartmented. It seemed that there was a deterioration gradient in water quality toward the lower portion of the basin, with pH decrease and a rise in values of total acidity, electric conductivity, Eh, total solids contents, sulphate, aluminium, calcium, iron II and totals, manganese and magnesium

  6. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  7. Interview with Joanna Bigfeather, Cherokee, Director of the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum (IAIA, Santa Fe, NM, USA, October 28, 2000 Entretien avec Joanna Bigfeather, Cherokee, directrice, Institute of American Indian Arts Museum (IAIA, Santa Fe, NM, États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Selbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ForewordJoanna Bigfeather was appointed director of the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in April 1999. A Western Cherokee brought up in New Mexico, Joanna Osburn Bigfeather graduated from IAIA in 1987 and moved to the University of California at Santa Cruz to study for a Bachelor of Fine Arts. Then she attended the State University of New York in Albany, where she obtained a Master in Fine Arts. While exhibiting extensively prints, ceramics and installations...

  8. Mycobacterium fortuitum Cruz from the tropical fish Hyphessobrycon innesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Brancato, F.P.

    1959-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus, isolated from a cold abscess of human origin was described by Cruz (1938). Gordon and Smith (1955), in a taxonomic study embracing a group of acid-fast bacteria capable of relatively rapid growth on ordinary media, classified a number of cultures in their collection as M. fortuitum Cruz. In this group were strains isolated from human beings, cattle, soil, and cold-blooded animals including marine fishes. The present study was undertaken to determine the identity of a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus isolated at the New York Aquarium from lesions present in a population of freshwater tropical fishes commonly known as the Neon Tetra (Hyphessobrycon innesi). The symptomatology and pathology of this disease have been described by Nigrelli (1953).

  9. Lithologic identification and characterization using ETM+ (Landsat 7. Study case of the Upsala glacier basin, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lo Vecchio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study aims to evaluate and analyze digital image processing techniques applied to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, in order to demark and characterize the outcropping lithologies on the Upsala Glacier basin, Santa Cruz, Argentine Republic. The prolific technological and spatial development experienced in the last decades has given place to the generation, without precedents, of multiple remote sensors capable of capturing information of the terrestrial surface and also the improvement of digital image processing techniques and software; amongst them, the amazing possibilities in the detection and differentiation of diverse covers present on the terrestrial surface can be highlighted, such as glaciers, volcanoes, vegetation, soils, water, types of rock outcrops, etc. This situation improves mapping and monitoring of natural phenomenon in the Earth Sciences field. The proposed methodology includes radiometric corrections, elimination of unwanted covers, statistical evaluation in the combination of the most appropriate bands, application of the Z index, discretization of the statistical series, entailing tasks of spectral classification with field samples and a later validation. Valuable results were obtained by means of digital processing of images, that were validated yielding a 82% of accuracy in the proposed classification, which are good results taking into account the diversity of covers present and the lithological heterogeneity that makes up each pixel (30m. These results were also validated with existing geological maps, obtaining a good agreement.

  10. Otra vez Unamuno y Fuentes: La muerte de Artemio Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, June C. D.; Rodríguez, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    En su trabajo de 1971, González Echevarría señala, apuntando semejanzas entre protagonistas, la posible presencia de Nada menos que todo un hombre en la elaboración de La muerte deArtemio Cruz. No pretendemos disputar, en lo que se refiere al desarrollo de personalidades protagónicas, el paralelo que este estudioso establece, sino ampliar la evidencia de una presencia unamuniana en el novelista mexicano.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  12. Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz. These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic, their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints.

  13. Desastre y Memoria Material: La Inundacion 2003 de Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Susann Baez Ullberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On April 29, 2003, a catastrophic flood occurred in the Argentina city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Soon, the disaster became a political issue, as they had made serious accusations against the authorities and decision makers regarding negligence, corruption and lack of disaster preparedness. A local protest movement emerged, claiming both the allocation of responsibilities and financial compensation for the losses suffered by the victims. This article analyses the role of material memory and oblivion on the post disaster scene, more specifically, how different social actors in Santa Fe used places and objects in the contentious making of a disaster memoryscape. The analysis is based on ethnography from transtemporal translocal and field research conducted in Santa Fe between 2004 and 2011, and applies anthropological and sociological theories of memory to analyse these processes. Resumen El 29 de abril de 2003, ocurrió la peor inundación catastrófica en la historia de la ciudad argentina de Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Al poco tiempo, el desastre se convirtió en una cuestión política, ya que se habían realizado graves acusaciones contra las autoridades y tomadores de decisiones con respecto a la negligencia, la corrupción y la falta de preparación para desastres. Surgió un movimiento de protesta demandando tanto la asignación de responsabilidades, como la compensación económica por las pérdidas sufridas por las víctimas. Este artículo analiza el papel de la memoria material y el olvido en el escenario del posdesastre, y más específicamente cómo los diferentes actores sociales en Santa Fe usaron los lugares y los objetos en una contienda por construir un memo-paisaje del desastre. El análisis se basa en etnografía de trabajo de campo translocal y transtemporal realizado en Santa Fe entre 2004 y 2011, y aplica las teorías antropológicas y sociológicas de la memoria a fines de analizar estos procesos.

  14. ANÁLISE SAZONAL DA ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA À VEGETAÇÃO NO ATERRO DA SOUZA CRUZ, RS, BRASIL

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    Gabriela Eugenia Cavalcanti Bruchmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A facilidade de adaptação dos insetos aos diversos ambientes faz com que sejam encontrados em todos os tipos de habitats, independente de seu nível de sucessão. Sendo assim, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar a sucessão na comunidade de artrópodes em uma área de aterro em Santa Cruz do Sul, correlacionando os dados com a sazonalidade e a vegetação presente no local. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma área de aterro, da empresa Souza Cruz. Para a coleta do material entomológico, foram utilizados 17 pontos amostrais na área. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente de junho de 2013 a junho de 2014, totalizando 24 coletas, seis em cada estação do ano. Em cada ponto foram instaladas quatro armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foi amostrado um total de 81.438 indivíduos pertencentes a 24 táxons diferentes. Sendo 19.828 no inverno, 24.845 na primavera, 20.635 no verão e 16.130 no outono. A maior amostragem durante todas as estações foi Formicidae (Hymenoptera, com 50.239 espécimes coletados, o que representa 62% do total. Nos dados obtidos nesse período, foi possível inferir que há certa dominância de poucos táxons, que possuem maior potencial de adaptação a ambientes perturbados antropicamente.

