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Sample records for sanjiv sam gambhir

  1. Sandwich Sam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    SAM, a 28-year-old Canadian, has a nice family name: Goodman. Four years ago, he came to China and now he owns two cafes. Sam is not tall. To match his loose black sweater, he wears a pair of jeans which are so long that the trouser legs are wrinkled over his sneakers. Why did he think of running a cafe in Beijing? "After graduating from college, I went to Hong Kong to be a fitness coach for half a year. Then, I went to South Korea. While sightseeing, I taught English to make a living.

  2. SAM in a Nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains what the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers' Strategic Assessment Model (SAM) is and how to use it to achieve organizational excellence through continuous improvement. Showing features of both the Malcolm Baldrige programs and the Balanced Scorecard, the SAM components are described along with an explanation of the four…

  3. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  4. SAM Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The System Analysis Module (SAM) is an advanced and modern system analysis tool being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM development aims for advances in physical modeling, numerical methods, and software engineering to enhance its user experience and usability for reactor transient analyses. To facilitate the code development, SAM utilizes an object-oriented application framework (MOOSE), and its underlying meshing and finite-element library (libMesh) and linear and non-linear solvers (PETSc), to leverage modern advanced software environments and numerical methods. SAM focuses on modeling advanced reactor concepts such as SFRs (sodium fast reactors), LFRs (lead-cooled fast reactors), and FHRs (fluoride-salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or MSRs (molten salt reactors). These advanced concepts are distinguished from light-water reactors in their use of single-phase, low-pressure, high-temperature, and low Prandtl number (sodium and lead) coolants. As a new code development, the initial effort has been focused on modeling and simulation capabilities of heat transfer and single-phase fluid dynamics responses in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) systems. The system-level simulation capabilities of fluid flow and heat transfer in general engineering systems and typical SFRs have been verified and validated. This document provides the theoretical and technical basis of the code to help users understand the underlying physical models (such as governing equations, closure models, and component models), system modeling approaches, numerical discretization and solution methods, and the overall capabilities in SAM. As the code is still under ongoing development, this SAM Theory Manual will be updated periodically to keep it consistent with the state of the development.

  5. CareSam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Christensen, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    negative cultural perceptions of help-needing elderly and the people who support them in everyday life? In answering these questions and thereby reflecting on our own work process we apply a caring, a learning and a political perspective. Hereby the article wishes to formulate a methodological point......This article presents findings and discussions generated on the basis of the Danish-Swedish development project CareSam. The article will on the one hand focus on how work in groups consisting of representatives from different levels in the elderly care sector at one time served as learning spaces...... in the project-groups this paper will ask whether it is possible to represent care work for elderly people with all the ambiguities it holds: How can we as researchers represent both meaningfulness and straining dimensions of care work? Can we avoid either supporting Florence Nightingale-ideals or cementing...

  6. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  7. Sam37 is crucial for formation of the mitochondrial TOM-SAM supercomplex, thereby promoting β-barrel biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Ellenrieder, Lars; Qiu, Jian; Bohnert, Maria; Zufall, Nicole; van der Laan, Martin; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas

    2015-09-28

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins requires two preprotein translocases, the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM and SAM form a supercomplex that promotes transfer of β-barrel precursors. The SAM core complex contains the channel protein Sam50, which cooperates with Sam35 in precursor recognition, and the peripheral membrane protein Sam37. The molecular function of Sam37 has been unknown. We report that Sam37 is crucial for formation of the TOM-SAM supercomplex. Sam37 interacts with the receptor domain of Tom22 on the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane and links TOM and SAM complexes. Sam37 thus promotes efficient transfer of β-barrel precursors to the SAM complex. We conclude that Sam37 functions as a coupling factor of the translocase supercomplex of the mitochondrial outer membrane. © 2015 Wenz et al.

  8. SAM and the Particle Physics Data Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LauriLoebel-Carpenter; LeeLueking; 等

    2001-01-01

    The D0 experiment's data and job management system software,SAM,is an operational prototype of many of the concepts being developed for Grid computing .We explain how the components of SAM map into the Data Grid architecture,We discuss the future use of Grid components to either replace existing components of SAM or to extend its functionality and utility.owrk being carried out as part of the Particle Physics Data Grid(PPDG) project.

  9. Samsø Energy Vision 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth; Ridjan, Iva

    The purpose of this report is to investigate potential scenarios for converting Samsø into 100% renewable energy supply in 2030 with focus on local electricity and biomass resources. Firstly, a 2013 reference scenario is established to investigate whether Samsø is 100% renewable today. Next, scen...

  10. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the chemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  11. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Biotoxin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the pathogen methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  12. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the radiochemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  13. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the biotoxin methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  14. Discovery of charmed particles : Sam Ting

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The great physics event of the year was the discovery of charmed particles in the USA. One of the co-discoverers, Sam Ting, was at CERN involved in an ISR experiment and described the discovery to a packed auditorium.

