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Sample records for sanliurfa province turkey

  1. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Yorulmaz, Nuri; Kam, Erol; Karahan, Gursel; Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Measurements of outdoor gamma radiation (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) in air were performed at 112 locations using a plastic scintillator and the average absorbed dose was found as 60.9 nGy/h (corresponding to an effective dose of 74.7μSv/y). The radionuclide activity concentrations in 45 soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 20.8, 24.95 and 298.6 for the natural radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, and 9.08 Bq/kg for the fission product 137 Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an effective dose of 46.9μSv/y. The radioactivity levels of 53 drinking water samples were measured as 0.038 Bq/l for gross-alpha activity and 0.1324 Bq/l for gross-beta activity using gross-alpha and gross-beta counting methods (equivalent to an effective dose of 7.76μSv/y). When compared with the data available for other Turkish cities, the outdoor gamma doses and soil radioactivity concentrations obtained in this study indicate a background radiation level that falls within natural limits. On the other hand, the measured gross-alpha and -beta activities in drinking water are relatively higher

  2. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

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    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  3. Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Sanliurfa region of Turkey

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    O. Ozkan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Sanliurfa region of Turkey, from May to September 2003, were evaluated in this study. Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus plays a role on 25.8% of the scorpionism cases. This study also showed that intoxications caused by M. eupeus in the southeast of Anatolia region were seen in hot months of the summer, especially on July. Females and people above 15 years old were mostly affected and stung on extremities. Intense pain in the affected area was observed in 98.7% cases, hyperemia in 88.8%, swelling in 54.6%, burning in 19.7%, while numbness and itching were seen less frequently. In our study, the six most frequently observed symptoms were local pain, hyperemia, swelling, burning, dry mouth, thirst, sweating, and hypotension. In this study involving 152 M. eupeus toxicity cases, patients showed local and systemic clinical effects but no death was seen. Autonomic system and local effects characterized by severe pain, hyperemia and edema were dominantly seen in toxicity cases.

  4. The Frequency of MEFV Gene Mutations and Genotypes in Sanliurfa Province, South-Eastern Region of Turkey, after the Syrian Civil War by Using Next Generation Sequencing and Report of a Novel Exon 4 Mutation (I423T

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    Evren Gumus

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene are localized on the p arm of chromosome 16. Over 333 MEFV sequence variants have been identified so far in FMF patients, which occur mostly in the 2nd and 10th exons of the gene. Methods: In this study, 296 unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of FMF, which were admitted during January–December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed to identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations by using next generation sequencing. Results: Eighteen different mutations, 45 different genotypes and a novel exon 4 (I423T mutation were identified in this study. This mutation is the fourth mutation identified in exon 4.The most frequent mutation was R202Q, followed by M694V, E148Q, M680I, R761H, V726A and R354W. Conclusions: One of the most important aims of this study is to investigate the MEFV mutation type and genotype of migrants coming to Sanliurfa after the civil war of Syria. This study also examines the effect of the condition on the region’s gene pool and the distribution of different types of mutations. Our results indicated that MEFV mutations are highly heterogeneous in our patient population, which is consistent with the findings of other studies in our region. Previously used methods, such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, do not define uncommon or especially novel mutations. Therefore, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS analysis of the MEFV gene could be useful for finding novel mutations, except for those located on exon 2 and 10.

  5. The Frequency of MEFV Gene Mutations and Genotypes in Sanliurfa Province, South-Eastern Region of Turkey, after the Syrian Civil War by Using Next Generation Sequencing and Report of a Novel Exon 4 Mutation (I423T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Evren

    2018-05-07

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene are localized on the p arm of chromosome 16. Over 333 MEFV sequence variants have been identified so far in FMF patients, which occur mostly in the 2nd and 10th exons of the gene. In this study, 296 unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of FMF, which were admitted during January⁻December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed to identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations by using next generation sequencing. Eighteen different mutations, 45 different genotypes and a novel exon 4 (I423T) mutation were identified in this study. This mutation is the fourth mutation identified in exon 4.The most frequent mutation was R202Q, followed by M694V, E148Q, M680I, R761H, V726A and R354W. One of the most important aims of this study is to investigate the MEFV mutation type and genotype of migrants coming to Sanliurfa after the civil war of Syria. This study also examines the effect of the condition on the region’s gene pool and the distribution of different types of mutations. Our results indicated that MEFV mutations are highly heterogeneous in our patient population, which is consistent with the findings of other studies in our region. Previously used methods, such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), do not define uncommon or especially novel mutations. Therefore, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis of the MEFV gene could be useful for finding novel mutations, except for those located on exon 2 and 10.

  6. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

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    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  7. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçarslan, Sezen; Turan, Enver; Ekinci, Turan; Yesilova, Yavuz; Apari, Rabia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients' medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years), consisting of 32 males (59.3%) and 22 females (40.7%), were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%). The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%). Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  8. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

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    Yusuf Ižnanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 retrospectively.Results: 366%u2019si 88 were ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke. 54.6% by sex male,% 45.4 were women. Average age: 67.86 di.56.3% radiologically roaming the front circulation infarct brain infarct% found the rear 23.2. Hospital stay duration: 9.27 day.. Hemorrhagic stroke was longer this Sura in the group. Mortality rate 4.6% in all in packaging (21 patients, ischemic in boots in 1.9% (7 patients, hemorrhagic of boots were found at 15.9% (14 patients.Discussion: our study of Sanliurfa province stroke data in terms of the region together, although a portion of their valuable results. In the summer, the ischemic stroke incidence is higher.

  9. [The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in women from Sanliurfa, a province with a high raw meatball consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekay, Fikret; Ozbek, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect all kind of birds and all mammals including humans and is common throughout the world. The prevalence varies according to social and cultural habits, pet cats in homes and geographic factors. Domestic cats are considered to be an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection. From January to June 2006, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was retrospectively monitored from blood samples that had been sent to our laboratory in order to determine the levels of IgM and IgG. All the subjects were women and 2,586 blood samples were investigated with the chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The rates of Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found to be 3.0% (78/2,586) and that of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, 69.5% (1.798/2,586). The total rate of positivity of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was 69.6% (1,801/2,586) and the negativity, 30.4% (785/2,586). The highest positive rates have been reported in the southeastern region of Turkey and the 69.6% detected in our study seems to be the highest rate. Raw meatball consumption is common in our region and raw meat has a high risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection by direct ingestion of tissue cysts. As a result we consider that the high frequency of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in this region is due to raw meatball consumption.

  10. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey.

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    Tel, O Y; Arserim, N B; Keskin, O

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701) as antigen. Eighty (11.7%) sera from horses and 9 (11.5%) sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9%) horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7%) horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5% of female (n=343) and 10.1% of male (n = 59) horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4%, n=114) were seropositive than females (6.7%, n=163). Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5%) were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8%) were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6%) were from donkeys >5 years of age. No positive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five (12.5%) sera of females and 4 (10.5%) sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk.

  11. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey

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    O. Y. Tel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available n order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701 as antigen. Eighty (11.7 % sera from horses and 9 (11.5 % sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9 % horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7 % horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5 % of female (n = 343 and 10.1 % of male (n = 59 horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4 %, n = 114 were seropositive than females (6.7 %, n = 163. Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5 % were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8 % were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6 % were from donkeys >5years of age. Nopositive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five(12.5 % sera of females and 4(10.5 % sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk.

  12. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  13. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-01-11

    Jan 11, 1997 ... 2008 in the Sinop province of Turkey this study presents a seismic hazard analysis based on ... Considering the development and improvement ... It is one of the most populated cities in the coun- ... done as reliably as the seismic hazard of region per- .... Seismic safety work of underground networks was.

  14. Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011

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    M F AYDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

  15. Seroprevalance of rickettsioses among healthy individuals in Mersin province, Turkey

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    İlker Alakus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies relevant to rikettsial biology, its pathogenesis and diagnosis  have increase due to the increase of rickettsioses incidents in the world, particularly over the the past two decades. We investigated the seroprevalence of the ricketsia disease in the Mersin province of Turkey. Methods: This study included 450 healthy individuals aged 5 years and over, who had attended family health centers in Mersin city center. Serum samples collected during November 2011 were evaluated. Rickettsia antibody assays were used indirect immunofluorescenc techniques. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis, the Chi-Square Test and the Student T Test for comparison of variables. Results: The prevelance of ricketsia positivity was determined as 9.8%. The seropositivities were higher in males, in the unemployed, in the occupational risk groups, in people who live in rural regions, in people who work in gardens/farms, in picnickers, in countryside walkers, in hunters, in owners of livestock, in people with no history of rash diseases. When the relationship of spotted fever group (SFG seropositivity the risk factors was investigated, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: According to our study rickettsial disease is detected in Mersin and it was seen that the rickettsiosis disease need for more comprehensive studies to show the prevalence in all of Turkey.Keywords: Rickettsioses, seroprevelance, antibodies

  16. Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Their Reflections in Gaziantep Province

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    Ersin Kaya SANDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of democracy the Arab Spring Caused got started in 18 December 2010, after a university graduate stallholder's stall has been taken hold of and his burning himself to protest government led to o range of event in Tunisia deeply affected Syria by causing populations to pay for this. The Syrian Civil War started in March 2011 and it was seen as a result of Arab Spring, that noteworthy affects this region. But, although it had been a few years the Arab Spring hasn't come to Syria yet. While Syrian people,neighbor countries and the people in the region were all waiting for the spring to come, the rising of the Civil Wars and the affects of military, political and the economics sports of the countries that Syrian Regime politically, economically and commercially aligned with, had been turned into a humanitarian tragedy. As a result of the civil attacks of the Regime of Syrian to his people, around 300.000 people did,around 6.5 million people have been displaced, the numbers of the people need help increased to 10 million and so the number of the Syrian refugees in the neighbor countries reached to 3.795.284. As a result of this civil war in Syria 1.679.963 Syrian Arab Republic citizens have come to our country as refuges since 2011. The number of Syrian refugees reached 326 333 in Gaziantep Province. In this study, distribution by province of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and reflections of refugees in Gaziantep province are analyzed

  17. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

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    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  18. Examination of Students' Digital Gaming Habits at Secondary School Level in Elazig Province of Turkey

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    Mikail, Tel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the opinions of the secondary school students on digital games were examined. The research is a screening model research and has a descriptive feature. It was carried out with 521 secondary school students in Elazig (a province in eastern part of Turkey) [MSS1] in 2013. Almost all of the participants use computer. More than half of…

  19. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

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    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  20. A study on basic demographic and disease characteristics of cancer-diagnosed Syrian refugees treated in the border city of Turkey, Sanliurfa; a hospital-based retrospective case series study.

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    Bakkal Temi, Yasemin; Murat Sedef, Ali; Gokcay, Serkan; Coskun, Hatice; Oskeroglu Kaplan, Sedenay; Ozkul, Ozlem; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Kose, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Turkey hosts around 3 million Syrian refugees which is more than any other country in the world. Along with some other adaptation issues like cultural, language, and economic difficulties, significant problems in managing medical problems, chronic diseases like cancer in particular, have to be fixed. However, there are few studies which explore main patient and clinicopathological characteristics in Syrian refugees with cancer. The purpose of this study was to highlight the aforementioned characteristics along with management issues after cancer diagnosis of these patients. This study was designed as a hospital-based retrospective observational case-series study of 134 Syrian refugees cancer patients between 2015 and 2017. The patient median age was 47.5 years (range 18- 80). Out of the 134, 102 (76.1%) were female. The most common cancer types were breast (n=57, 42.5%) and gynecological cancers (n=14, 10.4%). The majority of patients were diagnosed at advanced stage (n=60, 44.8%). There were 91 (67.9%) and 43 (32.1%) patients admitted to our center from refugee camps and staying in a house, respectively. The median follow-up was 14 months (range 1-111) and 11 (8.2%) patients died. One and two-year survival rate of the whole group were 93% and 86%, respectively. There were 12 (9%) patients with grade 3-4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3-4 toxicity (n=8, 6%). The patients staying in refugee camp (n-91) or in a house (n=43) finished all planned cycles of chemotherapy with a rate of 71% (n=65) and 79% (n=34), respectively. Statistical analysis failed to show significant relationship between the staying site (either camp or house), chemotherapy compliance rate, grade 3-4 toxicities with p=0.347 and p=0.09, respectively. Our results revealed that breast cancer and gynecological cancers were the most common cancer types which are good candidates for cancer screening. Unfortunately, the majority of patients had cancer

  1. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

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    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  2. Women Employment in terms of Gender Inequality across the Provinces of Turkey

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    Fatih CELEBIOGLU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inequalities are very important and multi-dimensional problem for all countries in the world. Particularly, the problem is challenging for developing countries due to the presence of not equal opportunities in economic life. This study aims to examine relations between women employment and socio-economic inequalities by using spatial data and techniques across the regions of Turkey. We use women employment’s share in total employment of provinces in 2014 as an indicator of women employment as long as the following variables used as independent are Gender Equality Index, Socio-Economic Development Index, gender based wage gap and household size. To test spatial dimensions of the variables, firstly we perform an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis on all variables for provinces of Turkey. Secondly, we explain spatial econometrics dimensions of women employment in Turkey. The results indicate that spatial regression is statistically significant and have high level of coefficient of determination in terms of spatial lag and error models. The study results indicate the significant relations among independent variables and women employment. Overall, our results show new dimensions of spatial distribution of women employment in Turkey.

  3. Seroprevalence of human fascioliasis in Van province, Turkey.

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    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yılmaz, Hasan; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Çiçek, Mutalip

    2015-05-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a rare zoonotic parasite that infects the liver of many mammals including humans. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of fascioliasis in Van province by ELISA (antibody detection) on the assumption that not all cases could be detected by stool examination alone. A total of randomly selected 1,600 patients, directed from affiliated outpatient clinics to Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 44.44±19.00 years. Blood samples were collected from all the patients, and their stool samples were examined. For the stool examination, native-lugol and sedimentation (in formalin-ethyl acetate) methods were employed. ELISA for F. hepatica was performed on the blood samples from all patients. Seropositive patients were treated with triclabendazole. F. hepatica was detected by ELISA in 89 (5.6%) of the 1,600 patients, but eggs were identified on the stool examination in only 29 (1.8%) patients. The prevalence of F. hepatica was higher in females (7.2%) than in males (4.2%) and was higher in the ≥36-year age group (6.7%) than in the ≤35-year age group (4.4%). Abdominal pain (93.3%), fatigue (88.8%), and weight loss (69.7%) were the most common symptoms. Eosinophilia was present in 89.9% of the patients. All seropositive patients had a history of eating raw aquatic plants. Stool examination alone is not sufficient to diagnose F. hepatica. Serological tests such as ELISA must be used together with stool examination.

  4. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Mevlüt; Demircan, Vecdi; Yilmaz, Hasan; Yilmaz, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greate...

  5. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

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    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  6. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in Tumbler Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Kirikkale Province, Turkey.

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    Sürsal, Neslihan; Atan, Perçem; Gökpınar, Sami; Duru, Özkan; Çakmak, Ayşe; Yıldız, Kader

    2017-06-01

    Haemoproteus spp. are common blood parasites of pigeons. They have been reported in pigeons in many regions worldwide, including Turkey. Pigeon breeding is a popular hobby in Kirikkale province, and there is no information about the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in tumbler pigeons in Kirikkale province (Kırıkkale and Yahsihan district). Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of pigeons (n: 173) through microcapillary (with/heparin) tubes between February and March 2016. Blood smears were stained with 5% Giemsa solution. Ectoparasites of the pigeons were collected in separate sealed boxes. Epidemiological data of the sampled pigeons (age and sex) were obtained from the breeders. In total, 23 (%13.2) of 173 pigeons were infected with Haemoproteus spp. Parasite was detected in 73.9% of pigeons over 1 year old and 26.1% of pigeon under 1 year age. Haemoproteus spp. was observed in 56.2% of females (13/23) and 43.4% of males (10/23), Sex-related differences were not observed (p = 0.821). Ectoparasites of the pigeons were identified as Columbicola spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Kirikkale province that reported the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in pigeons.

  7. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

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    Mevlüt Gül

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greatest slacks were in feedstuff concentrates and labour used. The most significant factors affecting efficiency of goat production were farmer experience, cooperative membership, milk yield per goat, and family and hired labour. Technical efficiency should be improved by providing farmers with well-organised education, an extension program, and research and development programs on goat rearing.

  8. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Samsun province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Maksutoglu, F.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.; Celebi, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with the measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil samples and indoor radon concentrations in the Samsun province, Turkey. In soil samples, the values of individual mean activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs radionuclides were found to be 31, 22, 341 and 16 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiological parameters, such as the absorbed dose rate in air, the annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk, were calculated. Indoor radon measurements were carried out with CR-39-based radon dosemeters at 127 dwellings in the Samsun province. The mean annual 222 Rn activity was found to be 106 Bq m -3 (equivalent to an AED of 1.88 mSv). The seasonal variation of 222 Rn activity shows that maximum levels are observed in the winter, while minimum levels are observed in the summer. The mean lifetime fatality risk for the studied area was estimated at 1.45x10 -4 . The results obtained did not significantly differ from those obtained in other parts of the country. (authors)

  9. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir

    2014-06-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  11. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, Vecdi; Ekinci, Kamil; Keener, Harold M.; Akbolat, Davut; Ekinci, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes -1 . It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare

  12. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, Nail; Celik, Mehmet; Murathan, Atilla M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical and isotopic properties and reservoir temperature of mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir region, Turkey. Areas which have been included in this study are Savcih, Karakurt, Terme, Bulamach and Mahmutlu. Mahmutlu and Bulamach waters are mainly of the Na-Cl type, Savcih waters are of the Na-HCO 3 -Cl type and Karakurt and Terme waters are mainly of the Ca-HCO 3 type. The Saturation Index values of the waters have been evaluated and mineralized thermal waters were found to be saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite minerals but undersaturated with respect to the halite mineral in spite of being NaCl type. The results of hydrochemical and environmental isotope ( 18 O, D, 3 H) analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and have varying component of relatively old water. The reservoir temperature of the five areas of thermal manifestations fall between 50 and 100 degC. Highest temperatures of about 100 degC have been estimated for Bulamach and Mahmutlu using various chalcedony geothermometers. Mahmutlu mineralized thermal water has longer residence times and higher reservoir temperature compared to other geothermal areas in Kirsehir Province. (author)

  13. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

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    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  14. Bacterial and protozoal pathogens found in ticks collected from humans in Corum province of Turkey.

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    Djursun Karasartova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey.From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced. The dedected tick was belonging to the genus Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Ixodes. A total of 17 microorganism species were identified in ticks. The most prevalent Rickettsia spp. were: R. aeschlimannii (19.5%, R. slovaca (4.5%, R. raoultii (2.2%, R. hoogstraalii (1.9%, R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae (1.2%, R. monacensis (0.31%, and Rickettsia spp. (1.2%. In addition, the following pathogens were identified: Borrelia afzelii (0.31%, Anaplasma spp. (0.31%, Ehrlichia spp. (0.93%, Babesia microti (0.93%, Babesia ovis (0.31%, Babesia occultans (3.4%, Theileria spp. (1.6%, Hepatozoon felis (0.31%, Hepatozoon canis (0.31%, and Hemolivia mauritanica (2.1%. All samples were negative for Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp.Ticks in Corum carry a large variety of human and zoonotic pathogens that were detected not only in known vectors, but showed a wider vector diversity. There is an increase in the prevalence of ticks infected with the spotted fever group and lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, while Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were reported for the first time from this region. B. microti was detected for the first time in Hyalomma marginatum infesting humans. The detection of B. occultans, B. ovis, Hepatozoon spp., Theileria spp. and Hemolivia mauritanica indicate the importance of these ticks as vectors of pathogens of veterinary importance, therefore patients with a tick infestation should be followed for a variety of pathogens

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertug, Sema; Okyay, Pinar; Turkmen, Munevver; Yuksel, Hasan

    2005-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. The mean age of 389 (92.9%) of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001) and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042). No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water) supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey

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    Turkmen Munevver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. Method The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. Results The mean age of 389 (92.9% of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001 and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042. No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. Conclusion One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  17. Risk Perception and Management Strategies in Dairy Farming: A Case of Adana Province of Turkey

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    Seyit Hayran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and analyse farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management strategies in dairy farming. Data were obtained in 2014 (December and 2015 (February and March from face-to-face interviews with 96 dairy farmers in Yüregir and Saricam district of Adana province of Turkey. Factor analysis was used in data reduction to identify a small number of factors related to risk sources and risk strategies in this study. Then, multiple regression model was used to evaluate the influence of socio-economic characteristics and communication behaviour on the farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management strategies using factor loadings. The results of this study show that the most important risk source that the farmers' perceive is variability in feed prices and risk management strategy that the farmers' perceive is take precautions to prevent disease. The results of factor analysis show that the risk scale consists of 8 factors explaining 70.24% of total variance. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach Alfa of the scale is 0.808 and KMO is 0.732. The risk management scale consists of 6 factors explaining 67.78% of total variance. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach Alfa of the scale is 0.775 and KMO is 0.746. According to the results, perceptions were farmer-specific, a number of socio-economic variables and communication behaviour are found to be related to risk and risk management. To improve risk management strategies is useful for farmers as well and might help them to avoid many risks and reduce losses.