  15. Utilização do mecanismo de transposição de peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara por camarões (Palaemonidae, bacia do rio Mucuri, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of Santa Clara Power Plant fish lift by Palaemonidae shrimps, Mucuri River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Paulo dos S. Pompeu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a operação do elevador para peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara, de novembro de 2003 a março de 2004, todos os crustáceos palaemonídeos adultos que utilizaram o mecanismo foram contados e o número de jovens estimado. Duas espécies foram registradas: Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836. A utilização do mecanismo por adultos foi bastante restrita, com apenas 185 exemplares registrados. Porém, o número de jovens de M. carcinus utilizando o elevador foi estimado em 19.120 indivíduos. Embora o mecanismo avaliado tenha permitido a passagem dos palaemonídeos para montante do barramento, ficou clara a necessidade de novos arranjos estruturais e de manejo específicos para esses animais. Essas ações se referem ao desenvolvimento de estruturas direcionadas para a sua passagem e a adoção de vertimentos programados durante o período reprodutivo para permitir o carreamento de larvas para jusante. Esses dois caminhos representam formas efetivas de manejo, imprescindíveis para a manutenção das populações deste importante componente da biota aquática.During the Santa Clara Power Plant fish lift operation, from November 2003 to March 2004, Palaemonidae adult specimens were counted and identified and estimated juveniles number. Two Palaemonidae species were recorded: Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836. The use of the fish lift by adults was restricted, since only 185 individuals were registered. However, the estimated juveniles number was 19,120 individuals. Although existing fish passage systems could be considered as an alternative for Palaemonidae migration, planned spills during the reproductive periods could allow the drift of larvae. Moreover, the constructions of specific structures for upstream migration should be considered as an alternative for the maintenance of this important component of aquatic biota.

  16. Sobre el producto cruz en espacios vectoriales n-dimensionales

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Murray

    2004-01-01

    A diferencia del producto interno entre vectores que se define sin problemas como una operación binaria para vectores en n dimensiones, el producto vecto rial o producto cruz normalmente se define solamente para vectores tridimensionales. Si en vez de insistir en que el producto vecto rial es una operación binaria, se reconoce que resulta más benéfico considerarla como una operación (n – 1)-aria, donde n es la dimensión del espacio, (en tres dimensiones como n–1 = 2, no hay diferencia entre b...

  17. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  18. ciudad de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alfredo Ferreira Ospino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación evalúa los resultados de un programa de Formación en Derechos con madres comunitarias para la solución de conflictos en la Comuna Ocho de la ciudad de Santa Marta. El programa buscó el desarrollo de la capacidad de análisis y discernimiento para la toma de decisiones, que les permitan participar activamente en la solución de problemas de la comunidad, tendientes a mejorar las condiciones de vida de los miembros de la ésta. El proyecto se enmarca en un diseño de investigación cuasiexperimental con grupo control y medida pre y post, de forma que puedan medirse no sólo los resultados del programa, sino su efectividad para la resolución de conflictos en la comunidad. Se utilizó el cuestionario adaptado a la Teoría de Rahim y otros autores de la teoría del conflicto con el fin de determinar la manera como se resuelven los conflictos en la comunidad. Esta investigación se centró en demostrar objetivamente la efectividad del programa y las diferencias deliberativas y discursivas más relevantes entre los sujetos que recibieron formación en derechos.

  19. El linaje de Cristo a la luz del “giro genealógico” del siglo XV. La respuesta de Juana de la Cruz (1481-1534

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    Muñoz Fernández, Ángela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research revolves around the sermon on Saint Anne in El Conhorte by Juana de la Cruz, focusing on imagery in the text about life and generation that supports the importance of maternal genealogies. Using this evidence as point of departure, this sermon is used as an example of shifting currents of opinion in female convents related to the Querelle des Femmes, currents of opinion that interacted with the main social and cultural debates of the period. These debates were closely related to the socalled “genealogical turn” which Iberian societies underwent in the 15th century.Este trabajo se articula en torno al sermón de Santa Ana de El Conhorte de Juana de la Cruz. Su temática incide en imágenes de vida y generación y defiende el peso de las genealogías maternas. A partir de esta evidencia, se plantea su estudio como exponente del desarrollo en el mundo de los conventos femeninos de corrientes de opinión relacionadas con la Querella de las Mujeres que interactuaron con los principales focos del debate social y cultural de su época, debates que guardaron relación con el llamado “giro genealógico” que experimentaron las sociedades ibéricas en el siglo XV.

  20. Diferentiation of Basements Types Using Seismic Reflection Data and 40Ar-39Ar Dating in the Western Half of the Farallon Basin (gulf of California, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero Lajas, D.; González Fernández, A.; López-Martínez, M.; Lonsdale, P.; Kluesner, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California is an active continental rift with an oblique right lateral displacement. Defining a clear boundary between continental and oceanic crust is difficult due to the high sedimentation rate. The new crust is a mixture of sills and sediments that do not produce aligned magnetic anomalies. The main objective of this work is to identify this boundary in the western part of the Farallon Basin. In order to accomplish this goal we used multichannel 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data taken during a cruise aboard oceanographic vessel Francisco de Ulloa in 2006. We also used petrological characterization and 40Ar-39Ar dating of continental samples collected in nearby Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz and San Diego islands, Punta Botella in the Baja California Peninsula, and marine samples of the continental margin next to Las Animas island (ROCA 2008 cruise). Oceanic crust created in the Farallòn spreading axis is identified primarily by saucer-shaped structures in the seismic profiles, which are interpreted as sills. The plutonic continental basement is located on the westernmost part of the margin and is recognized by a continuous high amplitude reflector. There are also volcanic patches in this area, like the South Farallon Massif, which are evident as discontinuities in the high amplitude reflector and with a different seismic character. The Farallon Basin is affected by two different tectonic regimes, the first (compressive) is related to the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the North American Plate, when the plutonic basement was originated. It consists of granodiorites and tonalites belonging to two phases of subduction during the Upper Cretaceous and Early Miocene. Outcrops of the latter phase are exposed in the peninsula of Baja California (Conception Bay); Mexico mainland (middle Sinaloa); and dredged samples of Pescadero Basin. These are similar to the plutonic Santa Catalina Island outcrop described and dated in this study. These

