ZHANGLi-Zhu; CHENGui-An; ZHAOWen-Xin; WANGZe-Mi; LIMei-Zhi; LIUPing; WANGXiu-Yun; ZHAOYun-Fen
Methods of ovum pick-up in an IVF program From January to November, 1988, were reported. In the initial stages of the program, transabdominal intraopcrative ovum pick-up was used, which resulte, d in two cases of clinical pregnancy in 1987 with full term delivery
Khan, J R; Ludri, R S
The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the world's major health problems. To evaluate in vivo indices of cellular sensitization, antigen-induced Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI responses by blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected goats supplemented with 1, 25 dyhidroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25-(OH2D3]. Approach: An experimental, longitudinal and comparative study was planned. Twelve animals of goat cattle 20-to 24-month-old sannen selected themselves. Five samplings were made, previous to the inoculation (zero d, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after applying the treatments. The mononuclear cells by the Ficoll-hypaque method were obtained. The RNI, nitrites and nitrates (NO2- and NO3- were quantified by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Results: The treatment with the 1, 25(OH2D3 stimulated the NO3- synthesis indicating, that by itself it is a good modulador of the micobacterial replication and in the treatment with M. bovis-BCG vaccine increased as a result to the treatment with 1,25(OH2D3. The exhibition to M. bovis-BCG vaccine with the treatment with 1, 25(OH2D3 was able to increase answer NO3- in exposed animals. Conclusion: The 1, 25(OH2D3 stimulated in vivo the production of RNI in goats exposed to M. bovis BCG vaccine.
Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S
genetically identified as M. ovum, contrary to their previous morphological identification as another ctenophore species, Pleurobrachia pileus. Thus, earlier reports on P. pileus in the Baltic Sea may actually refer to M. ovum. The abundance of M. ovum was regulated by both salinity and temperature...... in the southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also......, with highest abundances found in sea areas and water layers at temperatures 5.5 and oxygen levels >4 ml l-1. During summer, the highest abundances of ctenophores and their eggs were found near the halocline, while the distribution was more uniform throughout the water column during winter. Only ctenophores >3...
MAOHui-Yi; LIQi-Gui; LIFeng; XIAOBang-Zhou; LIDun-Zhou
Effects of norethisterone oxime ( NETO ) on muscular contraction of rabbit ovldacts were studied and compared with those of ethinyloestradiol ( EE ). Besides, its effects on morphological changes of oviducts and on ovum transport and development were alto investigated.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work is study the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LapOPU technique in spotted paca, describing surgery details, complications and oocyte recovery rate. Nine healthy adult non-pregnant captive females were used, in a total of 39 procedures. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, the females were positioned at 20º Trendelenburg. Three 6mm trocars were placed on right and left inguinal and hypogastric regions. Abdomen was inflated with CO2 and the intra-abdominal pressure was stablished in 10mmHg. Follicular punctures were performed moving the ovaries with atraumatic forceps. For punctures, an 18-gauge 3.5 inch long needle attached to a vacuum system with pressure not exceeding 65mmHg was used. Oocytes were recovered into 50mL centrifuge tubes with media composed of PBS supplemented with 10 IU/mL of heparin and kept at 36°C. R Software was used for statistical analysis. Data normality distribution (Shapiro test and variances homoscedasticity (Bartlett test were tested and descriptive statistics (mean±SD was used to present the results. It was only possible to perform LapOPU in 30 of 39 laparoscopies (76.92%. The surgical total time was 37.34 ± 18.53 minutes. The total number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles, and retrieved oocytes were 502, 415, and 155, respectively. And the same parameters per animal were: 14.34 ± 12.23, 11.86 ± 10.03, and 4.43 ± 4.69 respectively. Oocyte recovery rate was 32.56 ± 27.32%. In conclusion, caudal positioning of portals with slight triangulation allows good viewing of the abdominal cavity and eases the manipulation of the ovaries. Thus this described LapOPU technique is feasible in spotted paca and easy to perform.
In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.
The fertilization process is the net result of a complex sequence of events that collectively result in the fusion of the opposite gametes. The male gamete undergoes continuous morphological and biochemical modifications during sperm development in the testis (spermatogenesis), maturation in the epididymis, and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. Only the capacitated spermatozoa are able to recognize and bind to the bioactive glycan residue(s) on the ovum's extracellular coat, the zona pellucida (ZP). Sperm-zona binding in the mouse and several other species is believed to take place in two stages. First, capacitated (acrosome-intact) spermatozoa loosely and reversibly adhere to the zona-intact ovum. In the second stage tight irreversible binding occurs. Both types of bindings are attributed to the presence of glycan- binding proteins (receptors) on the sperm plasma membrane and their complementary bioactive glycan units (ligands) on the surface of the ZP. The carbohydrate-mediated adhesion event initiates a signal transduction cascade resulting in the exocytosis of acrosomal contents. This step is believed to be prerequisite which allows the hypemctivated acrosome-reacted spermatozoa to penetrate the ZP and fertilize the ovum. This review focuses on the role of carbohydrate residues in sperm-ovum interaction, and triggering of the acrosome reaction. I have attempted to discuss extensive progress that has been made to enhance our understanding of the well programmed multiple molecular events necessary for successful fertilization. This review will identify these events, and discuss the functional significance of carbohydrates in these events.
Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen
This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....
Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen
This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....
Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, joint ...
Puri, R K; Roy, S K
Some lysosomal enzymes (viz., acid DNase, acid RNase and beta-glucuronidase) were estimated in different parts of the rabbit Fallopian tube during different hours post coitum (p. c.). At estrus, alterations of acid RNase and beta-glucuronidase were observed in different anatomical segments of the Fallopian tube but acid DNase was undetectable. When these enzymes were compared at different hours p.c., it was noticed that when the ovum reaches ampullary (A), ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmic (I) segments of the Fallopian tube at the respective hours 14, 24 and 70, the acid DNase activity showed increased value in these parts when compared to their preceding groups. Acid RNase also showed similar type of pattern except that it was not altered at 14 hr p. c. At 144 hr p. c. both the enzymes had no significant alteration over 70 hr value, beta-glucuronidase, however, did not show this type of pattern in all the segments till 144 hr p. c. The increased activity of acid RNase and DNase in AIJ and I segments of the tube till 70 hr p. c. suggests the increased lysosomal activity in the tubal fluid produced by secretory cells. The possible involvement of these lysomal factors in the process of fertilization and preparation of ovum prior to implantation is suggested.
Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari
The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties.
Optimization of bovine ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) has been driven by the desire of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The work presented in this thesis focuses on optimizing the efficiency and efficacy of the OPU-IVP program. Atte
Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G
The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.
Romero Gutiérrez, G; Farías Gómez, E; Castelazo Guemez, J M
In a retrospective study carried out in the Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia del Centro Médico León, Gto., Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 61 patients were studied in order to compare the sensitivity and specificity values and the correlation coefficient between the hormonal assays (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, HCG) and the ultrasound scanning. The qualitative concentrations of HCG had a sensitivity of 37.5% and a specificity of 100%. The levels of subunit beta of HCG had sensitivity of 25% and specificity of 100%. The whole correlation coefficient of the hormonal method (HCG) was R = 0.51 (P less than 0.01). The ultrasound monitoring had a sensitivity of 855 and specificity of 100%, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.88 (P less than 0.01). It was concluded that ultrasound scanning has a better sensitivity and higher correlation than human chorionic gonadotropin assays in the diagnosis of ovum vitality.
Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard
Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.
<正>A highway patrol officer was sitting in his car beside the road one day when he noticed a man driving with a goat in the back seat of his car．Turning on the lights,he pulled out,sped up, and pulled the man over．
@@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.
Teixeira, P P M; Padilha, L C; Oliveira, M E F; Motheo, T F; da Silva, A S L; Barros, F F P C; Coutinho, L N; Flôres, F N; Lopes, M C S; Bandarra, M B; Silva, M A M; Vasconcelos, R O; Rodrigues, L F S; Vicente, W R R
Gross and microscopic evaluations of the ovaries of sheep subjected to successive ovum collection were performed with the objective of identifying if there was interference in oocyte production and morphology of gonads. Gross evaluation of the internal genital tract was also performed. Eighteen ewes of the Santa Inês breed were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of six animals each; G0, G1 and G9 with no, one and nine repetitions, respectively. Estrous synchronization was achieved with a short protocol using MAP followed by single dose stimulation with 80mg of FSHp and 300 IU of eCG (IM). Laparoscopic ovum pick-up was performed 36h later, with 7-day intervals. The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery was recorded. After the last intervention, ovariectomy was performed for evaluation of gross and microscopical appearance and existence of lesions caused by follicular puncture, which were classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3). The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery were 13.2±2.0, 11.3±3.0 and 5.8±2.3, respectively, with a recovery rate of 51.7%. No statistical difference was found between the nine sessions (P>0.05). Nine sessions of superovulation and ovum collection procedures did not cause ovarian lesions and did not interfere with the production of follicles in ewes of the Santa Inês breed.
Full Text Available The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been focused on breeding and genetic improvement, feed and feeding, management, health, diseases and socio-economics. This paper presents background and facilities on goat research in Thailand such as knowledge in terms of breeds and genetic improvement (genetic resources, breed evaluation and breeding and molecular genetics, nutrition, management, diseases and parasites, goat’s milk and meat processing. Conclusions and recommendations are also provided.
Hodgson, B J; Harper, M J; Valenzuela, G
Oviductal mortility, measured with open-ended perfused catheters in anesthetized animals injected with human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), is depressed 2 h following endotoxin injection and returns to control levels by 3 h after endotoxin injection. This decrease in motility is prevented by indomethacin. Endotoxin did not affect spontaneous or phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractions of oviduct when it was added to the bathing medium of in vitro tissues. Oviductal segments removed 2 h after endotoxin (26 h after hCG) showed electrical activity confined to the ampullary-isthmic-junction (AIJ), where ova were located; the dose-response curve for PE was shifted to the right and the maximum contraction was depressed. Activity of tissues removed 4 h after endotoxin more closely resembled control tissues except that the maximum contraction to PE was depressed, ova had passed out of the oviduct and a proovarian bias in the isthmus was not present. The response of the oviduct to prostaglandins (PGs) in vivo is critically dependent on the previous exposure to PGs. In endotoxin-treated animals PGE then PGF levels increase and the decrease in motility coincides with increased PGE levels, but accelerated ovum transport with the return of motility and activation of the isthmus.
Full Text Available Transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up (OPU was performed on 40 Nili-Ravi and Murrah buffaloes for consecutive 3 times each, at an interval of 3 days. A total of 936 follicles were aspirated, 643 oocytes were retrieved and 456 oocytes of them were usable. The recovery rate was 68.77% (643/935 and the percentage of usable oocytes was 70.92% (456/643, with an average of 3.80±0.23 oocytes usable per buffalo. The number of usable oocytes for the first, second and third OPU was 3.82±0.50;3.82±0.35; 4.05±0.43, respectively, and the difference among them was not significant (P<0.05. After in-vitro maturation (IVM, in-vitro fertilization (IVF and co-incubation with single layer of granular cells, the cleavage rate was 56.36% - 257/456, blastocyst formation rate was 20.39% (93/456 The result proved the feasibility of consecutive OPU at an interval of 3d and produce buffalo embryo via OPU-IVF. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of OPU-IVF.
A. H. Cheema, A. Shakoor and A. H. Shahzad
Full Text Available One full-term, dead foetus was successfully removed from a 5-year old, crossbred black and white goat. The goat was stall-fed with green fodder and it delivered two dead foetuses in the previous pregnancy. The foetus had a large swelling in the cranio-ventral neck region. Upon cutting skin, the swelling revealed extremely enlarged thyroid gland having two asymmetrical lobes with the right lobe was 8.10 x 15.0 cm and the left 5.5 x 8.6 cm in size. The skin was devoid of hair, pale-white and thickened with myxedema. Histologically, the enlarged thyroid consisted of colloid goitre and the lungs were oedematous. This case of congenital goitre was unusual and differed from the reported cases in two aspects viz 1 the two lobes were enlarged but unequal and 2 histologically goitre was colloid instead of usual hyperplastic type.
Gupta, J S; Roy, S K
The effect of clomiphene on nuclear estrogen receptors of the Fallopian tube during ovum transport in the rabbit has been studied. Nuclear binding capacity was observed in ampulla (A), ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), isthmus (I), uterine-isthmic junction (UIJ) and uterus (U). Receptor concentration decreased in all segments of the tube after administration of clomiphene in mated animals. The bindings are of high affinity and low capacity. Important alterations were observed during transport when compared to that of 14, 24, 34, 48, 72, 144 and 168 hr post-coitum (p.c). At 24 hr p.c binding increased only in I and decreased in A and AIJ. Retention of eggs at I at 24 hr p.c showed as increase in binding at I. Egg transport was accelerated and eggs reached prematurely in the uterus due to the influence of clomiphene. Binding in I remained constant from 48 hr p.c to 144 hr p.c but concurrently the binding level increased in U from 34 hr p.c. The elevation of nuclear estrogen receptor level was maximum at 24 hr p.c which coincided with increased plasma estrogen level. The result of such study showed that clomiphene depleted nuclear estrogen receptor complex in the fallopian tube before transfer to the uterus. Further, observation indicated that clomiphene acted directly on the rate of egg transport because of the variations in estrogen receptors during different time periods. Thus, clomiphene reduced the quantity of estrogen receptor i.e., insensitiveness to estrogen. The variations in estrogen binding to its receptor and plasma level at different post-coital periods are modulated by clomiphene resulting in the acceleration of egg transport and prevention of pregnancy.
Gupta, J S; Roy, S K
The effect of tamoxifen (ICI-46474) (alpha-[4-(beta-N-dimethylamino ethoxy)-phenyl]alpha'-ethyl trans stilbene on estrogen cytosolic receptor was observed in different parts of fallopian tube and uterus of rabbits during ovum transport. Tubal segments viz. ampulla (A), ampullary isthmic junction (AIJ), isthmus (I), uterine isthmic junction (UIJ) and uterus (U) were studied during the passage of ovum. Significant differences were observed in normal, drug treated and pregnant animals at 14, 24, 34, 48, 72, 144 and 168 h. In treated animals during 14 h post-coitum (p.c.) to 34 h p.c. the ampullary cytosol receptor concentration increased and suddenly decreased at 48 h p.c. whereas from 72 h p.c. to 144 h p.c. it increased gradually. Tamoxifen accelerated the rate of egg transport decreasing tubal cytosolic receptors at 48 h p.c. However, beyond 48 h p.c. receptors increased till 144 h p.c. Results suggest that tamoxifen modulated tubal cytosolic estrogen receptors during egg transport and prevents pregnancy.
Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Vecchio, Domenico; Boccia, Lucia; Varricchio, Ettore; Di Palo, Rossella; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Ovum Pick-up (OPU) treatment carried out for 9 months in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) species. Eight pluriparous non-lactating buffalo cows underwent OPU for 9 months. Recovered cumulus enclosed oocytes (COCs) were classified and COCs suitable for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) were in vitro matured (IVM), fertilized (IVF) and cultured (IVC) to the blastocyst (Bl) stage. Animals were monitored for a total period of 270 days, but at the summer solstice, follicular turnover decreased and at the 68-day of the trial, we decided to increase the OPU sampling interval from 3-4 to 7 days. It was therefore possible to distinguish two phases: a first phase (18 sessions), during which OPU was carried out twice weekly and a second phase (16 sessions) during which OPU sessions were performed weekly. This reduction did not modify the percentage of good quality COCs, while the incidence of grade D COCs decreased (P<0.01). Furthermore, embryo production was higher in the second phase, either if embryos were calculated on the total recovered COCs (8.3% vs. 21.4%; P<0.01) and on grade A+B COCs (13.0% vs. 32.1%; P<0.01), that supposedly should have given similar blastocyst yield. During the total period of the trial it was possible to distinguish a first period of 6 months (34 sessions) characterized by blastocyst production (0.36 blastocyst/buffalo/session), followed by an unproductive period of 3 months (12 sessions), during which embryos were not produced. During the first 6 months a higher (P<0.01) number of follicles (5.06 vs. 3.71), small follicles (3.38 vs. 2.07), total COCs (2.58 vs. 1.56) and good quality (A+B) COCs (1.51 vs. 0.94) per subject/session were recorded compared to the last 3 months. No Blastocyst were produced during the second period, even if the percentage of grade A+B COCs was similar to that recorded during the first period. In conclusion, buffalo cows submitted to repeated OPU sampling for a 9-month
Wayan Sayang Yupardhi; I Gusti Lanang Oka; Ida Bagus Mantra; I Nyoman Suyasa; I Gede Suranjaya
There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to deve...
Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.
When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A survey was conducted to study the morphological characteristics of indigenous goats in ... Both qualitative and quantitative traits were recorded on 158 goats randomly sampled from six ...
... prescribed in Veterinary Services Memorandum 552.15. (2) Brucellosis. Dairy and breeding goats shall be... Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis.” 2 2 See footnote 2 to § 91.5. (3) No goat shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...
Paulo M Bandarra
Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Q fever. The zoonotic impact of Q fever was recently underlined by the Dutch Q fever outbreak, which emerged from an endemic state. In this outbreak dairy goats and dairy sheep were deemed responsible for the human cases, alt
Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan. Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group. Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males. The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.
Full Text Available The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximately 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goat milk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goat milk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland is estimated at 190 000 heads. With regard to the content of basic constituents, goat milk is similar to cow milk, although it differs from it as to the qualitative composition of fat and protein. Species protein structure of goat milk, different from that of cow milk, causes fewer allergic reactions which are observed to occur in the case of intolerance to cow milk proteins. Rennin curd from goat milk is softer and less compact. A wide range of different products is manufactured from goat milk including: liquid milk (pasteurised and UHT, rennin and cottage cheeses, fermented beverages such as yoghurt, kefir, butter milk, cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, rice goats, butter and even chocolates “Goat’s Milk”.
The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, ... of the respondents as well as the channel and problem of Sahelian goat market. ... study, it was recommended that government should put in place modern goat market ...
Larenas, J J; Bartholomew, J; Troncoso, O; Fernández, S; Ledezma, H; Sandoval, N; Vera, P; Contreras, J; Smith, P
Piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacterial agent causing septicaemic disease in salmon. Since its isolation in Chile in 1989, P. salmonis has continually produced high mortality rates in salmon farms. Little information exists regarding the mechanisms of vertical transmission of this pathogen. Experimental vertical transmission was established in the present study by inoculation of male and female rainbow trout broodstock with P. salmonis. The bacterium was subsequently detected using indirect immunofluorescence in milt and coelomic fluid of the majority of inoculated broodstock (14/15). Bacteria were detected in the fry when 1 or both parents were inoculated, although none of the infected fry presented signs of the disease. P. salmonis was also detected in progeny obtained through fertilisation ova from non-inoculated females incubated in a medium containing a bacterial suspension, demonstrating transmission during the process of fertilisation. Ova infected in vitro were examined at sample periods from 30 s to 60 min using scanning electron microscopy. This demonstrated that the bacterium attaches to the ova by means of membrane extensions, structures which we have called 'piscirickettsial attachment complex' (PAC) and which would allow later penetration into the ovum.
Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J
Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.
Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.
Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.
Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....
Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I
The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.
W. Mohamadi, H. Daghigh Kia*, A. Hossein Khani and S. Alijani
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of male goat on feeding behavior of female goats in breeding season. Sixty four Markhoz female goats, 3.5 years old, two or three parity, 43±2 kg live weight, body condition score 3, along with 10 male goats were used to study the effects of male pheromones on feeding behavior. The study was done in 6 weeks. Female goats were equally divided into three treatments (a1, a2 and a3 along with a control treatment (c with 8 animals in each group. Variable factor of treatments was the distance of the male goats box (source of pheromone secretion or male effect, which was supposed to be the a1 (0-5 meters, a2 (10-15 meters and a3 (25-30 meters. The results of study showed a decrease in feed intake of the female goats due to distance from male goats (P<0.01. It was concluded that the distance of female from male goats or the concentration of pheromones can significantly affect feed intake of the Markhoz female goats. Therefore, in order to increase livestock production and reproductive performance, the management of nutrition must be paid more attention.
I Gusti Lanang Oka; Wayan SayangYupardhi; Ida Bagus Mantra; Nyoman Suyasa; Anak Agung Sagung Dewi
Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem). A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred) was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all go...
Nkarthe Guerra Araújo
Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.
Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha
Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.
Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes
The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
GROWTH PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF JUVENILES OF Archachatina marginata OVUM AND Archachatina marginata saturalis SNAIL SUBSPECIES FED FORAGES AND THEIR NUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN CROSS RIVER RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA
J. A. UBUA
Full Text Available The growth performance characteristics of juveniles of Archachatina marginata ovum and Archachatina marginata saturalis snail subspecies were evaluated using a feeding regime of forages. The forages of choice utilized were: Sweet potato (T1, Cocoyam (T2, Banana (T3, pawpaw (T4 and Okra (T5 respectively. The nutrient composition of these forages was equally determined. Results from this study revealed that juveniles of Archachatina marginata ovum recorded better feed intake than those of Archachatina marginata saturalis. The weight gain showed significant difference (P0.05 in Ether extract among the forages. Result of CF showed relative increase across the five forages. Banana leaves had the highest value and was significantly different (P<0.05 from those of sweet Potato and pawpaw leaves. The highest NFE content was recorded in sweet potato leaves. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in the Ash content among all the forages except sweet potato. Results from this study were within the normal proximate values of these forages and confirmed that these leaves (plant protein sources are good forages for farm animals especially micro-livestock like snails and can enhanced optimum growth characteristics.
Windsor, P A
Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management
Wayan Sayang Yupardhi
Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.
Lipovetsky, G; Fenoglio, J J; Gieger, M; Srinivasan, M R; Dobelle, W H
The coronary arteries of the goat heart were studied using angiographic techniques and molds of the coronary vessel trees. Blood supplies to the left and right ventricles, interventricular septum, atrioventricular node, and apex of the caprine heart were studied. The goat possesses a left dominant pattern of coronary supply with relatively uniform coronary anatomy and may provide a good large animal model for testing cardiovascular assist devices.
Oseguera Montiel, D.
Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has
Oseguera Montiel, D.
Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic
A cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2012 in ... Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae using competitive ELISA. ... goats and also higher in male (66.7%) than female (63.7%) goats (P<0.05).
and the relatively high maintenance costs of cattle, make goat farming an alternative proposition for meat and milk production. Goats are hardy, less labor intensive and have less maintenance nutritional requirements .... Beijing, China. pp132.
Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.
Peixoto, P V; Brust, L C; Duarte, M D; Franca, T N; Duarte, V C; Barros, C S
Natural and experimental poisonings by Cestrum laevigatum are described in goats. Histologically, livers had marked centrolobular and midzonal coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage. Spontaneous toxicosis by this plant in goats has not been previously reported.
Feb 19, 2015 ... massively, since goat herds are geographically dispersed and they are a species ..... seed stock producers still rely on the importation of semen from .... the follicular stage of the goat and the heterogeneous response of ...
Full Text Available the cashmere production of the experimental Boer goat flock at the Adelaide Experimental Station. The results shown that initiating a cashmere industry with pure Boer goats does not seem to be viable option...