  18. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ergin; Sariyar, Günay; Adsersen, Anne; Karakoc, Berna; Otük, Gülten; Oktayoglu, Ercan; Pirildar, Sevda

    2004-12-01

    Traditional medicine in North-West of Turkey (Sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. Plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. Information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. Twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. Most used families were Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae and the most used plants were Artemisia absinthium, Equisetum telmateia, Lavandula stoechas, Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica. A total of 139 medicinal uses were obtained. Plants are used mainly for infectious diseases (18%), for neurological and psychological disorders (13.7%), cardiovascular disorders (13%), skin disorders (12.2%) and respiratory disorders (10.1%). Extracts were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, using microbroth dilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). This research showed that Arum maculatum, Datura stramonium, Geranium asphodeloides and Equisetum telmateia petroleum ether extracts had MIC values of 39.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml and 39.1 microg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli and Trachystemon orientalis ethanol extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of Arum maculatum, Equisetum telmateia, Geranium asphodeloides, Plantago intermedia, Senecio vulgaris and Trachystemon orientalis has been reported here for the first time.

  19. The evolution of the Cappadocia Geothermal Province, Anatolia (Turkey): geochemical and geochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, M. Furkan; Şener, Mehmet; Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2017-12-01

    Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP), central Turkey, consists of nine individual geothermal regions controlled by active regional fault systems. This paper examines the age dating of alteration minerals and the geochemistry (trace elements and isotopes) of the alteration minerals and geothermal waters, to assess the evolution of CGP in relation to regional tectonics. Ar-Ar age data of jarosite and alunite show that the host rocks were exposed to oxidizing conditions near the Earth's surface at about 5.30 Ma. Based on the δ18O-δD relationhip, water samples had a high altitude meteoric origin. The δ34S values of jarosite and alunite indicate that water samples from the southern part of the study area reached the surface after circulation through volcanic rocks, while northern samples had traveled to the surface after interacting with evaporates at greater depths. REY (rare earth elements and yttrium) diagrams of alteration minerals (especially illite, jarosite and alunite) from rock samples, taken from the same locations as the water samples, display a similar REY pattern to water samples. This suggests that thermal fluids, which reached the surface along a fault zone and caused the mineral alteration in the past, had similar chemical composition to the current geothermal water. The geothermal conceptual model, which defines a volcanically heated reservoir and cap rocks, suggests there are no structural drawbacks to the use of the CGP geothermal system as a resource. However, fluid is insufficient to drive the geothermal system as a result of scanty supply of meteoric water due to evaporation significantly exceeding rainfall.

  20. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  1. Evaluation of radioactivity levels of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.; Chevik, U.; Damla, N.; Yeshilbag, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    In present work natural radionuclides activities (236Ra, 232Th and 40K) of the different types of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. These samples were collected as homogeneously and separately around Giresun province. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in coal, slag and fly ash samples were found as 107, 67 and 440 Bg.Kg - 1 for coal; 59, 25 and 268 Bg.kg - 1 for slag and 136, 60 and 417 Bg.kg - 1 for fly ash samples, respectively. To estimate health effect due to the aforementioned radionuclides, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses have been calculated. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values

  2. [Investigation of the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different water sources in Mersin province, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Gönül; Bayram, Gül; Otağ, Feza; Direkel, Sahin; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Ceber, Kemal; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoon that causes enteritis in human and animals. Contaminated water and food are the major sources for the transmission of oocysts via oral-fecal route. It is reported that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis is higher in developing countries than developed countries because of inefficient sanitation and disinfection facilities for drinking water. The most frequently detected species is Cryptosporidium parvum leading to high morbidity in healthy subjects and also fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. The acid-fast staining method is widely used in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Nowadays, Cryptosporidium could easily be detected in water supplies and asymptomatic carriers by molecular techniques to obtain epidemiological data. In this study it was aimed to detect and identify Cryptosporidium oocysts in different water sources in Mersin province, Turkey. A total of 135 water samples (70 taps, 50 wells and 15 sewage) collected from city center (n= 25) and from Tarsus (n= 32), Mezitli (n= 33) and Karaduvar (n= 45) counties between March 2007 and May 2009 were included in the study. Water samples in 10 liter volumes, were filtered by 0.45 µm pore-sized membrane filter vacuum/ pressure pumping technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts in filtrates were detected by modified cold Kinyoun acid-fast stain (MCK) technique and also identified and typed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. MCK yielded three and PCR yielded seven positive results. All the strains were identified as C.parvum by PCR-RFLP method. All of the three MCK-positive samples were also found positive with PCR, however four PCR positive samples were MCK-negative. Thus, the prevalence of C.parvum was estimated as 5.2% (7/135) in our region. Of seven positive samples, one was a sewage water sample collected from the city center, while the remaining (two tap water, two well water and two sewage water samples

  3. Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey

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    İbrahim Yurtseven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Several studies revealed that climate change can affect local and regional precipitation patterns. Long term trends and cycles in precipitation is important for the health of ecosystems in the region. The possible impacts in near future can affect the forest and water resources of Istanbul. In this study, daily, monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation analyses for the different meteorology stations were examined for the İstanbul province. Northern and southern different climatic conditions of İstanbul have been effective selection of the station. The Mann-Kendall test results showed that there is positive statistically significant trend in some meteorology stations. According to Mann-Kendall results the increased fall precipitation trend were found in Florya, Kireçburnu ve Kumköy meteorology stations and decreased summer precipitation trend were found in Göztepe meteorology stations Keywords: Mann-Kendall trend analysis, precipitation time series, the regional precipitation reactions analysis, climate change İstanbul ilinde mevsimsel toplam yağışların değişimleri ve eğilimleri Özet: İklim değişikliğinin bölgesel ve yöresel ölçekte yağış rejimi üzerinde etkileri olabileceği birçok araştırma ile ortaya konulmuştur. Yağış serilerindeki uzun dönemli yönelimler ve döngüler yöredeki ekosistemlerin sağlığı ve geleceği açısından büyük önem arzetmektedir. İstanbul ilinde önümüzdeki dönemde gerçekleşebilecek etkiler ise hem su kaynakları hem de ormanlar üzerinde önemli sonuçlar ortaya çıkarabilir. Bu çalışmada İstanbul iline ait farklı meteoroloji istasyonlarının uzun dönemli mevsimlik verileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmadaki amacımız ileriye dönük tahminlerdeki belirsizlikleri belli oranda ortadan kaldırabilecek geçmişe dönük veriler yardımıyla istatistiksel analizleri ger

  4. The Graphical Cadastre Problem in Turkey: The Case of Trabzon Province

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    Yakup Emre Çoruhlu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadastral projects in Turkey have been accelerated in recent years by the involvement of the private sector. These projects aim at completing the country’s cadastre, along with producing bases in standards that could be a foundation for Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS. It is possible to produce cadastral data with today’s technological means. In this context, three dimensional cadastre data can be properly produced, especially in digital cadastre projects with the required point accuracy. Nevertheless this is not enough for LRCIS. The cadastre bases that have been produced so far by different methods with different scales and bases, with or without coordinates, should also be converted into digital form based on National Basic GPS Network of Turkey (NBGN in required point-location accuracy. As the result of evaluation of graphical cadastre bases produced without coordinates, actual land measurements, and information obtained from sheets and field book data together, it was found out that there are significant base problems in the graphical maps. These bases, comprising 20% of Turkey’s cadastre constitutes the most important bottleneck of completing the country’s cadastre. In the scope of this paper, the possibilities of converting the field book measurement values of graphic cadastre bases into digital forms in national coordinate system by comparing them with actual land measurements are investigated, along with Turkey’s Cadastre and its problems.

  5. Characteristics of domestic accidents and related factors in Karatas district of Adana province, Turkey

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    Muhsin Akbaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic accidents (DA are an important, but still neglected public health problem in Turkey. We aimed to determine the prevalence of DA, their physical and residential characteristics, including affecting factors, in the centre of semi-rural Mediterranean District Karatas of Turkey. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study, performed between October 2011 and April 2012 with face-to-face interviews by the researcher physician, collected DA data about 569 people living in 141 houses, selected by simple random sampling method, among 2726 houses. Results: DA frequency was 45.4% and 30.2% in terms of houses included in the study and the whole population resident in those houses, respectively. DA most frequently occurred in kitchen (38.9%, affecting mostly upper extremities (45.9%. Most of the injured, i.e.124(72.1% people didn't apply to any health institution; 43(25.0% people were treated at outpatient departments. Only 5(2.9% required hospitalization. None of the accidents resulted in death. The season with the highest frequency of accidents was found to be the summer. DA frequency was positively proportional to the house-hold size (p0.05. Conclusion: Primary health service providing institutions can be suggested for the determination of risk factors for DA in addition to the establishment of a national accidents surveillance system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 229-234

  6. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbey, Gokben; Ertas, Hasan Basri; Kok, Filiz

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%), Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14%) and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%). A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysi...

  7. Metabauxite horizons containing remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related mineralization, Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet; Chamberlain, Steven C.; Murat Akgün, A.

    2010-10-01

    Remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related minerals occur as infill within structurally controlled voids that developed in the upper of two distinct karst unconformity-type metabauxite (diasporite) horizons in the İlbir Mountains area of the Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey. Colour-change diaspore (trademarked as zultanite) and associated mineral specimens (greenish muscovite, chloritoid, donbassite, specular hematite, ilmenite, goethite, and younger calcite) occur in fracture zones (veins and open structures) that cross-cut the metabauxite horizons. The mineralized fracture zones do not extend into the enclosing marbles, probably because of the ductility contrast between the brittle bauxite and relatively plastic carbonate beds. Thick, white to light gray and dark gray limestone beds were deposited in the İlbir Mountains area during the Cretaceous (146-65 Ma), and contain two stratigraphically distinct karst-fill bauxite horizons. Al-, Fe-, Si- and Ti-rich solutions that infiltrated the karstified limestone probably originated from altered schist and gneiss that surround the basin. The limestone beds (>2000 m thick) were subjected to burial metamorphism, forming marble. Subsequently, the marble block was folded during nappe emplacement toward the SSW as part of late Alpine contractional deformation during the Paleogene (65-23.8 Ma). The upper bauxite horizons within the folded block were cross-cut by fracture zones because of their relatively brittle rheology. At this time, increased pressure and temperature in the bauxite horizons resulted in remobilization of the primary constituents of the bauxite within an aqueous complex, resulting in the crystallization of coarse-grained assemblages in the cross-cutting structures. Ultimately, erosion and mineral exploration revealed the steeply dipping bauxite outcrops and mine workings evident today. This paper focuses on the mine geology of surface outcrops of diasporic bauxite, the upper bauxite horizon within

  8. Health risk assessment for arsenic in water sources of cankiri province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caylak, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the levels of arsenic (As) in the water sources of Cankiri Province, the samples were collected from the stations of central Cankiri (n = 27) and Kursunlu town (n = 12) during 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of As were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and then compared with permissible limit, 10 μg/L in drinking water, by Turkish legislation and World Health Organization (WHO). The As levels were higher than this limit (mean value 10-30 μg/L in 26 stations), whereas, they were found to be >30 μg/L in 12 sampling points. The water sources were categorized for health risk assessment such as reservoir, tap, well, and spring, and then chronic daily intake for oral and dermal exposure to As via drinking water, hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index were calculated by using indices. The HQ values were found to be >1 in all samples of Cankiri Province. The effects of As on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR). CR values for As were also estimated to be >10 -5 in drinking water samples of Cankiri Province and might exert potential CR for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Volkan

    2012-09-01

    One of the most important steps in solid waste management is the selection of an appropriate landfill site. The site selection process requires the evaluation and analysis of several criteria. However, the traditional evaluation method is not sufficient for the site selection process. Geographical information system (GIS) technologies are effectively used in the process of site selection, which is a spatial problem. This article describes a raster GIS-based landfill site selection (LSS) method. This method utilizes a raster-based spatial database in which the factors affect the landfill site selection. The final product in this method is the cost surface map showing pixel-based values of the appropriate areas. Furthermore, this GIS-based LSS method was applied for the evaluation of two landfill sites in Trabzon Province in Turkey, for which the traditional evaluation method for site selection was used. The suitability values on the cost surface map of these two landfills have shown that these sites are not appropriate for a solid waste landfill. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the method of raster GIS-based site selection gives more effective results than traditional methods.

  10. Causes and prevention of violence toward emergency personnel by patients and their relatives in a province in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Fatma; Sucu, Gülten; Karazeybek, Ebru

    2009-03-23

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to determine the opinions of the emergency department's personnel about the causes and prevention of violence directed at them by patients and their relatives. METHODS: This research was conducted between 3 February and 15 June, 2006, in Antalya, a province in southern Turkey, with a total of 216 emergency department personnel who work in the emergency departments of three hospitals. A questionnaire developed by researchers was used to collect data for the purpose of determining what kind of violence is directed at emergency personnel by patients and their relatives and the personnel's socio-demographic characteristics and opinions. Pearson's chi and Fisher's exact test were used in the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Almost all (94.4%) of the participating emergency personnel had been exposed to verbal violence and 59.7% to physical violence. Only 24.5% of those exposed to violence reported the violence. The majority of the personnel (72.5%) thought that individuals' personality tendencies are the primary cause of violence. Their primary recommendation for preventing violence was to increase security measures. Statistically significant differences were found between emergency personnel's place of work and physical violence, between gender and physical violence, and between level of education and reporting violence. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the research results, it is recommended that emergency personnel be trained on the subject of violence, a documentation system be developed for recording and reporting violence, and corrections be made to prevent violence based on the personnel's opinions.

  11. Current status of the congenital hypothyroidism neonatal screening program in Adana Province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Yılmaz; Kor, Deniz

    2018-05-11

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation; it has a worldwide incidence ranging from 1:3000 to 1:4500 live births. Predictably, an increase in the reported incidence of primary CH occurs when the cut-off levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone are lowered. We aimed to evaluate the results of a congenital hypothyroidism screening program and current status in this study. Analysis results of 1300 infants who were referred to the endocrinology polyclinic because of suspected CH within the scope of the Ministry of Health National Neonatal Screening Program were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of CH and initiation of treatment were both done in 223 (18.5%) and 10 (0.8%) infants as a result of the initial evaluation and follow-up, respectively. The mean capillary and venous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 223 patients were 40.78 (5.5-100) μIU/mL and 67.26 (10.7-100) μIU/mL, respectively. These patients' mean heel prick time was 8.65 (0-30, median: 7) days. The mean age of the 223 infants whose treatment was initiated as a result of the initial evaluation was 19.87 (4-51, median: 20) days, and the mean age of the infants whose treatment was started at follow-up was 43.71 (29-65) days. The duration between heel prick time and venous TSH time was 11.10 (2-28, median: 11) days and was longer than planned (3-5 days). Although the duration for the diagnosis and initiation of CH treatment were markedly reduced with the implementation of the screening program in Turkey compared to those before the implementation of the screening program, we have not yet achieved the ideal time (≤14 days).

  12. The prevalence of nutritional anemia in pregnancy in an east Anatolian province, Turkey

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    Gunes Gulsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is considered a severe public health problem by World Health Organization when anemia prevalence is equal to or greater than 40% in the population. The purpose of this study was to determine the anemia prevalence with the associated factors in pregnant women and to determine the serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin status in anaemic pregnants in Malatya province. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey. A multi-sage stratified probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology was used. A total of 823 pregnant women from sixty clusters were studied. Women were administered a questionnaire related with the subject and blood samples were drawn. Total blood count was performed within four hours and serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin were studied after storing sera at -20 C for six months. Results Anemia prevalence was 27.1% (Hb Conclusions In Malatya, for pregnant women anemia was a moderate public health problem. Coexisting of iron, folate and B vitamin deficiencies was observed among anaemics. To continue anemia control strategies with reasonable care and diligence was recommended.

  13. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Antakya: A multicultural district in Hatay Province of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Yelda; Güzelşemme, Mehmet; Miski, Mahmut

    2015-11-04

    We have compiled information about the medicinal plants used in folk medicine in the district of Antakya. Since its establishment by King Seleucus I in 300 B.C., Antakya (old Antioch) has hosted nearly 20 civilizations. Antakya, neighboring Northwestern Syria, is located on the western end of the "Silk Road" and was one of the great centers of Graeco-Roman world. Today, Antakya is a cosmopolitan city in which Arabic and Turkish are widely spoken, and where distinct ethnic and religious communities, such as Arab Alawite, Arab Christian, Arab Sunni, Turk Sunni, Armenian, and Jewish, have been living together in harmony for centuries. In addition, the rich flora in the vicinity of Antakya also renders the area interesting in terms of ethnobotanical fieldwork. This study aimed to compile the information about plants used for medicinal purposes by local people in the district of Antakya. This city is a significant region in terms of ethnobotanical fieldwork, owing to its cosmopolitan structure, long history, relatively preserved traditional community structure, and rich flora. Furthermore, we sought to compare the ethnomedicinal data geographically, cross-culturally, and historically. The ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in the district of Antakya has been investigated through two separate studies; one was conducted in 1975, interviewing 29 people, and the other was conducted in 2011-2013, interviewing 182 people. The use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (FIC) values of the plants were calculated. In order to interpret the authenticity and sources of the compiled ethnomedicinal information, previous publications that contain information about the similar medicinal uses of plants identified in our region were reviewed and evaluated meticulously. A comparison with the data obtained from other regions of Turkey and from other Mediterranean regions, as well as a cross-cultural analysis between the ethnic groups within the study area, was performed by

  14. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in epidemiological research and planning interventions.

  15. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  16. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  17. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    , Sivas and Konya provinces precipitation is generally less than 500 mm. Since southeastern Anatolia is under the effect of weather coming from the deserts in Syria, Iraq and Arab Peninsula, the summer season in this area is dry and hot. Owing to the irregularity of its topography, various types of climate ranging from, subtropical to cold or very cold climates as you move horizontally or vertically characterize climate in Turkey. The driest regions are the Karaman, Igdlr and Sanliurfa, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. The wettest regions are the Black Sea coastal regions where annual rainfall can reach 2,200 millimeters annually.(Author)

  18. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in rural and suburban communities in three provinces of Turkey: need for improved diagnosis and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, Sukran; Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Brucella-specific antibodies in rural and suburban communities in different provinces of Anatolia. Cross-sectional seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected in communities in two relatively developed provinces in west Anatolia with an official low

  19. Explanatory Models of Illness, Help Seeking Behaviours and Related Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Comparative Study from Two Different Provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalvaç, Hayriye Dilek; Mutlu, Elif Aktan; Kotan, Zeynep; Özer, İbrahim; Karslıoğlu, Ersin Hatice; Çayköylü, Ali

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the help seeking behaviours of patients from two geographically distinct provinces of Turkey. A questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics and help seeking ways was applied to 49 schizophrenia patients from Van, 99 from Ankara. The ratio of patients seeking psychiatric help at the beginning of their illness was 76% in Ankara, the capital city, in contrast to 54% in Van (p = 0.01). Twenty-two percent of patients from Ankara and 69% from Van reported that non-psychiatric help seeking was the choice of their families (p help (p = 0.002). Help seeking behaviours show regional variations. Religious help seeking behaviour is a major way of dealing with the illness. Psychoeducation is a crucial need both for patients and families.