  1. Alteración hidrotermal en el distrito minero San José, provincia de Santa Cruz Hydrothermal alteration in San José mining district,Santa Cruz province

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    María Eugenia Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales de arcilla de origen hidrotermal presentes en el distrito minero San José fueron identificados mediante el empleo de un espectrómetro de reflectancia portátil. Las asociaciones de minerales de alteración halladas en las rocas jurásicas indican que el fluido evolucionó en el ámbito del distrito desde condiciones de alta temperatura y bajo pH en la zona proximal a uno de pH neutro y baja temperatura en zonas distales. Las variaciones en la composición de la illita reflejan los cambios de temperatura y pH de los fluidos actuantes; es sódica en la zona de mayor temperatura mientras que en las zonas vinculadas a la mineralización es normal potásica.Hydrothermal clay mineral present at San José were characterized by field portable spectroscopy. Mineral assemblages indicate that hydrothermal fluid evolved throughout the district, from low pH-high temperature proximal to neutral-low temperature distal fluids. Compositional difference of illite depends of the fluid characteristics becoming more Na-rich at high temperature whereas in mineralizated areas are K-normal.

  2. Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Santa Clara River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline A.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2001-06-01

    The Santa Clara River is a prototypical small mountainous river, with a headwater height greater than 1000 m and a basin area smaller than 10,000 m 2. Although individual small mountainous rivers export trivial amounts of sediment and carbon to the ocean, as a group these rivers may export a major fraction (as much as 50%) of the total global river sediment flux [Milliman and Syvitski, 1992], making their geochemistry relevant the study of the ocean's carbon cycle. In addition, many small rivers export sediment in a few high flux events, causing massive, sporadic discharge of carbon onto coastal shelves, discharge conditions very different from those of large rivers. This class of rivers is an end-member of the river-ocean carbon exchange system,. opposite the Earth's largest river, the Amazon. The carbon mass and isotopic properties of the Santa Clara River are significantly different from previously studied large rivers. During the 1997-1998 winter, all Santa Clara carbon pools were old, with flux-weighted average Δl4C values of-428±76‰ for particulate organic carbon, -73±31‰ for dissolved organic carbon, and-644±58‰ for black carbon. The age of exported carbon is primarily due to the deep erosion of old soils and not to inclusion of fossil fuel carbon. Additionally, the δ13C signatures of exported carbon pools were high relative to terrestrial carbon, bearing a signature quite similar to marine carbon (average particulate organic carbon (POC) δ13C = -22.2±0.8‰). The Santa Clara's estuary is small and drains onto the narrow eastern Pacific coastal margin, exporting this old soil organic matter directly into the ocean. If the Santa Clara export patterns are representative of this class of rivers, they may be a significant source of refractory terrestrial carbon to the ocean.

  3. Santa Claus ’Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  4. Problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos, provincia de Santa Cruz

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    Jacquelina Maribel Díaz Viegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este informe se presentan los resultados de una beca de iniciación a la investigación para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, cuyo objetivo consistió en la identificación de los usos del suelo y las problemáticas ambientales en el área de Los Antiguos. La metodología utilizada consistió en búsquedas bibliográficas, interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de alta resolución espacial, relevamientos de campo y entrevistas a informantes calificados. Se detectaron como principales problemas ambientales los asociados con la disposición de los residuos urbanos y tratamiento de líquidos cloacales, inundaciones en la rivera del lago Buenos Aires y en zonas urbanas, deslizamiento de laderas en la loma Del Mirador, entre otros. En el informe se explican estas problemáticas, se analiza la legislación vigente y se proponen algunas medidas de mitigación.

  5. Catalogación y Normalización de datos de Infraestructura espacial de Santa Cruz

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    Mirian Liliana Vazquez

    2015-08-01

    Los resultados del trabajo sientan las bases generales de carácter normativo conforme a las cuales se establecerán las acciones de integración de la IG producida en el Laboratorio de Cartografía, Teledetección y SIG de la UARG – UNPA.

  6. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

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    Barrios Martínez, M.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante que reúne las siguientes características: es mixto, en cuanto a la forma y materiales; rígido, por el enlace de las plataformas superiores de trabajo; y de sección constante, por mantener los silos las mismas dimensiones en toda su altura. La maniobra de ascenso del encofrado se conseguía mediante dispositivos de elevación accionados por mando hidráulico centralizado. Dadas las particularidades del encofrado deslizante, el hormigón utilizado en la obra debía reunir una serie de condiciones especiales, sensiblemente distintas a las del hormigón que normalmente se emplea con encofrados fijos, por lo que fue objeto de numerosos estudios y ensayos hasta conseguir su perfecta adecuación. La construcción se llevó a cabo en un tiempo récord: en primer lugar, por la confección previa de un detallado programa que consiste en un gráfico de barras y una red de precedencias; y, en segundo lugar, por la implantación de un hormigonado continuo, con tumos de día y de noche, con lo que se consiguió disminuir en doce días los dos meses y medio previstos para la terminación.