  15. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; ter Maat, Jurjen; Bisri, Satria Z.; Weusthof, Marcel H. H.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskensa, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal-self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) host-guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is fu

  16. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Maat, ter Jurjen; Bisri, Satria Z.; Weusthof, Marcel H.H.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal-self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) host-guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is functiona

  17. Sensitivity Analysis for Multidisciplinary Systems (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TM-2017-0017 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEMS (SAMS) Richard D. Snyder Design & Analysis Branch Aerospace Vehicles...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. 1 AFRL-NASA Collaboration Provide economical, accurate sensitivities for multidisciplinary design and... Concept Refinement Technology Development System Development & Demonstration Production & Deployment Operation & Support • Knowledge is most limited

  18. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2008-01-18

    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  19. Sam's Journey to "Reach for the Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences as a parent of a child with Down syndrome. Although her son Sam's first years were filled with numerous hospitalizations and visits to pediatricians, which she feared would further delay his development, she soon discovered an organization known as the National Association of Child Development…

  20. Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

    2014-10-02

    The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

  1. Dynamics of SAMs in Boundary Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manojlović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant molecules have some properties responsible for a number ofremarkable phenomena, such as oriented adsorption of surfactants at surfaces and interfaces. The capability to self -assemble into well- defined structures is often seen as being more important than their surface activity. When a surfactant solution is in contact with a solid surface, the surfactant molecules adsorb onto the surface, ideally forming an adsorbed layer of a high order, termed as a self- assembled monolayer (SAM. Many surface properties are influenced bysuch a film, and therefore, SAMs offer the capability to form ordered organic surface coatings, suitable for various applications, such as wetting or corrosion protection. Due to the flexibility in choosing the molecular architecture, organic molecules have many interesting applications, such as biosensors, in Photoelectronics, in controlling water adsorption or boundary lubricant coating. This paper Focuses on cationic surfactants (quaternary ammonium surfactants with some unique properties that are not present in other surfactants.

  2. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  3. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, C.A.; Maat, ter J.; Bisri, S.Z.; Weusthof, M.H.H.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Huskens, J.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal–self-assembled monolayer (SAM)–dendrimer–SAM–metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple -cyclodextrin (CD) host–guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is functionali

  4. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  5. SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM): Seeing Improvement with a UV Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Cantarutti, Rolando; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Martinez, Manuel; Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    The adaptive module of the 4.1 m SOAR telescope, SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM), corrects ground-layer turbulence using an ultraviolet laser guide star. It has been commissioned in 2013 and it is in regular science operation since 2014. SAM works with the CCD imager covering a 3‧ field or with the speckle camera. It operates routinely and stably, delivering resolution in the I band equal to the free-atmosphere seeing. This paper describes the SAM system as a whole, providing essential reference for its users and technical information of interest to instrumentalists. Operation of the instrument, its performance, and science projects done with SAM so far are reviewed.

  6. SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM): seeing improvement with a UV laser

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Martinez, Manuel; Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive module of the 4.1-m SOAR telescope, SAM, corrects ground-layer turbulence using a UV laser guide star. It has been commissioned in 2013 and it is in regular science operation since 2014. SAM works with the CCD imager covering a 3' field or with the speckle camera. It operates routinely and stably, delivering resolution in the I band equal to the free-atmosphere seeing. This paper describes the SAM system as a whole, providing essential reference for its users and technical information of interest to instrumentalists. Operation of the instrument, its performance, and science projects done with SAM so far are reviewed.

  7. Providing output of DIRAC-SAM jobs to the IT-based SAM-Nagios framework

    CERN Document Server

    Volkl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Information available on LHCb grid sites in the SAM-Nagios monitor- ing framework - gathered mainly through functional tests - has been sup- plemented with results from LHCbDIRAC SAMJobs published by means of message client newly integrated in LHCbDIRAC. These are displayed as a new metric org.lhcb.DiracTest-lhcb giving additional debug in- formation to system administrators and influencing reports on grid site performances in the future

  8. Sam68 is a novel marker for aggressive neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaohong Zhao,1,* Zuoqing Li,2,* Benfu He,3 Juncheng Liu,2 Suisheng Li,2 Li Zhou,2 Cuiling Pan,2 Zhe Yu,4 Zhe Xu21State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Experimental Research, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 3Oncology Department, PLA421 Hospital, 4Laura Biotech Co, Ltd, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common solid extracranial tumor in children. However, the molecular mechanism and progression of NB is largely unknown, and unfortunately, the prognosis is poor. Src-associated in mitosis with a molecular weight of 68 kDa (Sam68 is associated with carcinogenesis and neurogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Sam68 in NB.Methods: The expression of Sam68 in immortalized normal epithelial cells, NB cell lines, and in four cases of paired NB tissue and adjacent normal tissue from the same patient was examined using Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The proliferation of NB cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore, Sam68 protein expression was analyzed in 90 NB cases characterized as clinicopathological using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of Sam68 with clinical parameters.Results: Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR showed that the expression level of Sam68 was markedly higher in NB cell lines than in the immortalized normal epithelial cells at both messenger RNA and protein levels. The MTT assay revealed that Sam68 expression supported proliferation of NB cells. Sam68 expression levels were significantly up-regulated in tumor tissues in comparison to the