  20. The Prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Young Adolescents in the Province of Muğla in Turkey: Results of a Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yaşar; Topal, Hatice; Ceyhan, Mustafa Nuri; Azik, Fatih; Çapanoğlu, Murat; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive inherited blood disorder. It is prevalent in Mediterranean countries such as Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon and also Southeast Asia. Our aim was to investigate the carrier prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in adolescents who live in Muğla Province, Turkey. We analyzed retrospectively the surveys conducted at primary schools between 1997 and 2013. Complete blood count (CBC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to screen for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Patients were diagnosed as having thalassemia trait if the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was ≤ 80.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 27.0 pg and Hb A2 levels were ≥ 3.5%. A total of 164,814 students were analyzed. The median age of the students was 13.5 years (minimum 13.0, maximum 14.0). The total number of students with abnormal HPLC results was 5861 (3.8%). There was a significant decrease in the newborn of new thalassemia patients found with screening programs for hemoglobinopathies in Muğla Province from 1997 to 2013. The number of students with abnormal HPLC results for thalassemia, sickle cell disease and other Hb traits were 3.2, 0.15 and 0.4%, respectively. It is important to recognize that including Hb, MCV, red blood cell (RBC) count and HPLC tests for carrier screening are necessary to find hemoglobinopathies. Our study supported that the number of new patients significantly decreased using these screening programs from 1997 to 2013.

  1. The job satisfaction and burnout levels of primary care health workers in the province of Malatya in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Ozlem; Gunay, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the job satisfaction and burnout levels of primary care health workers in Malatya in Turkey. The sample of the study included 186 physicians, 126 midwives and 106 nurses working in primary health care. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale and the Maslach Burnout Scale were used in the study. The general, internal and external job satisfaction score medians of the study group were 3.35, 3.50 and 3.12 respectively, while the median of the Maslach Personal accomplishment score was 23.00, the Emotional Burnout score median was 15.00, and the Depersonalisation score median was found to be 3.00. The manner of their employment in the departments where they work, their perception of their economic circumstances and their satisfaction of the department where they work have an impact on the job satisfaction and burnout levels of workers.

  2. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  3. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Some Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria from Freshwater Sites in Tokat Province of Turkey

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    Tunay Karan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Collected blue-green algae (cyanobacteria from freshwater sites throughout Tokat province and its outlying areas were isolated in laboratory environment and their morphological systematics were determined and also their species identifications were studied by molecular methods. Seven different species of blue-green algae collected from seven different sites were isolated by purifying in cultures in laboratory environment. DNA extractions were made from isolated cells and extracted DNAs were amplified by using PCR. Cyanobacteria specific primers were used to amplify 16S rRNA and phycocyanine gene regions using PCR. Phylogenetic identification of species were conducted by evaluation of obtained sequence analysis data by using computer software. According to species identification by sequence analysis, it was seen that molecular data supports morphological systematics.

  4. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in mosses and lichens in the Ordu province, Turkey by Cevik and Celik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Ugur; Celik, Necati

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen and moss samples were collected from the Ordu province, which was already chosen for a related study some years ago. It was observed that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 31 to 469 Bq kg -1 in the moss and from 132 to 1508 Bq kg -1 in the lichen samples. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1997 (over a period of 10 y) indicated ecological half-lives between 1.8 and 10.4 y for the moss and between 2.1 and 13.7 y for the lichen samples. It was observed that 137 Cs was still eminent in the area studied. Moreover, 40 K activity concentrations and K element concentrations were measured and their relationships were discussed

  5. DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE CHEMICAL EXTRACTION METHODS FOR AVAILABLE IRON CONTENT OF THE SOILS FROM EDIRNE PROVINCE IN TURKEY

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    A ADILOGLU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe content of the soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA; 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4; 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc; 1 M MgCl2; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH42CO3; 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods and six biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, relative Fe uptake were compared. Biological indices were determined with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The correlation coefficients (r for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 +0.1 M TEA method were r=0.621**; r=0.823**; r=0.810**; r=0.433**; r=0.558** and r=0.640** and for the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method r=0.618** ; r=0.520**; r=0.679**; r=0.521**; r=0.492** and r=0.641**, (**:p<0.01 respectively. These extraction methods, among all the methods tested were suggested for the determination of available Fe content of Edirne Province soils.

  6. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi

    2017-05-01

    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ 18 O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ 2 H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N 2 -dominated with a significant amount of CO 2 . The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  7. Consumers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Assessment About Food Safety: The Case Study of Hatay Province of Turkey

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    Yalçın Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of food sensitivities began to increase along with societal growth. Consumer awareness is gradually increasing with the expansion of accurate and balanced information. In an increasingly consuming world, the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals during the purchasing of food products are important. Findings from research of this kind positively impact the strategies of companies offering the products on the market. The purpose of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in the Hatay province and what they consider when buying food items. The data were obtained by face to face interviews of 334 consumers in 2008, and were analysed using a 5-point Likert scale. The average monthly spending of consumers in the survey research is 747.48 USD with food expenses in first place at 32.92% among the total amount of spending. Food product manufacturing, expiration date, storage and conditions were all taken into account for purchasing confidence. Supermarkets were found to be the most trusted shopping places; and of the consumers surveyed, 70.55% are affected positively or negatively by food-related news articles.

  8. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda

    2017-12-01

    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper

  9. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  10. Hourly cooling load prediction of a vehicle in the southern region of Turkey by Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmaz, Ozgur; Ozgoren, Muammer; Aksoy, Muharrem Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ANN model was developed to predict hourly cooling load of a vehicle. • Hourly meteorological data of 5 different provinces was used. • The agreement of the cooling load values between the calculations and predictions was fairly promising. • The ANN model could be successfully used to design automotive air conditioning systems. - Abstract: In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) method for prediction hourly cooling load of a vehicle was implemented. The cooling load of the vehicle was calculated along the cooling season (1 May–30 September) for Antalya, Konya, Mersin, Mugla and Sanliurfa provinces in Turkey. For ANN model, seven neurons determinated as input signals of latitude, longitude, altitude, day of the year, hour of the day, hourly mean ambient air temperature and hourly solar radiation were used for the input layer of the network. One neuron producing an output signal of the hourly cooling load was utilized in the output layer. All data were divided into two categories for training and testing of the ANN. The 80% of the data was reserved to training and the remaining was used for testing of the model. Neuron numbers in the hidden layer from 7 to 40 were tested step by step to find the best matching ANN structure. The obtained results for different numbers of neurons were compared in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and mean absolute error (MAE). The best matching results for the training and testing were obtained as 8 neurons for the minimum testing RMSE value for the prediction of cooling load by the ANN model on the 23rd day of each month along the cooling season. For the model with 8 neurons RMSE, R 2 and MAE (Training/Testing) were found to be 0.0128/0.0259, 0.9959/0.9818 and 78.81/174.71 W/m 2 , respectively. It is shown that the cooling load of a vehicle can be successfully predicted by means of the ANNs from geographical characteristics and meteorological data

  11. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from south-central Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Amara, Pterostichinae, Carabidae, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. This publication is the second part of a taxonomic and geographical treatment of the Pterostichinae of south- central Turkey, with a focus on sites in the province of. Kahramanmaraş and some of the geographically adjacent provinces.

  12. Contrıbutıon to Study of Turkey Mycobiota IV. The New Records of Microfungi with Asci To Forest Phytocoenose of Rize Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Selçuk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study which carried out on trees and shrubs in forest phytocoenose of Rize province, fifty-one microfungi species have been identified as new record for mycobiota of our country. Sixteen genera have been determined as new record on level of genera among these species.

  13. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  14. Change detection using Landsat images and an analysis of the linkages between the change and property tax values in the Istanbul Province of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Sibel; Aliefendioğlu, Yeşim; Tanrıvermiş, Harun

    2017-09-15

    In this study, the Istanbul Province was monitored using Landsat 5 TM, MSS, Landsat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI imagery from the years 1986, 2000, 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 in order to assess land cover changes in the province. The aim of the study was to classify manmade structures, land, green, and water areas, and to observe the changes in the province using satellite images. After classification, the images were compared in selected years to observe land cover. Moreover, these changes were correlated with the property tax values of Istanbul by years. The findings of the study showed that manmade structure areas increased while vegetation areas decreased due to rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrial and commercial development in Istanbul. These changes also explain the transformation of land from rural and natural areas to residential use, and serve as a tool with which to assess land value increments. Land value capturing is critical for the analysis of the linkages between the changes in land cover, and for assessing land transformation and urban growth. Due to inadequate market data, real estate tax values were used to analyze the linkages between detection changes, land cover, and taxation. In fact, the declared tax values of land owners are generally lower than the actual market values and therefore it is not possible to transfer the value increasing of land in urban areas by using property taxation from the owner to local and central governments. The research results also show that the integration of remote sensing results with real estate market data give us to determine the tax base values of real estate more realistically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in children with urinary tract infection in Sanliurfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, Mahmut; Güzel, Bülent; Oymak, Yeşim; Çiftçi, Halil

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate antibiotic resistance in the province of Şanliurfa and to observe any difference between antibiotic resistance rates. The study comprised 107 children who presented at the pediatric polyclinic with complaints of urinary tract infection with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection and whose urine cultures exhibited bacterial growth. The patients were analyzed with respect to the frequency of proliferating pathogens, sensitivity to the antibiotics used and the rates of developed resistance to the antibiotics. A total of 107 patients aged between 1 year and 15 years were included in the study, encompassing 14 (13.1%) males and 93 (86.9%) females. According to the urine culture results, proliferation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was observed in 69 (64.5%), Klebsiella spp. in 13 (12.1%), Proteus mirabilis in 9 (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5 (4.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 5 (4.7%), Acinetobacter spp. in 3 (2.8%) and Enterococcus spp. in 3 (2.8%) patients. For proliferating E. coli, high resistance rates to ceftriaxone (39.5%), nitrofurantoin (19.7%), ampicillin-sulbactam (64.1%), co-trimoxazole (41.5%), amoxicillinclavulanate (51.7%) and cefuroxime (38.1%) were observed. All of isolated microorganisms were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and cefoxitin in decreasing frequencies. The most effective antimicrobial agents were determined to be imipenem, sulpera-zone, quinolone and aminoglycosides. In our region, parenteral antibiotics that should be selected for the empirical treatment of UTIs in all age groups are the aminoglycosides and 3(rd) generation cephalosporines. In contrast to other studies, these results suggest that co-trimoxazole should be used for children aged 0-1, and 2(nd) generation cephalosporins should be used for the oral treatment of children aged 1-5 due to the low rate of resistance to nitrofurantoin in patients aged over 5 years.

  16. Estimation of solar potential in Turkey by artificial neural networks using meteorological and geographical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Turkey is located at the Mediterranean at 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes and has a typical Mediterranean climate. The solar energy potential is very high in Turkey. The yearly average solar radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. This study consists of two cases. Firstly, the main focus of this study is to put forward the solar energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Secondly, in this study, the best approach was investigated for each station by using different learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function in the neural network with developed software. In order to train the neural network, meteorological data for last three years (2000-2002) from 17 stations (Ankara, Samsun, Edirne, Istanbul-Goeztepe, Van, Izmir, Denizli, Sanliurfa, Mersin, Adana, Gaziantep, Aydin, Bursa, Diyarbakir, Yozgat, Antalya and Mugla) spread over Turkey were used as training (11 stations) and testing (6 stations) data. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 6.735% and R 2 values were found to be about 99.893% for the testing stations. However, these values were found to be 4.398% and 99.965% for the training stations. The trained and tested ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating the solar resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. The predicted solar potential values from the ANN are given in the form of monthly maps. These maps are of prime importance for different working disciplines, like scientists, architects, meteorologists and solar engineers, in Turkey. The predictions from the ANN models could enable scientists to locate and design solar energy systems in Turkey and determine the best solar

  17. Reference levels of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in and around the surface soils of Kestanbol pluton in Ezine region of Çanakkale province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Buket Canbaz; Çam, N Füsun; Yaprak, Günseli

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic investigation on the natural gamma emitting radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) as well as (137)Cs in the surface soils from Kestanbol/Ezine plutonic area in Çanakkale province as part of the environmental monitoring program on radiologic impact of the granitoid areas in Western Anatolia. The activity measurements of the gamma emitters in the surface soil samples collected from 52 sites distributed all over the region has been carried out, by means of HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant radionuclides in the soil samples appeared in the ranges as follows: (226)Ra was 20-521 Bq kg(-1); (232)Th, 11-499 Bq kg(-1)and; (40)K, 126-3181 Bq kg(-1), yet the (137)Cs was much lower than 20 Bq kg(-1)at most. Furthermore, based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed soils were calculated. The present data also allowed evaluation of some correlations that may exist in the investigated natural radionuclides of the soil samples from the plutonic area in Çanakkale province. It is concluded from the above that the concerned region did not lead to any significant radiological exposure to the environment.

  18. Unifying Two Regional Planning Methodologies in an Analysis of the Rural and Agricultural Development Potential of the Province of Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIŞ ERGEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study will investigate Yozgat’s agricultural potential for rural development. There are many emigrants from Yozgat. The elderly population here is increasing, and although the agricultural potential is strong, it is not used effectively. The method used in this study includes a combination of two approaches. The first approach includes the critical factors of rural development: physical systems, social systems, creative systems, local systems and economic systems. The second approach includes the accelerators of rural population, in addition to the opportunities and limiters. The most important problem related to the analysis of rural development is the selection of a perspective on the province in question. This study will guide future studies of provinces and regions. The study concluded that Yozgat’s social life should be as lively and strong as its agricultural production and animal husbandry potential. Moreover, Yozgat has important ecotourism destinations, and this potential should be used. The greatest necessity of Yozgat is agro-industry that will serve for the processing of agricultural and animal husbandry products.

  19. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  20. Determination of the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes in well waters on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System in Afyonkarahisar province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Yalım, Hüseyin; Sandıkcıoğlu, Ayla; Ertuğrul, Oğuz; Yıldız, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in water of 4 wells on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System (ASFS) in Afyonkarahisar province from August 2009 to September 2010 and the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquake magnitudes was examined. Anomalous decreases in radon concentrations in the wells were observed to precede the earthquakes of magnitudes ranging from 2.6 M to 3.9 M. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) were 0.79, 0.93, 0.98 and 0.90 for the wells from 1 to 4, respectively, indicating that radon minima and earthquake magnitude were well correlated and suggesting that the groundwater radon, when observed at suitable sites, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in crust associated with earthquake occurrences. The relationship between the two parameters can be further improved as additional radon anomalies precursor to possible large earthquakes are recorded in the wells located on the ASFS in the future. This study strongly suggests that the continuous observations of radon concentrations in well water, especially at well 3, should be carried forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  2. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  3. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  4. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  5. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  6. First report of Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917 (Acari: Eriophyidae on Pepino in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Akyazi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917 (Acari: Eriophyidae is reported for the first time on Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton in Ordu and Samsun provinces in Turkey.

  7. The fauna and systematic of the genus Terellia R-D., 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a key to the species of Terellia in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KÜTÜK, Murat; YARAN, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the Terellia species collected from 27 provinces of Turkey during 1999-2006. The locality, host plants (including new records), and figures of the wing pattern of each species are given. An identification key to all 15 species of Terellia known from Turkey is presented and their distribution in Turkey and other countries summarized.

  8. Local financial development and capital accumulations: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryiğit Sibel Balı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable importance of financial markets in the economy, the factors promoting financial development have just recently begun to be researched intensively. In this context, the aim of the study is to explain the reasons for the financial development gaps among provinces in Turkey on the basis of capital accumulations. According to the results of the spatial panel data model estimates based on indices of 81 provinces in Turkey for the period 2005-2009, it was found that the level of social capital best explained the level of financial development, followed by physical capital and human capital. Additionally, it was found that capital accumulations contributed above average not only to the financial development of that province, but also to that of the surrounding provinces.

  9. Turkey: A Geostrategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanale, Rosalie A

    2001-01-01

    ...] America"s primary national security interest in Turkey is regional stability. U.S. strategy aims for Turkey to be a strong regional player, able to act in support of U.S. interests in a troubled region.

  10. Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  11. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  12. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  13. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüce M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one

  14. Iğdır İli Tarım İşletmelerinin Zirai Mücadele Uygulamalarında Çevreye Duyarlılıkları / Environmental Awareness of Agricultural Enterprises in the Igdir Province of Turkey at Implementation of Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Erdal ERTÜRK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Iğdır ilinde ve ilçelerinde bitki üretimi yapan tarım işletmesi sahiplerinin bitki korumayla ilgili uygulamalarını gerçekleştirirken, tabiata ve insan sağlığına verebilecekleri zarar hakkında bilgili olup olmadıkları araştırılmıştır. Çalışmanın verileri Gıda, Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı Iğdır İl Müdürlüğünün Çiftçi Kayıt Sisteminde kayıtlı toplam 104 tarım işletmesinin sahipleriyle yüz yüze yapılan anket çalışmalarıyla elde edilmiştir. Tarım ilâçlarının çevreye zararı konusunda çiftçilerin yarısına yakın kısmının zarar yoktur demesi, dörtte birinin de kalıntılar konusunda zararsız olacağını ifade etmesi çiftçinin bilinç seviyesinde yetersizliği ifade etmektedir. Bilhassa ilâçlama âletlerinin temizleme sularının atılmasında yeterli dikkatin gösterilmemesi, ilâç ambalajları ile kalan ilâçların muhafaza ve imhasındaki cevaplar çiftçilerin hem çevre hem de ziraî mücadele konusunda ki bilinçsizliğini göstermektedir. Environmental Awareness of Agricultural Enterprises in the Igdir Province of Turkey at Implementation of Plant Protection In this study, it was researched if farmers from the Igdir Province of Turkey have knowledge and awareness on effect of plant protection implementations on environment and human health. The data were collected from 104 enterprises, which have been recorded in Farmer Records System of the Igdir Province directorate of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Ministry, through discussions face to face. Almost half of the farmers told that pesticides are harmless, and one forth that pesticide residues are harmless, which shows insufficiency in conciseness of farmers. Especially, that no attention was given cleaning water’ deposits, removing empty chemical’s packages, and storing remaining pesticides, showed lack of awareness on plant protection and environment.

  15. Geothermal district heating in Turkey: The Gonen case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Zuhal; Aslan, Asiye

    2007-01-01

    The status of geothermal district heating in Turkey and its future prospects are reviewed. A description is given of the Gonen project in Balikesir province, the first system to begin citywide operation in the country. The geology and geothermal resources of the area, the history of the project's development, the problems encountered, its economic aspects and environmental contributions are all discussed. The results of this and other such systems installed in Turkey have confirmed that, in this country, heating an entire city based on geothermal energy is a significantly cleaner, cheaper option than using fossil fuels or other renewable energy resources. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Honour Killings in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Celbis, Osman; Ozdemir, Bora; Oruc, Mucahit; Dogan, Mustafa; Egri, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Honour killings are still pervasive in many societies.  The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the victims of honour killings and honour killers in Malatya province between 2000 and 2004, and to review the concept of honour killings in Turkey.  Data are collected from the records of Malatya Higher Criminal Court.  The results are discussed in the light of the data obtained from Turkish Republic Ministry of Justice.  There were 36 honour killings in Malatya between 2000 and ...

  17. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  18. Identification of the traditional methods of newborn mothers regarding jaundice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Diler; Karaca Ciftci, Esra; Karatas, Hulya

    2014-02-01

    To detect traditional methods applied for the treatment of newborn jaundice by mothers in Turkey. Traditional methods are generally used in our society. Instead of using medical services, people often use already-known traditional methods to treat the disease. In such cases, the prognosis of the disease generally becomes worse, the treatment period longer and healthcare costs higher, and more medicine is used. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants of this study were 229 mothers with newborn babies aged 0-28 days in one university hospital and one public children's hospital in Sanliurfa. The study was conducted between March and May 2012. In this research, the Beliefs and Traditional Methods of Mothers for Jaundice Questionnaire, which was formed by searching the relevant literature, is used as a data collection tool. The data are evaluated by percentage distributions. Mothers apply conventional practices in cases of health problems such as jaundice, and application of these methods is important to mothers. Moreover, mothers reported applying hazardous conventional methods in cases of neonatal jaundice, such as cutting the area between the baby's eyebrows with a blade, cutting the back of the ear and the body and burning the body, which are not applied in different cultures. Education regarding the effects of conventional methods being applied in families should be provided, and the results of this study should serve to guide further studies in assessing the effects of such education. This approach can support beneficial practices involving individual care and prevent the negative health effects of hazardous practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. First case of Trichodectes pinguis (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Trichodectidae) on a Bear (Ursus arctos) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal; Orunç Kılınç, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to provide morphological characters of Trichodectes pinguis Burmeister, 1838 that was found on a European brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus) that was found injured in the Van province, eastern Turkey. Three lice specimens were collected from the bear, and they were identified as T. pinguis. The morphological characteristics of this species were provided in this study. T. pinguis was reported for the first time in Turkey.

  20. Effects of the Chernobyl Disaster on Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Turkey after 22 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Hasan; ?akabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, T?lay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approxi...