  7. EATING HABITS: A study with adolescents aged 10 to 15, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School in Santa Cruz do Sul

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    Bruna Fernada Soder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits in adolescence, may suffer several changes as they can vary from one day to another. The objective of this study is to determine the eating habits of adolescents aged 10 to 15 years old. The study comprised 81 students aged between 10 and 15 years, 48 male and 33 female students, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School. The research was carried out through a descriptive exploratory study, addressing the eating habits and weight control, and focusing on the frequency of food consumption per week. The tool for the study was a questionnaire on health and well-being - children and adolescents - eating habits and weight control. According to the results obtained in this study, the consumption of fried foods, pizza, lasagna and treats,were consumed less frequently, being considered among adolescents as a good eating habit, since foods such as these will cause obesity if consumed more frequently and in large quantities. In relation to the consumption of salads and vegetables males (40.5% have the habit of eating more that kind of food, when compared to the females(38.2%. For both genders, adults become more or less prone to obesitywith a more regular consumption of this type of food. Thus, we can see that the teenagers in their diet, prioritize foods they like to eat, and seldom choose foods which are healthier, without worrying about becoming obese adolescents or even in the future, obese adults with poor eating habits.

  8. Análisis de restos bioarqueológicos de la costa meridional de Santa Cruz

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    Suby, Jorge A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan análisis bioarqueológicos y paleopatológicos de los restos óseos humanos hallados en el marco del proyecto “Variabilidad del registro arqueológico y bioantropológico de la costa atlántica meridional patagónica” (PIP 5576. Fueron estudiados dos esqueletos humanos hallado en la región costera de amortiguación del Parque Nacional Monte León. Los materiales corresponden a un adulto y un niño, sobre los que se analizaron aspectos paleopatológicos a través de estudios macroscópicos y radiológicos. A su vez se estudiaron variables tafonómicas y de conservación. Los restos óseos mostraron, en el caso del individuo adulto, importantes marcadores de stress ocupacional en su columna vertebral, así como signos de traumatismos costales. En los restos pertenecientes al niño no pudieron identificarse alteraciones patológicas significativas. Se discuten los resultados hallados en relación a los antecedentes correspondientes al registro bioarqueológico de la región. Al mismo tiempo, en el marco del proyecto mencionado, se analizan las condiciones de conservación de los restos óseos tratados.

  9. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  10. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  11. Petrogenesis of spinel peridotite suite xenoliths from northern Santa Cruz province, Argentina; implication for the Patagonian Lithospheric Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Mundl, Andrea; Bjerg, Ernesto; Tschegg, Cornelius; Kosler, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Don Camilo, an area located on the North margin of the Deseado Masiff in Patagonia, comprise spinel bearing lherzolites, harburgites and dunites, wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and gabbros. The most common rock type in our collection is spinel-lherzolite followed by dunites. Harzurgites, wehrlites and gabbros are less widespread. Spinel-lherzolites and harzburgites have protogranular textures whereas dunites have equigranular to equigranular tabular textures. There are two kinds of dunites: mantle dunites and cumulate dunites. The olivine mg# in the mantle dunites vary within a narrow range, from 90.5 to 91.5 and the NiO content from 0.39 to 0.42 wt%, whereas in the cumulate dunites the mg# ranges from 87 to 90.5 and the NiO content from 0.22 to 0.40 wt%. Both types of dunites contain fine grained interstitial diopside. Hydrous phases, besides one sample that contains amphibole, were so far not found. The spinel peridotites have whole rock REE abundances depleted in LREE [(La/Yb)N=0.34-0.85)] and the dunites are LREE enriched [(La/Yb)N=3.49]. LA-ICP-MS analyses of cpx show that a number of the studied spinel peridotite xenoliths experienced cryptic metasomatism. Three groups of xenoliths have been recognized according to REE and other incompatible trace element patterns in cpx: group I has depleted LREE abundances, group II is highly enriched in LREE (20-30 x PM) and group 3 has moderate LREE enrichments. The core of some clinopyroxenes in group II has depleted LREE similar to those in group I, apparently representing relictic cores not affected by metasomatism. In addition the metasomatized clinopyroxenes are significantly enriched in Sr, Th and U. Evidently, the metasomatic agent was a H2O-rich fluid (high LREE, Sr, Th and U). Clinopyroxene Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary largely from 0.702671 to 0.705788 and from 0.51229 to 0.513251 respectively. Mantle and cumulate dunites have experienced modal metasomatism. In both types of dunites the interstitial clinopyroxene appears to be of metasomatic origin. The clinopyroxene from cumulate dunites has depleted LREE abundances and low HREE indicating that they have been formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites has enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium conditions cover a wide range, from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar can be assumed as reasonable, indicating that xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths, in the order of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the Lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid rich silicate melt presumably similar to that which affected the xenoliths from Cerro Clark locality, north of Don Camilo. Don Camilo mantle xenoliths, like Tres Lagos, Cerro Redondo and Gobernador Gregores, does not show evidence for interaction of the Lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with subduction related components.

  12. Alteración hidrotermal en el distrito minero San José, provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales de arcilla de origen hidrotermal presentes en el distrito minero San José fueron identificados mediante el empleo de un espectrómetro de reflectancia portátil. Las asociaciones de minerales de alteración halladas en las rocas jurásicas indican que el fluido evolucionó en el ámbito del distrito desde condiciones de alta temperatura y bajo pH en la zona proximal a uno de pH neutro y baja temperatura en zonas distales. Las variaciones en la composición de la illita reflejan los cambios de temperatura y pH de los fluidos actuantes; es sódica en la zona de mayor temperatura mientras que en las zonas vinculadas a la mineralización es normal potásica.

  13. Cerro Bombero: registro de Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla en el Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new record of Hippidion saldiasi with new radiocarbon data referred to early Holocene (8,850 ± 80 year C-14 B.P of Patagonia is reported. Both its peculiar geographic location in a scarcely prospected zone and its radiocarbon age, provide new elements to discuss the previous hypotheses about the extinction of the horses and its relations with the human beings that inhabited the different environments of South America.Presentamos un nuevo registro de Hippidion saldiasi con datación radiocarbónica directa correspondiente al Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (8.850 ± 80 años C-14 AP. Su particular ubicación temporal y geográfica en una zona poco estudiada hasta ahora y su registro reciente, aportan nuevos elementos para discutir las hipótesis previas sobre la extinción de los caballos y su relación con los grupos humanos que colonizaron los diferentes ambientes de América del Sur.