刘长彬; 石国庆; 倪建宏; 曲明悦; 蒲新竹; 姜志涛; 晁旭东; 曾学伟; 赵万军; 汪新兰; 张宾
针对活体生物材料缺乏,活体采卵技术(Ovum pick-up)应运而生,因其具有系谱清楚适于科学研究而成为获取卵母细胞的主要途径之一.因此,研究活体采卵影响因素具有重要意义.就活体采卵在采卵间隔周期、超排处理、高产牛所处年龄段、患繁殖疾病与否及连续采卵进行试验,研究其采卵效率及对卵巢生理机能的影响.结果显示,①采卵间隔时间不同,以每周2次采卵所获卵母细胞数要多于每周1次的,差异不显著,但每周2次的优质卵母细胞率高于每周1次,且差异显著；②经超排处理后获卵母细胞数显著高于对照组,优质卵母细胞率有所提高,差异不显著；③青年牛和成年牛的平均获卵数和优质卵母细胞率差异均不显著；④健康牛平均获卵数显著高于患有繁殖疾病的牛只,优质卵母细胞率也显著高于患牛；⑤奶牛连续采卵和1次采卵的平均获卵率和优质卵母细胞率差异均不显著.综上,奶牛活体采卵受很多因素的影响,上述5方面的因素为主要影响因素.%To deal with the lack of biological materials, ovum pick-up (OPU) becomes one of the solutions, and owed to being obtained from clear pedigree cows, the oocytes are suitable for breeding and scientific research. This research studied on the influence factors of ovum pick-up such as OPU intervals, superovulation protocols, age, physical condition, and continuous OPU, effect on oocytes production and ovarian physiological function. The results showed that (1) the average oocytes number obtained from twice a week OPU was more than that from once a week and had no significantly difference. However,the quality of oocytes from twice a week OPU was significantly higher than that from once a week. (2) The average number of oocytes obtained from superovulation treatment group was significantly more than that from control group. However,the quality oocytes rates were not significantly different
Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen
Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human-goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats' inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development.
Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....
Schimmer, B.; Luttikholt, S.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.
Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sam
Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jamil, S M; Siti Khairani, B; Saharee, A A
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P. multocida 6:B. Following the exposure, all goats of groups 3 and 4 were injected with dexamethasone at the rate of 1 mg/kg for three consecutive days. At the end of the dexamethasone treatment, goats of groups 1 and 2 were commingled but kept separate from goats of groups 3 and 4, which were commingled in another pen. Three surviving goats from each group were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-exposure for postmortem examination. Naso-pharyngeal mucus and heart blood were collected on swabs. Tissues from lungs, lymph nodes and tonsils were collected for bacteriological isolation and identification. Only one goat of group 3 died 6 days post-exposure showing clinical signs and lesions typical of HS. Other goats showed mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Goats of all groups developed acute mild pneumonic lesions, however, those treated with dexamethasone had significantly (P multocida 6:B was isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung lesions of exposed and contact goats not treated with dexamethasone. Exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone carried the organism for 21 days. P. multocida isolation from heart blood was made only from exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone. P. multocida was isolated from the lymph node of the goat that died during the experiment.
Radi, Z A; Thomsen, B V; Summers, B A
Renal encephalopathy was diagnosed in a 2-year-old male boar goat with a history of chronic weight loss and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed a striking myelin vacuolation distributed mainly in two patterns: (i) along the junction of the neocortex and corona radiata, and (ii) in the bundles of the internal capsule as it dissects through the basal nuclei. The kidneys had diffuse severe tubular and glomerular necrosis and degeneration. The neural lesions are consistent with renal (uremic) encephalopathy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of renal encephalopathy in a goat.
Short, C R; Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; Ou, S P; Davis, L E; Koritz, G; Neff-Davis, C A; Bevill, R F; Munsiff, I J; Sharma, G C
The disposition of fenbendazole was studied in goats after oral or IV administration. Plasma concentration vs time profiles were determined for fenbendazole and all of its metabolites. The total excretion of the drug and its metabolites in urine and feces was also measured for 6 days. A biliary cannula was inserted in 1 goat to study the excretion of fenbendazole and its metabolites into the bile. Fenbendazole was converted to its sulfoxide (oxfendazole), and the sulfone, primary amine, and p-hydroxylated metabolites. The active metabolite, oxfendazole, appeared in plasma, but only trace amounts were found in feces or urine. The major excretory metabolite was p-hydroxyfenbendazole.
Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different
Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K
Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.
JIA Jun-jing; TIAN Yun-bo; ZHANG Xi; HUANG Qi-chao; WEN Sheng-ping; GU Feng-ying; GE Chang-rong; CAO Zhen-hui; CHENG Zhi-bin; M. Jois
Twenty castrated male goats, each of Yun-Ling Black goats (YLB goat), N×YLB hybrid goats (Nubian ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀) and B×YLB hybrid goats (Boer ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀), were used to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on the meat chemical composition in the YLB goats of China. After weaning of 90 days, all the experimental goats were reared on natural pasture when they were slaughtered at an age of 730 days. The longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were sampled from each carcass to determine chemical compositions. Both hybrid goats had higher protein content (P0.05). The YLB goats had significantly higher (P0.05). In contrast, the proportion of poly-unsaturated in the YLB goats was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in the hybrid goats.
Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K
This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could
Oseguera Montiel, D.
Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucel...
I Gusti Lanang Oka
Full Text Available Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem. A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all goats were collectedfor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA analysis. PCR amplification of D-loop mitochondrial DNA was carriedout by using two primers i.e. CAP-F (5’-CGTGTATGCAAGTACATTAC -3’ and CAP-R (5’-CTGATTAGTCATTAGTCCATC – 3’ . Sequencing of 550 bp (base-pairs of mitochondrial DNA (productof PCR only found one polymorphic site at base number 231 with two haplotypes in gembrong goat only,while the other base-pairs were similar between the three goat types (Gembrong, Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred .The frequency of haplotype 1 was 83.3% and the frequency of haplotype 2 was 16.7%.It was concluded that based on their mitochondrial DNA sequences and “phylogenic analysis”, the threetypes of goat (Gembrong,Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred had a very close genetic relationship(kinship.
Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk
Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.
Jessica R. Collier
Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.
Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt
Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and
Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt
Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T
Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (PNorwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (PNorwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability.
JING TAN; GEN DI SONG; JIA SHENG SONG; SHI HAO REN; CHUN LI LI; ZHEN YU ZHENG; WEI DONG ZHAO
A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N 2(Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F1(B6♀×DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+)females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM,∼6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background.
Galli, Cesare; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lagutina, Irina; Lazzari, Giovanna
Assisted reproductive techniques developed for cattle in the last 25 years, like ovum pick up (OPU), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and somatic cell nuclear transfer, have been transferred and adapted to buffalo and horses. The successful clinical applications of these techniques require both the clinical skills specific to each animal species and an experienced laboratory team to support the in vitro phase of the work. In cattle, OPU can be considered a consolidated technology that is rapidly outpacing conventional superovulation for embryo transfer. In buffalo, OPU represents the only possibility for embryo production to advance the implementation of embryo-based biotechnologies in that industry, although it is still mainly in the developmental phase. In the horse, OPU is now an established procedure for breeding from infertile and sporting mares throughout the year. It requires ICSI that in the horse, contrary to what happens in cattle and buffalo, is very efficient and the only option because conventional IVF does not work. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is destined to fill a very small niche for generating animals of extremely high commercial value. The efficiency is low, but because normal animals can be generated it is likely that advancing our knowledge in that field might improve the technology and reduce its cost.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...
This publication presents final sheep and goat inventory estimates for the period 1989-1993 and wool and mohair estimates for the period 1988-1992. made by the Agricultural Statistics Board including some revisions and continues the official series published in Statistical Bulletin No. 800 "Sheep and Goats: Final Estimates 1984-88" issued January 1990. This series includes annual estimates for sheep and goat inventory, sheep and lambs on feed for January 1. 1993, lamb crop. wool and mohair pr...
Lee, C G; Cho, S H; Kim, J T; Lee, C Y
Closantel (Flukiver), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in goats with naturally-acquired fasciolosis at the second, third and fourth week post-treatment, respectively. It elicited a 100% efficacy in goats experimentally infected with F. hepatica metacercariae and treated at 18 weeks post-infection.
Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to infl...
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...
Whitley, N C; Jackson, D J
Estrus synchronization allows for parturition at suitable times to take advantage of niche markets, feed supplies, labor, and rising price trends. In the past, synchronization of estrus in goats has focused primarily on dairy goats to allow for optimal timing of milk production. However, recent interest in meat goat production has resulted in attempts to use dairy goat, sheep, and cattle synchronization regimens in meat goat management systems. Methods of synchronization have included techniques as simple as alteration of light patterns or manipulation of social inputs (i.e., the buck effect) and as complex as varying timed hormonal treatments combined with light alteration and the buck effect. The synchronization of estrus using timed hormonal treatments seems to be more convenient in many meat goat production situations. Examples of hormones used include melatonin, progestogens (administered orally, as an injection, or by using intravaginal releasing devices), gonadotropins/GnRH (or agonists), and PG alone or in combination. As is seen with sheep and cattle, breed and/or breed type, stage of production, and environmental effects can influence synchronization success in goats. The introduction of breeds developed in other countries for rapid growth, such as the Boer goat, and increased consumer and producer interest have added to the impetus for developing cost-efficient and highly effective estrus synchronization regimens. New research is being conducted and various synchronization methods are being attempted in goats, a minor species, and the objective of this paper is to review these efforts.
Barton, N J; Trainor, B L; Urie, J S; Atkins, J W; Pyman, M F; Wolstencroft, I R
Cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in Gippsland were investigated. On the first farm Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. On the second farm a population of T. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. On the third farm, heavy mortality due to Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp burdens was arrested only by the use of concurrent full doses of levamisole and oxfendazole; no single anthelmintic was found to be effective. A disturbing rise in the incidence of clinical helminthiosis, often accompanied by anthelmintic resistance, occurred on goat farms in Gippsland early in 1984.
In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective has been to determine the tissue distribution of BSE after oral exposure of goats while simultaneously generating in dispensable data on genetic susceptibility in the most commonly used production b...
Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo
The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.
Richard, Y; Borges, E; Favier, C; Oudar, J
On the basis of bacteriological examinations carried out on 75 intranasal swabs and 80 goat lung punctures, aerobic, aero-anaerobic respiratory microbes and mycoplasma were studied. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was isolated both from nasal flora (37%) and from the lungs (27.5%) as well as Pasteurella spp which accounted respectively for 24% and 12.5%. The nasal flora are characterised by the presence of a Gram-negative strain included in the genus Moraxella and connected with Moraxella bovis species.
Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D; Stefańska, I; Rzewuska, M; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T
Morel's disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius was diagnosed for the first time in Poland in October 2006 in a goat flock. A second infected flock was found two months later. The course of the disease in both flocks was observed for 15-17 months. Clinical manifestation was confined to abscesses located near major superficial lymph nodes, mostly: superficial cervical, subiliac, parotid and mandibular. At necropsy no other lesions were found. The incubation period was estimated at 3 weeks. Clinical signs were seen both in young and adult goats and up to 7 abscesses in one animal were noted. Abscesses tended to persist for 1 to 5 months, then rupture and heal completely. The initial high in-flock point prevalence in both flocks (93.6% and 84.4%) dropped to approximately 10-30% during next 3-4 months. Until the end of the observation period the in-flock point prevalence remained at this level and only single abscesses were observed, mainly in young animals. No influence of the concurrent caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the clinical course of Morel's disease was noticed. It is to be concluded that the clinical course of Morel's disease in a goat flock resembles caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). However, in Morel's disease abscesses occur more frequently in young goats and are located near, not inside, the lymph nodes, as in the case with CLA. Also, the incubation period of Morel's disease seems to be shorter (3 weeks versus 2-6 months in CLA).
Suliman, H.B.; Wasfi, I.A.; Adam, S. E. I.
Metadata only record In 8 goats given the leaves or seeds of C. occidentalis , the main signs of poisoning were diarrhea, inappetence, dyspnoea, staggering, ataxia and recumbency. Lesions consisted of hemorrhages and congestion in the heart, lungs, abomasum and spleen, catarrhal enteritis, hepatic fatty change and necrosis, splenic haemosiderosis, pulmonary emphysema, necrosis and/or degeneration of the epithelial cells of the renal convoluted tubule, and packing of the glomeruli with endo...
Full Text Available By complement fixation test 230 blood samples from goats and he goats were examined for presence of antibodies against Brucella ovis. 134 blood samples were from goats (23 of them were from slipping goats and 96- from he goats. The animals come from private farms in the Plovdiv and Pazardzhik regions (Southern Bulgaria. 10.87% of all tested blood samples contain antibodies against Brucella ovis. Differences in the percentage of the positive reagents of different goat categories were found. The highest percentage was among slipping goats (39.13% towards to 11.71% among the healthy goats and 3.13% among he goats. It can be concluded that goats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The greatest risk is slipping goats bred together with sheep flocks.
Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E
Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.
Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.
The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.
João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini
Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using
Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.
Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling
The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer may be related to the ultrastructural deviations of reconstructed embryos. The present study investigated ultrastructural differences between in vivo-produced and cloned goat embryos, including intra- and interspecies embryos. Goat ear fibroblast...
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.
A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after
R.J.W. Hoogendoorn; M.N. Helder; P.I.J.M. Wuisman; R.A. Bank; V. Everts; T.H. Smit
Study Design. The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were com
Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...
supplement in animal nutrition. The challenge is to develop alternative feed resources that will sustain production throughout ... three selected goat breeds fed a grainless diet that included Ethiopian native grass hay, wheat bran and noug cake. ...... Omani goats fed diets containing various metabolizable energy densities.
Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of...
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L. for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3% garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p<0.05. Garlic extract did not reduce fecal egg counts or alleviate anemia associated with H. contortus infection at the concentrations tested (p>0.05. However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml, goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; p<0.05. Packed cell volume and FAMACHA scores did not show significant changes. These studies have implications for the control of Coccidia in goats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.
Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro
A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.
... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to...
... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep,...
Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.
Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...
Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.
In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective h
L. V. Antipova
Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in
Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.
Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.
El Sayed, N Y; Abdelbari, E M; Mahmoud, O M; Adam, S E
Ten Nubian goats were given oral doses of the fresh fruits and leaves of Cassia senna at 1, 5, and 10 g/kg/day. Eight goats died within 30 days and two others were slaughtered in a moribund condition on days 18 and 29. The clinical signs of diarrhoea, inappetence, loss of condition, and dyspnea were well correlated with the pathological findings. There was an increase in G.O.T., ammonia, urea, and total cholesterol and a decrease in total protein in the serum of Cassia-poisoned goats. Blood sugar level was reduced and the increase in the values of Hb, PCV, and RBC was due to haemoconcentration.
J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez
Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.
Shiv Prasad; Beerendra Singh; Sumit Singhal; FA Khan; JK prasad; HP Gupta
This report puts on record production of the first viable calf following ovum pick-up in vitro embryo production (OPU-IVEP) technique in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in India. A total of 313 transvaginal OPU sessions were performed in six elite Murrah buffaloes and 1 171 follicles were aspirated. From these follicles, a total of 729 immature oocytes were recovered. The recovered oocytes were graded as A (59, 8.1%), B (111, 15.2%), C (293, 40.2%) and D (262, 35.9%) following standard procedures. Maturable grade oocytes (A, B, and C; 473, 68.9%) were subjected to in vitro maturation in Medium 199 supplemented with 10% FBS, 0.5 μg/mL FSH, 10 IU/mL LH, 1 μg/mL estradiol-17β, 20 ng/mL EGF and 50 μM cysteamine in CO2 incubator at 39 ℃ temperature, 5%CO2 and high humidity. The matured oocytes (427 out of 473; 90.3%) were co-incubated with 1x106/mL buffalo sperms in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) containing 10 ng/mL heparin for 22 hrs for in vitro fertilization. After fertilization the presumptive zygotes were stripped off of remaining cumulus cells and cultured in mSOF for 7 days to study embryonic development. A total of 278 (65.1%) oocytes cleaved after 24-36 hrs of fertilization. Out of the cleaved oocytes, 249 (89.6%), 216 (77.7%), 167 (60.1%), 139 (50.0%) and 73 (26.3%) developed up to 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages, respectively. A total of 29 embryos were transferred into 27 synchronized recipient buffaloes. Two of these buffaloes were found pregnant at 90 days. One of them aborted at 4.5 months of gestation (male fetus) and the other gave birth to a live male calf weighing 25 kg. Currently, the calf is normal and has attained the age of 4.5 years.
Joelliton Domingos de Oliveira
Full Text Available The genetic relationships and structure of fourteen goat (Capra hircus populations were estimated based on genotyping data from 14 goat populations (n = 410 goats at 13 microsatellite loci. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and F statistics (F IS, F IT and F ST to evaluate the genetic diversity (Ho, He and ad of the goats. Genetic distances between the 14 goat populations were calculated from allelic frequency data for the 13 microsatellite markers. Moderate differentiation was observed for the populations of the undefined breeds (including the Anglo-Nubian-M breed, the naturalized Brazilian breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, the exotic purebred breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Toggenbourg and Anglo-Nubian and the naturalized Brazilian Graúna group. Our AMOVA showed that a major portion (88.51% of the total genetic variation resulted from differences between individual goats within populations, while between-populations variation accounted for the remaining 11.49% of genetic variation. We used a Reynolds genetic distance matrix and PCA to produce a phenogram based on the 14 goat populations and found three clusters, or groups, consisting of the goats belonging to the undefined breed, the naturalized breeds and the exotic purebred breeds. The closer proximity of the Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Paraíba to the Graúna breed from the same state than to the genetically conserved Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Ceará, as well as the heterozygosity values and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that there was a high number of homozygotes in the populations studied, and indicates the importance of the State for the conservation of the local breeds. Cataloguing the genetic profile of Brazilian goat populations provides essential information for conservation and genetic improvements programs.
Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah
Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.
Braun, Ueli; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Forster, Eva; Becker-Birck, Mareike; Borel, Nicole; Ohlerth, Stefanie
This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours.
... objectives in goat production within subsistence farming systems in South Africa. ... impact of intervention objectives, namely an increase in kidding percentage ... Most important outputs included the slaughter for home consumption, sale of ...
Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a ... supplement were available ad libitum. .... peaks since the observed trends are likely to have been influenced by the feeding regime.
Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao
Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.
Z. TASAWAR, U. MUNIR, C. S. HAYAT AND M. H. LASHARI
Full Text Available Faecal Samples of 80 goats belonging to Nachi and Teddy breeds were collected bimonthly from areas around Multan, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats and relationship between body weight, age, breed of the host and also effect of parasite on the litter size of the host were studied. The overall prevalence of F. hepatica was 28.75%. Infection of parasite was more prevalent in Teddy than in Nachi goats (42.10 VS 16.67%; P45 kg, the difference was significant (p36 months. The prevalence was significantly different (P<0.05 in different age groups. It was concluded that the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats was significantly affected by the breed age, and body weight of the animal. However, it had no effects on the litter size.
Sep 2, 2014 ... Department of Animal Science and ** Department of Crop Science. Faculty of ... production of small ruminants such as sheep ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND .... African Dwarf Goat project.
Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat Casings as Sausage Containers. ... Sheep casing is recommended as substitute to imported cellulose casing for stuffing sausages produced in Nigeria. ... Article Metrics.
Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.
de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro,Raymundo R.; Joselito N. Costa; Lima,Carla C.V. de; Alice Andrioli; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; Vanderlan W.S. dos Santos; Araújo,Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Flora M.C. Fernandes; Antonio O. Costa Neto
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contac...
Full Text Available Abstract Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of
Ivanović Snežana D.
Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food
Adeyemi, Mosunmola T; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Jarikre, Theophilus A
This study was carried out to determine the burden and interactions between parasitism and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. A total of 430 goats were examined for gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites by faecal analysis using sedimentation by gravity, Modified Winconsin sugar floatation method, McMaster egg counting techniques and for lung consolidation, pathology and morphometry of pneumonia were evaluated by standard techniques. The results from the faecal examination revealed the presence of nine (9) gastrointestinal parasites namely Eimeria, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides, Moniezia, Haemonchus, Bunostomum, Trichostrongylus, and Nematodirus species and at an overall high prevalence of 74%. Eimeria species was found to have the highest prevalence of 26% for single infection, while co-infection of Eimeria and Trichuris species 21% was highest amongst other parasites, and of the breeds of goats examined for GIT parasites, the Red Sokoto (RS) breed had the highest infection rate 37%. The results from the lungs analysis showed 59% prevalence with the highest consolidation in RS (48.2%), followed by WAD (34.2%). The age of the goats was key in the infection rate of both parasites and pneumonia, which was seen to be highest in younger goats, with a significant (2.10 ± 0.4 × 10(3)) GI parasite burden in >1-2 years group. The prevalence of GIT infection with lung consolidation in the goats, was observed to influence their Body condition scores (BCS) (p goats may be predisposing factors to gastrointestinal parasites and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. There was a strong correlation (+0.243, p = 0.00) of occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitism and pneumonia in this study. Possibility of combined prophylactic measures should be considered in the nearest future.
Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen
Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. According...... to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...
Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M
The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.
Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen
Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. According...... to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...
Zajac, A M; Gipson, T A
Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased efficacy to 92%, however, confidence intervals indicated that resistance was still present. When fecal egg counts were determined the following year after several treatment using this protocol, the efficacy of fenbendazole had fallen again to 57% reduction in fecal egg counts. The predominant genus present in cultured composite fecal samples was Haemonchus. Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Teladorsagia were also present in smaller numbers.
Fábio B. Rosa
Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.A study of cases of osteoporosis in goats diagnosed in the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was performed. The epidemiology, clinicopathological changes and possible pathogenetic mechanisms were determined and discussed. Five goats, females, mixed breed, with six months to six years of age were affected. The goats were kept on natural pasture without supplemental feed and under
Benestad Sylvie L
Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases such as scrapie in small ruminants, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in man, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases result from the accumulation of misfolded conformers of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP in the central nervous system. To date naturally-occurring PrP free animals have not been reported. Here we describe healthy non-transgenic animals, Norwegian Dairy Goats, lacking prion protein due to a nonsense mutation early in the gene. These animals are predicted to be resistant to prion disease and will be valuable for research and for production of prion-free products.
Enas A. Desouky
Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.
Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M
Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage.
Ganabadi, S; Halimatun, Y; Amelia Choong, K L; Nor Jawahir, A; Mohammed Hilmi, A
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is required for many physiological functions in animals and the potential relevance of selenium to the reproductive system of livestock has been considered by many researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of selenium supplementation on the spermatogenic cells of goat. Eight young male crossbred (Katjang x Boer) goats, aged between 9 to 11 months, were used in this study. The control group (CON; n = 4) was fed with a diet consisting of 60% Guinea grass and 40% concentrates while the treatment group (Se-SUP; n = 4) was fed with the same diet as the goats in the control group but with supplementation of 0.6mg selenium (sodium selenite powder) per goat daily for 100 days and were slaughtered on the 101st day. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatozoa and the total number of spermatogenic cells between the CON and Se-SUP goat respectively. However, there was a significant increase (pspermatozoa was significantly decreased (pselenium supplementation increased the percentages of spermatids and decreased the percentages of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules in goats.
Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.
Caroli, A; Chiatti, F; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Bolla, P; Pagnacco, G
The analysis of casein polymorphisms in goat species is rather difficult, because of a large number of mutations at each locus, and the tight linkage involving the 4 casein genes. Three goat breeds from Northern Italy, Orobica, Verzasca, and Frisa, were analyzed at the casein complex by milk isoelectrofocusing and analyses at the DNA level to identify the majority of all known polymorphisms. The casein gene structure of the 3 local breeds at alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1), beta-casein (CSN2), alpha(S2)-casein (CSN1S2), and kappa-casein (CSN3) was compared with that of Camosciata, a more widely distributed breed. A new allele was identified and characterized at CSN2 gene, which seemed to be specific to the Frisa breed. It was named CSN2*E, and was characterized by a transversion TCT --> TAT responsible for the amino acid exchange Ser(166) --> Tyr(166) in the mature protein. The casein haplotype structure is highly different among breeds. A total of 26 haplotypes showed a frequency higher than 0.01 in at least 1 of the 4 breeds considered, with 12, 3, 5, and 19 haplotypes in Frisa, Orobica, Verzasca, and Camosciata breeds, respectively. Only 13 haplotypes occurred at a frequency higher than 0.05 in at least 1 breed. With the molecular knowledge of each locus, the ancestral haplotype coding for CSN1S1*B, CSN2*A, CSN1S2*A, and CSN3*B protein variants can be postulated. A protein evolutionary model considering the whole casein haplotype is proposed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on
Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel
A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.