  1. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  3. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  4. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  5. Decrease in domestic violence during pregnancy: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagcioglu, Erman; Vural, Mehmet; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Aksin, Mahmut; Selek, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among pregnant women and find out whether several factors were associated with DV or not. A total of 317 pregnant women applied at Sanliurfa Obstetrics Hospital and Harran University obstetrics and gynecology department outpatient clinic were interviewed using the modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Several clinical and sociodemographic data were also obtained from the participants. Mean pregnancy number per woman (gravida) was 3.62 ± 0.13. 47.3% of women had experienced DV before pregnancy. However, the rate of DV exposure significantly decreased to 10.3% during pregnancy (p violence. Pregnancy appears to decrease DV in Sanliurfa.

  6. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  7. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  8. Pediatric Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Turkey: A Retrospective Analysis of 8786 Cases during 1998-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aksoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a major public health concern in Turkey and Sanliurfa represents the most endemic city in Turkey. Although children are most commonly affected by CL, detailed studies of pediatric CL in Turkey are lacking.In this report we retrospectively evaluated clinical and epidemiological data of 8786 pediatric CL cases, and how children respond to antimonial therapy. CL was observed most frequently in children between 6-10 years old. Interestingly this group showed shorter duration of disease and smaller lesions compared to 0-5 year and 11-15 year old groups. Females were more affected in all groups. Lesion localization and types varied among groups, with 0-5 year old presenting head/neck and mucosal lesions, and more often suffered from recidivans type, this could be associated to the longest duration of the disease in this group. Eleven-15 year old group showed fewer lesions in the head/neck but more generalized lesions. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that intra-lesional treatment was preferred over intramuscular treatment. However, 0-5 year old received intramuscular treatment more often than the other groups. Furthermore, the majority of 0-5 year old group which received intra-lesional treatment did not received subsequent intra-lesional cycles, as did children in the range of 6-15 years old.We report an increase in pediatric CL patients within the last four years. Analysis of pediatric CL patients by age revealed significant differences in CL progression. The data suggest that children between 0-5 years old responded better than other groups to intralesional treatment, since they received more often a single cycle of IL treatment, although follow up observation is required since they were more prone to develop recidivans. Eleven-15 year old patients comprise the largest percentage of patients receiving two or three cycles of intralesional treatment, suggesting that this group did not respond efficiently to

  9. Husbandry and Sustainability of Water Buffaloes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ermetin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water buffaloes in Turkey originate from Mediterranean Water Buffaloes, a subgroup of river water buffaloes and are known as Anatolian Water Buffalo. During the 1970’s the number of water buffaloes in Turkey was one million, but in 2010 this figure dropped to about 85.000. Thanks to the incentives introduced for water buffalo husbandry in recent years, the water buffalo population has risen to 143.073 heads. Water buffalo husbandry in Turkey is performed in some provinces of the Black Sea, Marmara and Central Anatolian Regions. The provinces with the highest amount of water buffalo existence are listed as Samsun, Diyarbakır, Istanbul, Tokat, Bitlis, Muş, Afyon, Kayseri, Sivas and Amasya. Breeding style in Turkey is in the form small family business, with an average of 1-5 animals per enterprise. Family enterprises are keeping water buffaloes for their own consumption. Mostly breeding in modern enterprises formed for indoor barn breeding, the size of the herds is around 50 to 100 heads. Being done only at swamps or waterfronts in the past, water buffalo husbandry increasingly takes place in modern facilities nowadays. The colour of Anatolian Water Buffaloes is generally black and their horns curved backwards, are called arch horns in Turkey. The lactation milk yield and lactation length in Anatolian Water Buffaloes are between 800 and 1100 kg and about 180-280 days respectively. It is demonstrated that they varied according to effects of environmental factors, care and feeding. Adult water buffalo’s live weight is about 411-518 kg. The first insemination age of water buffalo is 32 to 43 months and during a lifespan the number of lactation periods is 5 to 10. For adult water buffalo at withers the height of females is being expressed as around 135 cm. Calves are generally breastfed for 3-4 months. Generally, water buffaloes are milked twice a day in the village farms by hand.

  10. Phenomenological Analysis of Teachers' Organizational Deviance Experiences in a Rural Primary School in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasiz, Burcu Türkkas; Püsküllüoglu, Elif Iliman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze organizational deviance experiences of teachers. The study was in phenomenological design among qualitative research methods. In the research convenience sampling technique was used. The research was conducted in a rural primary school in Mugla province in Turkey. Nine teachers participated in the study,…

  11. Light trap surveys for moths in Sile region of Istanbul, Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Heterocera species collected by light trap method in Sile region, Istanbul province, Turkey during the years of 2007 - 2008 was evaluated. A total of 194 specimens were collected from 48 different locations in Sile. According to identification results, 70 species belonging to 15 families were recorded. The family ...

  12. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  13. The Supervision of Information Technology Classrooms in Turkey: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how primary school supervisors carry out their roles concerning information and communications technology (ICT) based classrooms in public primary schools in Turkey. Data were collected via a questionnaire from 583 primary school supervisors working in 17 different provinces. Statistical programs were used…

  14. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  15. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    Byzantium following Fatih Mehmet’s conquest of Istanbul in 1453, brought a new era of religious, political, social, econmic and cultural prosperity to the...radical decisions in order to force the liberal- econmic system towards a free market. Generally speaking, Turkey was a traditionally agricultural country

  16. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  17. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  18. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  19. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  20. The Development of Museology in Turkey, a Spatial Analysis of Museums and their Contribution to Tourism in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Kervankiran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural attractions include museums, art galleries, festivals, ancient structures, historical and architectural monuments, heritage sites, artistic activities and demonstrations as well as religious trips, language characteristics, local and authentic values, olimpiads, clothing style, traditions, and food culture. As being one of the most important components of cultural tourism, the museums in recent years have experienced a change in their functions, increased the number of tourists and provided economic benefits in their regions by creating alternative destinations for tourism. For this reason the museums, the integral part of tourism, receive increasing investments and new museums are constructed with different functions and the presentation of different products to attract more visitors. This study was conducted to evaluate the development of the museums, to spatially analyze the number of museums, their visitor numbers and incomes by province, and to determine the contribution of museums to tourism in Turkey. The number of museums in Turkey obtained from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, TÜRSAB and TÜİK, the number of artifacts in these museums, the number of visitors to these museums and the subsequent revenues according to the spatial distribution in the provinces have been mapped with the Geographical Information Systems (GIS and the spatial analysis (Standard Deviation Ellipse, Moran’s I, LISA of the museum indicators has been carried out and the results evaluated. Although museums have long been studied in Turkey with their different characteristics, the studies concerning the use of museums for tourism are quite new. As seen from the number of museums and their visitors, the museums are not being used sufficiently in Turkey. Apart from a very limited number of examples such as Topkapı Palace, Hagia Sophia Museum, Konya Museum, and Anıtkabir, the museums in Turkey are not sufficient in terms of their qualifications and the

  1. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  2. MICRO CREDIT SYSTEM FOR INCREASING FEMALEEMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Yaprak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Women labor participation rate is very low in Turkey. Although the governmentincentive policies have relatively improved, positive developments expected in thisarea have not taken place at the desired level. The micro-credit scheme aiming atproviding relatively smaller amount of loans to entrepreneur women to start theirbusiness began in 1980s in the world, and became operational in our country atthe beginning of 2000s. Currently, certain level of successful is observed throughin many Turkish provinces through this system. To this day, nearly 200thousandfemale entrepreneur established their business through small capital provided bythe micro credit system in Turkey. Moreover, they have already paid back all theloans that they used. In this study, the application of micro-credit system forincreasing female participation in labor force and business life is investigated.The labor participation level of women in Turkey has remained quite low.Although the government incentive policies have relatively provided improvement,the positive developmentsexpected in this area have not taken place at the desiredlevel. The micro-credit scheme aiming at providing relatively lower amount ofloans to women to start their business began in 1980s in the world, and becameoperational in our country at the beginning of 2000s. Currently, we see successfulwork is done through this scheme in many Turkish provinces. In this study, theapplication of micro-credit system for increasing the participation of women inworking life is elaborated.

  3. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  4. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  5. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  6. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  7. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  8. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  9. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...introducing free-market economics, privatization, export -promotion, a fully convertible currency, and a development philosophy of "build, operate, transfer Ŗ...to Ozal for the major export market it represented, s and he shared with the Turkish elite the symbolic importance of joining the premier politico

  10. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  11. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  13. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  14. Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey

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    Istvan Egresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.

  15. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  16. Domestic Violence against Women in Sivas, Turkey: Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Method: Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65 ± 4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants’ homes. Demographic data were obtained...

  17. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (≥65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. Results The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%. The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ≤500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). Conclusions It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs. PMID:25925800

  18. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  19. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  20. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative ot other regions of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published survey of 10 Turkish provinces and another of the world in which D...

  1. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  2. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of...

  3. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  4. Development of the auto gas and LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey: A statistical case study of the sector for Bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamangil, M. Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the development of LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey and the policies applied by the Turkish Government as well as the total fleet of LPG-powered vehicles in Bursa province, which is assumed as typical district to represent whole Turkey, are analyzed. We also tried to point out economical losses and applicational problems caused by wrong energy and environmental policies in Turkey. We aimed to focus a guiding light on the newly developing auto gas markets in different countries through the problems resulting from the fast growth of the sector and the experiences in Turkish application

  5. Determination of geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics in Bilecik Marble, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Ozbay, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Natural stones are one of the oldest known building materials. There are more than 400 natural stone in Turkey. Recently, the demand for the natural stone types in markets has been increasing rapidly. For this reason, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of natural stone are very important. Bilecik province is located at the northwest part of Turkey and it is surrounded by Sakarya, Bursa, Eskisehir and Kutahya city. Bilecik is one of the important marble industry regions of Turkey. Thus, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of Bilecik marble are very important. In this study, Bilecik marble was collected to determine the geochemistry and natural radioactivity. Then, analyses of geochemical and natural radioactivity in the marble samples are interpreted. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study is supported by Bilecik Seyh Edebali University scientific project (Project Number =2011-02-BIL.03-04).

  6. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  7. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  8. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  9. A snapshot of the organization and provision of primary care in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This WHO study aimed to support Turkey in its efforts to strengthen the primary care (PC) system by implementing the WHO Primary Care Evaluation Tool (PCET). This article provides an overview of the organization and provision of primary care in Turkey. Methods The WHO Primary Care Evaluation Tool was implemented in two provinces (Bolu and Eskişehir) in Turkey in 2007/08. The Tool consists of three parts: a national questionnaire concerning the organisation and financing of primary care; a questionnaire for family doctors; and a questionnaire for patients who visit a family health centre. Results Primary care has just recently become an official health policy priority with the introduction of a family medicine scheme. Although the supply of family doctors (FDs) has improved, they are geographically uneven distributed, and nationwide shortages of primary care staff remain. Coordination of care could be improved and quality control mechanisms were lacking. However, patients were very satisfied with the treatment by FDs. Conclusions The study provides an overview of the current state of PC in Turkey for two provinces with newly introduced family medicine, by using a structured approach to evaluate the essential functions of PC, including governance, financing, resource generation, as well as the characteristics of a "good" service delivery system (as being accessible, comprehensive, coordinated and continuous). PMID:21542904

  10. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on registered employment and number of registered establishments of two employment subsidy schemes in Turkey. We implement a difference-in-differences methodology to construct appropriate counterfactuals for the covered provinces. Our findings suggest that both subs...... than boosting total employment and economic activity. This supports the theory that in countries with weak enforcement institutions, high labor taxes on low-wage workers may lead to substantial incentives for firms and workers to operate informally....

  11. In-Service Turkish Elementary and Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Science and Science Teaching: A Sample from Usak Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal Turkish elementary teachers' and science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching. The sample of the study, 138 in-service elementary level science teachers from a province of Turkey, was selected by a clustered sampling method. The Science Teaching Attitude Scale-II was employed to measure the…

  12. The law enforcement agencies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aygun, A.

    2001-01-01

    Union. Turkey serves as a bridge between nuclear substances provider countries and illegal demander countries of these materials due to its geographic position. For the purpose of preventing the traffic of illegal nuclear substances, 10 radiation dose-rate meters have started to be used in the customs of Turkey after 1996. Devices such as search kits, fiberscopes, radiation dose-rate meter, drug test kit, gas data, were distributed and are being used in province organizations of the General Directorate of Customs Enforcement, and are also available for the purpose of fighting against smuggling of narcotic nuclear substances, guns, commercial goods. If the southern and eastern neighboring countries of Turkey and some European countries producing the chemicals used in production of narcotics assist Turkey in this effort, the fighting would reach desirable levels. There are 72 radioactive material smuggling events in our country since 1993 but only 10 events have been determined that substances are radioactive material and others have determined that substances are poison of mercury. Snake poison was seized in 1997 in the 962 glass tube units at the Gurbulak border gate, which is known for its use in getting chemical gas for war. (author)

  13. Socioeconomic Perspectives on Household Chestnut Fruit Utilization and Chestnut Blight Prevention Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.

  14. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  15. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  16. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  17. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  18. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  19. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  20. Labour migration from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people.

  1. Current Situation and Development Opportunities of Apple Production inThe Province Konya

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAMOĞLU, Zeki; ÇELİK, Yusuf; OĞUZ, Cennet

    2009-01-01

    In this study sectoral analysis of apple production activity in Konya was made. Within this scope at first apple production amount in Turkey and in the world and developments in cultivation areas were examined, development opportunities of apple production in the province were discussed. The data about this issue was collected from secondary sources (Food and Agriculture Organization, Turkish Statistical Institute etc.) In line with this data strong, weak sides of this sector, opportunities a...

  2. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  3. Status of Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena in Hatay and Şanlıurfa-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Atay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an 18 month survey, involving face to face interviews with the local people and deployment camera-traps, was carried out on about 600 km2 areas in Turkey. Field surveys and camera-trapping resulted in strong evidences that striped hyenas travel and live around Hatay (Syria border and Şanlıurfa Provinces in Turkey. However, a comprehensive study was not carried out about the status of striped hyenas in this region. Our results showed that striped hyenas were frequently observed around the wasteland and the chicken farm in Hatay Province. Alternatively, they live in small groups in Şanlıurfa Province. Several caves suitable for striped hyenas were identified by footprints, feces and other animal remnants observed in and before those caves. We performed molecular characterization of striped hyenas in Turkey for the first time using Cytb mitochondrial DNA isolated from hair, ear and carcass tissues. Sequences of Cytb DNA sequences from10 different striped hyena samples from Turkey were found to be identical to each other. Comparison of the sequences with the previously reported Cytb sequences, including prehistoric ones, showed that Ctyb gene was highly conserved among the Hyaena hyaena species. During the field surveys we also observed that habitat destruction and fragmentation are detected on high level in the studied regions due to the intensive agricultural areas, settlements and quarries. Illegal hunting, frequent cave usage by shepherds, extensive porcupines hunting, water pollution from olive oil production facilities and highway crashes have been negatively affecting striped hyena population in Hatay and Şanlıurfa regions. It appears that a comprehensive study and protection plan should be exerted to preserve the habitat of striped hyenas.

  4. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  5. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Korean War, when Turkey sent troops in support of the United Nations defense of South Korea. As a Muslim country, Turkey’s cooperation with the United...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that

  6. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  7. The Future of Secular Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    into the global trade market of “ franchises and brand-name import- export.”6 Through his power, Ozal sought to redefine Turkey along capitalist...entertainment along with access to theaters, bars and cafes . These fears were never realized. The Refah mayors have left well enough alone. They have

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  9. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  10. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  11. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  14. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  15. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U; Damla, N; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using γ-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and a fission product 137 Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg -1 for 40 K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l -1 , respectively. The concentrations of gross α and β radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross α and β activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l -1 and 1.0 Bq l -1 gross α and β radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m -3 and the average value was 56 Bq m -3 . The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  16. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  17. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  18. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  19. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  20. A STUDY ON THE INTERNAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN TURKEY: LOWRY HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERHAT TOPBAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to re-examine Lowry hypothesis that were examined for Turkey in period of 1965–1980 by Gedik (1992 and period of 1985–1990 by Yamak and Küçükkale (2001 by using The Census of Population 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 in Turkey. For this reason, the relationships between in-migration and out-migration and net migration have investigated with population size, net migration rate and per capita income factors. Analysis that involve in all provinces called general model is not considered in social, economic and urban development factors. In addition, estimated restriction models that are considered urban development are involved population, net migration rate and per capita income factors. In conclusion we have exposed comparatively relationship between internal migration flows and urban development frame of estimated models.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  2. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  3. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armagan Erdem Utuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1 genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey.

  4. Effects of the chernobyl disaster on thyroid cancer incidence in Turkey after 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hasan; Cakabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approximately 100,000 people were screened, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 89 patients. Results. Based on postoperative histopathological examinations, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in six of the 100,000 people screened. Conclusion. Given a thyroid cancer frequency of approximately 8 in 100,000 in the Turkish population, according to the Turkish Cancer Research Association, the rate in Rize reflects no increase in the thyroid cancer incidence 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster.

  5. Spreading, Infestation and Damage Rates and Adult Population Monitoring of Tomato Leaf Miner [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] on Open Field Tomato Grown in the South Marmara Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Gürsel; GÖKSEL, Pınar; DURA, Onur; HANTAŞ, Cemil

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine spreading, infestation and fruit damage rates and adult population monitoring of Tomato leaf miner, (Tuta absoluta, Meyrick) on open field tomato grown in the South Marmara Region (Bilecik, Bursa, Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces) of Turkey in 2011-2012. As result of spreading studies carried out according to systematic sampling method, it was determined that all tomato locations in every province were infested by this pest. Infestation rate...

  6. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  7. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  8. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  9. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  10. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  11. The present status of safeguards in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Republic of Turkey signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in Vienna, Austria on January 28, 1969 and the Treaty was ratified by Turkish Parliament on March 29, 1979. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Republic of Turkey signed the Safeguards Agreement on June 30, 1981. Turkey accepted the international safeguards administered by IAEA and at the same time its subsidiary arrangements and Facility attachments were enforced for all nuclear facilities as an Non-Nuclear-Weapon State party to NPT. Regulation on Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control, which was prepared in accordance with Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and IAEA for the application of Safeguard in Connection with the Treaty on NPT, has been put into force since it was published in Official Gazette on September 10, 1997. This study presents the essential futures of national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Turkey

  12. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  13. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  14. Rockfall Modelling with Remedial Design and Measures along Part of a Mountainous Settlement Area, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntel, Berna; Acar, Altay

    2016-10-01

    In June 2011, a heavy rainfall triggered a number of rockfalls from steep slopes and on slopes made of soft to loose soils capped by inhomogeneous hard rock blocks and masses in the Düziçi Town of Osmaniye Province in Turkey. Large rock blocks had damaged 15 prefabricated hotel rooms whereas the slope movement blocked the major road between Duzigi and hot spring facilities at numerous locations along 280 m. This paper describes remedial measures and design recommended according to the modelling process based on the collection of data and simulation of rockfall with Rocscience RockFall 5.0 software.

  15. Helminth parasites of the levantine frog (Pelophylax bedriagae Camerano, 1882 from the western part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demır S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.

  16. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  17. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  18. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Table 3. Frequency of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Mutation. This study Turkey Cyprus Greece Syria Palestine Bulgaria Azerbaijan Iran Iraq. IVS 1.110 (G>A). 29.1. 39.3. 79.7. 42.1. 24.1. 17.6. 24.2. 20.2. 4.8 1.9. IVS 2.1 (G>A). 12.3. 4.7. -. 3.3. 4.2. 2.9. -. -. 33.9 18.3. IVS 1.1 (G>A).

  19. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  20. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  1. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  2. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  3. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  4. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  5. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  6. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  7. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  8. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  10. The Results of Hemoglobinopathy Screening in Hatay, the Southern Part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonul Oktay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: %u03B2-Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders in Turkey. Because of this reason, either anemic people or couples before marriage are investigated for hemoglobinopathies routinly. In this retrospective study, our aim was to determine the frequency of %u03B2-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Hatay, which is located in the southern part of Turkey. Material and Method: In this study, data from 70226 individuals, admitted to Antakya State Hospital Hemoglobinopathy Center in Hatay, both for the reason of anemia and before marriage investigations, were evaluated between January 2006 and October 2012. The blood samples were collected into EDTA-containing tubes and hematological parameters were analyzed using a Sysmex XT-2000i Hematology Analyzer. High performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine the type of hemoglobin. Results: The frequency of hemoglobinopaties were 6% %u03B2-Thalassemia trait, 6.3% sickle cell trait, 12.9% %u03B1-thalassaemia trait? and 4.2 % other abnormal hemoglobinopaties variants. We detected 49 cases with homozygot %u03B2-thalassaemia, 60 cases with homozygot haemoglobin S, 33 cases with HbH disease (thalassaemia intermedia among all. Discussion: The frequency of %u03B2-thalassemia trait and other haemoglobinopathies in Hatay is found to be quite high as compared with other provinces in Turkey.