  14. Goddard Space Flight Center contributions to the University of California, Santa Cruz Summer Workshop on High Energy Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressing the characteristics and emission mechanisms of gamma ray bursts and neutron and gamma ray emission from solar flares are discussed. In addition, observational aspects of gamma ray astronomy are addressed with particular attention given to optical transients associated with gamma ray bursts.

  15. Watershed Analysis for Runoff and Erosion Potential on Santa Cruz Watershed: Impact of Climate and Land Cover Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have established the significant relationship between climate and runoff: climate change may potentially increase or decrease the surface runoff. Increased surface runoff can also increase the risk of soil erosion. Land cover change can alter rainfall-runof...

  16. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Valuation Services. Under the regulations 43 CFR 2711.3-2, the BLM may limit bidding to certain persons when... including the sale procedures and conditions, appraisal, planning and environmental documents, and a...

  17. Knowledge management aiming to technology transfer: the challenges face by the tic of the state university of Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Carlos Santos Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the concept of organizational knowledge, and theory models for the creation and management of organizational knowledge that, in many approaches, do not take into account the specificity of each organization and the relationship. The paper analyses the innovation dynamics and the technology transfer from Technological Innovation Centers (TIC to the productive sector. The methodology employed was qualitative and of descriptive nature. The method used in the research was a case study in a TIC well-structured in respect to the constitution of the TICs from the perspective of the Federal Innovation Law nº 10.973 of the Innovation Law of the Bahia State nº 11.174. Barriers for knowledge creation and management that guarantee the effective technology transfer were identified.

  18. 75 FR 4340 - Plan Revision for the Coronado National Forest, Cochise, Graham, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... updated language. Provide direction to guide future vegetation management activities, including burning... management direction for fire, caves, cultural resources, roads, and trails, and adding direction for the... Web site, http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/coronado/plan-revision/index.shtmi . Individuals who...

  19. 76 FR 17664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, City of Scotts Valley and Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Availability of Documents You may download a copy of the IPHCP, IAs and related... phone. Individuals wishing copies of the Draft IPHCP, Draft EA, and/or Draft IAs, should contact the...) at 50 CFR part 17 prohibit the ``take'' of fish or wildlife species listed as endangered...

  20. Tecnología lítica en la localidad arqueológica Piedra Museo (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Cattáneo de Izeta, Gabriela Roxana

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una síntesis de los resultados obtenidos desde 1996 a 2001 del análisis de los materiales líticos de la Localidad Arqueológica Piedra Museo, sitio Alero El Puesto 1. La variedad de materiales líticos representados en. dos de los conjuntos de este sitio, UE2 capas 4/5 y capa 6, han resultado importantes para discutir algunos aspectos acerca de la organización de la tecnología (principalmente aprovisionamiento de materias primas líticas y estrategias de producción de...

  1. Modos de utilización de las TICs por las organizaciones que operan en la Chiquitania (Santa Cruz, Bolivia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Prado

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la utilización de las TICs (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) por las organizaciones que operan en el espacio de la Mancomunidad de municipios de la Gran Chiquitania...

  2. Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Santa Clara River

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The Santa Clara River is a prototypical small mountainous river, with a headwater height greater than 1000 m and a basin area smaller than 10,000 m 2. Although individual small mountainous rivers export trivial amounts of sediment and carbon to the ocean, as a group these rivers may export a major fraction (as much as 50%) of the total global river sediment flux [Milliman and Syvitski, 1992], making their geochemistry relevant the study of the ocean's carbon cycle. In addition, many small riv...

  3. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    A thick Quaternary alluvial section fills a sedimentary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California, located within the San Andreas Fault system at the south end of San Francisco Bay. This section consists of an upper sequence about 1,000 feet thick containing eight sedimentary cycles and a lower fine-grained unit as thick as several hundred feet. Together these constitute the Quaternary Santa Clara Basin. The section overlies an irregular unconformity with more than 1,200 feet of relief cut into the underlying bedrock. This stratigraphy is determined through study of new wells and seismic reflection profiles, together with a sample of the many thousands of water wells in the valley. It represents a major change and improvement in understanding of the basin, particularly with regard to the upper cyclic sequence, which forms a large groundwater system that is an important resource in the San Francisco Bay region.

  4. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization and evaluation of two arroyos for managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in the Pojoaque River Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Cordova, Jeffrey; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Carruth, Rob

    2017-02-22

    In order to provide long-term storage of diverted surface water from the Rio Grande as part of the Aamodt water rights settlement, managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in Pojoaque River Basin arroyos was proposed as an option. The initial hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of two arroyos located within the Pojoaque River Basin was performed in 2014 and 2015 in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the potential suitability of these two arroyos as sites for managed aquifer recharge through surface infiltration.The selected reaches were high-gradient (average 3.0–3.5 percent) braided channels filled with unconsolidated sand and gravel-sized deposits that were generally 30–50 feet thick. Saturation was not observed in the unconsolidated channel sands in four subsurface borings but was found at 7–60 feet below the contact between the unconsolidated channel sands and the bedrock. The poorly to well-cemented alluvial deposits that make up the bedrock underlying the unconsolidated channel material is the Tesuque Formation. The individual beds of the Tesuque Formation are reported to be highly heterogeneous and anisotropic, and the bedrock at the site was observed to have variable moisture and large changes in lithology. Surface electrical-resistivity geophysical survey methods showed a sharp contrast between the electrically resistive unconsolidated channel sands and the highly conductive bedrock; however, because of the high conductivity, the resistivity methods were not able to image the water table or preferential flow paths (if they existed) in the bedrock.Infiltration rates measured by double-ring and bulk infiltration tests on a variety of channel morphologies in the study reaches were extremely large (9.7–94.5 feet per day), indicating that the channels could potentially accommodate as much as 6.6 cubic feet per second of applied water without generating surface runoff out of the reach; however, the small volume

  5. 23,000 yr of vegetation history of the Upper Lerma, a tropical high-altitude basin in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana; Sugiura, Yoko; Caballero, Margarita