Hilal Tozlu Çelik
Full Text Available This research Amasya Sarilar (40°54'23"N, 35°08'min5"E, a private business in the years 2011-2012 between the grown Saanen x Kil goat crosbred (F1, G1 and Kil goat in the fertility characteristics to detect and genotype on these features, year was conducted to determine the effects of such factors. In the study of reproductive traits for the year 2011 only twin goats giving birth rate among genotypes were found statistically difference. The twin birth rate of Kil goat was similar in F1 crosbred and G1 is different from both genotypes were found. In 2012, the remaining infertile among genotypes goat, dead goat giving birth and twin goats rate has been determined that there are statistical differences. Infertility rate, Saanen x Kil goat F1, G1 crosbred was found to be higher than in the Kil goat. Twin goat giving birth rate F1 genotypes in high, genotypes G1 and Kil goats find similar.
Apr 19, 2010 ... MLPH gene of ruminant. In order to extend knowledge of. MLPH gene ... Genomic DNA from blood sample of goat was isolated according to the standard phenol : chloroform extraction method. According to the goat sequence ...
so that farmers can increase their present holdings for improved profitability. Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda .... business related activities were also reported. ... indicated cash income from sale of goats.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses managing mountain goat populations and their habitats on Kodiak Island. Introduced mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) on Kodiak Island...
A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso sub- region of Uganda ... Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda. Introduction ...... level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle.
The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has ...
Full Text Available . Utilization of the fibres as an addition source of income would make the goat flocks more profitable Cashmere production is labour intensive and ideally suited for farmers with small number of goats Supports rural and economic development...
Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C
Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.
Full Text Available This review is aimed at providing information on current status of oestrus synchronization as a management tool in goats in Nigeria. Oestrus synchronisation is a reproductive tool that enables goat farmers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is chiefly the control of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle and two basic mechanisms are employed. These include the use of prostaglandins or its analogues to shorten luteal life/induce premature luteolysis or the use of exogenous progesterone to prolong luteal life, thereby simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum. The latter is advantageous where the reproductive status of the flock is unknown. However, the former is easy to apply and only effective in cycling animals. Pharmaceutical products that have been employed in ES protocols in Nigeria include Lutalyse®, Estrumate®, EstroPLAN®, Fluorogestone acetate®, Sil-Oestrus®, Medroxyl-progesterone acetate®, Synchromate-B®, PMSG®, and more recently, the Controlled Internal Drug Release® (CIDR devices. Over the last three decades, many attempts have been made at assessing the response of goats to various oestrus synchronisation agents and protocols in Nigeria. However, the low availability of these pharmaceutical agents and cost preclude the widespread use of oestrus synchronisation technique in goat production. The inclusion of gonadotrophins in oestrus synchronisation protocols have been reported to improve oestrus responses in goats, while season has been reported to influence the efficiency of oestrus synchronisation programmes. Increasing the dose levels of exogenous hormones in oestrus synchronisation protocols has caused variable and sometimes inconsistent effects. The effects of combining the male stimulus with exogenous hormones, seasonal variation, extra-label use of products and short-term nutritional manipulation on oestrus responses in
Li, Hong; Keller, Janice; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; Oaks, J Lindsay; Crawford, Timothy B
Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) is a recently recognized gammaherpesvirus that is endemic in domestic goats and has been observed to cause clinical malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in certain species of deer. In this study, transmission of CpHV-2 in goats was examined. A total of 30 kids born to a CpHV-2 positive goat herd were selected and divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) remained in the positive herd; group 2 (n=14) was separated from the herd at 1 week of age after obtaining colostrum. Peripheral blood samples from each kid were examined regularly by competitive ELISA for MCF viral antibody and by PCR for CpHV-2 DNA. Fifteen out of 16 goats (94%) that remained with the positive herd seroconverted and became PCR-positive for CpHV-2 by 10 months of age. In contrast, all kids (100%) that were separated from the positive herd at 1 week of age remained negative until termination of the experiment at 1 year of age. Additional transmission experiments revealed that all CpHV-2-free adult goats were susceptible to CpHV-2 or ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) infection. The data indicate that the transmission pattern of CpHV-2 in goats is similar to the pattern of OvHV-2 in sheep and that CpHV-2-free goats can be established by early separation of kids from positive herds, which has significant implications for MCF control programs.
Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.
Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)
Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.
Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed: Control. Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin were taken three times a day (08.00-09.00, 16.00-17.00 and 12.00-01.00 on hot summer days in July-2005 under Mediterranean conditions. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. The results showed that rectal temperatures (p≤0.005, pulse (p≤0.054 and respiration rates (p≤0.049, udder (p≤0.041 and head temperatures (p≤0.033 in three groups were significantly different. Depending on rising air temperature, rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased during daytime and retired to normal level at night time. TTS goats were superior to the others regarding above-mentioned physiological data. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats while eating (p≤0.02, ruminating (p≤0.04 and walking (p≤0.01 but less time while drinking (p≤0.01 and resting (p≤0.01. Significant changes between three groups were ascertained regarding feed and water consumptions. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (p≤0.042 and alfalfa hay (p = 0.032 than other two groups, whereas Control groups consumed more water (p≤0.012 than the others. Ultimately, the spraying has positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improve animal welfare.
Zárate Rendón, Daniel; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Rojas Flores, Julio; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Segura Hong, Alan; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima
A study in goats was carried out in the central coast of Peru to validate the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds. Blood and fecal samples were taken from 120 adult goats in five dairy goat farms. The micro haematocrit and the McMaster techniques plus faecal culture were used to evaluate the haematocrit, faecal nematode egg count (EPG) and to identify major nematode species, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients were obtained. Two FAMACHA© criter...
Chinedu Adive Akwuobu
Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to assess the pathogenicity of local isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini in West African dwarf goats (kids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: A total of 22 goats aged less than 1-year were purchased from markets. The goats were divided into six groups comprising of four experimental groups (EG; 4 in each and two control groups (CG; 3 in each. The goats were fed ad libitum with standard diets and safe water. Groups EG1 and EG2 were infected with M. ovipneumoniae through trans-tracheal (TT and intravenous (IV routes, respectively, while those in groups EG3 and EG4 were infected with M. arginini through the same routes. Goats in groups CG1 and CG2 were inoculated with sterile Mycoplasma broth through TT and IV routes, respectively. In all cases, the amount of bacteria inoculated was 1.5x108 cells/mL. After the onset of the disease in goats, re-isolation of Mycoplasma was performed by culturing on mycoplasma agar supplemented with mycoplasma supplement G. The goats were monitored for 14 days post-infection (PI to observe respiratory signs and mortality. Post-mortem (PM examination was performed on each animal that died, while one surviving goat from each of the groups was sacrificed at 14 days PI for PM. After PM, histopathology was performed to observe the changes in tissues. Results: Cough and nasal discharges were observed in all the experimentally infected goats seven days PI. Mortalities were recorded in goats in EG1 (two goats, EG2 (one goats, EG3 (two goats and EG4 (one goat. At PM, pneumonic lesions were observed in the lungs of all the experimentally infected goats. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the local isolates of M. ovipneumoniae and M. arginini strains are pathogenic for goats in Nigeria. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 242-251
Efecto del aumento de salinidad en la fertilización de óvulos de erizos Strongylocentrotus franciscanus y Lytechinus anamesus Effect of increased salinity in the ovum fertilization of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Lytechinus anamesus
B. Estela López-Ortiz
Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efectos del incremento de salinidad sobre la fertilización de óvulos de erizos de mar de las especies Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz, 1863 y Lytechinus anamesus Clark, 1912, los cuales fueron colectados mediante buceo libre en la bahía de Todos Santos, Ensenada, B. C., México. La fertilización de los óvulos de cada especie de erizo se llevó a cabo en un intervalo de salinidad de 33.4 a 53.4‰, estimándose para cada caso su CL50. Los resultados indicaron que la capacidad de fertilización de los gametos disminuye conforme la salinidad se incrementa, alcanzando la CL50 en las 43.4‰ para Strongylocentrotus franciscanus y 48.4‰ para Lytechinus anamesus, confirmando estudios previos que recomiendan no exceder las 40‰ para evitar efectos adversos en los ciclos de vida de la fauna marina.The effects of increased salinity were evaluated on the ovum fertilization of the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz, 1863 and Lytechinus anamesus Clark, 1912, which were collected by means free-diving in the bay Todos Santos, Ensenada, B. C., Mexico. The ovum fertilization of each species of sea urchin was estimated using a range of salinity from 33.4 to 53.4‰, being considered for each case its LC50. The results indicated that the capacity of fertilization of gametes decrease as the salinity increases, reaching the LC50 at 43.4‰ for Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and 48.4‰ for Lytechinus anamesus, confirming previous research that recommended not exceed 40‰ to avoid adverse effects in life cycles of the marine fauna.
Visser, C.; Snyman, M.A.; Marle-Koster, van E.; Bovenhuis, H.
The continuous evaluation and genetic improvement of fleece traits in Angora goats are of major importance to the Angora goat industry. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for both physical and quality traits of mohair in South African Angora goats.
... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such... brucellosis prior to export. Some countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for... eliminate the requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...
... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats,...
... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats, brucellosis prior to export. Section 91.9 requires... countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis prior...
... that such goats have been tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis with negative results within 30 days... provided in § 93.427 and retested for brucellosis. (c) If sheep or goats are unaccompanied by the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild...
Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.
Many goat kids (Capra aegagrus hircus) are transported live from The Netherlands for slaughter in France or Spain. Current standards indicate that goats (<35 kg) should have sufficient space at 0.2–0.30 m2 per animal (approximately 5 goats per m2). Research was devised to assess behaviour and phy
Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.
We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats
Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.
We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats
Hilal Tozlu Çelik
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine milk yield characteristics and its effect on genotypes, years and ages Hair goat x Saanen crossbred and Hair goat breed between 2011-2012 years in private enterprise which is located in Amasya province Sarılar village. In this study, the effect of genotypes was found significant on average daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation milk yield in 2011 and 2012 years. In 2011, the effect of goat ages were determined on average daily milk yield (ADMY and lactation milk yield (LMY for all goat genotypes. In 2012, the effect of goat ages was determined on average daily milk yield and lactation length (LL for all goat genotypes. The effect of year F1 and Hair goat were found significant on ADMY, LMY, and LL. The effect of year was found significant on only LL for G1 genotype. As a result it can be say that Saanen goat x Hair goat crossbred F1 and G1 genotype milk yield was higher than Hair goat reared in farmer conditions.
Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh
Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking
Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B
In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.
de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072
Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.
Thiago S. de Souza
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. The second group (milk group was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.
Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.
Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng
The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.
Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.
Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W
Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.
Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa
The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.
Restall, B J; Milton, J T; Klong-yutti, P; Kochapakdee, S
Pregnancy status was determined in two groups of native Thai goats, mated in either October (n = 116) or March (n = 37), by assay of the progesterone level in four plasma samples taken at 7 day intervals after the completion of mating. The progesterone level (P) in each sample was determined using facilities in a local hospital, and a commercial assay kit with human serum-based standards was used. The distribution of log(10) P yielded a discriminatory value of 2 ng/ml; any value below this level was assumed to indicate a follicular phase. Pregnancy diagnoses based on this criterion were 96.2% accurate. Diagnoses based on returns to service were not accurate, as 36.5% of pregnant does were recorded as returning. Real-time ultrasonic imaging of the March mated group was 100% accurate for pregnancies, but detection of twins was poor. The progesterone technique described here is useful in field studies where mating dates are not known, and where there is no access to an animal assay laboratory.
Galib Uz Zaman
Full Text Available A total of 23 polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in Assam Hill Goat (AHG. All the loci studied were polymorphic in nature. The number of observed alleles (Na detected ranged from 2 to 10 with an overall mean of 4.9Â±2.220. A total of 114 alleles were observed across all the loci. The effective number of alleles (Ne ranged from 1.035 to 7.127 with a mean of 2.68Â±1.590. The allele frequency ranged from 0.013 to 0.982. The overall mean observed (HO and expected (He heterozygosity were 0.43 and 0.48 respectively and this population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at most of the loci studied. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was 0.085. The population was stable with respect to size and was non-bottlenecked. The observed normal L-shaped curve indicated no mode shift in the population.
Mooren, R.E.C.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.
Four round critical-size defects were made in the foreheads of 20 goats. The defects were filled with autogenous particulate cancellous bone, in which 1 ml of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was added in two of the four defects of each goat. The goats were divided into four subgroups of five goats each,
Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz
The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.
Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem
Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent strain in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen
Our aim is to develop a subunit MAP vaccine not interfering with the diagnosis of paratuberculosis or bovine tuberculosis. This study’s objective was to evaluate MAP-specific peptides defined by in silico analysis. Peptides were picked by 1) comparing MAP genomes to that of other mycobacterium...... species or 2) selected based on “experience”. Peptides predicted to bind bovine MHC II by in silico analysis were included in further studies, resulting in two panels 1) genome-based and 2) selected. Initially, two groups of 15 healthy goats were vaccinated with one of the two panels (50 µg/peptide in CAF......01 adjuvant/CAF04 for boosting). Four MAP-infected goats were also vaccinated. In a second vaccination trail, groups of 8 healthy goat kids were vaccinated with genome-based peptides, selected peptides or selected peptides linked together in a recombinant protein (20 µg/peptide or 50 µg protein...
Elze, K; Krische, G
The breeding of dairy goats has spread in Saxony for over 200 years. Recently the keeping of bigger flocks (30-300 animals) for milk and cheese production has become more common. Within the care of the pregnant she goats the feeding recommendation is a main point of the veterinary herd management. The special performances done by the pregnant animals are discussed. The daily need of energy intake is given with about 11 Megajoule Nettoenergy-lactation as well as the daily need of protein with 230 g. Additionally the minimal daily intake of minerals and vitamins is mentioned. Supervising she goats during lambing and avoiding temperatures lower than 18 degrees C in the stables is considered as necessary to prevent hypoglycemia of the newborn lambs. The enzootic process of Clostridium-perfringens-type-B-infection is discussed in connection with the intake of colostrum and the increasing density of pathogen microorganism during the lambing period.
Li, Lan; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Yu; Min, Ling-Jiang; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Fang, Yong-Wei; Deng, Ji-Xian; Pan, Qing-Jie
Transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactors are being used to produce recombinant proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, and nuclear transfer of transgenic somatic cells is a more powerful method to produce mammary gland bioreactor. Here we describe efficient gene transfer and nuclear transfer in goat somatic cells. Gene targeting vector pGBC2LF was constructed by cloning human lactoferrin (LF) gene cDNA into exon 2 of the milk goat beta-casein gene, and the endogenous start condon was replaced by that of human LF gene. Goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with linearized pGBC2LF and 14 cell lines were positive according to PCR and Southern blot. The transgenic cells were used as donor cells of nuclear transfer, and some of reconstructed embryos could develop to blastocyst in vitro.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the intra- and intergenetic diversities of eight different goat populations in Turkey including Hair, Angora, Kilis, Yayladag, Shami, Honamli, Saanen, and Alpine. A total of 244 DNA samples were genotyped using 11 microsatellites loci. The genetic differentiation between breeds was considerable as a result of the statistically significant (P0.05. Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.62 and 0.73. According to the structure and assignment test, Angora and Yayladag goats were assigned to the breed they belong to, while other breeds were assigned to two or more different groups. Because this study for the first time presented genetic data on the Yayladag goat, results of structure analysis and assigned test suggest that further analyses are needed using additional and different molecular markers.
Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.
The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... with ≥10 female goats (N=132) according to the Central Husbandry Register, were invited to participate. Of these, 25 herds each submitted faecal samples, collected approximately 1 month after turn out, from 4‐12 kids born earlier the same year. During May‐July, a total of 232 samples were examined using......, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150. Herd prevalence...
The aim of my diploma thesis is comparison and evaluation of reproduction of goats on an eco-farm and on a conventional farm. Measures of reproduction of observed herds were assessed in the years of 2009 and 2010 on an eco-farm Hana Langová and on a conventional farm Bára Schneedorferová. On an eco-farm, a herd of 20 does was observed. Crossbreeds of White shorthaired goat, Brown shorthair goat, Boer goat and Anglo-Nubian goat; all bred with a White shorthaired buck and a Boer buck. On a conv...
Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A
A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.
Hennessy, D R; Sangster, N C; Steel, J W; Collins, G H
The pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel was examined following intraruminal (i.r.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration to adult Merino sheep and to adult and 3-month-old, suckling Angora goats. In adult goats the maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration with time curve (AUC) following 3.75, 7.5 and 15.0 mg closantel/kg given i.r. increased with dose however the time of Cmax (Tmax = 2.6d) in plasma was unaffected by dose rate. The elimination phase (K10) of closantel was monoexponential with a half-life (t1/2) of 4.7d again unaffected by dose rate. Apart from a more rapid absorption phase and earlier Tmax following 3.75 mg closantel/kg i.m., pharmacokinetic behaviour was similar to that following i.r. administration at 3.75 or 7.5 mg/kg. Although absorption rate was more rapid in kids after i.r. administration at 7.5 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel was otherwise similar to that in adult goats. No closantel was detected in milk of treated doses or in the plasma of their kids. I.R. closantel at 7.5 mg/kg was more slowly absorbed in goats than in sheep but Cmax was similar in both species. However, K10 t1/2 was significantly shorter in goats (4d) than in sheep (14d). Faster elimination resulted in an almost three-fold lowering of AUC in goats and could dramatically reduce the sustained action of closantel in this species compared with sheep.
Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis; Andréoletti, Olivier
In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie.
Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Izhar Ahmad Khan1 and Mansoor Ahmad
Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Eimeria species and to compare the efficacy of Toltrazuril and Amprolium against coccidosis. Of the total 121 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 67 (55.99% were found infected with four species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species, E. ninakohlyakimovae was the commonest one (49.25% followed were E. arloingi, E. caprina and E. hirci with prevalence of 44.78, 25.37 and 19.40%, respectively. Kids had significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence of Eimeria than adults. Higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female goats. Forty five Eimeria positive animals were randomly divided into three equal groups, i.e., groups A to C. Group A was treated with Amprolium (2g/40kg BW and group B was treated with Toltrazuril (15mg/kg BW for three days each while no drug was given to Group C. On day 7 post treatment, all goats of group B stopped shedding oocysts while 8 (53.33% goats of group A stopped shedding oocysts. After the treatment, goats of group B gained 2.2 kg body weight over a period of 15 days compared 1.2 kg weight in group A. The lowest weight gain (0.5 kg was in goats of group C (untreated control. No significant difference in milk yield of the three groups was recorded. It can be concluded that control of goat coccidiosis through single treatment of Toltrazuril is economically beneficial.
Full Text Available A number of animals with genetically identical appearance can be produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. From current advancement of SCNT and molecular techniques, production of a transgenic animal becomes easier. Although cloning efficiency in goat is low, the ability to propagate genetically identical animals, with a gene or genes of interest, would be important for increasing productivity and ultimately the economic livelihood. In this paper, the potential applications and uses of SCNT technology like production of transgenic goat for production of quality milk and meat are discussed.
Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A
Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.
Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Shen, Xingai; Zang, Wenjuan; Sun, Yongsen
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner. We also demonstrated that SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in GMEC. Thus, MMP-9 may emerge as an easily measurable and sensitive parameter that reflects the number of somatic cells present in milk and a regulatory factor of apoptosis in GMEC.
Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding
Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P
The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency
Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B
West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. © S.N. Chiejina et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Diaz, M S; Sutra, J F; Galtier, P; Alvinerie, M
The pharmacokinetic behaviour of doramectin after a single subcutaneous administration and moxidectin following a single subcutaneous or oral drench were studied in goats at a dosage of 0.2 mg kg(-1). The drug plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. Maximum plasma concentrations of moxidectin were attained earlier and to a greater extent than doramectin (shorter t(max) and greater C(max) and AUC than doramectin). MRT of doramectin (4.91 +/- 0.07 days) was also significantly shorter than that of moxidectin (12.43 +/- 1.28 days). Then, the exposure of animals to doramectin in comparison with moxidectin was significantly shorter. The apparent absorption rate of moxidectin was not significantly different after oral and subcutaneous administration but the extent of absorption, reflected in the peak concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), of the subcutaneous injection (24.27 +/- 1.99 ng ml(-1) and 136.72 +/- 7.35 ng d ml(-1) respectively) was significantly greater than that of the oral administration (15.53 +/- 1.27 ng ml(-1) and 36.72 +/- 4.05 ng d ml(-1) respectively). The mean residence time (MRT) of moxidectin didn't differ significantly when administered orally or subcutaneously. Therefore low oral bioavailability and the early emergence of resistance in this minor species may be related. These results deserve to be correlated with efficacy studies for refining dosage requirements of endectocides in this species.
sheep and goats reared under traditional husbandry system have low ... from each animal was collected and examined for the presence of helminth ova using floatation method (Basu, et al,. 1994 ..... poor management in this area, since the economic hardship is on the ... Uquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..
The aim of this trial was to determine the water intake of Tswana goats and ... country with low and erratic rainfall, and the scarcity of surface water limits the use of .... Water deprivation tended to cause some physiological stress to animals at ...
Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring
Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...
Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse
A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...
Azhar Fakhry Abdel Fattah
Conclusion: It concluded that visual, alfactactory, auditory contact with the male stimulate estrus response of anestrus females to be sexually responsive resulting in an increase in the economic gain of goat farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 160-165
Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively
Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.
Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.
Water is mainly drawn from spring wells and the maximum walking distance is 3.0 km. All labour for ... Indigenous goats have, however, low productivity for meat and milk. ... In the two districts, men take the upper head in deciding whether to ...
To study the changes of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum and the IL-2 secreted by peripheral blood lymphocytes of goats infected with Fasciola hepatica,thirty six clinically healthy white goats were randomly divided into groups coded as Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,every 12 goats.Goats in group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were inoculated with a single oral dose of 200 and 500 encysted Fasciola hepatica metacercaria,respectively,while those in group Ⅲ were untreated controls.Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein once a week for 11 weeks.Changes in the serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-α and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to secrete IL-2 were detected.Serum IL-2 levels decreased in group I,but increased in group Ⅱ.The levels of TNF-α and secreted IL-2 were elevated by varying degrees in both groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ.Lymphocytes displayed reactivity during the first week after infection with a significantly increased response to both specific and non-specific challenges.TNF-α may be involved in the hepatic injury process caused by Fasciola hepatica.The infective dose of Fasciola hepatica greatly influenced IL-2 levels in the host playing a vital role in the initiation of host defense.
May 18, 2009 ... Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Science and. Technology, P. O. ... The Nubian (common breed that is distributed in north ... naturalized Sudanese goat breeds, suffer genetic losses .... collection based on the location, it was very obvious that.
1Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute ... This paper investigates economic feasible production systems in agriculture to meet the ... Halal products such as pizzas, sausages and hamburgers, takes place ... Key words: Goat's meat; Norway; Production systems; Halal meat; Muslims; Mountain range pastures;.
Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.
Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;
A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...
Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle
Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693
Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.
Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola
A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716
Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed t
Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; van Geel, B.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J; Gravendeel, B.
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to
Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to
Aepli, M.; Finger, R.
In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the f
Praslicka, J; Corba, J
The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.
Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively influence
Jung, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik
Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.
Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.
This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti
Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to
F. Welker; E. Duijm; K.J. van der Gaag; B. van Geel; P. de Knijff; J. van Leeuwen; D. Mol; J. van der Plicht; N. Raes; J Reumer; B. Gravendeel
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to
Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.
Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed t
Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola
A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.
Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.
Katanbafzadeh, H; Barati, F; Tabandeh, M
Cryoprotectant free approach successfully removed the impact of physical and chemical damages in preserving human sperm in a vitrification protocol. There is no any report on this technology in farm animal sperm freezing. The aim of the present study was to find the efficacy of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC; 1 mg per 60 million) and sucrose (0.1 and 0.2 M) on freezing of the goat epididymal sperm. Caudal epididymides (n=5 pairs) were dissected, incised and incubated in the Tris-BSA solution for 15 min, followed by swim-up at room temperature. Sperm was loaded in 0.25 mL French straws and cooled on nitrogen vapor for 3 min then immersed in liquid nitrogen and remained for 48 h. Then the straws thawed by immersing in 37 degree C waterbath for 30 sec and analyzed. The results showed the impact of freezing on the goat epididymal sperm motility, viability and DNA fragmentation that were improved by incorporation of CLC and sucrose (0.2 M). In conclusion, the goat epididymal sperm was frozen in a cryoprotectant-free freezing model. CLC and 0.4 M sucrose protected the goat epididymal sperm against freezing-induced damages.