  11. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Hypoderma SPP. in Domestic Ruminants from Turkey and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haroon; Simsek, Sami; Saki, Cem Ecmel; Kesik, Harun Kaya; Kilinc, Seyma Gunyakti

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological and molecular characterization of Hypoderma spp. in cattle and yak from provinces in Turkey and Pakistan. In total, 78 Hypoderma larvae were collected from slaughtered animals in Turkey and Pakistan from October 2015 to January 2016. Thirty-eight of these 78 Hypoderma larvae were morphologically classified as third instar larvae (L3s) of Hypoderma bovis, 37 were classified as Hypoderma lineatum, and 3 were classified as suspected or unidentified. The restriction enzyme TaqI was used to differentiate the Hypoderma spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). According to the sequences and the PCR-RFLP results, all larval samples from cattle from Turkey were classified as H. bovis, except for 1 sample classified as H. lineatum. All Hypoderma larvae from Pakistan were classified as H. lineatum from cattle and as Hypoderma sinense from yak. This study provides the first molecular characterization of H. lineatum (cattle) and H. sinense (yak) in Pakistan based on PCR-RFLP and sequencing results.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  14. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  15. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  16. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  17. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2012-01-01

    FY 2012-2013. Project Leads: Clement, Victoria and Gingeras, Ryan The primary objectives of this effort are twofold: to better understand and identify solutions to the current and potential challenges to U.S. national security interests in the Middle East, and to enhance understanding of and cooperation with Turkey through a Track II dialogue. The dialogue will provide policymakers with accessible intelligence, informed by on the ground discussions with relevant stakeholders in Turkey. NA

  18. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  19. Past nuclear power project experiences of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutukcuoglu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, developments in the world for utilization of nuclear energy and, in parallel to these developments, works undertaken in Turkey are summarized. Besides this, future prospects in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Turkey, and our opinion about the action to be taken in our county, in the light of past experiences of nuclear power projects that could not be succeeded, are presented

  20. GLOBAL SOURCING: A THEORETICAL STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sourcing is to source from the global market for goods and services across national boundaries in order to take advantage of the global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. Such efficiencies are consists of low cost skilled labor, low cost raw materials and other economic factors like tax breaks and deductions as well as low trade tariffs. When we assess the case regarding to Turkey, global sourcing is an effective device for some firms. The domestic firms in Turkey at various industries are inclined to global source finished or intermediate goods from the world markets, finish the production process in Turkey and export. Eventually, on the one hand the export volume of Turkey increases, but on the other hand the import of a considerable volume of finished or intermediate goods bring about a negative trade balance and loss of jobs in Turkey. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the concept of global sourcing transactions on Turkey resting on comprehensive publications.

  1. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  2. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  3. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  4. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  5. Thorium research and development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güngör, Görkem

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has a great potential regarding thorium resources. Thorium exploration activities have been done in the past mainly by state organizations for determining the thorium resources in Turkey. Thorium occurs as complex mineral together with barite, fluorite and rare earth elements (REE). The increase in global demand for REE creates the opportunity for REE production which will also produce thorium as a by-product. The development of nuclear energy program in Turkey provides the stimulus for research and development activities in nuclear technologies. The final declaration of the workshop emphasizes the importance of thorium reserves in Turkey and the necessity for thorium exploration and development activities in order to determine the feasibility of thorium mining and fuel cycle in Turkey. These activities should be conducted together with the development of technologies for separation of these complex minerals and purification of thorium, REE and other minerals to be utilized as commercial products. There are advanced academic research studies on thorium fuel cycle which should be supported by the industry in order to commercialize the results of these studies. Turkey should be integrated to international R and D activities on ADS which is expected to commercialize on medium term. The legislative framework should be developed in order to provide the industrial baseline for nuclear technologies independent from nuclear regulatory activities

  6. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48......) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C...

  7. Physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Leyla; Celbis, Osman; Ercan, Cihan; Ilgar, Mehtap; Pehlivan, Erkan; Gunes, Gulsen; Genc, Metin F; Egri, Mucahit

    2006-04-01

    In Turkey, violence against women was established as a critical area of concern related to women and various prevention strategies have been developed since 1980. There are limited numbers of studies on violence during pregnancy in the country. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya province and the associated factors. A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted among pregnant women living in Malatya province between October 2003 and May 2004. Stratified probability-proportional-to-size sampling methodology was used for selecting the study population. A total of 824 pregnant women from 60 clusters were studied. Association between violence prevalences and womens' sociodemographic, fertility and behavioural characteristics were evaluated. During pregnancy 31.7% of women were exposed to any form of violence. Emotional violence was the most frequently reported form (26.7%), followed by sexual (9.7%) and physical violence (8.1%). Regular smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.6], unwanted pregnancy (OR 1.8), living in urban area (OR 1.5), low education level of husband (OR 1.7), low family income (OR 1.9) and being in second trimester (OR 1.4) were determined to be the main predictors of overall violence during pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy is a common public health problem in Malatya. Low education level in partners, low family income, husband's unemployment, urban settlement, unwanted pregnancy and smoking should alert health staff towards violence at pregnancy and training of health personnel on the subject is recommended.

  8. Fatal occupational injuries in the construction sector in Kocaeli, Turkey, 1990--2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Basar; Etiler, Nilay; Bicer, Umit

    2004-10-01

    In Turkey, the construction sector is responsible for the largest number of work-related fatalities among all industries. This study's objective is to determine the characteristics of the fatalities in the construction sector in Kocaeli Province. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating the records of occupational deaths between 1990 and 2001 in the Kocaeli District of Turkey. Fatal occupational injuries in the construction sector were investigated in detail by evaluating the records. The analysis was based on data from 153 deaths. The incidence of occupational injuries was found overall to be 4.5% in Kocaeli, while the annual mortality rate was 60.4 in Kocaeli and 79.0 in Turkey per 100,000 workers over the entire time period. On the other hand, the fatality rate of occupational injuries was found to be 12.0 per 1,000 in Turkey and 6.4 per 1,000 in Kocaeli. The evaluation of the type of injuries in construction sector has revealed that in 69 of cases (45.1%) fell down from high altitude, in 22 cases (14.4%) vehicle accident, and in 22 (14.4%) electrocution were the cause of death. The leading causes of death have been found to be blunt-force trauma (37.9%) and head trauma (25.5%). Fourty one percent of those who had occupational accidents have had less than one year work experience. Only in 7.8% of deaths, the cause was determined through an autopsy.

  9. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  11. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    to cultivate stability or to be unduly provocative to neighboring countries. • Arms sales and industrial cooperation: Turkey continues to seek... mushroomed and Kurdish secessionist sentiment within Turkey caused concerns in the 1990s following the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish zone...a member of NATO), and has counted on previously close Turkey-Israel military relations to cultivate U.S.-Turkey-Israel military cooperation

  12. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  13. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  14. Feasibility study of dish/stirling power systems in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanlı, Gülin Acarol; Eray, Aynur

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two different commercial dish/stirling systems, SES (Stirling Energy Systems) and WGA-ADDS (WGAssociates - Advanced Dish Development System), are modeled using the "System Advisor Model" (SAM) modeling software in designated settlement areas. Both systems are modeled for the US state of Albuquerque, where they were designed, and Turkish provinces of Ankara, Van, Muğla, Mersin, Urfa and Konya. At first, the dish/stirling system is optimized according to the power output values and the system loss parameters. Then, the layout of the solar field is designed with an installed capacity of 600kW both of SES and WGA-ADDS systems, Upon securing the most suitable layout, the system is modeled for the aforementioned settlements using the optimum output values gathered from the parametric analysis. As a result of the simulation studies, the applicability of this model is discussed according to the power output and the efficiency. Although Turkey is located in an area called "the sun belt" where solar energy technologies can be used, there is no advanced application of these systems. This study aims to discuss the application of these systems in detail and to pave the way for future studies in this field.

  15. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  16. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  17. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE NEET IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bilgen Susanli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on data from the Household Labor Force Surveys over the period 2004-2013, it examines the determinants of the NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training status for the Turkish youth. This is particularly important for Turkey as it has the highest NEET rate among the OECD countries. Second, it describes the movement of the youth across four states: education, employment, unemployment and inactivity. Probit results indicate that gender and educational attainment are key factors for explaining the NEET status. Findings also show that a greater number of household members that are in employment is associated with a lower likelihood of NEET. Transition analyses reveal that the state of inactivity remains highly persistent despite the substantial fall over the sample period. In addition, the rise in the persistence of education between 2007 and 2009 underlines the choice of the youth to stay in education in response to the fall in labor market prospects.

  19. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  20. Investigation of Absorption Cooling Application Powered by Solar Energy in the South Coast Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgoren M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an absorption system using ammonia-water (NH3-H2O solution has been theoretically examined in order to meet the cooling need of a detached building having 150 m2 floor area for Antalya, Mersin and Mugla provinces in Turkey. Hourly dynamic cooling load capacities of the building were determined by using Radiant Time Series (RTS method in the chosen cities. For the analysis, hourly average meteorological data such as atmospheric air temperature and solar radiation belonging to the years 1998-2008 are used for performance prediction of the proposed system. Thermodynamic relations for each component of absorption cooling system is explained and coefficients of performance of the system are calculated. The maximum daily total radiation data were calculated as 7173 W/m2day on July 15, 7277 W/m2 day on July 19 and 7231 W/m2day on July 19 for Mersin, Antalya and Mugla, respectively on the 23° toward to south oriented panels from horizontal surface. The generator operating temperatures are considered between 90-130°C and the best result for 110°C is found the optimum degree for maximum coefficient of performance (COP values at the highest solar radiation occurred time during the considered days for each province. The COP values varies between 0.521 and 0.530 for the provinces. In addition, absorber and condenser capacities and thermal efficiency for the absorption cooling system were calculated. The necessary evacuated tube collector area for the different provinces were found in the range of 45 m2 to 47 m2. It is shown that although the initial investment cost is higher for the proposed absorption cooling system, it is economically feasible because of its lower annual operation costs and can successfully be operated for the considered provinces.

  1. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  2. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  3. Determination of radioactivity concentrations in soil samples and dose assessment for Rize Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Durusoy

    2017-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000 and previous studies on the area.

  4. The Evaluation of Alkali Grass (Puccinellia ciliata Bor Populations in Aydin Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkali grass grows in waterlogged, saline and alaline soils. The main problem in these soils is minerals at toxic level. The toxic ions are chloride, sodium and boron. A number of techniques have been investigated for removing toxic metals from the soil. Today, the cost-effective and environmentally technique is phytoremediation, using hyperaccumulator plants. Alkali grass (Puccinellia ciliata Bor is suggested as a hyperaccumulator plant by the combination of more favourable characteristics with salt and waterlogging tolerance, high biomass value and convincing nutritive value for adverse environmental conditions. For this reason, we collected alkali grass and soil samples from five different locations in Aydın-Muğla highway, Turanlar and Sınırteke villages in Germencik-Aydın. In the soil analysis, we observed that K accumulation varies between root, shoot and panicle at least whereas Na and B shows more variation on whole plant portions among locations. Intense aerenchyma development on the root tips of Puccinellia plant was observed and it is determined as radial lysogenic aerenchyma formation. Average plant height and dry matter values were between 47.2-74.4 cm and 15.61-80.85 g/plant according to locations. The highest plant height value was obtained from the first location whereas the highest dry matter yield was detected in the fifth location. In conclusion, plants from fifth location can be regarded as fodder plants in these areas. Our results indicated that alkali grass can be effective for phytoextraction of sodium and boron from contaminated sites.

  5. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  6. Level of heavy metals in some edible and poisonous macrofungi from Batman of South East Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Omer Faruk; Yildiz, Abdunnasir; Yavuz, Omer

    2004-07-01

    The macrofungi specimens were collected and identified from locations around Batman province of Turkey. A group of 21 macrofungi were collected from 29 different locations and analysed for the heavy metal contents. The highest Pb and Cu levels were found in Russula rubroalba while the highest Cd level was determined for the species Agaricus xanthodermus. Fe level was maximum for the species Funalia trogii; Mn for Mycena personsii; Zn level was for Morchella esculenta and Co level was for the species Agaricus xanthodermus. The lowest Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were found in Inotus hispidus.

  7. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  8. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  9. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  10. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  12. Obesity prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcirpici Birgul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gaziantep, Turkey. Over the selected 329 houses, 310 houses were reached (94.2% and data about 1315 related persons was collected. The body mass index (BMI shows the relationship between the weight and the height of people, calculated by the ratio of mass by kg over the square value of height measure. In statistical analyses chi-square, student′s t -test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The mean BMI increased with time for both sex, whereas decreased for 60+ age group. The fastest increase for both sex was seen while transition from 18 year to 19-29 age groups occurred. Another increase in women was in 30-39 age group; BMI=25.08±4.39 in 19-29 ages whilst BMI=29.02±5.79 in 30-39 ages. The increases in both sex in other age groups were not as much as in this group. Conclusion: Obesity is not only a problem in the Gaziantep but is also a major health concern in Europe and other regions of the world. As an accepted method against obesity, life-style changes should be put into use from childhood supported in school and family life.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  14. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. ► Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. ► Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. ► Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. ► GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global

  15. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  16. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  17. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  18. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  19. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  20. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  1. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  2. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  3. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  4. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, M. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  5. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  6. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  7. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  8. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    a higher level of attention being paid to the importance of Africa in the public statements of ... policy is based on equal partnership and includes investing in, bringing new .... country can be measured by its economic, cultural and diplomatic activism in ..... business circles also have a strong interest in Turkey's integration into.

  9. On a collection of Opisthobranchia from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1961-01-01

    This paper deals with the Opisthobranchia collected by the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey 1959. The collection is deposited in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. The material was chiefly collected in three areas, viz. the Bay of Antalya and the Bay of Mersin (formerly

  10. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, Turkey, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ferit; Orkun, Omer; Ulu, Aslihan; Kurtaran, Behice; Komur, Suheyla; Inal, A Seza; Erdogan, Damla; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan S Z

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was diagnosed for a man in Turkey. He had been bitten by a Hyalomma marginatum tick, from which PCR detected rickettsial DNA. Sequence analysis of the DNA identified R. sibirica mongolitimonae. Immunofluorescence assay of patient serum indicated R. conorii, which cross-reacts. PCR is recommended for rickettsiosis diagnoses.

  11. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  12. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  13. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  14. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  16. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  17. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  18. Molecular characterization and detection of variants of Taenia multiceps in sheep in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Betul; Koroglu, Ergun; Simsek, Sami

    2017-02-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals. A total of 20 C. cerebralis isolates collected from naturally infected sheep in Mardin province of Turkey were characterized through the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. The results showed that the CO1 gene sequences were highly conserved in C. cerebralis isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial CO1 gene sequences revealed that C. cerebralis isolates were composed of three different variants.

  19. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, Haydar; Balli, Ozgur; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  20. Isotope Hydrology Investigation of Zonguldak And Province Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erduran, B.; Toerk, K.; Oektue, G.

    2002-01-01

    The most important coal area of Turkey is situated in Zonguldak and province. The coal series occurred during Westfalien (Carboniferous) are lower-bounded by Visean aged karstic limestones and upper-bounded by Aptian-Barremian aged karstic limestones. The isotope hydrology, which consists one of the studies dealed with karst hydrogeology, was held to determine the groundwater relations between the karstic limestones adjacent to the coal layers located in the Zonguldak coal mine areas. Environmental isotope samples were collected in the basin during 1994 - 1995 period, from the surface and groundwater. Deuterium ( 2 H), Oxygen 18 ( 18 O) and Tritium ( 3 H) analysis were carried out on the samples. Recharge elevation, water origin and transit time of the groundwater system were determined with the evaluation of the analysis results. Waters encountered in the area are of marine origined rainfall, recharging at an elevation of 400-500 meters and consisting of shallow and deep circulation systems. Groundwater that intruding the coal mine galleries, have a short flow period and are recharged from recent precipitations

  1. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  2. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  3. The change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey: a closer look at regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Hediye A D; Ergin, Işıl; Ocek, Zeliha

    2010-11-01

    Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services.This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006). Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000), number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000) were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1) to Region 6(R6). Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. The private health sector has grown enormously between 2001-2006 in Turkey including the less developed

  4. The change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey: A closer look at regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergin Işıl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services. This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Methods Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006. Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000, number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000 were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1 to Region 6(R6. Results Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. Conclusions The private health sector has grown

  5. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  6. 'Chemical fingerprints' of pumice from Cappadocia (Turkey) and Kos (Greece) for archaeological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Bichler, Max

    2007-01-01

    Pumice has been used as a serviceable abrasive or religious artefact since antiquity and has therefore been an object of trade. It can be found in excavations of ancient workshops all over the Mediterranean. Pumice lumps from the major pumice-bearing rhyolitic tephra units in Cappadocia-the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey (in particular the ignimbrites Kavak, Cemilkoey, Tahar, Goerdeles, and the volcanic complexes of Acigoel and Hasan Dagi), were sampled and analyzed for major and trace element concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Elements determined were Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U. Since the distribution of those elements is characteristic of the products of a certain eruption, this 'chemical fingerprint' can be used to establish the origin of an unknown pumice sample by comparison with samples of known origin. In the course of this study, it could be shown that one pumice finding from the excavation in Miletos (Turkey) probably originates from the Hasan Dagi volcanic complex in Cappadocia. Since it is known that the population in Miletos focused their trade connections on the Mediterranean, this result is somewhat surprising. Two other samples from Miletos show a very high similarity to the chemical fingerprint of pumice from the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Greece): In one case, the identification is doubtless, in the other case identification as KPT seems quite probable

  7. GIS based spatial pattern analysis: Children with Hepatitis A in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Ahmet Ozgur; David, Ruusa Magano; Ulugtekin, Necla; Goksel, Cigdem; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Sözen, Seval

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to provide an insight into the geographic distribution of Hepatitis A incidence considering their temporal distribution, spatial patterns, hot spots and clusters identification in three different age-group (0-4, 5-9 and 10-14) in Turkey. Province based tabular data, including monthly numbers of Hepatitis A cases in children, and the populations from 2001 to 2011 were used as the basic input of the study. Time series maps were created using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to introduce the temporal changes in the morbidity rates of Hepatitis A. The spatial variation of Hepatitis A was measured using Moran's I at the global level and the local indicators of spatial associations (LISAs) Moran's I and Getis-Ord G i *(d) in order to identify influential locations through clusters and hot spots detection of Hepatitis A cases. The morbidity rates in children under the age of 5 were found significantly lower than the other age-groups, whereas the age-group 5-9 revealed the highest morbidity rates in the study area. The morbidity of Hepatitis A was detected very high for the years 2001, and 2005-2007. The identification of the highly vulnerable provinces was conducted using local Moran's I and local Getis-Ord G i *(d). The majority of clusters and hot spots were detected to be agglomerated in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-Eastern Anatolian Regions and Ceyhan, Asi and Southeast part of Firat-Dicle river basins in Turkey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kürşat; Balkaya, İbrahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Kırbas, Akın; Şimsek, Sami; Dumanlı, Nazir

    2015-04-30

    In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food allergy knowledge and attitude of restaurant personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Kavut, Ayşe Baççıoğlu; Kartal, İbrahim; Beyhun, Ercument Nazim; Çayır, Atilla; Mutlu, Mehmet; Özkan, Behzat

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of food-induced allergic reactions is gradually increasing. Most of these allergic reactions occur in restaurants. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the awareness of restaurant personnel about food allergy. The training, knowledge levels on food allergy, and comfort level in providing safe food of 351 restaurant personnel in Erzurum Province, Turkey, were assessed through a face-to-face survey. Among the participants, 81.5% were male (mean age 28.5 ± 8.5 years). Among them, 17.1% were chefs, 11.1% managers, 5.7% owners, and 66.1% waiters. Food allergy training was reported by 17.1% of the participants. The rates of restaurant personnel who gave the correct answers to the 4 questionnaire items, "Customers with food allergies can safely consume a small amount of that food/Food allergic reaction can cause death/If a customer is having an allergic reaction, it is appropriate to immediately serve them water to 'dilute' the allergen/Removing an allergen from a finished meal (eg, taking off nuts) may be all that is necessary to provide a safe meal for an allergic customer," which measure food allergy knowledge levels, were 46.4%, 65.7%, 55.0%, and 65.7%, respectively. According to our study, there are gaps in the food allergy knowledge of restaurant personnel. Because preparing and serving safe meals to patients with food allergy in restaurants is important, the training of restaurant personnel in food allergy is necessary. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. [Seasonal and regional distribution of tularemia cases in Amasya, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanık, Keramettin; Sarıaydın, Muzaffer; Uzun, M Önder; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Seçilmiş, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia have attracted attention due to increased number of cases since 2009 in Amasya region which is located at Central Blacksea Region of Turkey. The aims of this letter were to provide information about the disease, to emphasize the importance of early treatment due to the outbreak peak in our province between 2009-2012 and water chlorination in epidemic areas. A total of 250 tularemia-suspected patients (117 female, 133 male; mean age: 42 yrs) who were admitted to our hospital with the symptoms of sore throat, fever, malaise and/or presence of neck mass, from 20 different locations within last four years were included in the study. Serum samples of 73 (29.2%) patients yielded ≥ 1/160 titers with F.tularensis microagglutination test which were considered as positive. All positive cases presented with the oropharyngeal form of the disease. The year with the highest number of tularemia cases was 2010. When the regional distribution was evaluated, it was detected that positive cases have precipitated especially in the southeastern (highland area) and northeastern (lowland area) parts of Amasya (34/73; 46.6%). Majority of the tularemia cases (53/73; 72.6%) were identified in colder seasons. The number of cases in rural and urban centers have decreased after 2010. In conclusion, it is considered that the emergence of new cases is likely to persist due to the geographical characteristics of Amasya and occupational properties (livestock breeding) of the population. Therefore, the clinicians should consider tularemia in differential diagnosis of the cases originated from risky rural areas.