    2005-07-01

    Pollen analysis on a 9.54-m sediment core from lake Chignahuapan in the upper Lerma basin, the highest intermontane basin in Central Mexico (2570 m asl), documents vegetation and limnological changes over the past ˜23,000 14C yr. The core was drilled near the archaeological site of Santa Cruz Atizapán, a site with a long history of human occupation, abandoned at the end of the Epiclassic period (ca. 900 AD). Six radiocarbon AMS dates and two well-dated volcanic events, the Upper Toluca Pumice with an age of 11,600 14C yr B.P. and the Tres Cruces Tephra of 8500 14C yr B.P., provide the chronological framework for the lacustrine sequence. From ca. 23,000 14C yr B.P. to ca. 11,600 14C yr B.P. the plant communities were woodlands and grasslands based on the pollen data. The glacial advances MII-1 and MII-2 correlate with abundant non-arboreal pollen, mainly grasses, from ca. 21,000 to 16,000 14C yr B.P., and at ca. 12,600 14C yr B.P. During the late Pleistocene, lake Chignahuapan was a shallow freshwater lake with a phase of lower level between 19,000 and 16,000 14C yr B.P. After 10,000 14C yr B.P., tree cover in the area increased, and a more variable lake level is documented. Late Holocene (ca. 3100 14C yr B.P.) deforestation was concurrent with human population expansion at the beginning of the Formative period (1500 B.C.). Agriculture and manipulation of the lacustrine environment by human lakeshore populations appear at 1200 14C yr B.P. (550 A.D.) with the appearance of Zea mays pollen and abundant charcoal particles.

  6. Religión, fiestas y centros ceremoniales mayas de la Cruz Parlante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Buenrostro Alba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se describe el principal santo de los mayas de Quintana Roo, la Cruz Parlante, así como los centros ceremoniales y las fiestas tradicionales relacionadas con esta advocación. Se incluyen datos etnográficos que describen el contexto en el que se centra el estudio. La Cruz Parlante permite a los mayas de Quintana Roo seguir existiendo y los protege, pero para ello debe estar custodiada por los propios mayas.

  7. Santa Paulina, reconquista a territorialidade

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, José do

    2006-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em História Esta dissertação trata de um estudo sobre a relação entre turismo e religiosidade a partir do estudo de caso do Santuário de Santa Paulina do Coração Agonizante de Jesus, em Nova Trento, no período de 1991 a 2005. Foi adotado o método de História Oral com a participação de diferentes atores, destacando-se os peregrinos ou passantes mais comumente de...

  8. 2009 Santa Fe Bone symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Bilezikian, John P; Laster, Andrew J; Miller, Paul D; Recker, Robert R; Russell, R Graham G; Whyte, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease with serious clinical consequences because of fractures. Despite the availability of clinical tools to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk, and drugs proven to reduce fracture risk, it remains a disease that is underdiagnosed and undertreated. When treatment is started, it is commonly not taken correctly or long enough to be effective. Recent advances in understanding of the regulators and mediators of bone remodeling have led to new therapeutic targets and the development of drugs that may offer advantages over current agents in reducing the burden of osteoporotic fractures. Many genetic factors that play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease have now been identified. At the 2009 Santa Fe Bone Symposium, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, the links between advances in genetics, basic bone science, recent clinical trials, and new and emerging therapeutic agents were presented and explored. Socioeconomic challenges and opportunities in the care of osteoporosis were discussed. This is a collection of medical essays based on key presentations at the 2009 Santa Fe Bone Symposium.

  9. Pedoarchaeology of Early Agricultural Period Irrigation Systems in the Tucson Basin of the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Jeffrey; Nials, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Pedoarchaeological studies were conducted at the Las Capas and Sunset Road sites in the Tucson Basin of Arizona in order to document and evaluate soil productivity and hydraulic soil properties of ancient agricultural irrigation systems. These ancient irrigated fields are on the margin of the Santa Cruz River floodplain, between two alluvial fans where high water tables and stable to aggrading geomorphic conditions facilitated diverting water from drainages and directing it to fields by gravity-fed canal irrigation. Archaeological investigations at these sites recently provided opportunities for documenting the configuration and evolution of the oldest irrigation systems yet identified in the United States, the earliest dating to more than three millennia in age. This research is significant archaeologically because of: (1) the antiquity ( 575-1225 B.C.) of the Early Agricultural period irrigation systems at these sites, (2) the fact that irrigation systems dated to different times are separated stratigraphically within the sites, and (3) the fact that extensive, well-preserved gridded irrigation features were identified using mechanical stripping, with nearly 100 ancient footprints preserved on a buried agricultural surface at Sunset Road. The stratigraphic separation of buried surfaces that were irrigated and the abundant cultivated irrigation plots facilitated soil sampling so that field, border, and uncultivated control samples could be compared in order to measure the anthropogenic effects of agriculture on soil quality in the irragric soils. Long-term indicators of agricultural soil quality such as organic carbon, nutrient content, and hydraulic soil water properties such as available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, indicate that soil changes were generally favorable for agricultural production and that these ancient irrigation systems were sustainable. Canals regularly supplied water to the fields, but they also supplied nutrient

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley in northern California was redefined on the basis of new data and a new hydrologic model. The regional groundwater flow systems can be subdivided into upper-aquifer and lower-aquifer systems that form a convergent flow system within a basin bounded by mountains and hills on three sides and discharge to pumping wells and the southern San Francisco Bay. Faults also control the flow of groundwater within the Santa Clara Valley and subdivide the aquifer system into three subregions.After decades of development and groundwater depletion that resulted in substantial land subsidence, Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) and the local water purveyors have refilled the basin through conservation and importation of water for direct use and artificial recharge. The natural flow system has been altered by extensive development with flow paths toward major well fields. Climate has not only affected the cycles of sedimentation during the glacial periods over the past million years, but interannual to interdecadal climate cycles also have affected the supply and demand components of the natural and anthropogenic inflows and outflows of water in the valley. Streamflow has been affected by development of the aquifer system and regulated flow from reservoirs, as well as conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. Interaquifer flow through water-supply wells screened across multiple aquifers is an important component to the flow of groundwater and recapture of artificial recharge in the Santa Clara Valley. Wellbore flow and depth-dependent chemical and isotopic data indicate that flow into wells from multiple aquifers, as well as capture of artificial recharge by pumping of water-supply wells, predominantly is occurring in the upper 500 ft (152 m) of the aquifer system. Artificial recharge represents about one-half of the inflow of water into the valley for the period 1970–1999. Most subsidence is occurring below 250 ft