Dercksen, D.; Groot Nibbelink, N.; Paauwe, R.; Backx, A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Vellema, P.
For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of
Haulenbeek, Andrea M; Katz, Larry S
Preference testing has shown that sexually experienced male goats choose females that are tail wagging, a behavior that may function as both attractivity and proceptivity, over those that are not. We hypothesized that exposure to females expressing high rates of tail wagging would arouse males, increasing sexual performance. Tail wagging rate could be manipulated because we have shown previously that flutamide treatment increases the frequency of tail wagging in estrous goats. Sexually experienced males observed different stimuli for 10 min before a 20 min sexual performance test (SPT). The stimuli were an empty pen (MT), or groups of three females that were all estrous (E), non-estrous (NE), estrous+flutamide (E(F)) or non-estrous+flutamide (NE(F)). During the stimulus observation period, tail wagging was recorded. During SPT, frequencies and latencies of sexual behaviors were recorded. E(F) females displayed the most tail wagging. Viewing E(F) females before SPT increased the number of ejaculations attained by males and decreased the latencies to first and second ejaculation, as well as the inter-ejaculatory interval. Viewing estrous females (E and E(F)) before SPT decreased the latency to first mount, as compared to non-estrous females (NE and NE(F)). We conclude that male goats are sexually aroused by tail wagging. This study and previous work demonstrate that tail wagging functions as both attractivity and proceptivity in goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
number of red blood cells was within the normal range (11.20-11.90 × 106/µL). However ... since this is the first time that biochemical and hematological parameters were determined in Aardi, ... value data for the physiological variables of goat breeds ..... and serum biochemistry of captive unsedated chital deer (Axis axis).
Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.
Aepli, M.; Finger, R.
In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the
Hayaloglu, A A; Tolu, C; Yasar, K; Sahingil, D
The effect of goat breed and starter culture on volatile composition and sensory scores in goat milk cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. Milk from 2 goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and different starter culture systems (no starter, mesophilic and thermophilic starters) were used in the manufacture of goat milk cheeses (called Gokceada goat cheese). Volatile composition was determined by a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. Sixty compounds including esters (13), carboxylic acids (7), aldehydes (6), ketones (8), alcohols (14), and miscellaneous compounds (12) were identified. Esters, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were the main classes of volatile components in the cheeses. Both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of different starter cultures and goat breeds significantly influenced the volatile fraction of goat milk cheese. Decanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic (commonly named capric, caproic, and caprylic) acids were indicator compounds to distinguish the goat breeds. Principal component analysis grouped the cheeses based on the use of starter culture and goat breed. Starter-free cheeses were separately located on the plot and age-related changes were present in all samples. Sensory evaluation of 90-d-old cheeses showed that the cheeses from the Gokceada breed received higher odor, flavor, and quality scores than those from the Turkish Saanen breed, and cheeses made using mesophilic starters resulted in the most satisfactory scores for flavor and quality attributes. In conclusion, goat milk cheeses made using milk from Gokceada goats and mesophilic starter culture had the best quality in terms of volatile composition and sensory attributes.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After 21 days, fecal samples were collected to determine the fecal egg count. Plant extracts (200 mg kg-1 body weight in sterile distilled water were administered on day 28. Treatment I was a control without anthelmintic (distilled water; treatment II received Neem leaf extracts; treatment III received an extract prepared from Wormwood leaves, flowers and roots; treatment IV received Tobacco leaf extracts with copper sulphate. Body Weight (BW, Fecal Egg Count (FEC, Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Total White Blood Cell Counts (TWBCC and White Blood Cell Differential Counts (WBCDC were determined in goats once a week, for a 4-week period. Results: There was no difference in FEC among the groups. The results showed that the plant extracts at the tested concentration were not effective anthelmintics; The PCV of the control group was significantly higher than all treatment groups (p≤0.05. Groups treated with Wormwood and Tobacco copper sulphate had dramatic decreases in PCV which may be an indicator of toxicity from these treatments. Significant differences in BW were observed between the control group and that of the Tobacco-copper sulphate group (p≤0.05. Low concentrations of Tobacco-copper sulphate treatment enhanced body weight. The extracts tested were not effective in reducing the levels of TWBCC. Circulating eosinophil counts, TWBCC and FEC, were negatively correlated with PCV in goats in this study. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts containing water soluble proteins from Neem, wormwood and tobacco are not effective anthelmintics in
Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G
The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (kgoats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25parasite is investing its resources more on the growth of scoleces, less on the growth of cyst volume, and even less on the
Ayo, J O; Minka, N S; Mamman, M
In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10 ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p 0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score posttransportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pretransportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation.
Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui
Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107 cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108 cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109 cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.
Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O
Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.
Amir Hossan Shaikat
Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.
A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR
Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.
F. A. Pamungkas
Full Text Available Gembrong goat is an Indonesia local goat having specific characteristic that is currently categorized as a breed that is at risk of extinction. In this context, the cryopreservation of gametes is important to support a genome resource bank for storage of gametes for an indefinite period of time. Evaluation of semen and spermatozoa quality was performed to determine the survival of spermatozoa and this information will be used as a reference in the cryopreservation of semen and spermatozoa. The aim of this experiment was to study the characteristics of Gembrong goat’s semen and spermatozoa during cryopreservation process. Once a week, semen from three Gembrong goats (ages about 2-3 years old was collected using artificial vagina and then frozen with TRIS extender. After freezing, the semen was thawed. Macro- and microscopic parameters of semen and spermatozoa were assessed in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Results showed that in the fresh semen, the volume was 0.5 mL, sperm abnormalities was 5.74%, sperm concentration was 6731 x 106/mL, the sperm motility was 78.33%, live sperm was 83.17%, and sperm membrane integrity was 78.53%. After-thawing observation showed that sperm motility decreased to 49% (P<0.05 that was lower as compared to that in the fresh and post-equilibration semen. Similarly, the percentage of sperm viability and membrane integrity during cryopreservation showed a similar pattern with the sperm motility. In conclusion, the fresh semen of Gembrong goat had a good quality and met the requirement for further cryopreservation process. Similarly, the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Gembrong goat is eligible for artificial insemination (AI or in vitro embryo production.
Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Nandal, Anjali; Powell, Anne; Garrett, Wesley; Blomberg, Leann; Donovan, David M; Talbot, Neil; Telugu, Bhanu P
The creation of genetically modified goats provides a powerful approach for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and for ensuring food safety all of which are high-priority goals for animal agriculture. The availability of goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are characteristically immortal in culture would be of enormous benefit for developing genetically modified animals. As an alternative to long-sought goat ESCs, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by forced expression of bovine POU5F1, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, LIN-28, and NANOG reprogramming factors in combination with a MIR302/367 cluster, delivered by lentiviral vectors. In order to minimize integrations, the reprogramming factor coding sequences were assembled with porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) self-cleaving peptides that allowed for tri-cistronic expression from each vector. The lentiviral-transduced cells were cultured on irradiated mouse feeder cells in a semi-defined, serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulting goat iPSC exhibit cell and colony morphology typical of human and mouse ESCs-that is, well-defined borders, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, a short cell-cycle interval, alkaline phosphatase expression, and the ability to generate teratomas in vivo. Additionally, these goat iPSC demonstrated the ability to differentiate into directed lineages in vitro. These results constitute the first steps in establishing integration and footprint-free iPSC from ruminants. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 709-721, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015 using flotation techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92% followed by cool (26.87%, hot (26.62%, and cold (20.39% seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63% was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%, Moniezia spp. (10.04%, and Trichuris spp. (8.36%. Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4 and September (674.05, respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%, Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%, Strongyloides spp. (8.91%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50% larvae. Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season.
Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G
Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.
Gezahegne Mamo Kassa
epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7% at ≥4 mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7% at cutoff ≥2 mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28% and 47% (95% CI: 37–56% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5% and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149 and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.
Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K
Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Daniel R. Rissi
Full Text Available Em um rebanho de 100 caprinos, foram observados casos de uma doença neurológica em três animais adultos jovens (identificados como A-C entre outubro e dezembro de 2004. Os sinais clínicos incluíam desvio da cabeça, torcicolo, nistagmo, andar desequilibrado e quedas que acabavam em decúbito, durante o qual o caprino executava movimentos de pedalagem com os membros rígidos. Tratamento com antibióticos no Caprino C resultou em remissão temporária dos sinais. A evolução clínica foi de 5, 10 e 30 dias, respectivamente, para os Caprinos A, B e C. O Caprino A morreu espontaneamente e os outros dois foram eutanasiados na fase terminal da doença. Não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Lesões histológicas eram predominantemente unilaterais e consistiam de alterações inflamatórias e degenerativas que se estendiam do bulbo ao tálamo. Em todos os casos havia manguitos perivasculares de um ou mais tipos de células mononucleares (linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos ativados e ocasionalmente neutrófilos associados a áreas de malacia onde células Gitter preenchiam os espaços de perda do parênquima. Adicionalmente, o Caprino B tinha microabscessos no bulbo, ponte, e mesencéfalo e infiltrado neutrofílico e linfocítico multifocal nos fascículos do nervo trigêmeo, próximo ao gânglio de Gasser, e nas leptomeninges do cerebelo. No tronco encefálico do Caprino C, a reação era multifocal e com característica granulomatosa e incluía células epitelióides e, ocasionalmente, células gigantes multinucleadas. Listeria sp foi detectada por imunoisto-química em cortes de mesencéfalo rotineiramente processado dos Caprinos A e C e de ponte do Caprino B.A neurologic disease was observed in three young adult goats (indentified as A-C from a herd of 100 goats during October-December, 2004. Clinical signs included head tilt, torticollis, nystagmus, staggering, falls and eventually recumbency and paddling, with stiff limbs
Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X
intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than...... milking. Nevertheless, cisternal size did not increased after 1x milking, probably because of lesser milk yield. Multiparous goats had larger cisterns than primiparous goats and were able to store more milk in their cisterns at all milking intervals. Because of the high capacity of goat cisterns, no milk...
Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.
The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...
Cosseddu, G M; Polci, A; Pinoni, C; Capobianco Dondona, A; Iapaolo, F; Orsini, G; Izzo, F; Bortone, G; Ronchi, F G; Di Ventura, M; El Harrak, M; Monaco, F
Four goats were inoculated with an inactivated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) vaccine. Three unvaccinated goats were kept as controls. After 36 days, the four goats were revaccinated. The immune response was monitored by virus neutralization test showing that two doses of the vaccine were able to stimulate strong immune response in all the vaccinated animals. The vaccinated goat and the controls were challenged with virulent PPRV intranasally. After PPRV challenge, the three control goats showed fever, viremia and virus excretion through mucosal surfaces, whereas the vaccinated goats were fully protected against PPRV infection and replication. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
M. L. Alicata
Full Text Available A total of 24 Girgentana goats was divided into 3 homogeneous groups grazing a sulla monoculture under stocking rate of 30, 50 or 70 goats/ha (LSR, MSR and HSR. Available biomass, herbage selected by goats and milk yield were measured and sampled. The DM intake of goats and its botanic composition and digestibility were assessed by the n-alkane method. Grazing at HSR was suspended 18 d before MSR and LSR (35 vs. 53 d, due to the low biomass availability. Over the first 35 d of grazing, the HSR reduced height and availability of herbage. The herbage intake and milk yield of goats increased from HSR to LSR, without relevant changes in milk quality. During all grazing period (53 d, the higher grazing pressure led to a lower total milk yield per goat, whereas the HSR produced the highest daily and total milk amount per ha.
Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun
The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats.
Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong
Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.
Lee, Kyung Woo; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Moon, Oun Kyoung; Yang, Dong Kun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kweon, Chang Hee
In total, 582 sera from 116 black goat herds were analyzed by a commercially available ELISA kit to monitor the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). The mean number of goats sampled per herd was 5.11, 4.66, and 5.38 for the northern, central, and southern regions of Korea, respectively. The apparent regional prevalence of Mpt was estimated at 18.2-38.2% and 4.6-15.3% for herds and goats, respectively. The Mpt-positive goats were predominantly detected in the south (n=28), compared to either the northern (n=9) or central (n=11) regions (chi=14.459, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that Mpt is prevalent among the goat population, but regional variation exists.
Duan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao
Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643 bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats.
E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; He, Jian-Ning; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Ya
Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Jining Gray goat, Fushun black goat, Youzhou black-skin goat, and Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome of those four goats consisted of 16,640 nt, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The complete mitogenome of these four local breeds of Chinese native goats could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China.
Herrera, Enrique; Rivera, Aldo; Palomares, E Gabriela; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén
The purpose of this study is to determine the etiology of abortions presented in a goat herd declared as free of brucellosis and vaccinated with RB51 located in Mexico. The serological diagnosis of brucellosis in 33 animals was performed. The study included three goats that aborted in the last third of gestation and 15 goats that gave birth normally; samples of milk and vaginal exudate were subjected to bacteriological study. All animals were negative for serological diagnosis, and isolation of Brucella melitensis was achieved in a single goat from vaginal exudate. However, the particularity is that this goat was negative to the card, indirect ELISA, and radial immunodiffusion tests. Isolation of a field strain was confirmed by biochemical test resistance to rifampicin and PCR. It is concluded that a goat which aborted in the last third of gestation was found spreading B. melitensis through vaginal discharge despite being vaccinated with RB51 and seronegative for brucellosis.
Shu, Guowei; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Zikun; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Ma, Yaning
Goat milk production in Shaanxi province is dominant in China, but the product is mainly infant formula and adult milk powder; product homogeneity is serious and has no goat yoghurt with probiotic culture. The effect of bacteria proportion (1:3:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) on pH, acidity, and viable counts and sensory evaluation of goat milk fermented by probiotics including L. acidophilus, B. bifidum or L. casei besides, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt was investigated. The optimum bacteria proportion of L. acidophilus : B. bifidum : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for AB-goat yoghurt and B. bifidum : L. casei : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for BC-goat yoghurt were both 2:1:1. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, the total viable counts were respectively 4.60, 7.73 (g/L), 3.50×107 cfu/mL, 3.40×107 cfu/mL and 2.30×109 cfu/mL in AB-goat yoghurt. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of B. bifidum and L. casei, the total viable counts were respectively 4.61, 8.16 (g/L), 7.60×107 cfu/mL, 5.60×107 cfu/mL and 2.04×109 cfu/mL in BC-goat yoghurt. The bacteria proportion had a significant effect on fermentation of AB- and BC-goat yoghurt, the results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt.
Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...
Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui
This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (pdairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pdairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (pdairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (pdairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (pdairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (pdairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.
Barłowska, J; Litwińczuk, Z; Kedzierska-Matysek, M; Litwińczuk, A
Polymorphism of goat milk alphas1-casein was determined and potential relations between genetic variants of this protein fraction and goat performance were evaluated. The investigations were performed on 598 goats assigned to of 4 breed groups (White improved 254 units, Coloured improved--124, White non-improved--146 and Coloured non-improved--74). For each goat, alphas1-casein polymorphism was determined in polyacrylamide gel by the PAGE-SDS method and percentage of milk alphas1-casein and gene frequency established. There was evaluated goat performance at successive lactations. In the goat population investigated, AA, AB, BB, AE, BE and EE alphas1-casein genotypes were identified. In all four breeds, alphas1-casein genotype EE clearly predominated (27.2-39.2%), recognized as "medium" and its share was higher in the groups of non-improved goats. It was conditioned by high frequency of gene E alphas1-casein (0.419-0.622). Generally, EE genotype percentage was higher in the non-improved goat groups. The improved goats, though, obtained higher productivity in each of the lactation studied. Analysis of relationships between alphas1-casein genetic variants and goats performance confirmed a significant influence on milk, protein and fat yields only in the Coloured improved goat group. There was revealed a more general tendency indicating a significant impact of "strong" alphas1-casein genotypes on a concentration of basic milk components, i.e. fat and protein, especially casein. In a group of goats producing milk of the highest casein content (over 2.4%) and protein (over 3.0%), the animals showing "strong" alphas1-casein variants dominated (85 and 70 %).
FOX, D. G.; A. S. Atzori; Tedeschi,L.O.; Cannas, A.
The Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) is a computer model based on the structure of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Sheep.A version of the SRNS for goats is under development and evaluation. In the SRNS for goats, energy and protein requirements are predicted based on the equations developed for the SRNS for sheep, modified to account for specific requirements of goats. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and th...
Ndamukong, K J; Sewell, M M; Asanji, M F
The productivity of sheep and goats was examined under three management systems. A regime by which each animal received five doses of fenbendazole in a year gave similar results in terms of survival and liveweight gain to monthly dosing. Sheep kept by traditional methods without anthelmintic treatment survived and grew less well than goats. In contrast goats grew better and produced more young under traditional management although they were in general lighter than sheep.
KAÇAR, Cihan; ZONTURLU, Abuzer Kaffar; KARAPEHLİVAN, Mahmut
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of parenteral administration of L-carnitine on some biochemical parameters in Halep (Damascus) goats during the last month of pregnancy. L-carnitine was administrated to goats in group I (n = 13) by subcutaneous injections once a week during the last month of the pregnancy. Physiologic salt solution was administered to goats in group II (n = 12) by the same route during the same period. Differences of glucose concentration between groups were...
M. A. Rahman
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA â Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Khairani, B Siti; Saharee, A A
Clinical and pathological changes are described in groups of five goats pretreated with dexamethasone and then infected with a large dose of Pasteurella multocida B:2 (the cause of haemorrhagic septicaemia) by the intratracheal, subcutaneous or intranasal route (groups A, B and C, respectively). In group A, two goats died (on day 1 and 4 post-inoculation); in group B three died (days 2, 5 and 14); and in group C one died (day 20). The infecting organism was recovered from the four goats that died within cattle and buffalo, was absent in goats.
Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim
Full Text Available West African Dwarf (WAD Goat enterprises were studied using data collected from 120 households where goats are kept. The result revealed that majority of the households heads were male and married, with an average of 46 years and had up to eight years experience in goat production. A very few were members of cooperative societies. Contact with extension agents by the respondents was also minimal, while 40% rear goats for both home consumption and income generation. Goats were kept by the respondents under semi intensive and extensive feeding systems. The average number of goats kept per household was 12. Majority of the respondents sell their goats at home and the selling price was determined by the prevailing market price or by reproductive value. Feed shortage was the major constraint militating against goat production in the study area. There is a high potential to increase the productivity of goats if the technical and managerial constraints can be solved by providing better quality feeds and improved extension service delivery.
Agerholm, J.S.; Kielsgaard, M.E.; Pedersen, Jan W.
in Angora goats, breeding results for goats being daughters of known carriers and which were then mated to a known carrier were analysed. Of 45 kids born in 1993 and 1994, five kids had peromelia. This corresponded to the expected 7:1 segregation. The difference between the number of affected male...... and female kids was not statistically significant. Peromelia affected kids occurred significantly more frequently among goats selected in the breeding study than among other goats in the respective herds. The study demonstrated that peromelia is inherited as an autosomal recessive defect. Based on knowledge...
Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.
tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...
Shi, Lei; Yue, Wenbin; Ren, Youshe; Lei, Fulin; Zhao, Junxing
The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of determining the sex of goat embryos prior to implantation through amplification of the high-motility-group (HMG) box of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene of the goats. Goat specific primers were designed for duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As an internal control gene, the goat beta-action gene sequence was simultaneously amplified together with the HMG box of goat SRY gene. Males showed both 1 SRY band and 1 beta-action band, but only 1 beta-action band was present in the agarose gel electrophoresis of females. The result indicated that the goat HMG-box sequence motif of SRY was male specific. Afterward, the optimized PCR procedure was applied in 30 embryo biopsies and the biopsied embryos were transferred into 30 recipient female goats. The sex of the 13 kids proved anatomically corresponded to the sex determined by PCR (100% accuracy). Thus, this study showed that this duplex PCR method can be applied to sex the goat pre-implantation embryos and to manipulate the sex ratio of offspring in goat breeding programs.
Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M
This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (Phormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.
Okafor Obioma Juliet
Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.
Schibler, L; Di Meo, G P; Cribiu, E P; Iannuzzi, L
Few goat genome analysis projects have been developed in the last 10 years. The aim of this review was to compile and update all available cytogenetic mapping data, according to the last goat chromosome nomenclature, as well as human and cattle whole genome sequences. In particular, human regions homologous to most of the FISH-mapped microsatellites were identified in silico. This new goat cytogenetic map made it possible to refine delineation of conserved segments relative to the human and cattle genomic sequence. These improvements did not lead to detection of major new rearrangements within ruminants but confirmed the good conservation of synteny and the numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements observed between goats and humans.
Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi
This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established.
Kristina Linderot de Cardona
Full Text Available Often referred to as “the poor man’s cow,” goats are important livestock in developing countries and in El Salvador goat management and milk are growing in popularity. This study focuses on the general health of Salvadoran goats and national husbandry systems as well as goat products and milking hygiene. The survey was submitted in western and central parts of the country: 191 goat owners were interviewed on animal management and production, 434 goats underwent a basic clinical exam, and raw milk samples were taken from 60 lactating does. Milk samples were examined for total plate count, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of goats were managed under a traditional husbandry system naming milk production as their main purpose. Based on the physical exam, the overall goat health was acceptable but in need of improvement. The results of the raw milk samples did not indicate a mayor microbial contamination. Development programs and education of Salvadoran goat owners are recommended to improve goats’ health and productivity in El Salvador. Further studies on the microbial quality on raw goat’s milk are necessary to determine the health risk when consumed. The information obtained in this investigation will serve as a base for future projects.
Full Text Available Studies performed on farm animals like cattle and pig have shown that there has been a relationship between leptin gene (LEP and carcass meat quality, milk production and content, and economic parameters such as reproduction and food consumption. There has been scarce research conducted related to leptin gene of sheep and especially goat. The aim of the study is to reveal the genetic structures of goats living in Turkey through nucleotide sequence analysis in targeted zones of LEP gene Exon 2 and Intron 2 of Anatolian Black, Kilis and Angora goat breeds which are commonly fed in Anatolia. According to the sequence analysis results of each three breeds, Anatolian Black goat breed have the highest haplotype number with nucleotide and haplotype diversity both in exon 2 and intron 2. There was only one haplotype found in both exon 2 and intron 2 in Angora goat breed. There was no nucleotide diversity found in individuals belonging to Angora goat breed. Taking the regions analyzed for LEP gene into consideration, it is seen that Anatolian Black goat breed has the highest genetic diversity among other goat breeds fed in Anatolia. Future studies upon the LEP gene in goats should take into account of increasing the sample size and of base in order to obtain more useful information for better understanding the gene structure.
Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C
This study followed the uptake, distribution, and elimination of sodium arsenate administered in a single dose and in multiple doses, respectively, to Iranian dairy sheep and goats. In the single dosing study, the blood concentration data fit an open two-compartment model of the form:C b (t)=-(A+B)e (-kat) +Ae (-αt) +Be (-βt) Absorption distribution and elimination rate constants were statistically significantly different for the two animal species. In the multiple dosing study, arsenic accumulated in the blood of both animal species, as expressed by a one compartment model of the form:C t =C ss (1-e (-kt) ) Arsenic was eliminated rapidly at the termination of dosing, with the blood washout half-life being shorter in sheep than in goats. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route from the body of both species.
Spiropoulos, John; Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E; Terry, Linda A; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded.
ZHANG Zhi-guo; CHENG Li-zi; ZHANG Xiao-rong; LIU Ya; JING Ren-tao; WANG Cun-li; ZHAO Huan; LI Bin; CAO Chen-chong; LI Dong-wei
The experiments of serial nuclear transfer were conducted between Boer goat and rabbit. The enucleated oocytes of rabbit were used as recipients while the blastomeres of goat morula was used as nuclear donor. The reconstructed embryos developing to morula were used as donor for serial cloning. As a result, two generations of reconstructed embryos were obtained, including 58 first generation reconstructed embryos and 14 second generation reconstructed embryos. The fusion rates were 79.5 and 70%, respectively. and there was no significant difference between them (P＞0.05). The cleavage rates were 75.9 and 28.6% respectively with significant difference (P＜0.01). No blastocyst was obtained from the second generation reconstructed embryos while 13.8% of first generation reconstructed embryos developed to blastocyst.
Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta
The study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in Polish White Improved goats (Capra hircus). The mean number of SCEs/cell was 2.73 +/- 1.84. The effect of sex and age on SCE incidence was also investigated. No statistically significant differences in the number of SCEs/cell were observed between the males and females. On the other hand, age was found to significantly influence SCE frequency. A lower SCE frequency was observed in younger goats. A positive correlation between chromosome length and SCE number was identified. The longer the chromosome, the more exchanges occurred. The highest number of SCEs was observed in the interstitial region, the lowest in the distal area.
Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Batainah, Tharwat; Abuharfeil, Nizar; Torgerson, P R
From December 1998 to December 1999, heads of 520 local goats slaughtered at the Irbid, Ramtha and Howarra Abattoirs (northern Jordan) were examined for the three larval instars (L(1)-L(3)) of Oestrus ovis. Of 520 heads, 126 (24%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. All three larval instars were observed in both sexes; all age groups were infested in each month of the year. The mean age of the goats sampled was 1.5 years. The numbers of parasites infesting hosts showed a significant (P<0.05) correlation with sheep age (r(sp)=0.31-0.42) for all three larval instars. The numbers of larvae in each host followed an overdispersed distribution, which fit a negative-binomial model (but not a Poisson distribution). There were more parasites recorded in the presence of purulent discharge or laryngitis, fewer in the presence of catarrhal discharge and no association with pharyngitis sinusitis, or rhinitis.
Full Text Available During our examination performed in the period from 2010 to 2012, we collected ticks from 52 flocks of sheep and 38 goat flocks. Ticks infestation occured in 15.97% (214/1340 of sheep and 16.93% (107/632 of goats. The result showed the presence of Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, D. pictus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Ha. inermis. Additional to determination of tick species during the research, the sex ratio and the monthly influence of microclimate conditions (temperature, relative humidity and precipitation quantity on the dynamics of populations of ticks were followed. Obtained results indicate the importance of the impact of climatic factors on the population dynamics of some species of ticks as well as the dynamics and abundance of different sexes within established species of ticks.
Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.
Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N
To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).
Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.
Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.
Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa
A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...
Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K
Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.
Fernanda Carneiro Cavalcanti
Full Text Available The vision of an embodied mind which joins the Theory of Conceptual Metaphor is, above all, based on the idea of a mind which results from the interaction between the human sensory-motor program and the physical and social-cultural environment. However, claiming the existence of what he calls the paradox of metaphor, Gibbs (2008 identifies a tension between the universal and variational aspects of metaphors. From this perspective, this article discusses the role of knowledge and cultural norms in the constitution of animal metaphors, especially in the conceptualization of man in terms of cabra (goat by members of the Fortaleza-Ceara community in northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, the article is organized in four sections, apart from an introduction. In three sections, we discuss the cultural model of the Great Chain of Being and its relation to animal metaphors based on Kövecses (2010 and Lakoff and Turner (1989; the issue of universality in Conceptual Metaphors according to Kövecses (2005; 2009; cultural variation of metaphors with emphasis on the animal metaphor cabra (goat based on Kövecses (2009 and Rodriguez (2009. In the fifth and last section final considerations are presented which point to the animal metaphor cabra (goat of an example of Conceptual Metaphor both potentially universal since it maps in the generic level the conceptual domains human being and animal, as well as variational since the cross domain mappings of man and cabra (goat are motivated by norms and shared cultural knowledge among the members of the Fortaleza-Ceara community.
Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L
We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.
A. A. Abubakar
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral. Ten (n=10 apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12±2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4±2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n=5. Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P<0.05 in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P<0.05 at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems.
Ingvast-Larsson, C; Svartberg, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Olsson, K
The pharmacokinetics and the effects of the opioid buprenorphine on behavior, cardiovascular parameters, plasma concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin were studied in the goat. After intravenous injection at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg bw, the terminal half-life was 73.8+/-19.9 min (mean+/-SD), the apparent volume of distribution 5.22+/-1.01 L/kg, and total body clearance 79.1+/-18.5 mL/min/kg. After intramuscular administration of buprenorphine at the same dosage, bioavailability was complete and clearance was 54.7+/-16.6 mL/min/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure and concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma increased after drug administration. The goats became agitated and stopped ruminating. The effects were more pronounced the first time the animals received the drug, especially the influence on the hormone levels. The concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma remained unaffected after the second dose despite a wash-out period of 3-6 weeks. Buprenorphine may be an unsuitable drug in goats because of the profound inhibition of rumination and the agitation it causes. The short half-life of buprenorphine may limit its use if long-term analgesia is required but be advantageous if a short acting drug is desirable.
Ropiquet, Anne; Hassanin, Alexandre
Recent theories on speciation suggest that interspecific hybridization is an important mechanism for explaining adaptive radiation. According to this view, hybridization can promote the rapid transfer of adaptations between different species; the hybrid population thus invades new habitats and diversifies into a variety of new species. Although hybridization is well accepted as a fairly common mechanism for diversification in plants, its role in the evolution of animals is more controversial, because reduced fitness would typically condemn animal hybrids to an evolutionary dead-end. Here, we examine DNA sequences of four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes selected for resolving phylogenetic relationships between goats, sheep, and their allies. Our analyses provide evidence of strong discordance for the position of Capra between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. We suggest that the common ancestor of wild goats arose from interspecific hybridization, and that the mitochondrial genome of a species better adapted to life at high altitudes was transferred via this route into the common ancestor of Capra. We propose that the acquisition of more efficient mitochondria has conferred a selective advantage on goats, allowing their rapid adaptive radiation during the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Our study therefore agrees with theories that predict an important role for interspecific hybridization in the evolution and diversification of animal species.
Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R
The effects of intraduodenal administration of Clostridium perfringens cultures and culture products in goats were evaluated to develop a reliable experimental model of enterotoxemia in this species. Five conventionally reared, 11-16-week-old Angora goat kids were dosed intraduodenally with whole cultures of C. perfringens type D; five similar animals were dosed with C. perfringens type D filtered culture supernatant; and a third group of five kids was dosed with C. perfringens type D washed cells. Two kids were used as controls and received sterile, nontoxic culture medium intraduodenally. All animals received starch solution into the abomasum. All five kids inoculated with whole culture and three of five dosed with culture supernatant and with washed cells developed central nervous system signs. Diarrhea was observed in two of five kids inoculated with whole culture, in all five of those dosed with culture supernatant, and in three of five of those that received washed cells. The most striking postmortem findings consisted of lung edema, necrotizing pseudomembranous colitis, and cerebral vasogenic edema. The protocol thus provided a reasonable model of naturally occurring enterotoxemia in goats, producing a range of clinical signs and postmortem changes similar to those observed in the natural disease.
Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.
The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.
Schuster R. K.
Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.
Dercksen, D; Groot Nibbelink, N; Paauwe, R; Backx, A; van Rijn, P; Vellema, P
For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) in goats in the Netherlands are described. The most obvious clinical signs were an acute drop in milk production and high fever (up to 42 degrees C). Clinical signs were less obvious than usually seen for clinically diseased sheep and cattle. A few goats showed oedema of the lips and the head, some nasal discharge and scabs on the nose and lips. Further erythema of the skin of the udder and small subcutaneous hemorrhages were seen. Just like one year ago, for the very first suspicion of bluetongue in Northwest-Europe, a good collaboration between practitioners, specialists of the Animal Health Service (GD Deventer), the Specialist Team of the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA), and the Central Institute for animal Disease Control (CIDC-Lelystad) in The Netherlands, led to the first and rapid notification and confirmation of the suspicion of bluetongue.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87
M. S. Kundu
Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluates the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on reproductive and productive performance of Teressa goat, an indigenous species of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female goats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each; (A control with basal ration without any zinc supplementation (B Treatment 1 with basal ration supplemented with 50 ppm zinc oxide (C Treatment 2 with basal ration supplemented with 100 ppm zinc oxide. Different reproductive parameters, e.g. numbers of days to oestrus, the incidence of oestrus, pregnancy rate, kidding rates and weight of kids were recorded. Results: Data indicated that the supplementation of different levels of inorganic zinc oxide significantly increased the incidence of oestrus (33%, pregnancy rate (12%, kidding rate (5% and resulted in shorter onset (8 days of oestrus as compared to the control. The mean body weight and daily weight gain of kids born to supplemented does were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the kids born to control. Conclusion: The supplementation of 50 to 100 ppm zinc oxide to the basal diet of Teressa goat significantly improved different productive and reproductive parameters.
Full Text Available Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pis- tachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD.Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed.Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization.Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds.Keywords: Biodegradation; Goat feces; Klebsiella strains; Tannic acid
Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.
Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.
Bezos, J; Casal, C; Díez-Delgado, I; Romero, B; Liandris, E; Álvarez, J; Sevilla, I A; Juan, L de; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C
Tuberculosis (TB) in goats (Capra hircus) is due to infection with members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), mainly Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. We report a comparative experimental infection of goats with M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis strains. We hypothesized that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC would display different clinical pictures. Three groups of goats were challenged with either M. bovis SB0134 (group 1, n=5), M. caprae SB0157 (group 2, n=5) and M. tuberculosis SIT58 (group 3, n=4). The highest mean total lesion score was observed in M. bovis challenged goats (mean 15.2, range 9-19), followed by those challenged with M. caprae (10.8, 2-23). The lowest score was recorded in goats challenged with M. tuberculosis (3, 1-6). Culture results coincided with the lesion scores in yielding more positive pools (7/15) in M. bovis challenged goats. By contrast, only three pools were positive from goats challenged M. tuberculosis (3/12) and with M. caprae (3/15), respectively. Differences in the performance of the intradermal and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) tests depending of the group were observed since all goats from group 1 were diagnosed using intradermal test and these goats reacted earlier to the IFN-γ assay in comparison to the other groups. This study confirmed that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC display different clinical pictures and this fact may have implications for MTC maintenance and bacterial shedding.
Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart
Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.
Iepema, G.L.; Eekeren, N. van
In this study the effect of three colostrum types; goat, cow and artificial colostrum, on serum gamma globulin concentration (GGC), growth and health of goat kids during the first three months of the rearing phase was measured. Thirty newborn goat kids were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; goat colostrum (GC), cow colostrum (CC) and artificial colostrum (AC). At 2, 28, 56 and 86 days serum GGC and live weight were measured. The three colostrum types were analysed on immunoglobu...
Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form
A R. Wani
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to find out the levels of analgesic drug meloxicam in the blood plasma of young goats. The drug was given to them through oral route. Data was used to elucidate the Pharmacokinetic determinants of the drug which were employed to arrive at the dose schedule and frequency of the drug in goats. Materials and Methods: Elaborate pharmacokinetic research of the drug meloxicam was done on 18 to 24 months old, five adult male local goats (Capra hircus of Assam weighing 20 to 25 kg.The drug was given orally at the dose rate of 0.35 mg/kg at the Goat Rearing farm, Guwahati, Assam. Analysis of blood was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system. Results: The mean values of area under curve (AUC and mean area under curve (AUMC were 3137.488 ± 125.3749 µg.min/ml and 4650460 ± 380892.4744 µg.min2/ml respectively .The mean peak plasma level of meloxicam was 1.972 ± 0.0477 µg/ml at 600 min. The mean values of elimination half life (t1/2β and absorption half life (t1/2Ka were 693±0.00 min and 170.6 ± 17.0076 min respectively. The mean values of volume of distribution (Vd and mean residence time (MRT were 0.114 ± 0.0156 L/kg and 1472.264 ± 63.336 min respectively. The mean value of Tmax was found to be 497 ± 19.8040 min. Following single oral administration the minimum effective therapeutic concentration or minimum effective plasma concentration of meloxicam was detectable up to 1200 min. The bioavailibity (F of the drug was 80.5 ± 10.0150%. Conclusion: These pharmacokinetic determinants were used to determine the frequency and dose schedule of meloxicam in goats. The minimum effective concentration of the drug is 0.7 µg/ml in plasma. To maintain this, an initial loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight should be followed by a maintenance dose of 0.4 mg/kg body weight/10 hour.
Antonia Leidiana Moreira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of babassu may be used in diets for goats under maintenance, however, it is a low-quality roughage due to its high fiber content. The chemical treatment by ammonia causes reduction in the proportion of the cell wall, in addition to providing non-protein nitrogen for the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Babassu palm hay ammoniated with 4% urea (BHAU4% was evaluated in this study as a substitute for guinea grass hay in the maintenance diets of goats in terms of intake, digestibility in vivo, and the partitioning of energy and nitrogen compounds. Twenty Anglo-Nubian male goats were used in a randomised block design with four treatments (diets containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% BHAU4% and five replicates (animals/block. The chemical compositions of the feeds, leftovers, faeces, nitrogen and crude energy of the urine were evaluated. In addition, the rumen fluid pH, the rumen N-NH3, and the blood serum urea were evaluated. The digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crud protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and detergent acid (ADFap, corrected for ash and protein, declined (P<0.05 0.0939, 0.0722, 0.0953, 0.1113, and 0.2666%, respectively, with the 1% inclusion of babassu palm hay in the diet. A negative linear effect (P<0.05 was observed in the ingested nitrogen (N, excretion of N in the urine, retained N, and N balance, with decreases of 0.15711, 0.0225 and 0.1071 g/day and 0.1388%, respectively, per percentage unit of the babassu palm hay included in the diet. The intake and digestibility of the DM and nutrients are reduced with the inclusion of BHAU4% in maintenance diets for goats, with positive nitrogen balance and stability of the ruminal pH and N-NH3 as well as blood urea, which presented values within the normal physiological range for goats.
Maphosa, V; Masika, P J
Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. is used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control helminths in goats. An in vitro study revealed efficacy of its fractions against adult Haemonchus contortus. This study was conducted to validate efficacy of fractions in vivo, on gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats. A total of 36 goats (18 males and 18 females) between ages of 8 and 12 months were used; these were randomly assigned to six treatments (A-F). For treatments A and B, goats received Prodose orange® (Albendazole 1.92 % m/v, closantel 3.94 % mv) at 2 ml/10 kg and distilled water at 0.5 ml/kg per os, respectively, whereas those under treatments C to E received aqueous fractions of E. elephantina at concentrations of 12. 5, 25, 50 and 75 mg/ml, dosed at 2 ml/10 kg. On days 1, 28 and 56, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and larval count, blood samples taken for packed cell volume (PCV) and body weights recorded to assess weight changes. The aqueous fraction caused highest the total faecal egg count reductions (TFECR) % of 81.7 %, 96.8 % and 98.6 % at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, on day 56. This was comparable to the commercial drug Prodose orange®, which caused TFECR% of 94.9 % at the same time. The fraction also caused reduction of Haemonchus contortus and strongyloides larvae at all dose levels, but these were not significantly different (P > 0.05) to the negative control. There was an increase in body weights of animals at dose concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Animals receiving the fraction had weight increases of between 3 and 4 kg by end of experiment (over 56 days), but those drenched with Prodose orange ® gained by less than 2 kg. The fraction also increased PCV levels at all doses on days 28 and 56 and this was comparable to the group on commercial drug. The reductions of FEC and worm larvae, as well as increase in PCVs are indicative that E. elephantina posses some
Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano
Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible.
Full Text Available The total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci and many others are ranked among the important groups of microorganisms affecting the quality of milk and cheese. In the samples of raw goat milk (farms breeding I and II collected within 24 h (morning milking - a, afternoon milking - b and fresh goat cheese, these groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: the total counts of microorganisms (TCM, lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms and enterococci. In cheeses, there was also carried out the determination of yeasts and moulds. After the cultivation, colonies from Petri dishes were counted and the result was expressed in CFU/ml, g. Samples of raw goat milk (except farm II 27.3. corresponded the requirement of a given legislative act. However, it contained a higher number of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms than the stated recommendations. Microbiological analysis showed relatively high numbers of adverse coliform bacteria (up to 1.2 x 107 CFU/g in all cheeses. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were relatively high as well, they moved between of 103 – 108 CFU/g.
Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different
Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing
Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats' cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV.
Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different
Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen
Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P synchronization, breeding, and stage of pregnancy may be involved in EFL in goats. Therefore, improvement of the goat management in the early stage of pregnancy is important to decrease EFL % in goats. Although the P4 did not show any significant difference between normal pregnancy goats and goats that experienced EFL, CL disruption
Full Text Available Ruminal acidosis is a frequent disorder that occurs in goats as a consequence of feedingmistakes in animals not adapted to a diet of easily fermentable carbohydrates. The subacuteform of the disease is difficult to diagnose because no apparent signs are shownand the acid-base parameters may remain within the normal range. The present studyaimed at testing the hypothesis that haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA,the two major acute phase proteins in ruminants, may be useful as markers of subacuteacidosis in goats.A subacute acidosis was induced in six Murciano-Granadina goats through a diet of60% mixed feed-40% alfalfa hay offered during 5 days to goats not adapted to eatmixed feed. Two goats were rumen-fistulated to investigate the effect of feeding onruminal pH. Sampling of blood and urine of all animals was done before the inductionof the acidosis, during 5 days after the onset of induction and for 18 days after theinduction (recovery period.Ruminal pH in the fistulated goats dropped to less than 5.5 during the inductionperiod, and half of the goats had diarrhea on the third day after the induction of acidosis.Acid-base parameters showed that the acid-base compensatory mechanisms wereefficient in maintaining the equilibrium. Serum Hp had a moderate increase duringthe induction period, while SAA did not change. These results suggest that Hp mightbe a potential marker for ruminal acidosis in goats.
Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula
... official identification method or device approved by the Administrator. (3) The owner of the flock of... identification. Written requests for approval of sheep or goat identification devices and markings not listed in... devices and markings to the list of approved means of sheep and goat identification. ...
Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional and homeopathic treatments on metabolic status and immune response in late pregnant goats. Administration of an antichetogenic preparation and of Echinacea purpurea in homeopathic dilution did not exert unequivocal effects on metabolic status, but improved some immunological parameters of periparturient goats.
Mohsen M. Negm-Eldin
Full Text Available Heads of sheep (n=180 and goats (n=120 slaughtered at four regions (Labraq, Shahat, Elbeida, and Masa of Green Mountain areas in Libya were investigated for the presence of larvae of Oestrus ovis. The animals were divided into sex and age groups. The heads were cut along longitudinal and sagittal axes, and the larvae (L1, L2, and L3 were collected. The infestation rate was significantly higher in sheep (51.66%; n=93/180 as compared to goats (28.33%; n=34/120. In sheep, the rate was higher during May (100%, while in goat, it was higher during August (70%. The incidence of L1 peaked in April (90% for sheep and October (100% for goats, while L2 reached to maximum in May for sheep (26.95% and goats (75%. L3 reached to peak in February (50% for sheep, and June (25% for goats. Mean intensity of larval burden was higher in sheep than goat, reaching to peak in June (9.1 larvae/head for sheep and March (3.5 larvae/head for goats. The infestation rate was significantly higher in males than females. The older animals were mostly affected as compared to younger animals. Highest infestation rate was recorded in Masa (45.83%, and the lowest rate was found in Labraq (40.27%. In conclusion, these findings may be used in designing the control strategies of myiasis in Libya.
Full Text Available South Africa has over 6 million indigenous goats, many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a fine down (cashmere) that is finer than 18,5 micron and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk, skin products...
Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.
Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da
Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.
This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’ group
Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.
To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat
Jul 11, 2015 ... development, and thus influences the chance of pregnancy. ... Nucleotide variations in the codifying region of goats correspond to seven amino acid ... and function of the JY-1 gene, as well as its dynamic in evolution. ... of goat have been reported in India with wide phenotypic variations in body size, coat.
Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time c
Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula wi
Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...
Jimena, Otero Negrete; Laura, Jaramillo Meza; Elena, Miranda Morales Rosa; Alonso, Navarro Hernández Jaime; Teresa, Quintero Martínez María
We did a descriptive study to determine whether the presence in the external ear canal of the Raillietia caprae mites and Mycoplasmas were associated. For that we sampled 360 goats slaughtered at abattoirs in the summer to identify those infested with the mite. We found only 20 infested, so used all of those plus another 47 uninfested goats selected systematically from the population negative for the isolation of Mycoplasmas. These goats came from the regions of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Sinaloa and Estado de México. Sterile swabs were taken from each ear canal of the carcass after removal of the pinna for microscopic observation of the mites and for the isolation of Mycoplasmas in both study groups. The swab samples were inoculated in Friis media for the isolation of Mycoplasmas; then, the isolates were biochemically characterized and identified serologically. We recovered isolates from the earwax of only nine of the 47 control goats, but from the earwax of 11 of the 20 infested goats; another four infested goats had Mycoplasma isolated from the mites but not from the earwax. Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii were the only Mycoplasmas isolated from the uninfested goats, and also were the predominant (29 of 34) isolates from the infested goats and/or from the mites.
The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...
Botha, Anton F
Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere-like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...
Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.
To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat
Full Text Available Goats can act as dispersal agents by consuming seed pods of woody plants and dispersing the seeds in feces. Concerns that goats might thereby promote encroachment by woody plant species such as Dichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush) have not been...
Avais, Muhammad; Rashid, Ghazanfar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Nasir, Amar; Jahanzaib, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid; Reichel, Michael Philipp
Coccidiosis is a protozoal and occasionally fatal diarrheic disease of goats imposing heavy economic losses to farming community. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium against coccidiosis in Beetal goats. Twenty-four (24) Beetal goats naturally infected with coccidiosis were randomly divided into four groups of 6 (A-D). Goats in groups A, B and C were treated orally with Furazolidone (10 mg/Kg), Sulfadimidine (100 mg/Kg) and Amprolium (55 mg/Kg), respectively for 7 days. Goats in-group D served as positive control. Oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces counts of individual goats in each group were performed on Days; 0 (pre-treatment) 7, 14 and 21 (post-treatment). OPG counts amongst goats in all groups at day 0 were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7, 14 and 21, OPG values decreased significantly (P0.05). In conclusion, Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium are well-tolerated and any one of these may be recommended to effectively treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats.
Md. Mahbubul Islam
Conclusion: The seroprevalence in the unvaccinated samples indicates that PPRV is circulating in Bangladesh which is inducing to produce natural antibody in goats. This study also states that the field level vaccination against PPRV could give protection to the goats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 127-133
Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR in goats in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh, and its relation to age, sex, breeds and seasonal influence. In total, 627 goats were examined where 305 were males and 322 were females. The overall prevalence of PPR in goats was found to be 20.57% (n=129. From the various risk factors analysed, age categories of goats, sex, breed and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p<0.01 with the prevalence of PPR. Findings suggested that the seasonal influence on outbreaks of this disease was significantly higher. The clinical prevalence of PPR was highest in the month of December (31.68% and lowest in June (9.52%. The influence of sex on PPR outbreaks was found to be higher in male (28.52% than female (13.04% goats. As regards to age, PPR was significantly higher in young (31.06% compared to sucklers (13.14% and adult (10.15%. The susceptibility of Black Bengal goats to PPR was higher than other breeds. The results of this study showed that PPR is an important goat disease in the studied areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve prevention of contact with infected goats and vaccination against the PPR virus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 546-549
Acutis, P.L.; Bossers, A.; Priem, J.; Riina, M.V.; Peletto, S.; Mazza, M.; Casalone, C.; Forloni, G.; Ru, G.; Caramelli, M.