  11. Domestic violence against women in Sivas, Turkey: survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65+/-4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants' homes. Demographic data were obtained by fill-in forms. We found a statistically significant relationship among the types of violence and annual income, type of family, education and occupation level of women, education level of perpetrators, watching violent films, and childhood experience of emotional abuse or negligence. Fifty-two percent of women were exposed to at least one type of violence. Verbal violence was the most frequent type of violence (53.8%), followed by physical violence (38.3%). About 45% of women exposed to violence were in the 30-34 age group, 41.6% completed only primary schools, 73.6% were housewives, 91.7% were married, 71.0% had been exposed to violence during their childhood, and 45.2%, had been exposed to violence several times in a month. Economic problems were reported as the most important reason for domestic violence (31.4%). Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. As an important public health problem, domestic violence requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand its causes and plan preventive measures.

  12. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  13. Quality of slaughter material ? BIG 6 heavy turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kryza; Marian Pietrzak; Ewa Gornowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a randomized assessment of slaughter material in the form of intensively farmed turkeys obtained by large poultry slaughter and meat processing plants. The assessment involved determining the slaughter value and physical characteristics of the meat. Samples (23 male and 12 female turkeys) were collected from the processing line of a large commercial poultry processing facility, and hybrid turkeys of a BIG 6 heavy breeding line came from different producers....

  14. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from 81 provinces of the country within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2010 and outdoor gamma dose rates obtained by means of car-borne measurement system are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 28.11±1.23 Bq kg - 1, 32.4±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and 430.8±12.5, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 9.78±0.79 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 50.5 nGy h - 1 and 0.062 mSv y - 1, respectively. Total indicative doses of the analyzed drinking water samples were below the limit values. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 1.01 Bq L - 1 and 0.29 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 196.6 Sv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring program in 2010 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any

  16. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J

    1985-01-01

    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  17. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  18. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  19. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  2. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  3. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)

  5. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  6. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  7. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  8. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  9. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  10. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  11. ANALYSIS OF WAGE INEQUALITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Acun, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    Discussion of the notion of wages has consistently taken place in economicliterature. The way in which wages come to exist and are defined, and what theequilibrium point is have been the center of this discussion. The significant share of wages in total income hasraised its importance further. According to Turkey income and livingconditions data for 2015, wages and salaries held the proportion with 52.5 % oftotal income. As a consequence of that, the effect of wage inequality on incomeinequal...

  12. Turkey and Copyleft Music Production : Reflectionson Bandista

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabov, Ilkin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, amusic collective with strong oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing itsmusical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista becameimmensely popular in the Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De tefabula narratur in 2009 under the copyleft scheme. The article tries to look at the copyleft withthe notion of 'music as performance...

  13. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  14. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  15. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  16. Issues of Teaching Tuvan Language in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita B. Kungaa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuvan language is taught and studied both in the Republic of Tuva and beyond its borders. Alongside with other Turkic languages, it is taught at a number of universities in Turkey – and like all languages belonging to the same group, it is taught to Turkish students not as a foreign, but as a cognate tongue. Speaking from her own experience as lecturer in Tuvan language and literature at the University of Ankara (1997-2003, the author shares her opinions on the issues language instructors frequently face when teaching Tuvan to Turkish students. Since all Turkic languages are understood to stem back to a single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language, the absolute majority of Turkologists see them as dialects of this ancestor tongue. Correspondingly, in their learning experience Turkish students distinguish between foreign languages and those cognate to their mother tongue. Overall, about 20 Turkish universities offer courses in various Turkic languages. At the moment, quite a lot of specialists in Tuvan – both researchers and educators – work in Turkey. However, there is a marked lack of student motivation to study Tuvan. Students see little incentives of professional career growth except becoming an academic linguist. Another notable issue is the absence of textbooks, study manuals, or Tuvan-Turkish and Turkish-Tuvan phrasebooks which could facilitate achieving the required level of command of Tuvan by Turkish students. This problem as yet remains unsolved. For Turkish students, learning Tuvan opens the prospect of becoming a Turkologist. For the Republic of Tuva, the presence of such specialists would help popularize Tuvan culture and enhance collaboration between Tuva and Turkey in the areas of science, culture and economy. This will also help develop the relations between Turkey and Russian Federation.

  17. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  18. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  19. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  20. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  1. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  2. Sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2007-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.

  3. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  4. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Rhizobium vitis strains from vineyards in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem CANIK OREL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown gall-affected grapevine samples were collected during 2009–2010 from major vineyards, located in different Turkish provinces. One hundred and three bacterial strains were obtained from 88 vineyards and 18 grapevine varieties; they were tumorigenic when inoculated in tobacco, sunflower and Datura stramonium plants and were identified as Rhizobium vitis using biochemical and physiological tests as well as PCR and specific primers. Nineteen R. vitis strains presented a number of anomalous biochemical and physiological characters. PCR and opine-specific primers revealed the presence of octopine/cucumopine-type plasmid in 82 R. vitis strains, nopaline-type plasmids in 18 strains and vitopine-type plasmids in three strains. Clonal relationship of strains was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis following digestion of genomic DNA with the restriction endonuclease PmeI. The greatest genetic diversity was found for the strains from Denizli, Ankara and Nevşehir provinces. Nopaline and vitopine-types of Rhizobium vitis were detected for the first time in Turkey.

  6. The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbostanci, Elif [Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: elifa@metu.edu.tr; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Tunc, G. Ipek [Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between income and environmental quality for Turkey at two levels. First, the relationship between the CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita income is examined by the help of a time series model using cointegration techniques. In the second stage, the relationship between income and air pollution is investigated by using PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} measurements in Turkish provinces. In this part of the study panel data estimation techniques are utilized. The time series model covers 1968-2003, and the panel data model covers 1992-2001 including observations from 58 provinces. A monotonically increasing relationship between CO{sub 2} and income is found in the long-run according to time series analysis. On the other hand, panel data analysis indicates an N-shape relationship for SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions. Therefore, the results of our time series and panel data analyses do not support the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, which assumes an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and income.

  7. The relationship between income and environment in Turkey. Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbostanci, Elif; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Tunc, G. ipek [Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between income and environmental quality for Turkey at two levels. First, the relationship between the CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita income is examined by the help of a time series model using cointegration techniques. In the second stage, the relationship between income and air pollution is investigated by using PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} measurements in Turkish provinces. In this part of the study panel data estimation techniques are utilized. The time series model covers 1968-2003, and the panel data model covers 1992-2001 including observations from 58 provinces. A monotonically increasing relationship between CO{sub 2} and income is found in the long-run according to time series analysis. On the other hand, panel data analysis indicates an N-shape relationship for SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions. Therefore, the results of our time series and panel data analyses do not support the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, which assumes an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and income. (author)

  8. The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbostanci, Elif; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Tunc, G. Ipek

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between income and environmental quality for Turkey at two levels. First, the relationship between the CO 2 emissions and per capita income is examined by the help of a time series model using cointegration techniques. In the second stage, the relationship between income and air pollution is investigated by using PM 10 and SO 2 measurements in Turkish provinces. In this part of the study panel data estimation techniques are utilized. The time series model covers 1968-2003, and the panel data model covers 1992-2001 including observations from 58 provinces. A monotonically increasing relationship between CO 2 and income is found in the long-run according to time series analysis. On the other hand, panel data analysis indicates an N-shape relationship for SO 2 and PM 10 emissions. Therefore, the results of our time series and panel data analyses do not support the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, which assumes an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and income

  9. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  10. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  11. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  12. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  13. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  14. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  15. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  16. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  17. Growth performance of three commercial strains of turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 16 weeks of age correlation values for body parts against body weight were mostly negative across the treatment groups. It was evident from the results of this study that any of the turkey strains can be reared for meat without emphasis on plumage except at the discretion of the farmer. Keywords: Turkeys, Strains, Growth ...

  18. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuryel, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart

  19. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  20. The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksek, Omer; Komurcu, Murat Ihsan; Yuksel, Ibrahim; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed

  1. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon

    2001-01-01

    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  2. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  3. Genetic control and variation in turkey: molecular insights in selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.

    2012-01-01


    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat type bird as egg production of this species is very low. Turkey is the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production after chicken. Understanding the etiology and

  4. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  5. An analysis of relationship between food safety and pesticides usages of grape growers in Manisa province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabat Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Manisa which has the largest vineyard areas and grape production of Turkey. In this research, awareness of environment and pesticide using attitudes of growers and effects on food safety of pesticides were investigated. Main data of the study was collected by survey from 117 grape growers which are settled in Manisa province where sultana production is very widespread. Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, for reaching quality raisin and table grape target, conventional and environment friendly pesticides preference priorities were estimated. The AHP was applied to determine conventional and environment friendly pesticides usages of grape growers related to food safety. As a conclusion, it is understood that this target could be reached with 66.8% using environment friendly pesticides.

  6. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  7. The determinants of internal migration in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali; Gokhan, Ali; Filiztekin, Alpay

    2008-01-01

    Internal migration has had a great impact on Turkey’s population dynamics for decades. According to the 2000 population census, nearly 28% percent of the population was born in a different province that they now reside in. This ratio goes up to 62% for Istanbul, a major province that has drawn migrants for years. Although, it is claimed in numerous studies that rural-urban migration that centers on a few urban areas seems to be the predominant pattern of internal migration, we aim to investig...

  8. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  9. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  10. Typhlonesticus gocmeni sp. n., a new cave-dwelling blind spider species from the Aegean region of Turkey (Araneae, Nesticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Ribera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the troglobitic spider genus Typhlonesticus is described from specimens found in Keloğlan Cave (Denizli Province, Dodurgalar Town, Turkey. Typhlonesticus gocmeni sp. n. is described on the basis of both sexes; and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related European genera and species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrnL and H3 genes. Three new combinations are proposed: Typhlonesticus idriacus (Roewer, 1931, comb. n., Typhlonesticus morisii (Brignoli, 1975 comb. n. and Typhlonesticus obcaecatus (Simon, 1907, comb. n. all ex. Nesticus.

  11. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Quessy, Sylvain; Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine

    2007-10-16

    We conducted an observational study to estimate prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in poultry. Eighty-one broiler chicken and 59 turkey flocks selected among flocks slaughtered in the province of Quebec, Canada, were included in the study. Flock status was evaluated by culturing pooled caecal contents from about 30 birds per flock. Exposure to potential risk factors was evaluated with a questionnaire. Odds ratios were computed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive flocks was 50% (95% CI: 37, 64) for chickens and 54% (95% CI: 39, 70) for turkeys, respectively. Odds of Salmonella colonization were 2.6 times greater for chicken flocks which failed to lock the chicken house permanently. In turkeys, odds of Salmonella colonization were 4.8-7.7 times greater for flocks which failed to be raised by hatchery. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive flocks was 35% (95% CI: 22, 49) for chickens and 46% (95% CI: 30, 62) for turkeys. Odds of colonization were 4.1 times higher for chicken flocks raised on farms with professional rodent control and 5.2 times higher for flocks with manure heap >200m from the poultry house, and also increased with the number of birds raised per year on the farm and with the age at slaughter. For turkeys, odds of Campylobacter flock colonization were 3.2 times greater in flocks having a manure heap at

  13. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Elif Ekmekçi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research and published literatüre on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Rereading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1 there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2 socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3 comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to

  14. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women’s health, very few studies focus on the victim—perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim’s age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control. PMID:28832596

  15. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  18. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaklı Elif Süyük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  19. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  20. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  1. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  2. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  3. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  4. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  5. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalan, Cicek Bezir; Murat, Oeztuerk; Nuri, Oezek

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  6. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance

  7. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  9. Cystic echinococcosis in Central Alaninate, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazar, Suleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Sahin, Izzet; Cetinkaya, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a serious public health problem in Turkey. Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease; dogs and livestock are important hosts in transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri Rural Area, Central Anatolia, Turkey. At the present study, we planned to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri rural area in Central Anatolia between 2000 and 2002. We investigated 2,242 subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and we examined the seropositivity by using Western blotting (WB). The seropositivity rate was 2.7% by ELISA and IFA. We retested seropositive serum samples and 200 seronegative sera by WB. Seropositive serum samples were studied using abdominal ultrasound and chest x-ray to confirmed the presence of hydatid cyst and we found 10 (0.5%) different localized cysts. The results of our study indicate that Kayseri rural area has a high endemicity of human CE. (author)

  10. Is there a Housing Bubble in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yener

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a notable housing price inflation in aggregate/local levels in Turkey during the last few years. Although the country’s economic fundamentals remain strong, the probability of a housing bubble is a heated debate among market participants. This timely investigation brings greater clarity to whether the Turkish housing market is in a bubble. The study uses a multi-strand approach to dissect the bubble over the period of Jan. 2010 - Dec. 2014. First, monthly/annual price-to-income and monthly price-to-rent ratios are examined for the national Turkish as well as regional Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara housing markets. Second, an extended CASE and SHILLER (2003 model is applied assessing the interdependence between housing prices and a series of explanatory variables. Lastly, the Right Tail Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Rtadf test is performed to support the overall analysis. This study finds that neither affordability ratios nor regression estimates support the existence of the bubble in Turkey.

  11. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  12. Food loss and waste management in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide

    2018-01-01

    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  14. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  15. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  16. Patterns of spread and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease types A, O and Asia-1 in Turkey: a meta-population approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M; Aktas, S; Mohammed, H; Roeder, P; Sumption, K; Tufan, M; Slingenbergh, J

    2005-06-01

    Despite significant control efforts, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) persists in Turkey, and new strains of serotypes A, O and Asia-1 are periodically reported to enter the country from the east. The status of FMD in Turkey is important regionally because the country forms a natural bridge between Asia where the disease is endemic, and Europe which has disease-free status. This study analysed spatial and temporal patterns of FMD occurrence in Turkey to explore factors associated with the disease's persistence and spread. Annual records of FMD distribution in Turkish provinces throughout 1990-2002, grouped by serotype (O, A and Asia 1), were analysed using geostatistical techniques to explore their spatial and temporal patterns. A meta-population model was used to test how disease status, expressed in terms of presence/absence, extinction, and colonization, and measured at the province level throughout the periods 1990-1996 and 1997 2002, could be predicted using province-level data on: ruminant livestock numbers; meat production-demand discrepancy (as a surrogate measure of animal and animal products marketing, i.e. long-distance contagion through the traffic of mainly live animals to urban centres); and the disease prevalence distribution as recorded for the previous year. A drastic overall reduction in FMD occurrence was observed from the period 1990-1996 to 1997-2002 when the disease was shown to retract into persistence islands. FMD occurrence was associated with host abundance, short distance contagion from adjacent provinces, and meat production-demand discrepancies. With FMD retracting into identified provinces, a shift in predictors of FMD occurrence was observed with a lower contribution of short-distance contagion, and a relatively higher association with meat production-demand discrepancies leading to live animal transport over long distances, and hence presenting opportunities for identifying critical-control points. The pattern of persistence differed

  17. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  18. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  19. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...

  20. Hybrid War and Its Strategic Implications to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bingöl, Oktay

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on the hybrid threats and hybrid wars have begun to gain interest among the securitycommunities around the world since 2000s, and exponentially increased after Russian-Ukraine conflict in 2014. The political and military conflict between Russia and Turkey sinceNovember 2015 has carried the discussion to Turkey. Now it is believed that Turkey is infact in a multi-front hybrid war with some of its neighbors but not just Russia. In this articleit is aimed to fully explore hybrid war ...

  1. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  2. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  3. Turkey's energy efficiency assessment: White Certificates Systems and their applicability in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, B.; Komurgoz, G.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the importance of energy efficiency and the sustainable use of energy resources due to their significant benefits for reducing a country's dependence on foreign energy resources and increasing awareness on environmental problems. Turkey aims to reduce its energy intensity by 20% up to 2023, and in order to accomplish this target, the country plans to use energy more effectively in various industries and develop financial mechanisms for energy efficiency. Although much effort has been made to improve energy efficiency, additional policies such as marked-based incentives are still necessary. This article deals with one of the many market-based energy efficiency policies, called Tradable White Certificates (WhC) or Energy Efficiency Obligations. The current situation of the energy field in Turkey and energy consumption by industries is presented first in this paper, followed by potentials for energy efficiency in each industry and energy efficiency policies. Furthermore, the theory and applicability of a WhC System is introduced and discussed in terms of market conditions, choice of obligated participants and market mechanisms and barriers for the Turkish electricity and natural gas market to benefit from the residential and industrial energy savings potential. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency is the most effective way to reduce foreign energy dependency. • Turkey aims reducing at least 20% of energy intensity in the year 2023. • Energy consumption of industry is 35% of total energy consumption in Turkey. • Marked based policy elements create new opportunities in environmental markets. • WhC System can be implemented in PMUM under the control of regulatory authority

  4. The role of the agricultural credit cooperatives in the fertilizer market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcay, Y.; Cicek, A.; Akay, M.; Sayili, M.; Uzunoez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Agriculture has a certain degree of importance in the development and developing countries in the world. It is necessary to increase agricultural production and productivity to counter balance increasing food demand. To be able to reach to the goal, inputs one of which is fertilizer used in the agricultural production should be used in the optimum amount in the modern agriculture. Increasing the productivity in the agricultural production depends on the transformation of economic unity of the farms (Karacan, 1991). However, approximately 85 percentage of the farmers in Turkey has made agricultural activity on the farm land which is smaller than that of 100 decar (1 decar = 1000 m 2 ). This case has shown that there is a domination of the type of small family farms in Turkish agriculture. These farms generally have insufficient capital, saving, modern equipment, input usage and credit. This farm structure has increased the importance of the agricultural credit cooperatives (ACC) providing credit either inputs or cash. And also ACC have played an important role to transfer finance from government to farmers (Muelayim, 1995). The first main goal of the study is to determine the role of the ACC having a great importance in the fertilizer market in Turkey. The second goal is to evaluate the relationship between farmers-ACC and farmers-private fertilizer agent in the selected region, central district of Tokat province. Also the problems that the farmers faced and the preference of buying fertilizer from either ACC or private fertilizer agent of the farmers and some suggestions related to the subjects were investigated. Refs. 12 (author)

  5. Farm-Specific Risk Analysis in Dairy Farming: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kizilay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers in Antalya, in Turkey, calculate the gross income, variable costs and gross margin of dairy farms, determine the probability distributions of consequences for alternative decisions to enable dairy farmers as decision makers to make a good and well-informed choice, to determine cross effects of milk prices variations on the productive strategy of dairy farms. The data were gathered via face to face interviews in Korkuteli, Dosemealtı, Elmalı, Manavgat and Serik counties of Antalya province in Turkey. The survey study was conducted with 80 farmers, who were member of Dairy Cow Breaders Union, in the 2011 production period. In this study, on the basis of previous experience, dairy farmers assigned minimum, maximum and most likely values of milk price and yield over the next period of 5 years. Then, triangular and cumulative distributions were defined by using these values. Moreover, Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation model was developed to obtain distribution of expected gross margin per cow. The model and triangular and cumulative distributions were built in Excel with @Risk add-in software. The relationship of mean risk aversion coefficient, calculated by using negative exponential function, with both average gross margin and gross margin standard deviation values determined for each farm was examined. The results show that the relation between average gross margin and mean risk aversion coefficient was negative and significant at 5% level. But, although the relation between gross margin standard deviation and mean risk aversion coefficient was found to be negative, it was not significant at 5% level.