  12. South Fork of the Santa Clara River, Santa Clarita Valley, California. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Santa Eriodictyon trichocalyx Eucrypta Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia LAMIACEAE Purple Sage Salvia leucophylla PAEONIACEAE Peony Paeonia californica...Bush Lupine Lupinus ex-cubitus HYDROPHYLLACEAE Yerba Santa Eriodictyon trichocaLx Eucrypta Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia LAMIACEAE Purple Sage Salvia

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Micro Storage/Intel Magnetics, Santa Clara, CA. (First remedial action), August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-26

    The 3-acre Micro Storage/Intel Magnetics site consists of a former microcomputer disk drive manufacturing facility and a magnetic bubble production and testing facility in Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, California. In addition, the site overlies two shallow aquifers zones, which in turn, overlie the Santa Clara Valley ground water basin, the primary drinking water source for the 1.4 million residents of the Santa Clara Valley. As a result of possible improper storage procedures at both facilities, a number of State and EPA investigations identified VOCs including benzene, TCE, and TCA, and other organics in the ground water aquifer beneath the site. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses ground water contaminated by past facility operations. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, and toluene; and other organics. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Submarine landslides in the Santa Barbara Channel as potential tsunami sources

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, H. G.; Murai, L. Y.; Watts, P; Maher, N. A.; Fisher, M. A.; Paull, C. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Recent investigations using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institutes (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) "Ventana" and "Tiburon" and interpretation of MBARI's EM 300 30 kHz multibeam bathymetric data show that the northern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin has experienced massive slope failures. Of particular concern is the large (130 km2) Goleta landslide complex located off Coal Oil Point near the town of Goleta, that measures 14.6-km long extending from a ...

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Intel Santa Clara III Superfund site, Santa Clara, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-20

    The Intel (Santa Clara III) site includes a plant that performs quality control testing of chemicals and electrical testing of semiconductors in Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, California. The site is in a predominantly industrial area, and overlies a major ground regional source of ground water, the Santa Clara Valley ground water basin. In 1982, the State conducted a leak detection program, which identified VOC contamination in an onsite shallow aquifer. Possible sources for the contamination may include the accidental dumping of solvents into an acid neutralization tank, accidental spills near an above-ground solvent storage facility, and cleaning of solvent-contaminated pipes during plant construction. It has been determined that no onsite source is presently contributing to ground water contamination. Since 1985, Intel has been pumping and treating ground water using granular activated carbon as an Initial Remedial Measure (IRM). The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses a final solution for restoring ground water to its beneficial use. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including TCE.

  17. Report on 3D-model Testing of the Breakwater for a new Port at Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The report contains a 3-dimensional model test study of the round head and outer part of the breakwater for the new port at Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife.......The report contains a 3-dimensional model test study of the round head and outer part of the breakwater for the new port at Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife....

  18. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  19. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  20. The SantaBot experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    interactive mobile agents into public urban transit area. To investigate the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out using a robot capable of navigating autonomously based on the input of an onboard laser scanner. The robot would detect and follow random people, who afterwards were asked to fill out......The video shows how an autonomous mobile robot dressed as Santa Claus is interacting with people in a shopping mall. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially...... a questionnaire for quantitative analysis of the experiment. The presented video is the corresponding video documentation of the experiment used in the evaluation. The results showed that people were generally positive towards having mobile robots in this type of environment where shopping is combined...

  1. Genetic differentiation between marine iguanas from different breeding sites on the island of Santa Fe (Galapagos Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterbecq, Deborah; Glaberman, Scott; Vitousek, Maren Noelani; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Benavides, Edgar; Wikelski, Martin; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2010-01-01

    We studied patterns of genetic diversity within and among 5 populations (318 individuals) of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the island Santa Fé. Populations were separated by distances of 0.2 to 9.9 km. We sequenced 1182 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region and screened 13 microsatellite loci for variability. We also added data from 5 populations (397 individuals) sampled on 4 neighboring islands (Santa Cruz, Floreana, Espanola, and San Cristobal). The 5 Santa Fé populations, revealed as genetically distinct from populations on other islands, present relatively low levels of genetic diversity, which are similar for both microsatellite (average observed heterozygosity from 0.7686 to 0.7773) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers (haplotypic and nucleotide diversity from 0.587 to 0.728 and from 0.00079 to 0.00293, respectively), and comparable with those observed in similar-sized sampling sites on other islands. There was frequency-based evidence of genetic structure between northern and southern sites on Santa Fé (F(st) of 0.0027-0.0115 for microsatellite and 0.0447-0.2391 for mtDNA), but the 4 southern sites showed little differentiation. Most of the intra-island genetic variation was allocated within rather than between sites. There was no evidence of sex-biased dispersal or population substructuring due to lek-mating behavior, suggesting that these 2 observed behaviors are not strong enough to leave an evolutionary signal on genetic patterns in this species.

  2. The De-Genderization of Knowledge Production: The Case of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Norma

    1994-01-01

    All societies have official knowledge. Life of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 17th-century nun and literary genius, illustrates who discovers knowledge is more important than what knowledge is promulgated. Real issue was not what Sor Juana wrote but whether nun or woman should engage in producing and publishing knowledge. Her efforts have inspired…

  3. Estado de necesidad: la Cruz Roja Española en Marruecos, 1886-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez

    Full Text Available Resumen Este trabajo estudia la función central que los Estados-nación continuaron teniendo en la Cruz Roja durante el periodo de entreguerras. A finales del siglo XIX, España lideró la creación de instituciones humanitarias de estilo europeo en Marruecos. Sin embargo, su secular inestabilidad como Estado, agravada por el desastre colonial de 1898, terminó con el proyecto regeneracionista de una Cruz Roja marroquí. Cuando en 1912 se estableció el protectorado español, la Cruz Roja Española quedó marginada por la competencia francesa, la internacionalización de Tánger y el rechazo local. Éste último culminó en la llamada Guerra del Rif de 1921-1927, mezcla de revuelta anticolonial y guerra internacional, que expuso de forma cruda las prolongadas necesidades del Estado español y su Cruz Roja.