Susceptibility to scrapie in sheep is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein (PrP) gene, whereas no strong association between genetics and scrapie has yet been determined in goats due to the limited number of studies on these animals. In this case¿control study on 177 goats from six Itali
Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J
Production objectives and breeding practices of smallholder households participating in dairy goat breeding projects were analysed in relation to their ability to bring about sustainable genetic improvement in the dairy goat flocks in Kenya. A stratified survey involving 311 goat keepers in 4 project sites was used. This employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods to get a holistic view of dairy goats, and take into account the full array of contributions of dairy goats to the smallholder households. Milk production and sales of breeding stock were high priority functions for the objective to create a financial buffer. The breeding objective traits that farmers perceived as being of primary importance were milk yield, growth rate, body size, fertility and disease tolerance. There were logical trade-offs in the choice of these traits by farmers. Female dairy goats were mainly culled due to old age, poor fertility, small body size and poor health. Farmers did not place a large significance on unsatisfactory milk performance when culling female goats, mainly due to the very small production size and the high demand existing for breeding animals. Factors affecting milk yield and flock size presented satisfied a P<0.1 significance level. The performance levels of dairy goats were mainly influenced by breeding strategies and the resource availability at the farm level. The optimisation of genotype x environment interactions remains the biggest challenge given the objectives set by the farmer.
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.
An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or
Roest, H.I.J.; Gelderen, van E.; Dinkla, A.; Frangoulidis, D.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we ino
Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...
Keil, Nina M; Imfeld-Mueller, Sabrina; Aschwanden, Janine; Wechsler, Beat
In this study, we investigated whether goats can distinguish a member of their own group from one belonging to a different group even when the head of the goat in question cannot be seen. In the experiment, a total of 45 adult female goats (walkers) were trained to walk along a passageway at the end of which they learnt to expect food (trial run). Walking down this corridor, they passed another adult female goat (stimulus goat) whose trunk and hind legs alone were visible. Using 19 individuals, ten pairs of stimulus goats consisting of one goat from the walker's group and one from a different group were matched in terms of body size, constitution, colour and coat length. In addition, the stimulus goat from the same group as the walker had to be higher ranking than the latter to avoid being attacked. The walkers completed two, four or six trial runs depending on the number of pairs suitable for a given walker. The walker's exploratory behaviour (observing and sniffing at the stimulus goat) was recorded. Data from 109 trial runs were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models with crossed random effects. On average, the walker spent a total of 8.7 s exploring the stimulus goat visually and olfactorily if the latter was from a different group and only about half as long (4.2 s) if it was from her own group. In particular, the time a walker spent observing a stimulus goat whilst approaching the latter was significantly longer if the stimulus goat belonged to a different group than to her own (2.5 s as opposed to 1.4 s). Moreover, a stimulus goat from a different group was sniffed at significantly longer (4.6 s) than one from the same group (1.9 s). Results suggest that goats can easily discriminate between members of their own group and those of a different group even when the latter's heads are hidden. Olfactory and visual cues are probably important for identifying group members.
Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun
Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.
Josué Pires Topazio
Full Text Available Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58% were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.
dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Garino Júnior, Felício; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José
The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.
Fabrine Alexandre dos Santos
Full Text Available The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.
Kim, Hyo-Hee; Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan; Yoon, Sung-Sik
The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder.
Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore
Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.
Abdel-Ghani MA; T.M. El-sherry TM; Hayder M; Abou-Khalil NS
Objective:To investigate the changes in profile of the oxidant and antioxidant indicators throughout pregnancy in goats.Methods: Estrus in goats was synchronized using an intravaginal progestogen impregnated sponge and the buck was introduced in the herd during the experiment for breeding purpose. Serum nitric oxide (NO) as standard angiogenic marker, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a cryoprotectant indicator, total peroxide (TPX) as a pathogenetic effector were measured, followed by calculation of OSI% (TPX/TAC)×100 as a reflector of the oxidant/antioxidant status, andmalondialdhyde were estimated.Results:Compared with values in singleton and twins bearing goats, TAC values in multiple bearing goats were higher in 4thmonth and lower in 5th month (P<0.05). Values of TPX were lower in multiple bearing goats in 4th month and higher in 5th month (P<0.05) when compared with singleton and twins bearing goats.In contrary, NO values started to increase from the 2nd month until 4th month of gestation in all pregnant goats. However, the NO was lower in 5th month (P<0.05) in multiple bearing goats.Values of NO were negatively correlated with OSI % in allbearing goats.Conclusion: Knowing the relationship between the fetal number and oxidative stress indicators could be useful in the clinical management of such pregnancies and could be useful in the early detection or prediction adverse pregnancy outcome. Particularly, the 4th and 5th month of gestation increases the liability to reactive oxygen species in goats.
CAO Shao-xian; YANG Li-guo; JIANG Xun-ping; LIU Hong-lin; LU Wei-zhong; XIANG Yang-hai
Blood and tissue samples were collected from 105 goats including 60 Boer goats (30 for eachsex), 30 Xuhuai goats (15 for each sex) and 15 Haimen goats (7 stud and 8 does). DNA was extracted andDNA pools were constructed on the basis of goat breeds. In 36 selective primer combinations, 29 combinationsamplified totally 3 253 markers including 92 polymorphic markers by amplified fragment length polymor-phism (AFLP). On average, 3.17 polymorphic markers were amplified per combination, with a polymorphicfrequency of 2.8%. The primer combinations amplifying more polymorphic markers (showed in brackets)were involved in E00+ACG/M00+CAA (13), E00+ACG/M00+CAG (10), E00+AAC/M00+CAC (8)and E00+AAC/M00+ACT (7). A total of 183 markers including 60 polymorphic markers were amplified byRAPD from the pooled DNA of three breeds using 22 primers with strong polymorphism and high reproduc-ibility selected from 93 RAPD primers. On average, 2.73 polymorphic markers were amplified per primer,with a polymorphic frequency of 32.8%. The results of AFLP and RAPD coincidently suggested that the ge-netic distance is the closest between Xuhuai and Haimen goat, next between Xuhuai and Boer goat, and the far-thest between Haimen and Boer goat. According to the UPGMA method, Haimen and Xuhuai goats can begathered together as a cluster, then Boer goat. Both methods can be used to implicate the genetic difference ofthese three breeds, in particular AFLP has more polymorphic markers.
Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Baggot, J D
The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was studied after intravenous administration of single doses (20 mg/kg per kg body weight) to five sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between sheep and goats in the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model) in sheep and goats. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.43 +/- 0.16 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 1.16 +/- 0.01 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h in sheep and goats respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.09 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and 0.11 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 0.07 +/- 0.01 L/h kg and 0.12 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and goats respectively. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid differed significantly between sheep and goats. It was concluded that the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered intravenously as an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination to sheep and goats differed between the two ruminant species. Even though the differences in disposition kinetics of both drugs were statistically significant, the same intravenous dosing rate of this antimicrobial combination can generally be used in sheep and goats.
Zhu, Hongmei; Hu, Linyong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Huatao; Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong
β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a dominant allergen present in the milk of goats and other ungulates, although it is not found in human breast milk. Thus, the presence of BLG restricts the consumption of goat's milk by humans. In the present study, we examined whether the disruption of the BLG gene in goats by homologous recombination (HR) reduced BLG content in goat's milk and decreased the allergic response to milk. In one approach, exon 2 of the BLG gene was efficiently targeted using HR with a BLG knockout vector. In a second approach to disrupt BLG gene expression and drive exogenous human α-lactalbumin (hLA) gene expression, two hLA knock-in constructs were used to target exons 1-4 of the BLG gene via HR, and expression of hLA was then confirmed in goat mammary epithelial cells in vitro. The recombinant clones from both approaches were then used for somatic cell nuclear transfer, generating two transgenic goats possessing a BLG knockout allele or site-specific hLA integration allele. Milk assays demonstrated a reduction in BLG levels in both the BLG knockout and hLA knock-in goats; furthermore, hLA was present in the hLA knock-in goat's milk. Allergenic analysis in mice indicated that the transgenic goat's milk was less allergenic than wild-type goat's milk. These results support the development of gene-targeted animals as an effective tool for reducing allergic reactions to milk and improving nutrition. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Okojie L. O.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.
Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y
Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves.
Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L
The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.
Ratanapob, Niorn; Arunvipas, Pipat; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Panneum, Supachart
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in Nakhon Pathom Province. Fecal samples from 190 goats in 12 herds were collected per rectum. Questionnaires focusing on the general information about the farm and farmers, and management practices on farms were completed. Modified McMaster counting technique was performed to detect eggs of intestinal parasites. Each egg found was classified into three groups of parasites based on its characteristics. Individual and herd prevalence were calculated. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze risk factors of infection. Herd prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 100%, while individual prevalence was 79.47%. Strongyle group was the most common intestinal parasite found in this study. Moniezia spp. (8/190) and Trichuris spp. (1/190) were also found. The average number of eggs found was 1,176 eggs per gram of feces. Risk factors for intestinal parasite infection were housing system, deworming interval, and type of goat in herd. Goats housed in groups had higher infection rates compared with goats housed individually (odds ratio (OR) = 6.34; P value = 0.009). Goats in herds in which anthelmintic drugs were administered in intervals of greater than 3 months were more likely to become infected with intestinal parasites (OR = 33.07; P value Goats in herds that kept only dairy goats were less likely to become infected than herd that kept only meat goats or kept both dairy and meat goats (OR = 46.20 and 8.75; P value <0.001 and 0.011, respectively).
Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats.
Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.
Full Text Available This study was carried out on female goats (Syrian Mountain: Jabali and crossbred: Damascus x Syrian Mountain to determine daily milk production (morning, evening and total and milk compositions (protein, fat, lactose and total solids. Thirty female goats from each breed, aged about two years were used in their first lactation season for a period of 165 days, starting 60 days after kidding. There were huge variations among individuals within the same breed in terms of milk production. Average daily milk production/doe was 929 and 958 g for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively, with no significant (P>0.05 differences between them. The highest daily milk production /doe was 1555 and 1800 g, and the lowest production was 280 and 240 g for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively. Results also indicated that there were no significant (P>0.05 differences in milk compositions between the two breeds, with overall averages (% for protein content 3.42, and 3.42, fat 4.64 and 4.74, lactose 4.23 and 4.21, and total solids 13.00 and 13.04 for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively. However, significant (P<0.05 increases in the percentage of fat and total solids were recorded in the morning milking in the does of the two breeds. In crossbred does, lactose content was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the evening milking than the morning one, whereas, in Syrian Mountain does, protein content was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the morning milking as compared to the evening one. Comparing the milk production and composition obtained in the present study with those reported from other goat breeds, it could be noticed that the tested components were within the normal values with no difference between the two studied breeds.
Hallowell Gayle D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.
Fabio C. Pogliani
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish normal reference electrocardiographic (ECG values for standard limb lead II in Saanen goats. For this, were used 19 healthy adult female Saanen goats. And for reference values for the ECG parameters, were used 95% confidence level. The overall P, Q, R, S and T durations (seconds were 0.03±0.01, 0.02±0.005, 0.03±0.014, 0.03±0.011, 0.06±0.014 respectively, and the reference values were 0.01-0.04, 0.01-0.02, 0.01-0.06, 0.02-0.04 and 0.04-0.08 respectively. The amplitudes (milivolts of these waveforms were 0.1±0.031, 0.06±0.023, 0.44±0.312, 0.39±0.434, 0.26±0.164 (T negative and 0.15±0.071 (T positive, respectively. The reference values were 0.05-0.15, 0.05-0.1, 0.05-1.2, 0.05-1.1 and -0.2-0.7 respectively. The PR and QT interval, the QRS complex and the ST segment durations (seconds were 0.08±0.018, 0.26±0.03, 0.05±0.008, 0.15±0.041 respectively. The reference values were 0.06-0.12, 0.2-0.32, 0.04-0.07 and 0.11-0.26, respectively. It was possible to observe differences in ECG of Saanen goats regarding the amplitude and duration of the constituents when compared to the results of other breeds. Therefore it is necessary to conduct further studies to allow comparisons, detect and diagnose cardiac arrhythmias and help the development of therapies.
Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056
Holm Signe A.
Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.
Kaneps, A J
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the foot, infectious arthritis, angular limb deformities, patellar luxation, tendon contracture and injuries, and fractures encountered in sheep, goats, llamas, and deer are reviewed. These species share similar orthopedic problems to cattle, but management conditions, particularly for pet animals, may place special demands on the veterinarian treating these disease conditions. The mild temperament and relatively small body size of these animals make them excellent candidates for treatment of orthopedic problems often not amenable to practical treatment in larger or more fractious animals.
Sakhaee, E; Derakhshanfar, A
This report describes clinical and pathological findings associated with closantel (a halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintic) overdosage in a 3-year-old goat. The clinical signs included blindness, incoordination, ataxia, depression of the palpebral and pupillary reflexes, and recumbency. No gross lesions were noted in tissue or organs at necropsy, but microscopic lesions were seen in nervous tissue and hepatic cells. Polioencephalomalacia was clearly evident. Bilaterally symmetrical status spongiosus of the white matter of the brain, bilateral laminar necrosis, microcavitations, ischaemic cell change and severe degeneration of the cerebellum were seen in nervous tissue. Fatty change and hydropic degeneration in the liver and hepato-cellular degeneration were observed histologically.
Full Text Available This report describes clinical and pathological findings associated with closantel (a halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintic overdosage in a 3-year-old goat. The clinical signs included blindness, incoordination, ataxia, depression of the palpebral and pupillary reflexes, and recumbency. No gross lesions were noted in tissue or organs at necropsy, but microscopic lesions were seen in nervous tissue and hepatic cells. Polioencephalomalacia was clearly evident. Bilaterally symmetrical status spongiosus of the white matter of the brain, bilateral laminar necrosis, microcavitations, ischaemic cell change and severe degeneration of the cerebellum were seen in nervous tissue. Fatty change and hydropic degeneration in the liver and hepato-cellular degeneration were observed histologically.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef, with either no added rice bran (NRB or 3 percent stabilized rice bran (RB. Proximate analysis, fatty acids, -tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations of the six cooked formulations were determined. The six sausage formulations were compared in a consumer acceptability taste test. Results: The fat concentration of the NRB and RB formulations decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The sum of the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.01. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid concentrations increased linearly (p < 0.05 with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB sausage formulations. The α-tocopherol concentration of the NRB formulations did not change across the goat meat percentages, but in the RB formulations it increased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The cholesterol concentration decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB formulations (p <0.01, < 0.05 respectively. The tasters preferred the NRB with higher goat meat percentage to the RB formulations. Conclusions: The NRB and RB sausage formulations with higher percentages of goat meat had higher concentrations of -tocopherol, CLA (18:2 cis 9 Trans 11, total n-3, total PUFA, total n-3/total n-6 ratio, and a lower cholesterol concentration. The RB sausage formulations with higher
Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further
Andersen Inger L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats, 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats and experiment 2 (lactating goats. There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3, the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1 and lactating goats (exp. 2. Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a
Full Text Available Abstract Background The goat (Capra hircus represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat, with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs: on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome. These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the
Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke
Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity.
Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu
A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention.
Jai Prakash Khichar
Full Text Available Aim: To estimate genetic variability in exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 blood samples from unrelated Marwari goats were randomly collected from different villages of Bikaner (Rajasthan, India. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using blood DNA isolation kit (Himedia Ltd. as per manufacturer’s protocol. The quality of extracted genomic DNA was checked on 0.8% agarose gel. Specifically designed a primer set for caprine myostatin (MSTN gene (Genebank accession no. DQ167575 was used to amplify the exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat. The genetic variability in exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat was assessed on 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP pattern. Results: The exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat showed two types of conformation patterns on 8% polyacrylamide gel. One of the patterns showed only two bands and was considered as genotype AA, whereas another pattern having an extra band was designated as genotype AB. The frequencies of AA and AB genotype for exon 3 region of MSTN gene were calculated as 0.90 and 0.10, respectively. Conclusion: Low level of polymorphism was observed at exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat through SSCP analysis. This information could be utilized in future breeding plan to exploit the unique characteristics of Marwari goat of Rajasthan.
Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun
A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province.
Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino
The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.
Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.
Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan
Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.
Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A
Tulathromycin, a novel triamilide in the macrolide class, is labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. This manuscript evaluates pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in goats. In two different studies, six juvenile and ten market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the plasma concentrations from single injections were similar between the two groups of goats and to previously reported parameters in cattle and swine. Mean terminal half-lives were 59.1 ± 7.6 and 61.2 ± 8.7 h for juvenile and market-age goats, respectively. In the multi-dose study, pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from plasma concentrations demonstrated significant differences at P < 0.05 among repeated injections but not among doses. Overall, pharmacokinetic parameters in goats are similar to those reported in cattle and swine, and tulathromycin may prove a useful drug for treating respiratory disease in goats.
Alyssa N Malone
Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.
Mesquita, Leonardo P; Nogueira, Clayton I; Costa, Rafael C; Orlando, Débora R; Bruhn, Fábio R P; Lopes, Priscila F R; Nakagaki, Karen Y R; Peconick, Ana P; Seixas, Josilene N; Bezerra, Pedro S; Raymundo, Djeison L; Varaschin, Mary S
Neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. However, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. This is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by N. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. The subclasses of IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. Reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) occurred in 15.38% of the goats. There was a statistically significant association between the increased titres of maternal IgG in the second half of the gestational period with the occurrence of endogenous transplacental transmission. The rate of congenital transmission was 77%. During the gestational period of the seropositive goats, there was mainly a predominance of the subclass IgG2, although mixed patterns of IgG2-IgG1 and the IgG1 pattern were also observed. These results indicate that N. caninum is responsible for the occurrence of important alterations in the humoral immune response of naturally infected goats, and is also a potential causative agent for reproductive disorders in goats. The high proportion of infected conceptuses reinforces the suggestion that congenital infection is one of the main routes of parasite transmission in goats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
H. Daghigh Kia
Full Text Available In order to study the effect of male on reproductive behavior of female goats, 88 Markhoz breed goats with initial body weight of 42±2kg, 3.5 year old, and 10 male goats were used for 6 weeks. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first experiment 48 female goats were allocated in three groups, each group included eight animals with 2 replicate on both sides of male goats, respectively, at intervals of 0-5, 10-15 and 25-30 meters. In the second experiment, 24 female goats having CIDR were used in an order similar to that of first group. However, the goats were located only in one side of the males. The third group was the control group which was treated in a separate saloon in two groups, each of them having eight animals in it. Results showed a significant effect of male animal in estrus synchronization, the earlier beginning of the reproductive cycle and fertility in the early reproductive season. The first group showed better results in creation and synchronization of estrus in comparison to CIDR received animals (respectively 116.7 vs. 91.6%.
Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D
Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.
I Ketut Sutama
Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.
Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela
Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.
Sabry A. El-Khodery
Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.
Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G
Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24) could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32) were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show the importance
Batista, Ribrio I T P; Luciano, Maria C S; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M; Andreeva, Lyudmila E; Serova, Irina A; Serov, Oleg L
Taking into account the importance of goats as transgenic models, as well as the rarity of copy number (CN) studies in farm animals, the present work aimed to evaluate methodological strategies for accurate and precise transgene CN quantification in goats using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mouse and goat lines transgenic for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were used. After selecting the best genomic DNA extraction method to be applied in mouse and goat samples, intra-assay variations, accuracy and precision of CN quantifications were assessed. The optimized conditions were submitted to mathematical strategies and used to quantify CN in goat lines. The findings were as follows: validation of qPCR conditions is required, and amplification efficiency is the most important. Absolute and relative quantifications are able to produce similar results. For normalized absolute quantification, the same plasmid fragment used to generate goat lines must be mixed with wild-type goat genomic DNA, allowing the choice of an endogenous reference gene for data normalization. For relative quantifications, a resin-based genomic DNA extraction method is strongly recommended when using mouse tail tips as calibrators to avoid tissue-specific inhibitors. Efficient qPCR amplifications (≥95%) allow reliable CN measurements with SYBR technology. TaqMan must be used with caution in goats if the nucleotide sequence of the endogenous reference gene is not yet well understood. Adhering to these general guidelines can result in more exact CN determination in goats. Even when working under nonoptimal circumstances, if assays are performed that respect the minimum qPCR requirements, good estimations of transgene CN can be achieved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. RESULTS: Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51% unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17% unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.
Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel
Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327
Costa, Marion P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Vitor L M; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Chiappini, Claudete C J; Conte-Junior, Carlos A
Although the demand for goat milk products has been growing, they have lower consumer acceptability than products derived from cow milk. However, the addition of cupuassu pulp can be used to improve the formulation of these products. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of new goat milk yogurt manufactured with cupuassu pulp on physicochemical properties, consumers' perceptions, and overall consumer acceptance. In addition, the effect of antioxidant health information on consumer acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts was evaluated. The results demonstrated a positive expectation regarding linking and familiarity to goat milk products and products with cupuassu pulp. The pH, total phenolic content, lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity were potentially affected by the addition of cupuassu, with the highest concentration of cupuassu (10%) exhibiting the greatest changes in parameters. Based on principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, and just-about-right and penalty analysis, the addition of cupuassu pulp improved some sensory attributes of goat milk yogurt, such as cupuassu aroma, cupuassu flavor, yellow color, consistency, and viscosity, which positively influenced product acceptance. In addition, antioxidant health information increased the acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Taking into account the parameters investigated in this study, the best scoring formulation was goat milk yogurt with 10% cupuassu pulp. Our results suggest that cupuassu pulp can be considered a potential ingredient to improve the sensory and texture properties of goat milk yogurt. Furthermore, the antioxidant health information could be a sensory strategy to increase the acceptance of cupuassu goat milk yogurts.
Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J
Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However
Kohli, K S; Rai, D V; Jindal, V K; Goyal, N
A computer assisted AC impedance system is used to measure the DC voltage-current (V-I) characteristics and AC impedance of a goat eye lens using a two-probe Ag-AgCl electrode system. The measurement of the V-I characteristics shows that when a DC voltage from 0 mV to 30 mV is applied, the resultant current decreases from an initial value of 0.58 microA to 0.006 microA. However, when the voltage is increases beyond 30 mV, the current increases and reaches a value of 0.9 microA at 100 mV. The data on the frequency response (0.01-10 Hz) of the impedance of lens tissue show an inverse relationship with frequency. The effect of various DC voltages, namely 0, 30, 50, 100 and 200 mV, on the impedance of the eye lens is also investigated over a frequency range of 0.01-10 Hz. The measurement results for both V-I characteristics and AC impedance further suggest the presence of a 30 mV voltage compartment in the goat eye lens.
Full Text Available The GoSh database (http://www.itb.cnr.it/gosh/ is an online resource including expressedsequence tags (ESTs from Ovis aries and Capra hircus. A total of 58,990 sheep and goat sequences were downloadedfrom GenBank and processed by a semi-automated pipeline, integrating public programs and Perl scripts.Data were collected in a MySQL database, which can be queried via a PHP-based web interface. Sequences wereassembled and a unigene dataset was defined. Three annotation procedures were carried out on all the ESTsequences and all the contig consensus sequences. A procedure was also implemented to infer statistical classificationamong Gene Ontology (GO categories from the ontology occurrences related to the sequences included in thedatabase. A number of programs were used to extract features and give significance to rough sequences. Amongthese, AutoSNP was used to perform putative SNP detection. Further analyses were performed on the GoSh dbdataset, including tandem repeats search and protein patterns identification. The web interface allows users toretrieve significant data and correspondent external links and to download selected sequences and accessory informationin different formats. The resulting web site is a resource of data and links related to goat and sheepexpressed genes.
Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.
Ndegwa, E N; Mulei, C M; Munyua, S J
California mastitis test (CMT), direct leukocytes counts and bacteriological examination were performed on 630 milk samples from apparently healthy mammary glands of dairy goats comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenberg, Saanen and Galla crosses to find the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 9.8% according to CMT, 9.7% according to direct leukocyte counts and 28.7% by bacterial isolation during a 3-month period. The proportion of the bacteriologically positive milk samples was significantly (P CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was a significant (P CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was no significant direct relationship between bacterial isolation and CMT Bacterial organisms were isolated in 22.5% of the 568 CMT-negative milk samples. The results suggest that bacterial organisms isolated from the CMT-negative milksamples were either latent infections or did not stimulate any significant increase in somatic cell counts that could be detected by either the CMT or direct leukocyte counts. The observations of this study indicate that the mere presence of bacteria in goat's milk does not mean that the udder is infected and so does not warrant antibiotic therapy.
Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Jalila, A; Sani, R; Symoens, C
The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of closantel on natural infections with Haemonchus contortus were studied in goats in Peninsular Malaysia. Closantel was highly effective against H. contortus, either at a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 5.0 mg kg-1 body weight (100%), or in an oral drench mixture with mebendazole at a dose of 10.0 mg kg-1 (99.2%), as indicated by faecal egg counts. H. contortus larvae were absent from faecal cultures for 5, 6 and 7 weeks following treatment with s.c. injections of closantel at doses of 2.5 mg kg-1, 5.0 mg kg-1 and 10.0 mg kg-1 respectively, and for 6 weeks after treatment with closantel at 10.0 mg kg-1, given orally. Through its sustained activity, closantel not only prevented reinfection with H. contortus but also caused a dramatic reduction in pasture contamination. The potential utility of closantel in the strategic control of haemonchosis in goats, and as an alternative treatment for benzimidazoles and levamisole resistant H. contortus strains, is discussed.
Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior
Full Text Available The use of native forages Caatinga set up as an alternative for the sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay in the components of the body weight of Moxotó goats. The animals were steers, initially weighing 21.67±3.92 kg, housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 58 days of confinement. The type of hay did not influence (P>0.05 any of the carcass traits. The animals presented for slaughter average body weight of 21.83 kg, and average weights of hot and cold carcass of 9.83 kg and 9.21 kg, respectively. The carcass were not affected by the type of hay (P>0.05 and average 44.98% and 42.11% for hot cold carcass. The loin eye area (LEA and carcass compactness index had averages of 6.19 cm² and 0.159 kg cm-1, respectively, and did not influence the type of hay in the diet. There was no difference (P> 0.05 between diets for weight of organs and viscera. The diet Tifton 85 yielded higher (P<0.05 weights skin. Replacement of Tifton 85 hay by Maniçoba hay, the diet of Moxotó goats does not alter carcass component, but reduces the weight of the skin.
Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN
Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.
Full Text Available Schemes for on-farm welfare assessment in sheep and goats are not yet available. Factors responsible for this lack of availability are discussed in the first part of this review. Requisites for reliable methods of welfare assessment to be used in sheep and goat farms are discussed, taking into account the peculiarities of the small ruminant production systems in terms of flock management and farm location. Some housing parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment are reviewed and could be included in schemes of welfare assessment on farm. Human-animal interaction, health status of the animals in terms of body condition scoring, skin and hair conditions, lameness and injuries, and management practices in relation to cleanliness, animal handling and moving, milking procedures and abnormal behaviours, are proposed as potential animal-based indicators. When available, validity, reliability and feasibility of the proposed parameters are discussed. The voluntary adhesion to welfare standards in Sardinia and the application of a scientifically validated protocol in Basilicata are reported as examples of practical experiences.
Full Text Available Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG, cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and β-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in β-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG. Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with β-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats.
Mammalian cloning has been one of the most active research topics in the world.Cloning with in vitro culured foetal fibroblast cells,in comparison with embryonic cells,can be used not only to theoretically study the embryonic or cellular development and differentiation in mammals,but also to utilize the unlimited fibroblast cells to produce large numbers of clonings.The preliminary results are as follows:(i) The division and development of the cloned embryos with embryonic donor cells and goat foetal fibroblast donor cells were 55%,77% and 35%,31%,respectively.There is no significant statistical difference between them.(ii) These studies result in the birth of two cloned goats derived from two 30-day foetal fibroblast cell lines,which are the first cloned mammals from somatic cells in China.This project has established a technological data base for the furture research on adult mammalian somatic cloning and nucleocytoplasmic interactions in animal development,and a novel technique for the cloning of animals with a high-level expression of transgene(s).
Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano
Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.
Forster, Hubert V; Krause, Katie L; Kiner, Tom; Neumueller, Suzanne E; Bonis, Josh M; Qian, Baogang; Pan, Lawrence G
Abrupt destruction of >70% of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC) in awake goats results in terminal apnea (Wenninger et al. 2004b). Herein we report data on awake and sleeping goats in which the preBötzC was incrementally destroyed by injection of ibotenic acid (IBO) in increasing volumes at weekly intervals. All injections resulted in an acute tachypnea and dysrhythmia featuring apneas and increased variation in breathing. In studies at night, 10-15 hours after the injections, apneas were nearly all central and occurred during the awake state and variation in breathing was greater while awake than during NREM sleep. However, one week after the final IBO injection, the breathing pattern, breath-to-breath variation, and arterial blood gases were unchanged from baseline, indicating recovery. Histology revealed more than 90% destruction of the preBötzC region, and greater than 80% destruction of the surrounding area. We conclude: (1) the dysrhythmic effects on breathing acutely after the injection are state-dependent, and (2) after incremental, near-complete destruction of the preBötzC region, time-dependent plasticity within the respiratory network provides a normal respiratory rhythm that sustains normal arterial blood gases.
Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter
Inadequate management practices and poor reproductive performance have been reported as fundamental factors on reducing the levels of productivity in livestock. Different pathogens have been reported in small ruminants' herds/flocks with reproductive failures. The aim of the present study was to review aspects of leptospirosis in small ruminants, mainly its impact on reproduction and consequently on productivity of the herds/flocks under tropical conditions. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep is common in several countries, and those species can also act as carriers of leptospires. Severe disease is often associated to young animals and is frequently associated to incidental serovars. In contrast, subclinical infection is mainly characterized by reproductive problems, such as infertility, abortion, occurrence of stillbirths, and weak lambs/goat kids. Moreover, laboratorial tests are essential to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the infection. Microscopic agglutination test is the most common indirect test of leptospirosis, being used worldwide. In small ruminants, PCR consists on a recommendable method for diagnosing animals that carry leptospires. Control of leptospirosis in small ruminants involves measures such as the identification and treatment of the carriers and other sources of infection, quarantine in acquired animals, and systematic immunization with commercial vaccines containing the circulating serovars in the herd/flock. Productivity of small ruminant breeding can dramatically increase with adequate sanitary conditions and control of leptospirosis. Immunization of all the animals combined to the treatment of carriers may successfully control the infection and importantly reduce the economic reproductive hazards that are observed under tropical conditions.
Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.
van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M
This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection.
Yang, Chen; Ye, Jing; Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui
Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5'-UTRs and increased from 5'-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset.
Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP technique with three EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations was used in 185 unrelated individuals, representative of 6 local goat breeds of Albania, and 107 markers were generated. The mean Nei’s expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.199 and the mean Shannon index was 0.249, indicating a high level of within-breed diversity. Wright’s FST index, Nei’s unbiased genetic distance and Reynolds’ genetic distance were calculated. Pairwise Fst values among the populations ranged from 0.019 to 0.047. A highly significant average FST of 0.031 was estimated, showing a low level of breed subdivision. Most of the variation is accounted for by differences among individuals. Cluster analysis based on Reynolds’ genetic distance between breeds and PCA were performed. An individual UPGMA tree based on Jaccard’s similarity index showed clusters with individuals from all goat breeds. Analysis of population structure points to a high level of admixture among breeds.
Full Text Available Eighteen three-day old Saanen goat kids were divided into MILK and WEAN groups. MILK kids received goat milk to age 48 days; WEAN kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 25 days and were completely weaned by 40 days. Total intake per group was recorded daily. On day 25, 40 and 48, body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, free amino-acids and insulin. On day 48, all animals were slaughtered and pancreas samples were analyzed for total DNA and RNA content. Histological sections of pancreas were examined by light microscope and images analyzed by dedicated software. Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WEAN group began to decrease compared to the MILK one. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino-acids and insulin. No difference was observed in pancreatic DNA and RNA content. Histological analysis of pancreas showed that the size of pancreatic islets was not different, but islet number per section was lower in the pancreas of WEAN animals. In conclusion, weaning affects glucose and amino-acid metabolism and influences endocrine pancreas activity and morphology.
Full Text Available The changes of vaginal and vestibular impedance during the oestrous cycle in goats were examined. The onset of oestrus was teased with a buck once a day during the experiment. Impedance was measured by a four-terminal method. The vaginal impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vaginal dorsal wall at the cervix. The vestibular impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vestibular dorsal wall 5 cm from the vulva and at the vulva. The impedance was measured once a day from 4 days before the expected oestrus to 6 days after onset of oestrus. The vaginal impedance at the cervix decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased during oestrus (P < 0.01. The vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased after oestrus (P < 0.01. The decrease of vaginal impedance during peri-oestrus was nearly twofold in comparison with the vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva. No significant decrease of the vestibular impedance at the vulva was found during the oestrous cycle. The results indicate that the vaginal impedance at the cervix and vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva measured by means of a four-terminal method during the oestrous cycle display cyclic changes that are closely related to the oestrous behaviour of goats.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the most common gastrointestinal (GI parasites in flocks of dairy goats on 30 farms in Slovakia. A total of 944 adult goats were examined during the pasturing seasons for 2014 – 2016. Eggs from one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites were identified in 906 of the samples (95.90 %. Strongyle eggs were present in most of the samples (92.00 %, followed by Strongyloides papillosus (14.05 %, Trichuris spp. (7.84 %, Nematodirus spp. (3.98 %, and Moniezia spp. (2.65 %. The counts of strongyle eggs per gram of faeces ranged from 0 to 11 000. Subsamples from each farm were used to prepare faecal coprocultures to identify the genera of the nematodes. Third-stage larvae of Trichostrongylus spp. (100 % and Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. (96.60 % were present on most of the farms, followed by Oesophagostomum spp./Chabertia ovina (86.60 % and Haemonchus contortus (76.60 %. Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. were the dominant genera on 60 % of the farms.
Valdir Morais de Almeida
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This report aimed to describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat, and highlights the clinical, and pathological features of the disease. The goat had low body score, hyporexia, alopecia, achromotrichia, left hindlimb protraction, paralysis with dragging of digit and difficulty to stand up and microcytic normochromic anemia. Copper concentration in serum was markedly lower (2.0µmol L-1 whereas the iron serum content was significantly increased (51.0µmol L-1. The main gross alteration was the reduction of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle volume. Histologically, there was atrophy of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle and presence of satellite cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and replacement of the fibers by connective tissue. In the femoral nerve, there was axonal degeneration with myelin sheath expansion and presence of vacuoles, usually in chains and containing axonal debris or macrophages. Clinical, laboratorial and pathologic findings are consistent with peripheral neuropathy due to a severy copper deficiency.
M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq
Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.
Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed. A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July, and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min- utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres. Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con- tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari- ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal- ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of
D.R. Ndeereh; Mbithi, P.M.F.; D.O. Kihurani
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg ...
Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz
Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and
Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M
Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet
Blasco, José M; Molina-Flores, Baldomero
Brucella melitensis is the main etiological agent of brucellosis in sheep and goats, and is also the main agent responsible for human brucellosis, a predominantly occupational disease related to professions in direct contact with livestock. As there is currently no viable method of preventing human brucellosis to safeguard people attention must be directed toward effectively controlling the disease in sheep and goats. This review focuses on the different strategies in different socioeconomic and epidemiologic situations that can be applied to either control or eradicate brucellosis in sheep and goats.
Reichel, R; Nel, J R; Emslie, R; Bishop, G C
Brucella melitensis biotype 1 was confirmed in indigenous, outbred goats in three northern districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province following the diagnosis of human Malta fever in the same area. Six foci of infection were found during an extensive serological survey involving 6266 goats carried out in most of the districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province. The prevalence in the positive herds varied between 17% and 100%. The diagnosis was confirmed by culturing milk samples from serologically positive animals. Infected goats were found in only three districts (Ubombo, Ingwavuma and Pongola) and all infected herds fell within a 50-km radius.
Full Text Available In order to obtain the optimum parameters of fermentation for goat milk, the effect of inoculum and incubation temperature on the fermentation of yogurt strains was studied by measuring acidity, pH and viable bacterial counts by single factor test. Inoculum (v/v was 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9%, respectively. Incubation temperature was 37, 39, 41, 43 and 45C, respectively. The results were as follows: lower or higher inoculum and incubation temperature resulted in adversely influence on overall properties of goat yogurt. The optimum inoculum in goat milk was 3% and incubation temperature 43C, respectively.
Lakshya Veer Singh
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to characterize exon 1 and exon 2 sequence of one of fecundity genes: GDF9 (Growth differentiation factor 9, in high altitude livestock animal (Yak and Gaddi goat. Six nucleotide differences were identified between sheep (AF078545 and goats (EF446168 in exon 1 and exon 2. Sequencing revealed nine novel single nucleotide mutations in exon 1 and exon 2 of Indian yak that compared with Bos taurus (GQ922451. These results preliminarily showed that the GDF9 gene might be a major gene that influences prolificacy of Gaddi goats and Indian yak.
A.R. Abubakr; A.R. Alimon; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N; Ivan, M
Sixteen goats fitted with a rumen cannula were used in completely randomized block design to test the effects of dietary crude palm oil (PO), palm kernel cake (PKC) and decanter cake (DC) on rumen total protozoa counts, rumen fermentation, and digestibility. Goats received once daily (1.5% of BW) one of four concentrate diets: reference diet (RD), DC diet (DCD), PKC diet (PKCD) and RD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD). The RD was based on corn grain and soybean meal and was fed to all goats for 28 days ...
Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The
Goudet, Ghylène; Douet, Cécile; Kaabouba-Escurier, Aurore; Couty, Isabelle; Moros-Nicolás, Carla; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Magistrini, Michèle
Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from both male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. Because embryo production in vivo is limited in equids, our objective was to establish conditions for in vitro production of embryos in donkey using ovum pick up (OPU), IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture of zygotes. Donkey cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations OPU in adult cyclic jennies and in vitro matured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor for 24, 30, 34, or 38 hours. They were preincubated with oviductal fluid for 30 minutes, coincubated with frozen-thawed donkey semen treated with procaine for 18 hours, and cultured for 30 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium-F12 supplemented with NaHCO3, fetal calf serum, and gentamycin. From the five OPU sessions, we collected 92 COCs in 193 follicles (48%) with an average of 4.2 COCs per jenny. All COCs were expanded after more than 24-hour IVM. At collection, jennies oocytes contained a germinal vesicle. Metaphase 1 oocytes were observed after 30-hour IVM and 44% were in metaphase 2 after 34-hour IVM. In our conditions, IVM of donkey oocytes was slower than IVM of equine oocytes and optimal duration for donkey oocytes IVM may be 34 hours. Only 15% of jennies oocytes contained two pronuclei after coincubation with donkey spermatozoa and none of them developed further after 48 hours post-IVF. Moreover, some parthenogenetic activation occurred. Thus, the treatment of donkey sperm with procaine may not be efficient for IVF. In conclusion, we established for the first time conditions for OPU in jennies with high recovery rates. We reported that IVM of jennies oocytes can produce 44% of metaphase 2 oocytes after 34 hours in culture
Aban, A. S.; Badawi, M. E.; Almubarak, A. M.
Thirteen Saanen and Saanen crossbred female goats, between the ages of 6 months and 7, years were presented to the clinic, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, for sonographic pregnancy diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound was performed using 3.5 MHz probe which revealed non-viable fetuses as judged by absence of heart beats and movements. Twelve goats were given single i/m injection of PGF2α analogue and 5% oxytetracycline. Ten goats responded to the treatment and six of them became pregnant and gave birth within the normal gestational period. One goat was diagnosed as non-pregnant, one goat developed hydrometra, and the subsequent fertility of two goats was unknown. Two full-term goats did not respond to treatment. Another dose of PGF2α was administered to them and again they did not respond. Manual attempts were done to deliver the full-term goat with dilated cervix and they were unsuccessful. Cesarean section and hysterectomy were then performed for the three full-term goats with unfavorable outcome. It can be concluded that ultrasound is a rapid, reliable, and nonhazardous procedure for the diagnosis of fetal mortality in goats and PGF2α treatment in conjunction with oxytetracycline is an efficient treatment. PMID:28116216
Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav
Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts.
Full Text Available A screening of casein gene variability was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism in 8 goat breeds from Sudan (Nubian goat, Turkey (Angora Goat Lalahan Tiftic, Angora Goat Yerkoy, Hair goat and India (Jammu, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, South Goat. A total of 16 different alleles or groups of alleles were found, showing conspicuous differences among breeds. The allele frequencies were submitted to cluster analysis in order to highlight differences between breeds, also including data from Red Sokoto, West African Dwarf Nigeria, West African Dwarf Cameroon, and Borno Goat. The tree obtained from the cluster analysis showed two main lineages. The West African goat clustered together, the Indian and Turkish breeds were in the other group. Nubian goat was found in an intermediate position.
Minka, Salka Ndazo; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun
This study investigated the effects of 12 hr of road transportation during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA) on the hydration state of goats. Twenty goats who served as treatment goats received oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA, whereas another 20 control goats received sterile water; thereafter, the goats were loaded and transported. The study determined changes in skin thickness; albumin (Alb); total protein (TP); elimination of the gut content; fecal water; urine specific gravity (SG); and pH before, during, and after the transportation. The result obtained in the control goats showed significant (p .05). In conclusion, 12-hr road transportation of goats induced dehydration, which may affect the welfare and health status of the goats. The administration of AA ameliorated the risk of adverse effects of handling, loading, transportation, and hot-dry conditions on hydration state of goats.
Härter, C J; Castagnino, D S; Rivera, A R; Lima, L D; Silva, H G O; Mendonça, A N; Bonfim, G F; Liesegang, A; St-Pierre, N; Teixeira, I A M A
During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption
Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe
Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 μg/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 μg/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group
C. J. Härter
Full Text Available During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na and potassium (K metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW] were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen, 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days. Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g. Mineral retention (mg/g increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal
GUO; Jitong(郭继彤); AN; Zhixing(安志兴); LI; Yu(李煜); LI; Xuefeng(李雪峰); LI; Yuqiang(李裕强); GUO; Zekun(郭泽坤); ZHANG; Yong(张涌)
The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815/330). 66.17% (1201/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the MⅡchromosomes were enucleated. Ear skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult female Jining Grey goat (C. hircus). The cells were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after passage 2. Thawed cells were further cultured for 3-6 passages and were subjected to serum starvation by 0.5% FBS for 2-10 d, then used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. 98.12% (889/906) of the enucleated oocytes were reconstructed by intracytoplasmic injection of karyoplast. The reconstructed embryos were activated by 5 μmol/L ionomycin for 4.5 min and further activated by culturing with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h. After 36 h of culture in mCR1aaBF, 76.69% (645/841) of the cloned embryos cleaved. There were no significant differences in development in vitro between the cloned embryos derived from donor cells precooled at 4℃ for 24 h and nonprecooled donor cells. The cleavage rates, 4-cell development, and blastocyst development of reconstructed embryos were 72.48% (79/109), 53.16% (42/79), and 19.05% (8/42) in precooled group; 68.5% (211/308), 59.72% (126/211), and 17.46% (22/126) in nonprecooled group, respectively. Eighteen cloned 4-cell embryos derived from precooled donor cells were transferred and one cloned kid was born. Eighty-four cloned 4-cell embryos derived from nonprecooled donor cells were transferred and no offspring were produced. Of 18 cloned morale from nonprecooled donor cells transferred, one kid was born. The results of microsatellite DNA analyses indicated that the two cloned kids were from the same donor fibroblast cell line derived from an adult goat ear skin.
Ruiz, Antonio; Guedes, Aránzazu C; Muñoz, María C; Molina, José M; Hermosilla, Carlos; Martín, Sergio; Hernández, Yeray I; Hernández, Alvaro; Pérez, Davinia; Matos, Lorena; López, Adassa M; Taubert, Anja
Coccidiosis is probably the main parasitic disease affecting goat kids around the weaning period, leading to high economic losses in goat production due to deaths and delayed growth rates of infected animals. A total of 101 kids of 2-4 weeks of age, naturally infected with Eimeria spp., were divided into five groups and studies were conducted to analyse the effects of metaphylactic administration of diclazuril (Vecoxan®) on parasitological and productive parameters. Two different doses of diclazuril (1 and 2 mg/kg BW, p.o.) were given either at 3 weeks (single treatment) or at 3 and 5 weeks of life (double treatment). The faecal oocyst shedding and the body weights of the animals were monitored at 2-weeks intervals for 6 consecutive weeks. Treatments of goat kids with diclazuril were effective against the three most predominant Eimeria species recorded in this study (E. arloingi, E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni) and also against other minor species found in faecal examinations, including E. alijevi, E. caprina, E. jolchijevi, E. caprovina, E. hirci and E. aspheronica). In consequence, OPG values lower than 1 × 10(3) were detected in 90 to 100% of the animals up to 15-20 days post-treatment depending on the treatment regimen. Even a single dose of 1 mg/kg BW p.o. resulted in an increase of growth rates in treated animals and therefore should be considered as a control strategy in farms precluding coccidian infections, whilst double and multiple dose treatments could be the recommendation for environments heavily contaminated with Eimeria oocysts. In relation to the OPG reduction and increased growth rates, the severity of the clinical signs (i.e., diarrhoea) was ameliorated in treated animals during the course of infection compared to that of non-treated or control kids. The precise timing of treatment appears crucial in order to prevent severe clinical coccidiosis and thereby enabling the adequate development of protective immune response against
Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y
Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major
1School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, ... 2Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 3Faculty of Veterinary .... Lane 2-5: Local isolate from sheep and goats milk.
Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A
Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Deb, R.; Sengar, G. S.; Singh, U.; Kumar, S.; Raja, T. V.; Alex, R.; Alyethodi, R. R.; Prakash, B.
Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer’s food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies. PMID:28775755
Hoffmann, B; Wiesner, H; Maltzan, J; Mustefa, R; Eschbaumer, M; Arif, F A; Beer, M
Between August 2010 and February 2011, over 750 deaths were recorded among wild goats (Capra aegagrus, the endangered progenitor of the domestic goat) in Kurdistan. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by laboratory analysis, and the virus was found to be closely related to a Turkish strain isolated in 2000. During the outbreak in wild goats, no disease in domestic animals was reported. Domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the 'Nigeria/75/1' strain of PPRV. This is the first report of active PPRV infection in Kurdistan and most likely the immunity afforded by vaccination prevented spillover infections. It is therefore recommended to continue with the campaign. Conversely, there is no justification for the use of force to keep the endangered wild goats away from domestic flocks.
Full Text Available This paper reports on diet selection of goats offered six browse species (i.e. Acacia natalitia [Vachellia natalitia], Acacia nilotica [Vachellia nilotica], Dichrostachys cinerea, Grewia occidentalis, Gymnosporia maranguensis and Scutia myrtina...
Mikolon, A B; Gardner, I A; Hernandez De Anda, J; Hietala, S K
A case-control study was conducted in the Mexicali Valley to identify risk factors for goat-herd seropositivity for Brucella melitensis. Nineteen case herds (> or = 2 positive results with the 8% rose bengal plate test (RBT)) and 55 control herds (zero positive results in RBT), matched for herdsize and geographic location, were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression was used to construct a multivariable model of the odds of seropositivity using variables assessed in a questionnaire administered to goat ranchers. The final model for herd seropositivity included increased risk from importation of goats from other Mexican states, the presence of La Mancha breed does, and the presence of does born outside the herd. Increasing herdsize was also highly significant (p < 0.01). In addition, a significant (p < 0.05) positive association was found between the presence of seropositive dogs (as assessed by RBT) and seropositive goats on the same ranch.
Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).
Milenko Smiljanić; Mirjana B. Pešić; Miroljub B. Barać; Sladjana P. Stanojević; Snežana T. Jovanović; Ognjen D. Maćej
The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese prepared from raw milk and to correlate with the results obtained with high-molarity Tris buffer electrophoretic system...
Mkhize, N.R.; Scogings, P.F.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Dziba, L.E.
This paper reports on diet selection of goats offered six browse species (i.e. Acacia natalitia [Vachellia natalitia], Acacia nilotica [Vachellia nilotica], Dichrostachys cinerea, Grewia occidentalis, Gymnosporia maranguensis and Scutia myrtina) commonly found in moist Zululand thornveld. The
Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...