  6. Completeness of hepatitis, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV/AIDS surveillance in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karababa Ali O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the surveillance system in Turkey, most diseases are notified only by clinicians, without involving laboratory notification. It is assumed that a considerable inadequacy in notifications exists; however, this has not been quantified by any researcher. Our aim was to evaluate the completeness of communicable disease surveillance in the province of Izmir, Turkey for the year of 2003 by means of estimating the incidences of diseases. Methods Data on positive laboratory results for the notifiable and serologically detectable diseases hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV detected in 2003 in Izmir (population 3.5 million were collected from serology laboratories according to WHO surveillance standards and compared to the notifications received by the Provincial Health Directorate. Data were checked for duplicates and matched. Incidences were estimated with the capture-recapture method. Sensitivities of both notifications and laboratory data were calculated according to these estimates. Results Among laboratories performing serologic tests (n = 158 in Izmir, 84.2% accepted to participate, from which 23,515 positive results were collected. Following the elimination of duplicate results as well as of cases residing outside of Izmir, the total number was 11,402. The total number of notifications was 1802. Notification rates of cases found in laboratories were 31.6% for hepatitis A, 12.1% for acute hepatitis B, 31.8% for brucellosis, 25.9% for syphilis and 100% for HIV confirmation. Conclusions It was discovered that for hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis and syphilis, there is a considerable under-notification by clinicians and that laboratory data has the potential of contributing greatly to their surveillance. The inclusion of laboratories in the surveillance system of these diseases could help to achieve completeness of reporting.

  7. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of 496 children with brucellosis in Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Mehmet; Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Bayram, Yasemin; Ceylan, Nesrin; Özlük, Suat; Akbayram, Hatice Tuba; Öner, Abdurrahman

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and remains an important human disease especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of childhood brucellosis in Van province of Eastern Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of childhood brucellosis reported in the literature. In this retrospective study, 496 children with brucellosis were assessed for the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings from July 2009 through December 2013. The diagnosis of brucellosis was based on clinical findings and a standard tube agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160). Data were analyzed using Minitab version 16. The study included 496 children (boys, 60.5%) with a mean age of 10.0 ± 3.95 years (range, 1-16 years). The most frequent clinical symptoms were arthralgia (46.2%), fever (32.1%), and abdominal pain (17.1%) and the most common clinical signs were peripheral arthritis (10.1%), splenomegaly (2.2%) and hepatomegaly (1.8%). The most contagious seasons were summer and autumn (63.3%). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were reported in 63.1%, 58.7%, and 55.2% of the patients, respectively. Anemia (20.4%), thrombocytopenia (15.5%), and leukopenia (12.1%) were the most common hematologic findings. Brucellosis remains a serious public health problem in Turkey. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of childhood brucellosis have been described in order to assist clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring the disease. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  9. Microstructures of the Kirsehir Complex, Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISIK, V.; Caglayan, A.; Uysal, T.; Bolhar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Turkey is positioned on the boundary between the Eurasian and African/Arabian plates, providing an ideal natural laboratory for learning passive and active earth processes such as deformation, metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanism. Central Turkey historically has played an important role in evolution of the Alpine orogeny. The Kirsehir Complex is one of three Mesozoic-Early Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic mid-crustal basement units exposed in central Turkey. The most common lithology of the metamorphites are the banded gneisses, which are intercalated with layers of schists, amphibolites and quartzite, and marbles representing the structurally the highest metamorphites of the study area. The metamorphites are characterized by multiple folding episodes and overprinting faults (thrust, normal and strike-slip). These metamorphites reached peak metamorphic conditions of upper amphibolite facies, as indicated by local presence of clinopyroxene, sillimanite, hornblende, andalusite and garnet. Later, retrograde greenschist facies conditions were attained characterized by the alteration of feldspar and mafic minerals to muscovite and chlorite/actinolite, respectively. The microstructures of selected minerals can be used to bracket the metamorphic grade during which microstructure formed. Quartz displays undulose extinction, deformation bands, subgrains and deformation lamellae, and recrystallisation. The presence of lobate grain boundaries of quartz indicates that GBM recrystallisation occurred. Undulose extinction and recrystallisation are common in micas. Recrystallisation, core-mantle structures in feldspar, myrmekites in K-feldspars within the gneisses suggest that deformation occurred within the amphibolite facies. Garnet occurs as slightly elliptical porphroclats. Sillimanite is present as fibrolite growing near biotite and microboudinaged. Andalusite porphyroblast/porphroclats are elongate and microboudinaged. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric mantled grains, S

  10. An Analysis of the Social Capital, Organizational Commitment and Performance in the Public Sector of Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim EMHAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and organizational commitment and performance have long been the subjects of many studies as these concepts drive organizational outputs. This study aims to investigate the relationships between these concepts. The study collected data using a questionnaire survey comprising 26 questions conducted with 308 offi cers working in the tax offi ces of the provinces of Diyarbakır, Batman and Mardin in Southeastern Turkey. A separate form was used to collect some demographic variables from the respondents. The fi ndings indicate a positive and signifi cant relationship between social capital and performance. This study also confi rmed that organizational commitment has a mediating effect between social capital and performance.

  11. Tandheelkunde in Turkije en Marokko [Dentistry in Turkey and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs, A.H.B.; Verrips, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Some information is given on the number of dentists in Turkey and Morocco and the dental condition of the inhabitants. This information concerns prevention, caries, periodontic diseases as well as other dental diseases and diseases of the mouth.

  12. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  13. Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and prospects. ... The incumbent Turkish government now attaches great importance to developing ... It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector.

  14. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 year education reform in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By CEYLAN

    2016-05-28

    Öztürk, 2005). ... compulsory, and education following primary school (middle school, high school and university) was ...... initially very popular in the mass media in 2012, ... in Turkey: opinions and concerns of elementary.

  15. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  16. The number and distribution of computerised tomography scanners in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, S.; Amato, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the number and distribution of CT scanners in Turkey. Our results show 173 CT scanners in Turkey in 1994, which equals 2.9 scanners per million people. All of the scanners are located in 45 cities, where 81 % of the population resides. The other 31 cities in Turkey have no scanners. Of the 173 scanners, 103 (59.6 %) are owned by the private sector and the other 70 are owned by the public sector. Of Turkey's CT scanners, 49.2 % are located in private health centres, 21.9 % in university hospitals, 16.7 % in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, 10.4 % in private hospitals and 1.8 % in social security hospitals. (orig.)

  17. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-08-15

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  18. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  19. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  20. Turkey's Role in NATO-European Union Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkali, Saltuk B

    2008-01-01

    ...) as its instrument for security and defense matters. The years 1995-1999 were especially fruitful, because Turkey was an associate member of the WEU and participated fully in relevant EU decision making...

  1. The Pragmatic Entente: Turkey's Growing Relations With Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Randy

    2000-01-01

    .... The post-Cold War era has allowed individual states more freedom of maneuver in implementing foreign policy initiatives and one of the most ambitious states in this regard has been the Republic of Turkey...

  2. NOVUS ORTUS: THE AWAKENING OF LAZ LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KAVAKLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laz (South Caucasian language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history as a response to the threat of language attrition in the world. Accordingly, language endangerment is viewed in terms of a sociolinguistic phenomenon within the boundaries of both language-internal and -external factors. Laz language revitalization acts have also been scrutinized. Having a dekko at the history of modern Turkey will enlighten whether those revitalization acts and/or movements can offer a novus ortus (new birth for the current situation of Laz language.

  3. In Search for a Pronatalist Population Policy for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf YÜKSEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has witnessed high fertility rates and low mortality rates until 2000s. Young population structure, need for infrastructure for growing population and reproductive health issues were always on the agenda of policy makers throughout the history of Turkey. After the decline in total fertility rate below replacement level, vibrant discussions and search for a new policy framework began to be visible in the recent years. After the establishment of new Republic in Turkey in 1923 pronatalist policies were active until the beginning 1960s. After the First Development Plan in 1962, policy shift was towards an antinatalist direction until 2000. After a short period between 2000 and 2012 which can not be put any category in terms of fertility policy government clearly declared its position favouring pronatalist policies and mobilised bureaucracy for developing new policy options. This paper summarizes the fertility policies and demographic transition of Turkey and evaluates possible policy options

  4. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  5. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  6. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  7. Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, F

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with two control groups consisting of 61 age and gender matched children who were brought to the paediatric outpatient clinics and 43 children and adolescents who were the biological siblings of the study group. In children with masturbation, sleep difficulties were more frequent (P masturbation was often associated with a genito-urinary disorder or a stressful life event like weaning, the birth of a sibling, or separation from the parents. This is the first controlled study investigating the clinical and the developmental features of childhood masturbation. These findings may help identify children who could be at risk for this condition.

  8. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities.

  9. Hydrogen is not an utopia for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner [EBILTEM, Ege University Science and Technology Research Center, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Kocar, Gunnur (Solar Energy Institute of Ege University, Izmir Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this study was to explore how the future of technological developments in hydrogen will be shaped in Turkey by using a two-round Delphi method undertaken to determine and measure the expectations of the sector representatives through online surveys where a total of 60 experts responded from 18 different locations. The article discusses not only the expert sights on hydrogen technologies but also all bibliometrical approaches. The results showed that the hydrogen economy will enhance innovations as well as economic prosperities with the support of appropriate policies. Formulating such policies requires a timely and detailed understanding of the latest R and D trends and developments in science and technology policy in all developed countries, and the comprehensive analysis of these developments to enable accurate predictions of future science and technology trends. Therefore, we hope that this study can shed a light on the future use of hydrogen technologies, especially for policy makers. (author)

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  11. STATUS OF PUMPKIN SEED PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  12. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  13. A survey for the evaluation of the training period of cardiology specialists in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Bekir Serhat; Alkan, Mustafa Beyazıt; Güngör, Hasan; Gül, Ilker; Bilgin, Murat; Akın, Mustafa; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate postgraduate training period, social life and problems of cardiology residents in Turkey by using a questionnaire form and to compare with the core curriculum of European Society of Cardiology for general cardiology. Overall, 529 residents of cardiology ages in range of 24-35 years (mean age: 26.5±2.0 years, 81.4% male) participated as volunteers in this cross-sectional survey study. An 86-item questionnaire form was used to evaluate the education process, capacity of knowledge and skill and social effectiveness level of participants. The questionnaire were composed both closed- and open-ended questions. The questionnaire form was filled in with the face-to-face communication method. The data of survey were compared with the core curriculum of European Society of Cardiology for general cardiology training period. Chi-square or Fischer exact test was used for statistical analysis. The participants were working in various university hospitals (70.3%) and training-research (state) hospitals in 31 different provinces in Turkey (40.8% in Marmara region). They visited 40±10 outpatients and 10±5 hospitalized pts daily in the clinics. The 3-5 residents worked at the clinic on night shifts and mostly (89%) 8 or more night shifts per month were held in their first training years. During first three-years of training 76% of residents have performed echocardiography, 40.8%-transesophageal echocardiography and 10% - intraoperative echocardiography. The 84.3% of them evaluated exercise tests, 76.4%-Holter electrocardiography and 53.3%-tilt-table tests. The rate of residents working in coronary angiography laboratories was 54.3%. The 53.7% of residents performed coronary angiography and 64%-only in the 4th year of their training. The number of coronary angiography performance was under expected when compared with European Society of Cardiology curriculum. The 18.5% of residents were participated as assistant researcher in an international multi-center study and

  14. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  15. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  16. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Money Demand Function: Case of Turkey*

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...

  18. Financial Condition Analysis In Municipalities: A Case Of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Fatma; ALKAN, Betül Şeyma

    2017-01-01

    This study included the analysis of prepared comprehensive financial statements with the transitionto accrual-based accounting system from cash-based accounting system in the public institutionsin 2006. In Turkey, there is no specific method developed to the goals of public institutions. GASB 1Reporting Model, which is a model developed in the USA, and is not yet used in Turkey, has been appliedby taking financial statements data of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The study was carrie...

  19. The European Union, the ESDP, and the question of Turkey /

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential contribution in terms of crude capabilities that Turkey could bring to the European Union’s ESDP security framework. The history of the European Union’s security aspirations and the security policy preferences of the major actors in European security will also be examined as a way of framing the question of Turkey's potential role within the emerging European security and defense framework. The second chapter will look at how European security has evolved fro...

  20. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  1. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  2. Contributions to The Morphology of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus Alibalii Carbonell, 2015 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae Living Kahramanmaraş, Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Atay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus alibalii is a new butterfly species which was described by Frederic Carbonell in 2015. In the Carbonell’s article, since the descriptive information about the species is limited, a further redescription study has been aimed for more detailed identification the species. This study was conducted in two stages with the field works in Kırksu Highland in Geben village of Andırın district of Kahramanmaraş province in Turkey in July and August in 2016 and 2017, and then laboratory works in the Zoology Laboratory at Mustafa Kemal University in Hatay, Turkey. In the field, behaviors of the adults have been observed and recorded in their habitats, and eight male and five female specimens of the species were collected for laboratory works. In this paper, the external morphology and genital structure of the male and female of the species were described in detail. In addition to P. alibalii, the male genital preparations of the species of P. theresiae (Schurian et al., 1992, P. iphigenia (Herrich-Schaffer, 1847, P. wagneri (Forster, 1956 and P. eurypilos (Gerhard, 1851 were prepared.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 1997 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the rapid increase in Turkey`s energy consumption and the large investments needed to meet the demand growth. Turkey has sought to attract private inward investment in the energy sector, in particular in electricity, through build-own-operate and build-operate-transfer schemes and transfers of operating rights. Turkey needs to set up a stable legal framework to continue this policy. It needs to push forward with market reforms, as well as to create a level playing field for competition, with energy prices reflecting the true costs of various fuels. Natural gas consumption is also expected to continue to increase. The new regulatory framework should be designed to encourage more rapid increase in the use of gas and more corresponding investments. Turkey is situated near the Caspian Sea, where natural gas and oil production are expected to increase substantially. The report describes projects for oil and natural gas pipelines. 33 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps.

  4. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Kayali, Ghazi; Burnham, Andrew; Oshansky, Christine M; Thomas, Paul G; Gray, Gregory C; Beck, Melinda A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2). Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  5. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2. Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  6. Food and nutrition policies: what's being done in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Gülden

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the development of the National Plan of Action for Food and Nutrition (NPAFN) for Turkey. Access to a safe and healthy variety of food, a fundamental human right, was stressed by the International Conference on Nutrition and by the World Food Summit. In the International Conference on Nutrition in December 1992, one major commitment was the preparation of NPAFN. The NPAFN for Turkey was designed according to this commitment. Turkey. To this end, under the coordination of the State Planning Organization, a Working Committee Report for National Food and Nutrition Strategy of Turkey was prepared and published, with the participation of different sectors. The goal of the prepared National Food and Nutrition Strategy for Turkey is to protect and promote health through and healthy nutrition and reduce the burden of diseases, while contributing to socio-economic development and a sustainable food security. In Turkey the NPAFN was developed and implementation has initiated. Nearly for all the actions, related projects are being developed.

  7. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  8. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  9. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, 69000 Bayburt (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  10. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  11. Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksek, Omer

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

  12. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  14. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  15. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  16. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  17. A Re-Run in Turkey: A Coup in the Near Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Shawn J

    2007-01-01

    ... of coup activity in the near future, as has been seen in Turkey's history. Turkey has a proven status of importance to the United States by virtue of its strategic location, democratic pursuits, cultural status, and economic potential...

  18. Defense Expenditure and Economic Growth: Empirical Study on Case of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tekeoglu, Ertugrul

    2008-01-01

    .... Since Turkey has one of the largest defense budgets within the Middle East and also NATO, this question has important implications for Turkey's future economic well-being and political stability...

  19. Bringing EU-Turkey trade and investment relations up to date?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala; Sübidey, Togan

    2016-01-01

    The case is made that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objecti...

  20. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  1. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  2. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  3. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  4. Floristic diversity in bashemsin valley of kackar mountains national park of rize, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykal, H.

    2016-01-01

    The floristical structure of Bashemsin and its environs as a protected and isolated area within Kackar Mountains National Park, situated in Rize, a province in the Blacksea region of Turkey, is studied. 1830 plant specimens were collected and 503 taxa were identified in 234 genera and 75 families. Sixteen Pteridophytes and 487 Spermatophytes were determined. Two of Spermatophytes are Gymnospermae while 485 of them are Angiospermae (98 Monocotyledones and 389 Dicotyledones). The richest families in taxa are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae (55 Asteraceae, 49 Poaceae, 28 Brassicaceae, and 27 Fabaceae). Phytogeographic elements are listed in order as: Euro-Siberian 247 (49.1%), Irano-Turanian 17 (3.4%), Mediterranean 6 (1.2%), multiregional-unknown phytogeographic root 233 (46.3%). Hemicryptophytes are the richest with 224 (44.5%) taxa and it is followed by cryptophytes 144 (28.6%), therophytes 53 (10.5%), chamaephytes 59 (11.7%), phanerophytes 19 (3.8%), vasicular parasites 2 (0.4%), nanophanerophytes/chamaephytes 1 (0.2%) and hydrophytes 1 (0.2%). 34 endemic taxa were determined (6.7%). 13 threatened taxa were detected in the research area and we determined that Sorbus caucasica Zinserl. var. yaltirikii Goksin population has fallen into CR endangered category with only 2 individuals in the study area. (author)

  5. Health-seeking behavior and medical facility choice in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Cihad

    2017-09-01

    Examining the factors that play a role in determining patient preferences for different healthcare institutions. This descriptive study was conducted in five family health centers (FHC) and in six hospitals in Samsun Province in Turkey. The data were collected from 1700 volunteer patients by using a structured questionnaire, while they were waiting for consultation. The average number of out-patient visits was 9.5±6.4 per person in 2012. Individuals aged less than 18 and more than 65 years old had higher preferences for FHCs, while those aged 19-64 years preferred primarily private hospitals. The order of preferences for FHC, public and private hospitals did not vary with the educational level. An increase in educational level was associated with a decrease in the preference for FHCs and in increase in the preference for private hospitals. The first three reasons given for preferring a hospital were 'the presence of a specialist', 'availability of good equipment and technology', and 'trust on the diagnosis and treatment', while 'proximity', 'receiving adequate information', and 'being treated well' were the reasons given by participants who preferred a FHC. Providing medical equipment and staff support for improving diagnostic capacity of FHCs can accommodate patient expectations and shift the demand from hospitals to FHCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiological maps in beach sands along some coastal regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Karadeniz, A.; Damla, N.; Yesilkanat, C.M.; Cevik, U.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the gamma-emitting radionuclides in beach sands along the coastal regions of the Ordu, Giresun and Trabzon provinces, Turkey have been determined. The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations of the samples have been measured employing a germanium (HPGe) detector with high resolution and purity. The activity for 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs of the samples were found to vary in the range from below detection limit (BDL) to 65 Bq·kg −1 , from BDL to 28 Bq·kg −1 , from 9 to 1936 Bq·kg −1 and from BDL to 22 Bq·kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentrations were compared with those in the literature. The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated, and were compared to the internationally recommended values. The radiological map of beach sand in the surveyed area was imaged. The data presented in the study are crucial since they constitute a baseline for the radiological mapping of the region in the future. - Highlights: • The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in beach sands were analyzed. • The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated. • The results were evaluated to check the compatibility of national and international values. • The radiological maps of beach sand were produced. • The findings demonstrate that the obtained values were less than the internationally accepted recommended limits.

  7. Freshwater fish Fauna and Restock Fish Activities of Reservoir in the Dardanelles (Canakkale-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin SASI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has, with geographic location including Istanbul and Çanakkale straits the system, 178,000 km in length streams, 906,000 ha of natural lakes, and 411,800 ha of dam lakes, and 28,000 ha of ponds due to richness inland waters which include freshwater fish. The fingerling fish (fry were restocked approximately 250,000,000 in natural lakes, dam lakes and ponds for fisheries between years of 1979 and 2005. Canakkale has rich freshwater potential with 7 major rivers (Büyükdere, Karamenderes stream, Kavak brook, Kocacay stream, Sarıcay stream, Tuzla brook, Umurbey brook, 7 Dam Lakes (Atikhisar, Zeytinlikoy, Bayramic, Bakacak, Tayfur, Umurbey and Yenice-Gönen Dam lakes. In the studies, it has been determined that 15 fish species belonging to 6 families (Anguillidae, Atherinidae, Salmonidae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae and Poecilidae can be found in reservoirs. Fish restocking of the activities of the reservoir until today approximately 1,120,000 (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 is introduced. In this study, the activity of Canakkale province in the fish restocking and reservoir exploiting possibilities were discussed in view of reservoir fisheries potential which is used insufficiently today.