  4. Imágenes de lo íntimo en Falleba de Fernando Cruz Kronfly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simón Henao Jaramillo

    2016-01-01

    ...) de Fernando Cruz Kronfly. En ella indaga, con ayuda de teorías filosóficas como las de Jean Luc-Nancy, los mecanismos y las estrategias por los cuales la escritura genera una forma frágil de...

  5. Contours--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara...

  6. Habitat--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The vector...

  7. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  8. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California....

  9. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California....

  10. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  11. Faults--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  12. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  13. Geology of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Costa Rica and its implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central America-Caribbean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Santa Elena Peninsula of Costa Rice represents an Aptian to Middle Eocene intraoceanic volcanic arc formed on a basement of serpentinized periodotite. This peridotite was probably part of the oceanic lithosphere formed at a spreading ridge which began to separate South America from North America in pre-Jurassic time. The arc resulted from northward subduction of oceanic crust along one ENE-trending trench about 70 km south of Santa Elena. The first phase of tectonism, arc volcanism, and sedimentation occurred in the area from Aptian to Campanian time. Carbonate bank limestone were deposited on the peridotite, which had been tilted and uplifted along E-W-trending high angle faults. A second volcanic arc developed above the limestone and was active until the Middle Eocene. From the Campanian to the Middle Eocene a forearc basin evolved south of the arc and a backarc basin north of it. A major Middle Eocene tectonic episode was associated with termination of activity of the Santa Elena subduction zone. This involved both thin-skinned deformation and reactivation of the steep basement faults to juxtapose peridotite and Campanian to Middle Eocene sediments. Existing models of the early plate tectonic evolution of the region, postulating initiation of spreading in the Jurassic, and development of a major transform in the Santa Elena area in the Cretaceous, are incompatible with the geology of the Santa Elena area. New models have been formulated genetically relating the structures in the Santa Elena tectonic province to northward subduction.

  14. ¿Qué sabemos de las Damas Enfermeras de la Cruz Roja Española?

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Espejo, Marta; Siles González, José; Pulido Mendoza, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar qué se conoce sobre las Damas Enfermeras de la Cruz Roja Española. Método: se llevó a cabo una investigación histórica basada en la revisión bibliográfica. Fuentes documentales: catálogos virtuales de bibliotecas y archivos documentales, bases de datos electrónicas, catálogos de revistas especializadas en historia y otras fuentes de red. Descriptores utilizados: historia Enfermería, historia Cruz Roja Española, enfermeras Cruz Roja, reina Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg, ...

  15. 令人陶醉的Santa Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小松

    1999-01-01

    假如用汉字代替Santa Fe,这个名字就失去了许多诗意。四百多年来,Santa Fe市吸引了全世界的人们。人们惊叹她的新墨西哥式的自然美,享受那里宜人的气候,赞美那丰富的西班牙和印第安文化。Santa Fe是美国最早的行政首府,也是贸易和宗教的中枢,还是音乐、建筑、美术和休闲的胜地。Santa Fe蜿蜒的小路、长着当地花草的园子和四周的山景都叫人心旷神怡。在美国没有别的城市像Santa Fe这样保护自己的文化并为之感到骄傲。她的自然美和人文传统赢得了神圣的赞誉。Santa Fe坐落在落基山脚下,每晚日落时分,这里一片鲜红,人们称之为"基督的血"。远在清教徒登陆普利茅斯之前,西班牙人就在Santa Fe建立了政府。今天,这座城市是世界旅游胜地,是美国第三大美术作品

  16. Wave propagation and site response in the Santa Clara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Boatwright, J.; Lindh, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two portable digital instruments were deployed across the Santa Clara Valley from June until early November 1998; this array recorded 14 small and moderate local events and 7 large teleseismic events. We analyze the ground motion from these events to determine station delays and relative site amplification within the Valley. P waves from an event at the southern edge of the valley are early (??t > -0.35 sec) at stations over an axial ridge in the basement interface in the middle of the valley, but late (??t < 0.20 sec) for stations over the Cupertino and Evergreen basins to either side. The S-wave delays are approximately twice as large. Teleseismic P-waves from an M = 7.0 event beneath the Bonin Islands show a similar pattern in travel-time delays. The P waves are amplified by factors of 1.5-3 for frequencies below 2 Hz at stations within either basin, compared with stations on the axial ridge. The P-wave coda appear enhanced at 2-3 sec, but coda Q estimates at frequencies from 0.2 to 1.1 Hz are not markedly different at stations over the basin compared with stations on the ridge with the possible exceptions of consistently high values over the northern end of the Evergreen Basin. We invert the S-wave spectra for site-specific attenuation and amplification from the 14 local events by assuming a common source spectra for each event, 1/r geometrical spreading, and constraining the inversion using the 30-m velocity profile at four stations in the array. The largest amplifications occurred in the 1- to 6-Hz band at stations near the northwest edge of the Evergreen basin. While the highest amplifications occur at stations with the lowest S-wave velocities, the scatter obscures the correlation between velocity and amplification. The stations in the basins are characterized by higher attenuation than the stations on the basement ridge.

  17. Avaliação de clones de bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish (Musa acuminata, AAA em Cruz das Almas-BA Evaluation of banana Cavendish clones in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em Cruz das Almas-BA, em dois ciclos, 69 clones Cavendish coletados em São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia e Santa Catarina, sendo 49 do tipo Nanicão e 20 do tipo Grande Naine. Os clones foram estabelecidos em áre