Afzan Mat Yusof; Muhammad Lokman Md Isa
Objective: To reveal the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis, Trichostrogylus, Haemonchus, Strongyloides and Trichuris and coccidiosis, mainly Eimeria in kids, yearlings and adult goats. Methods: A total of 287 goat faecal specimens were randomly collected from three farms in Kuala Terengganu, Setiu and Besut. Results: Prevalence of coccidiosis (89.2%) was significantly higher (P 0.05). The concurrent infections between GINs and Eimeria were 67.94% in all groups. Polyparasitisms of Trichostrongylus (17.4%), Haemonchus (15.15%) and Strongyloides (40.4%) with Eimeria had infected most adult goats. Dual infections of Trichostrongylus with Eimeria and Trichuris with Eimeria were significantly higher in adults than yearlings and kids (P<0.05). Conclusions: GINs and Eimeria were widely distributed in the goats leading to higher risk of morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.
Raylene Ramos Moura
Full Text Available Among all the transgenic mammalians produced so far, goats have represented an excellent model of transgenesis when considering the factors such as the market demand for protein, volume of milk produced per lactation and reproductive rate. Various recombinant proteins have been obtained from the transgenic and non-transgenic goats, and among these, human antithrombin, produced by the transgenic goats, was the first recombinant protein of animal origin to be released as a drug for the clinical use in humans. This review reports the aspects inherent to the production of recombinant proteins in the goats, from the production of the animal bioreactors up to the expression of these proteins in their milk.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary descriptive model applies only to mountain goats that inhabit the coastal-facing slopes that support forests of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)...
In this article attempts were made to establish one-step duplex PCR assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. Primers were selected from published papers or designed in the well-conserved region of mitochondrial D-loop genes after alignment of the available sequences in the GenBank database. A fragment of 294 bp from cashmere goat was amplified and three PCR fragments including a bright main band of approximately 404 bp in length were obtained from sheep. The duplex PCR was found to be effective in detecting mixed samples precisely when sheep wool was mixed to goat cashmere with the relative proportion of over 9.09%. The duplex PCR could be considered as a simple and promising method in identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.
Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.
Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.
Bao, Zekun; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Weiwei; Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua
The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses managing mountain goat populations and their habitats on Kodiak Island. The long-term management goal of the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.
Yahia Dahash Hamdi
Conclusion The developmental process of granulocytopioesis series of bone marrow in goat encompasses a lineage of successive morphological alterations involves nuclear and cytoplasmic changes as well as granule transformation resulting in the production of granulocytes.
K. Ahmad, S. M. Jamal, Q. Ali and M. Hussain
Full Text Available An outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR was investigated in a goat flock maintained at the Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan. Clinical signs and postmortem findings led to the suspicion of outbreak of PPR. Thirty-five serum samples from affected, recovered and apparently normal animals were tested for the presence of PPR antibodies by competitive ELISA. There was no history of PPR vaccination, however, serum samples from all the recovered and apparently healthy goats were found positive for PPR antibodies. Thirteen of 15 affected goats also had anti-PPR antibodies. However, no PPR antibodies were detected in apparently healthy sheep (n=2 reared in the vicinity of the affected goat herd.
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Clinical records of small ruminant (Sheep and Goat) diseases treated were collected from the ... and prevalence as it militates against the growth of these animals in these sub- humid areas.
Cisláková, Lýdia; Halánová, Monika; Kovácová, Daniela; Stefancíková, Astéria
Chlamydophila abortus is one of the most important causative agents of enzootic abortion and other chlamydial infections of sheep and goats. The presence of specific serum antibodies to Chlamydophila abortus was studied in sheep and goats breeding in the Slovak Republic by the complement fixation test. 22,040 sheep and goats were examined during 5 years. Specific anti-Ch. abortus antibodies were found in 2,360 out of 20,878 sheep sera examined (11.7%), and in 85 out of 1,162 examined goats (7.7%). The occurrence of antichlamydial antibodies indicates the importance of performing screening examinations in commercial breeding with the aim of reducing the spread of this disease between animals, and also interrupting the spread and transmission from animals to human.
Full Text Available In recent years, the goat milk cheeses have gained popularity due to the increased interest of consumers in both the tradition of cheesemaking and the sensorial and nutritional value attributed to goat milk. This study aimed to assess and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese with a mixture of cranberry fruits in different concentrations. The following average values were obtained for the chemical parameters analyzed: pH 4.85 ± 0.155, titratable acidity (°T 150 ± 0,094, dry matter (% 58.33 ± 1.55, and fat (% 27.74 ± 53.24. Sensory evaluation highlighted the influence of the addition of cranberry on the eating quality of goat cheese and its consumer acceptability. Results showed that the goat cheese supplementation with 9% cranberry significantly improves the stability of acidic flavor during storage.
Stekolnikov, A A; Kar, S
A chigger mite Neotrombicula heptneri Kudryashova, 1973, which was originally described from three gerbillid species in Iran, is for the first time recorded in Turkey and on the domestic goat Capra hircus L...
Chen, Hao; Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yingjie; Song, Jiuzhou; Yang, Huilin; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun
Traditional approaches for generating goat pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suffer from complexity and low preparation efficiency. Therefore, we tried to derive goat iPSCs with a new method by transfecting exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into goat embryonic fibroblasts (GEFs), and explore the mechanisms regarding the transcription regulation of the reprogramming factors in goat iPSCs induction. mRNAs of the four reprogramming factors were transfected into GEFs, and were localized in nucleus with approximately 90% transfection efficiency. After five consecutive transfections, GEFs tended to aggregate by day 10. Clones appeared on day 15-18, and typical embryonic stem cell -like clones formed on day 20. One thousand AKP staining positive clones were achieved in 10(4) GEFs, with approximately 1.0% induction efficiency. Immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR detection of the ESCs markers confirmed the properties of the goat iPSCs. The achieved goat iPSCs could be cultured to 22nd passage, which showed normal karyotype. The goat iPSCs were able to differentiate into embryoid bodies with three germ layers. qRT-PCR and western blot showed activated endogenous pluripotent factors expression in the later phase of mRNA-induced goat iPSCs induction. Epigenetic analysis of the endogenous pluripotent gene Nanog revealed its demethylation status in derived goat iPSCs. Core promoter regions of the four reprogramming factors were determined. Transcription factor binding sites, including Elf-1, AP-2, SP1, C/EBP and MZF1, were identified to be functional in the core promoter regions of these reprogramming genes. Demethylation and deacetylation of the promoters enhanced their transcription activities. We successfully generated goat iPSCs by transfection of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into GEFs, which initiated the endogenous reprogramming network and altered the methylation status of pluripotent genes. Core promoter regions and functional transcription binding sites of
Kabagambe, E K; Elzer, P H; Geaghan, J P; Opuda-Asibo, J; Scholl, D T; Miller, J E
Cross-sectional prevalences and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goats in eastern and western Uganda were investigated. Serum was collected from 1518 goats randomly selected from 145 herds which had been identified using multistage sampling. The brucellosis card test (CT) and the Brucella melitensis tube-agglutination test (TAT) were used in parallel to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on goat health and management. This information was used in multivariable logistic-regression models to determine the risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds. For each analysis, a herd was considered positive if at least one goat in the herd tested positive for antibodies against Brucella and negative if none was positive. Four percent (55/1480) of the goats screened with the CT had antibodies against Brucella. The reactors were distributed in 13% (19/145) of the herds. The most-important herd-level risk factors identified were use of a hired caretaker as the primary manager of the operation compared to owner/family members (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=8.1; 95% CI 1.6, 39.7), keeping sheep in addition to goats (OR=6.0; CI 1.5, 23.7) compared to having no sheep, and free browsing (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.0, 20.7) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing. Using the TAT, 10% (141/1446) of the goats tested positive. The positives were distributed in 43% (63/145) of the herds. Free browsing (OR=6.7; 95% CI 2.7, 16.9) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing and lack of veterinary care (OR=2.9; CI 1.3, 6.7) were the most-important factors identified in the multivariable model for B. melitensis herd seropositivity. To explore/reduce the risk of misclassification in a secondary analysis, herds were reclassified as positive if at least one goat tested positive on both tests and negative if none of the goats was positive on any of the two tests. Using this
A survey of some ovarian abnormalities responsible for sterility in Damascus goats M. Roukbi
Full Text Available A survey of some ovarian abnormalities in 13 Damascus goats with normal to masculinized genitalia, aged 1.5 to 6 years was conducted to determine some types of disorders affecting the ovaries in light of their morphological findings with reference to obstetrics and gynecology literature. The results showed persistent follicles and cystic ovarian disease in phenotypically females, epidermal neoplasms, gonads dysgenesis and dysgenesic gonad tumors in goats with intersex appearance, similar to ovarian tumors in women
Lu Wan; Jisi Ma; Nianlu Wang; Daihua Wang; Gangyi Xu
The myozenin family of proteins binds calcineurin, which is involved in myocyte differentiation of skeletal muscle. Moreover, gene expression of myozenin is closely related to meat quality. To further understand the functions and effects of myozenin2 (MYOZ2) and myozenin3 (MYOZ3) genes in goat, we cloned them from Tianfu goat longissimus dorsi muscle. Sequence analyses revealed that full-length coding sequence of MYOZ2 consisted of 795 bp and encoded 264 amino acids, and full-length coding se...
Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortíz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J
It is important to determine whether gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) affect foliage choice of goats leading to confirm the expression of a self-medication behavior. This study investigated the effect of GIN infection on tropical foliage selection by goats. During experimental stage 1 (10 days), goats had a natural mixed GIN infection, and at stage 2 (10 days), goats were treated with effective anthelmintics to maintain them free of GIN infection. During stage 1 the twelve adult goats (32 ± 2.3 kg live weight [LW]) were assigned to three groups (n = 4) according to their initial GIN infection status: HI group, with fecal egg count (FEC) between 1450 and 2150 eggs per g/feces (EPG); MI group, medium FEC (592-1167 EPG); and the NI group, free from GIN infection. Fresh foliage of four tropical plants were offered to goats ad libitum for 1 h daily: Gymnopodium floribundum (high condensed tannin [CT] content, 37-40 %), Mimosa bahamensis (medium CT content, 16-17 %), Leucaena leucocephala (low CT content, 3-5 %), and Viguiera dentata (negligible CT content, 0.6-0.9 %). Jacobs' selection indexes (JSIs) were estimated for the experimental foliage based on dry matter (DM), CT, or crude protein (CP) intake. During both study stages, individual fecal egg counts were estimated. The JSI patterns of different plant species, based on DM, CT, or CP, were similar irrespective of infection level during stage 1 (HI, MI, and NI) or no GIN infection (stage 2). Thus, irrespective of GIN infection, goats actively selected M. bahamensis (high CT, low CP content) and V. dentata (negligible CT, high CP content) but avoided G. floribundum (high CT, low CP content) and L. leucocephala (medium CT and high CP content). Thus, natural GIN infection did not influence goats' foliage selection.
Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Hassan, Sufia Butt; Thakur, Aneesh
As an alternative to protein-based vaccines, we investigated the effect of post-exposure vaccination with Map specific peptides in a goat model aiming at developing a Map vaccine that will neither interfere with diagnosis of paratuberculosis nor bovine tuberculosis. Peptides were initially select...... in the unvaccinated control group seroconverted in ID Screen® ELISA at last sampling prior to euthanasia. These results indicate that a subunit vaccine against Map can induce a protective immune response against paratuberculosis in goats....
Full Text Available The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed: Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes, sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.
Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different spraying methods on goats exposed to high air temperatures. Thirty goats were divided into three groups for the trial (sprayed once per day, OTS; sprayed twice per day, TTS; and non-sprayed, Controls. Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin were taken three times a day (08.00 - 09.00; 16.00 - 17.00 and 00.00 - 01.00 on hot summer days in July 2005 in a Mediterranean climate. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, and daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. Rectal temperatures, pulse and respiration rates, udder and head temperatures differed between the three groups. Rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased at 16.00 relative to 08.00, and at 00.00 had returned to the same level as at 08.00. TTS goats showed smaller increases in all physiological measurements at 16.00 than the other groups. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats eating (P=0.002, ruminating (P=0.032 and walking (P=0.021, but less time drinking (P=0.041 and lying (P=0.001. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (P=0.001 and alfalfa hay (P=0.024 than the other two groups, whereas Control goats consumed more water (P=0.003 than the other groups. Ultimately, the spraying had positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improving animal welfare.
Mendonça, Álvaro; Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo; Costa, Cristina; Coelho, Alípio
The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual glands during a lactation period. According to results CMT (predictive negative value = 69.5%) may be used as a cheap and practical method for sub clinical mastitis survey in Serrana goats. Decision on SCC use will depend on additional resear...
Rahman, Wahab A; Abd Hamid, Suhaila
The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). This paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of H. contortus adults from the two hosts. There were more ridges in H. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. Total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.
Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T
The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
Background: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles. Results: The gradual pattern of reduction in the maternally stored transcripts without renewal thereafter (cluster-1: Lifr1, Bmpr1, Alk4, Id3, Ctnnb, Akt, Oct4, Rex1, Erk1, Smad1 and 5) implies that their protein products are essential during early cleavages when the goat embryo is silent and reliant to the maternal legacy of mRNA. The potential importance of transcription augment at day-3 (cluster-2: Fzd, c-Myc, Cdc25a, Sox2) or day- 14 (cluster-3: Fgfr4, Nanog) suggests that they are nascent embryonic mRNAs which intimately involved in the overriding of MET or regulation of blastocyst formation, respectively. The observation of two expression peaks at both day-3 and day-14 (cluster-4: Gata4, Cdx2) would imply their potential importance during these two critical stages of preand periimplantation development. Conclusion: Evolutionary comparison revealed that the selected subset of genes has been rewired in goat and human/goat similarity is greater than the mouse/goat or bovine/goat similarities. The developed profiles provide a resource for comprehensive understanding of goat preimplantation development and pluripotent stem cell engineering as well. PMID:27695614
Radin, Lada; Šimpraga, Miljenko; Vince, Silvijo; Kostelić, Antun; Milinković-Tur, Suzana
The aim of this study was to research changes in metabolic and antioxidative status of Saanen goats of different parity occurring during the peripartum period. Blood samples were taken on 10-7 and 3-1 d prepartally and 1-3, 14 and 28 d postpartally from goats allocated in three groups according to their parity: primiparous (PRIM), goats that kidded the 2nd or 3rd time (MID), and goats that kidded 4 or more times (MULTI)). Metabolic profile parameters (non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, triglycerides, albumin and urea) and indicators of oxidative stress ((superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were determined. Intense metabolic changes associated with late pregnancy and onset of lactation were pronounced the most in MULTI goats that also had the biggest litter per goat. Significant differences were found in metabolic parameters NEFA, BHB, glucose, triglycerides within groups during peripartum period, as well as between them (the effect of parity). MDA concentrations were indicative of increased lipid peroxidation around parturition, especially pronounced in MULTI group 1-3 d prepartally, when the highest GSH-Px/SOD ratio was also found. Postpartally, antioxidant enzymes ratio in MID and MULTI group decreased while MDA concentrations remained high, suggesting antioxidant system inefficiency. Significant time × group interaction was observed for most of the parameters. The obtained results show that the goats of higher parity display higher levels of metabolism intensity and consequently, varying levels of oxidative stress during the peripartum period. Further studies should determine applicability of NEFA and BHB in periparturient metabolic profiling in dairy goats as well as establish normal ranges and cut-off levels for these biomarkers.
Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A
The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of prion protein misfolding activity in tissues and fluids from sheep with scrapie where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet to take advantage of PMCA, which could aid in discerning the risk of transmission between goats and goats to sheep. The aim of the current study was to adapt PMCA for evaluation of scrapie derived from goats. Diluted brain homogenate from scrapie-infected goats (i.e., the scrapie seed, PrP(Sc)) was subjected to PMCA using normal brain homogenate from ovinized transgenic mice (tg338) as the source of normal cellular prion protein (the substrate, PrP(C)). The assay end-point was detection of the proteinase K-resistant misfolded prion protein core (PrP(res)) by western blot. Protein misfolding activity was consistently observed in caprine brain homogenate diluted 10,000-fold after 5 PMCA rounds. Epitope mapping by western blot analyses demonstrated that PrP(res) post-PMCA was readily detected with an N-terminus anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (P4), similar to scrapie inoculum from goats. This was in contrast to limited detection of PrP(res) with P4 following mouse bioassay. The inverse was observed with a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminus (F99/97.6.1). Thus, brain homogenate prepared from uninoculated tg338 served as an appropriate substrate for serial PMCA of PrP(Sc) derived from goats. These observations suggest that concurrent PMCA and bioassay with tg338 could improve characterization of goat derived scrapie.
Full Text Available Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV. Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR. We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors
Full Text Available The microalgae cultivation has been developed over the last decades because it is capable of producing valuable metabolites, such as n-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical purposes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the micro-alga as fat supplement on fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids and rumenic acid. Twenty dairy goats and 16 dairy cows were randomly allocated to two isonitrogenous treatment groups to investigate the effect of micro-alga supplementation on the composition and fatty acid profile of milk. The 1st goat group was fed with alfalfa hay and concentrate; the 2nd goat group received the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 10 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The control group cows were fed with alfalfa hay, corn silage and concentrate, while the experimental animals were fed with the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 7.4 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The experimental periods lasted for 17 d. The micro-alga supplements considerably increased rumenic acid concentration in milk (1.20% ví. 1.54%, P < 0.001 for goats; 0.75% vs. 0.85%, P < 0.05 for cows. The n-3 fatty acids were higher in milk (1.02 vs. 1.35; P < 0.001 for goats; 0.47 vs. 0.56; P < 0.05 for cows and in addition the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favorable in the micro-alga supplemented groups (3.53 vs. 2.88; P < 0.01 for goats; 4.18 vs. 3.36; P < 0.05 for cows. It is concluded that the diet with micro-alga supplementation significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in both goat and cow milk.
Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.
Vedran Slačanac; Jovica Hardi; Hrvoje Pavlović; Mato Vlainić; Mirela Lučan
In this paper, changes in composition and contents of each fatty acid during fermentation with ABT-2 culture were examined. The objective of this study was to determinate the increase of short (SCFA) and medium (MCFA) chain fatty acids in goat's and cow's milk during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. The hypothesis of this study was that higher contents of SCFA and MCFA are produced in goat's milk in comparison with cow's milk, during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. Obtained results have show...
Doherty, Tom J; Will, Whitney A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Geiser, Dennis R
To determine the effect of morphine and flunixin meglumine on isoflurane (ISO) minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in goats. Prospective, randomized experimental study. Five adult, wether goats from 1 to 3 years in age, and weighing 24-65 kg. Anesthesia was induced using ISO, which was delivered via a mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain an end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration between 25 and 30 mm Hg (3.3-4 kPa). End-tidal ISO concentration was measured using an infrared analyzer. The baseline ISO MAC that prevented purposeful movement in response to clamping a claw was determined. Following baseline MAC determination, each goat received one of the following four treatments intravenously (IV): morphine (2 mg kg(-1)), flunixin (1.5 mg kg(-1)), flunixin (1.5 mg kg(-1)) plus morphine (2 mg kg(-1)) or saline, and the MAC was re-determined. Goats were studied at weekly intervals, and each goat received each treatment in a randomized fashion. The baseline ISO MAC for the control treatment was 1.43%. Morphine reduced the MAC by 29.7%. Flunixin did not significantly decrease the MAC nor did it potentiate the effect of morphine on MAC. The quality of recovery was good in all cases. Morphine (2 mg kg(-1), IV) significantly reduced the ISO MAC in goats and did not adversely affect the quality of recovery. The use of morphine, at the dose studied, in association with ISO anesthesia, will allow a clinically significant reduction in the concentration of ISO required to maintain general anesthesia in goats.
Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise
Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.
Shin, Sang Tae; Jang, Sung Keun; Yang, Hong Suk; Lee, Ok Keun; Shim, Yhong Hee; Choi, Won Il; Lee, Doo Soo; Lee, Gwan Sun; Cho, Jong Ki; Lee, Young Won
This study was performed to produce transgenic Korean native goat (Capra hircus) by laparoscopic embryo transfer (ET) to overcome the limitations of ET performed by laparotomy. Transgenic embryos were produced by DNA pronuclear microinjection of in vivo zygotes. The recipient goats were synchronized for estrus by using an introvaginal progesterone devices as a controlled internal drug-releasing insert (CIDR) for 13 days and injection of 400 IU PMSG 48 h before removal of the insert. Embryos were transferred on day 3 and 4 after removal of the insert. Recipient goats were deprived of feed for 48 h, then suspended in a laparotomy cradle at an angle of 45 degrees . After obtaining a sufficient pneumoperitoneum, the laparoscope and forceps were inserted abdominally through 5 mm trocar sleeves. Examination of the ovaries and uterus was performed and then 213 embryos were transferred into the oviducts via the infundibula of 76 recipient goats. To compare pregnancy rates, ET was also performed by laparotomy in 82 recipient goats. The pregnancies in the recipient goats were diagnosed by ultrasound on day 30 after embryo transfer. The pregnancy rate with laparoscopic ET was significantly higher than with ET performed by laparotomy (46.1% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.05). In addition, the pregnancy rates were compared between ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries of the recipient goats in the laparoscopic ET group. No significant difference was observed between the pregnancy rates of ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries (41.3% vs. 33.3%, p < 0.05) suggesting that ET may also be possible in non-ovulated recipients through artificial rupture of Graafian follicles. These results suggest that laparoscopic ET is a highly efficient method for the transfer of goat embryos.
Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi
The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (≥1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants.
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Nurul Hafizah Bt Abu Jazid; Konto Mohammed; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Eric Lim Teik Chung; Yusuf Abba; Muhammad Abubakar Sadiq; Abdul Aziz Saharee
Hemotropic Mycoplasmosis is common in sheep and goats worldwide, which leads to huge economic losses. In this study, ten goats each were sampled from five herds belonging to the Ladang Angkat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) for the assessment of Mycoplasma ovis infection and concomitant intestinal parasites burden. Giemsa stain and Modified McMaster techniques were used to study the hemotropic mycoplasmosis and gastrointestinal parasite burden, respectively. Questionnaires were equally ...
Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Milan, Jalal Sheykh kanluye; Mahzoonieh, Mohamad Reza; Khaksar, Khadijeh
Background: Brucellosis remains a major worldwide zoonosis. Caprine brucellosis is a significant problem for both public health and animal production. Brucella melitensis causes disease in goats, sheep, humans, and occasionally cattle. Transmission is by ingestion or contact with infected materials, vaginal discharge, or milk. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the rate of B. melitensis seropositives and its probable shedding in lactating goats from flocks in Shahrekord district...
Kim, Hyo-Hee; Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan; Yoon, Sung-Sik
The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powd...
J. Karzis; E.F. Donkin; I.M. Petzer
The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis.Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h man...
Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran
Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide
Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was determinated of lactoferrin profile in goat milk and kefir. The samples were collected from whey raw milk, pasteurized and kefir. Lactoferrin profile in this study consisted of concentration and molecule weight of lactoferrin. Goat lactoferrin was isolated from whey by fractionation on sephadex G-100 column, it was eluted at 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Characterization of goat lactoferrin by electrophoretic SDS-PAGE techniques detected molecule weight of goat lactoferrin that the isolate of the fractions from fractionation on sephadex G-100 column. Result of the research showed that pasteurization during storage after fermentation process were influenced by concentration of lactoferrin significant (P<0.05. The molecule weights of lactoferrin in goat milk and kefir were estimated at 84 kDa and 80 kDa. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin at 1.915 mg/ml (without pasteurized, 1.579 mg/ml (pasteurized at 65oC, 0.954 mg/ml (pasteurized at 73oC and 0.322 mg/ml (pasteurized at 83oC. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin in kefir during storage at 0.663 mg/ml (0 day, 0.448 mg/ml (3 day, 0.249 mg/ml (6 day, 0.142 mg/ml (9 day dan 0.048 mg/ml (12 day. Pasteurization at temperature 65oC 30’’ can defend concentration of lactoferrin higher than temperature 73oC 15’’ and temperature 83oC 2’’. Concentration of lactoferrin in kefir were defended until 12 day storage. Keywords : Lactoferrin, goat milks, kefir