  8. Analysis of the distribution of epiphytic lichens on Cedrus libani in Elmali Research Forest (Antalya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoglu, Gulsah; Sevgi, Orhan

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate environmental factors limiting distribution of species, diversity of epiphytic lichens was studied in 34 sites along an altitudinal gradient from 1300 to 1900 m on north-facing and south-facing slopes of Elmali Cedar Research Forest (Antalya province, Turkey) regarding the dispersion of lichens in different tree-diameter classes (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-45 cm, 45-60 cm and >75 cm). The results showed that the relationship between diameter classes with the number of lichen species was R2=0.6022. The highest number of species was in the diameter class of 30-45 cm. There was a clear relationship between all parameters, diameter, altitude and aspect, with species richness. Changes in the community structure of the epiphytic lichen vegetation were detected along an altitudinal gradient revealing the highest species richness in the highest zone. The elevation affected both the number and the composition of the lichen communities and the relationship between the attitudinal zones with number of lichen species was designated as R2=0.6462. The number of species was higher in the north aspects than in the south aspects in all diameter classes. The species number depending on the altitude was also higher in the north-facing slopes than in the south-facing slopes.

  9. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  10. Physical characteristics of some wheat genotypes cultivated in Lake District of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya GÜL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physical characteristics of wheat genotypes cultivated in lakes district of Turkey. The genotypes were collected from the center of Isparta and Burdur province, districts and selected five different villages in this district at harvest in 2011. Totaly 19 genotypes named as; Hard Wheat, Red Kazmalı Wheat, Lavanta, Red Wheat, Burgaz, Osmaniye and Yunak (Landraces, Kızıltan-91, İzmir 85, Bezostoya, Ankara 98, Sönmez 2001, Çeşit-1252, Hatay 86, Mirzabey, Kunduru-1149, Gerek-79, Gediz-75 and Cumhuriyet-75 (Wheat registered cultivars were collected from these districts. Physical characteristics of the wheat samples brought to laboratory were analyzed as completely randomized design with three replications. Foreign matters of wheats were determined according to TS 2974 standards. 4 genotypes were found at second degree, 5 genotypes were at third degree and remaining 10 genotypes were found out of these rating. Highest thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight were determined on Mirzabey and Sönmez 2001 respectively in bread wheat varieties while highest thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight were determeined on Kunduru 1149 and Burgaz respectively in durum wheat varieties.

  11. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  12. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  13. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  14. The influence of gender roles on health seeking behaviour during pregnancy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Pinar; Hayran, Osman; Topuzoglu, Ahmet; Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Coskun, Anahit; Save, Dilsad; Nalbant, Hacer; Ozdemir, Erhan; Eker, Levent

    2009-08-01

    To explore the impact of gender roles in relation to health seeking behaviour during pregnancy and childbirth. The study was conducted in neighbourhoods with low antenatal care rates in three provinces of Turkey. The study population consisted of pregnant women who never got or discontinued antenatal care and their peers, families and community leaders. Sixteen focus group discussions and 125 in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 239 participants. Pregnancy and childbirth are interwoven strongly with gender roles. Since the patriarchal system acknowledges women through the means of childbirth, women are expected to have many children. Hence women experience pregnancy as a burden and are not motivated to seek antenatal care. During pregnancy, only 'serious' conditions are considered as legitimate reasons for accessing care. However, the decision regarding whether a pregnant woman is seriously sick or not belongs to the responsibilities of elder women, which delays service use. Providing information regarding the value of antenatal care also to elder women is essential in increasing the demand to the services. Incorporating gender perspectives into daily health practice and maintaining access to high quality reproductive care services are vital in reducing the gender based barriers to care.

  15. Molecular screening of Leishmania spp. infection and bloodmeals in sandflies from a leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaku Ş, M; Pekağ Irba Ş, M; Demir, S; Eren, H; Töz, S; Özbel, Y

    2017-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages. Among all Phlebotomus specimens, Phlebotomus neglectus (39%) was noted as the most abundant species, followed by Phlebotomus tobbi (18%). Leishmania DNA was detected in pools from P. neglectus, P. tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata by kDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Leishmania DNA from Phlebotomus specimens was identified as L. infantum, but Leishmania DNA from Sergentomyia spp. could not be identified to species level by ITS-1 real-time PCR. The detection of Leishmania DNA in wild-caught P. neglectus and the high percentage (24.2%) of human DNA in engorged specimens suggests that P. neglectus is probably an important vector species for L. infantum in Aydın province. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  17. Discrete choice modeling of season choice for Minnesota turkey hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Recreational turkey hunting exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of modern wildlife management. Turkey populations in Minnesota have reached social or biological carrying capacities in many areas, and changes to turkey hunting regulations have been proposed by stakeholders and wildlife managers. This study employed discrete stated choice modeling to enhance understanding of turkey hunter preferences about regulatory alternatives. We distributed mail surveys to 2,500 resident turkey hunters. Results suggest that, compared to season structure and lotteries, additional permits and level of potential interference from other hunters most influenced hunter preferences for regulatory alternatives. Low hunter interference was preferred to moderate or high interference. A second permit issued only to unsuccessful hunters was preferred to no second permit or permits for all hunters. Results suggest that utility is not strictly defined by harvest or an individual's material gain but can involve preference for other outcomes that on the surface do not materially benefit an individual. Discrete stated choice modeling offers wildlife managers an effective way to assess constituent preferences related to new regulations before implementing them. 

  18. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  19. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  20. Some forest trees for honeydew honey production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ünal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine. Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.

  1. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 501-514

  2. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 501-514

  3. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  4. 78 FR 60831 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing... concrete reinforcing bar (``rebar'') from the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form on... of Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from the Republic of Turkey, dated September 4, 2013. \\2...

  5. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular... provided to producers and exporters of certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey...

  6. Turkey's Progress toward Meeting Refugee Education Needs the Example of Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltekin, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Historically, Turkey is an immigrant country. It has experienced various migration waves from Asia, Awrupa and Africa. Recently, Turkey has confronted a huge wave of migration. Turkey tries to meet many needs besides the educational needs of refugees, but there is not enough study on refugees in the field of educational sciences…

  7. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Alper; Schur, Joan Brodsky; Gürsoy, Kudret

    2014-01-01

    This group of commentaries on teaching human rights in Turkey includes: (1) Reflection on Turkish Human Rights Lesson from Turkey (Alper Kesten)--A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher; (2) Commentary on a Turkish Lesson…

  8. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.

    The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed

  9. 77 FR 69792 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey for the period January 1, 2010... subject merchandise during the period of review. See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  10. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…

  11. Selected Research in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching in Turkey: 2010-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Julie; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    In this state-of-the-art review, we aim to build on Alptekin & Tatar's (2011) article covering research conducted in Turkey between 2005 and 2009, and survey published research in 31 Turkey-based journals between 2010 and 2016. As the second review paper on Turkey's English language teaching (ELT) agenda, our goal is twofold: first, to…

  12. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  13. Empirical evidence for gender differences in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELIK Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitude surveys classified as leading economic indicators aim at extracting information from respondents regarding their perceptions of economic outlook. A typical consumer confidence index includes questions designed to measure the changes in the past-current and current-future pairs of economic outlook perceptions of the participants as well as a question that examines the consumer’s view on the current stage of economic activity. These surveys use equal amount of male and female participants. This paper checks the existence of perceptional difference of genders using CNBC-e consumer confidence index for Turkey. First, we calculate monthly consumer confidence indices for men and women for January 2003 – March 2011. Then, employing this data set, we use the recently developed frequency domain analysis of Breitung and Candelon (2006 and wavelet comovement analysis of Rua (2010 to assess whether these indices follow similar patterns before and after the recent global crisis in time and frequency domain. Our results show that women consistently diverge from men and seem to be on the pessimistic side-due probably to lower levels of wealth in terms of expectation formation. Moreover, this difference is increasing when purchasing durable goods is considered.

  14. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Soybilgen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  15. Estimating light-vehicle sales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Demiroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the surprising rapid growth of new light-vehicle sales in Turkey in 2015. Domestic sales grew 25%, dramatically surpassing the industry estimates of around 8%. Our approach is to inform the sales trend estimate with the information obtained from the light-vehicle stock (the number of cars and light trucks officially registered in the country, and the scrappage data. More specifically, we improve the sales trend estimate by estimating the trend of its stock. Using household data, we show that an important reason for the rapid sales growth is that an increasing share of household budgets is spent on automobile purchases. The elasticity of light-vehicle sales to cyclical changes in aggregate demand is high and robust; its estimates are around 6 with a standard deviation of about 0.5. The price elasticity of light-vehicle sales is estimated to be about 0.8, but the estimates are imprecise and not robust. We estimate the trend level of light-vehicle sales to be roughly 7 percent of the existing stock. A remarkable out-of-sample forecast performance is obtained for horizons up to nearly a decade by a regression equation using only a cyclical gap measure, the time trend and obvious policy dummies. Various specifications suggest that the strong 2015 growth of light-vehicle sales was predictable in late 2014.

  16. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  17. Art of Wrought Copper in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran KAYABAŞI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the handicraft, art of being a coppersmith has been occurred intensively in the past. The fast developing socio - economic structure diminished the value and the place of the copper vessels. Heavy and beautiful vessels made by beating left their places to thin, light aluminum, pl astic, glass and steel vessels made by machinery. The demand for copper is diminished. Therefore being a coppersmith has become less and less important every day. However, in the last few years, copper vessels becoming a touristic souvenir became a source of hope for the traditional coppersmith art to live on. Copperworking is applied in our country in some regions and there are people who live off it. Souvenirs, daily used vessels, and requirements of the rural areas are produced in centers such as İstanb ul, Ankara, Tokat, Çorum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Bursa, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Giresun and Trabzon. The situation of being a coppersmith in Turkey is explained, examples are given from souvenir copper items produced in Ankara, and sug gestions are made to keep this craft alive.

  18. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  19. Mobbing Exposure of Anaesthesiology Residents in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, Gülnihal; Efe, Esra Mercanoğlu; Bayraktar, Selcan; Şentürk, Sinem; Başeğmez, İrem; Özkumit, Özlem; Kabak, Elmas; Yavaşçaoğlu, Belgin; Bilgin, Hülya

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail. Completed questionnaires were collected in our department's secretariat blindly and randomly mixed. One hundred and one participants were returned the questionnaires. Data was statistically analysed in SPSS 21.0 software programme. During residency programme, sated to have experienced mobbing one or more time. Interestingly, 5.9% participants complained of physical mobbing. Mobbing exposure was more common in females. The most serious new onset psychosomatic symptoms stated during residency were committing suicide (2%), addiction (16%), severe depression (18%), panic attack (8%), more accidents (7%) and tendency of violence (15%). In mobbing group there was statistically significant dissatisfaction rate. In professions where mobbing is common, incidences of psychiatric diseases and suicide attempts are high are increased. Who are under risk for experiencing mobbing should be noticed carefully to ensure good judgement and problems should be inspected objectively in a detailed manner. Anesthesiology societies and other medical professional societies should establish mobbing committees. Thus, mobbing problems can be resolved and healthy career oppurtunities can be presented to residents.

  20. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  1. A Review on Reading-Supported Values Education of 7th Grade Students (Case of Kars Province, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Berna Ürün; Atalay, Tazegül Demir

    2017-01-01

    As is known, reading is a skill the individual faces throughout his/her life. Reading, which is also one of the four basic language skills, allows an individual to establish a connection with life. So that, self-improvement of the individual, the process of understanding and interpreting what is happening around him/her, expressing himself/herself…

  2. Monitoring tectonic uplift and paleo-environmental reconstruction for marine terraces near Magaracik and Samandag, Hatay Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florentin, Jonathan A.; Blackwell, Bonnie A.B.; Blickstein, Joel I.B.; Skinner, Anne R.; Tueysuez, Okan; Tari, Ufuk; Can Genc, S.; Imren, Caner; Mo, Shirley; Huang, Yiwen E.W.; Kim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Near Hatay, the Antakya-Samandag-Cyprus Fault (ASCF), East Anatolian and Dead Sea Fault Zones, the large faults that form the edges of the African, Anatolian, Cyprus and Arabian Plates, all produce large earthquakes, which have decimated Hatay repeatedly. Near Samandag, Hatay, differential vertical displacement on the ASCF has uplifted the southeastern side relative to northwestern side, producing large fault scarps that parallel the Asi (Orontes) River. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces stranded above current sea level. This study dated 24 mollusc samples from 10 outcrops on six marine terraces near Samandag electron spin resonance (ESR). Ages were calculated using time-averaged and volumetrically averaged external dose rates, modelled by assuming typical water depths for the individual species and sediment thicknesses estimated from geological criteria. Uplift rates were then calculated for each fault block. At all the Magaracik terraces, the dates suggest that many shells were likely reworked. On the 30 m terrace at Magaracik IV (UTM 766588-3999880), Lithophagus burrows with in situ shells cross the unconformity. One such shell dated to 62 ± 6 ka, setting the minimum possible age for the terrace. For all the Magaracik terraces at ∼30 m above mean sea level (amsl), the youngest ages for the reworked shells, which averaged 60 ± 3 ka for six separate analyses, sets the maximum possible age for this unit. Thus, the terrace must date to 60-62 ± 3 ka, at the MIS 3/4 boundary when temperatures and sea levels were fluctuating rapidly. Older units dating to MIS 7, 6, and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. At Magaracik Dump (UTM 765391-4001048), ∼103 m amsl, Ostrea and other shells were found cemented in growth position to the limestone boulders outcropping there -1 , since MIS 5c. At Samandag Kurt Stream at 38 m amsl, molluscs were deposited fine sandy gravel, which was likely formed in a large tidal channel. Four molluscs averaged 116 ± 5 ka. If these molluscs have not been reworked, this fault block has uplifted at 0.34 ± 0.05 m ky -1 since the MIS 5d/5e boundary. The differences in these uplift rates suggests that at least one, and possibly two, hitherto undiscovered faults may separate the Magaracik Dump site from the other Magaracik sites and from the Samandag Kurt Stream site. (authors)

  3. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  4. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    '. In October of 2015, geodetic deformation measurements were conducted by considering FIG reports related to deformation measurements and German DIN 18710 Engineering Measurements norms in the Çorum province of Turkey. The main purpose of the study is to determine optimum measurement and evaluation methods that will be used to specify movements in the horizontal and vertical directions for the fill dam. For this purpose; • In reference networks consisting of 8 points, measurements were performed by using long-term dual-frequency GNSS receivers for duration of 8 hours. • GNSS measurements were conducted in varying times between 30 minutes and 120 minutes at the 44 units object points on the body of the dam. • Two repetitive measurements of real time kinematic (RTK) GNSS were conducted at the object points on dam. • Geometric leveling measurements were performed between reference and object points. • Trigonometric leveling measurements were performed between reference and object points. • Polar measurements were performed between references and object points. GNSS measurements performed at reference points of the monitoring network for 8 hours have been evaluated by using GAMIT software in accordance with the IGS points in the region. In this manner, regional and local movements in the network can be determined. It is aimed to determine measurement period which will provide 1-2mm accuracy that expected in local GNSS network by evaluating GNSS measurements performed on body of dam. Results will be compared by offsetting GNSS and terrestrial measurements. This study will investigate whether or not there is increased accuracy provided by GNSS measurements carried out among reference points without the possibility of vision.

  5. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  6. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  7. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Birol, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  8. Avian chlamydiosis in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šatrović E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis is a contagious disease of birds, mammals, reptiles and humans. So far it was demonstrated in 469 species of birds and among them, turkeys are the most susceptible domestic poultry species. The disease appears in epizootic form in intensive turkey farming. Since commercial poultry rearing is under-developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, our investigation was based on extensively reared turkeys. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 26 birds and infection was proven by common chlamydial LPS antigen detection tests (IDEIA and CW. We have used rRT-PCR technique targeting chlamydial ompA gene region in order to prove Chlamydia species. Five birds, (19.2% were found positive as judged by IDEIA and CW tests. Among them one was positive Cp. psittaci speciesspecific rRT-PCR, ompA gene.

  9. Views on Turkey's impending ESCO market: Is it promising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin; Konukman, Alp Er S.; Akman, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) came into force in May 2007. The EEL will transform energy policies implemented in the government and private sectors. The law and upcoming regulations will offer opportunities for the impending Energy Service Company (ESCO) market in Turkey. In this work, we briefly review the ESCO literature and its financing mechanisms in the world, and present our views with regard to the funding and related risks that are likely to be associated with the forthcoming Turkish ESCO market. These views are backed up with Turkish credit and banking market performance and the lessons learned from implementation of some EU-related projects involving the banking sector and small-and-medium-sized firms. We conclude that in order to create a promising competitive ESCO market, Turkey's policy must be to sustain its average 5% growth rate achieved lately for the coming decade, finish the structural reforms which will invite necessary capital inflows to ensure an economic stability and financing

  10. mobile nuclear energy power plants for Turkey and III. world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezden, H.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that if there is no alternative energy source, there will be increase in building nuclear energy power plants. This source of energy and know how along with technology must be put into the possession of Turkey. Since almost all of Turkey is 1 st degree earthquake region and in view of the regional political instability, the requirement of ample amount of water for prolonged times, the density of settlement, environmental problems, high cost of building nuclear energy power plants it becomes necessary to think about their application techniques. In this study, mobile nuclear energy power plants having a wide area of use in conditions prevailing in Turkey , their draft drawings for making them by using metal/steel are shown. The positive-negative aspects of the topic is presented for discussions

  11. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  12. A Pelagic Paleocene Seouence in the Biga Peninsula Northwest Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak YIKILMAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of pelagic limestone, calciturbidite, debris flow, greywacke, basalt and limestone blocks. up to several hundred metres across, occur west of the town of Biga in northwest Turkey. The pelagic limestones in this sequence, named as the Ballıkaya formation, comprise pelagic foraminifera of Palaeocene age. Neritic limestone of Mid-Eocene age lies unconformably over the Ballıkaya formation. The age and the sedimentary environment of the Ballıkaya formation indicate the presence of a tectonically active deep-sea environment in northwest Turkey during the Palaeocene, and constrain the main Alpide deformation in northwest Turkey to the Late Palaeocene - Early Eocene interval.

  13. The emergence of think tanks and mediator intellectuals in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fındıklı, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This study examines the rise and development of think tanks in Turkey over the past five decades from a field-analytical perspective. In spite of the rapid growth and increasing effects of think tanks, few case studies have been conducted on the historical and current influences of these institutions in Turkey. Based on fourteen in-depth interviews with staff members of various think tanks, first hand observations, secondary re...

  14. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  15. The gender wage GAP ın Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2017-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages. Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. We concentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Although women earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entire wage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distr...

  16. A case of biliary Fascioliasis by Fasciola gigantica in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Vedat; Senturk, Senem; Mete, Omer; Cicek, Mutallib; Ebik, Berat; Kaya, Beşir

    2011-03-01

    A case of Fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in Turkey. The patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. A total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. She was living in a village of southeast of Anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. She had the history of eating lettuce, mallow, dill, and parsley without washing. This is the first case of fascioliasis which was treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ERCP in Turkey.

  17. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  18. A Model of Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Aytac

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the exchange-rate-based stabilization has focused almost exclusively in Latin America. Many other countries however, such as Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey; have undertaken this sort of programs in the last 10-15 years. I depart from the existing literature by developing a model specifically for the 2000-2001 heterodox exchange-rate-based stabilization program in Turkey: When the government lowers the rate of crawl, the rate of domestic credit creation is set equal to the lower r...

  19. Political Globalization and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Doğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of political globalization on foreign direct investment inflows to Turkey. Existence of foreign missions in a country, membership in international organizations, participation in U.N. Security Council Missions, and International Treaties are all seen as indicators political globalization. Using different econometric techniques, this study aims to find out whether any empirical relationship between political globalization and FDI exists. The analysis in this article covers the period in Turkey between 1970-2012. The results of cointegration analysis provide no an evidence of a long-run or short run any relationship political globalization and FDI.

  20. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....