  9. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  10. SAM Gcms Chromatography Performed at Mars : Elements of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Buch, A.; François, P.; Cabane, M.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of regolith samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Interpretation of the data collected after SAM pyrolysis evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) experiments on the first soil samples collected by MSL at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater has been challenging due to the concomitant presence in the ovens of an oxychlorine phase present in the samples, and a derivatization agent coming from the SAM wet chemistry experiment (Glavin et al., 2013). Moreover, accurate identification and quantification, in the SAM EGA mode, of volatiles released from the heated sample, or generated by reactions occurring in the SAM pyrolysis oven, is also difficult for a few compounds due to evolution over similar temperature ranges and overlap of their MS signatures. Hence, the GC analyses, coupled with MS, enabled the separation and identification and quantification of most of the volatile compounds detected. These results can have been obtained through tests and calibration done with GC individual spare components and with the SAM testbed. This paper will present a view of the interpretation of the chromatograms obtained when analyzing the Rocknest and John Klein solid samples delivered to SAM, on sols 96 and 199 respectively, supported by laboratory calibrations.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase from Pichia ciferrii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangyoung; Lee, Wonkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, T Doohun; Ryu, Yeonwoo

    2012-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAM-s) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is essential for methylation, transcription, proliferation, and production of secondary metabolites. Here SAM-s from Pichia ciferrii were selectively cloned using RNA CapFishing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The putative full-length cDNA of SAM-s encoded a 383 amino acid protein (42.6 kDa), which has highly conserved metal binding sites, a phosphate-binding site, and functionally important motifs. The corresponding enzyme was over-expressed in a heterologous host of Pichia pastoris, and then purified to a homogenous form. Enzyme kinetics, immunoblotting, circular dichroism (CD), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and molecular modeling were conducted to characterize the SAM-s from P. ciferrii. Structural and functional studies of SAM-s will provide important insights for industrial applications.

  12. Crystal structures of the SAM-III/S[subscript MK] riboswitch reveal the SAM-dependent translation inhibition mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.; Smith, A.M.; Fuchs, R.T.; Ding, F.; Rajashankar, K.; Henkin, T.M.; Ke, A. (Cornell); (OSU)

    2010-01-07

    Three distinct classes of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-responsive riboswitches have been identified that regulate bacterial gene expression at the levels of transcription attenuation or translation inhibition. The SMK box (SAM-III) translational riboswitch has been identified in the SAM synthetase gene in members of the Lactobacillales. Here we report the 2.2-{angstrom} crystal structure of the Enterococcus faecalis SMK box riboswitch. The Y-shaped riboswitch organizes its conserved nucleotides around a three-way junction for SAM recognition. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence, which is sequestered by base-pairing with the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence in response to SAM binding, also directly participates in SAM recognition. The riboswitch makes extensive interactions with the adenosine and sulfonium moieties of SAM but does not appear to recognize the tail of the methionine moiety. We captured a structural snapshot of the SMK box riboswitch sampling the near-cognate ligand S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) in which SAH was found to adopt an alternative conformation and fails to make several key interactions.

  13. Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  14. Sam Wagstaffi unustatud kired / Ahto Külvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külvet, Ahto

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  15. Kuula. Kuu artist Sam Sparro. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Artistist Sam Sparrost. Heliplaatidest: "Sex And The City" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, "Maestro: Blue Note Trip", Melvin/Soo/Remmel/Julm "Geografix", Alanis Morrisette "Flavors Of Entanglement", Guillemots "Red"

  16. SAM: A Simple Averaging Model of Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the Simple Averaging Model (SAM) which was developed to demonstrate impression-formation computer modeling with less complex and less expensive procedures than are required by most established programs. (RC)

  17. Sam Wagstaffi unustatud kired / Ahto Külvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külvet, Ahto

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  18. NACO/SAM observations of sources at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J; Alberdi, A; Pott, J U

    2012-01-01

    Sparse aperture masking (SAM) interferometry combined with Adaptive Optics (AO) is a technique that is uniquely suited to investigate structures near the diffraction limit of large telescopes. The strengths of the technique are a robust calibration of the Point Spread Function (PSF) while maintaining a relatively high dynamic range. We used SAM+AO observations to investigate the circumstellar environment of several bright sources with infrared excess in the central parsec of the Galaxy. For our observations, unstable atmospheric conditions as well as significant residuals after the background subtraction presented serious problems for the standard approach of calibrating SAM data via interspersed observations of reference stars. We circumvented these difficulties by constructing a synthesized calibrator directly from sources within the field-of-view. When observing crowded fields, this novel method can boost the efficiency of SAM observations because it renders interspersed calibrator observations unnecessary...

  19. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  20. Kuula. Kuu artist Sam Sparro. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Artistist Sam Sparrost. Heliplaatidest: "Sex And The City" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, "Maestro: Blue Note Trip", Melvin/Soo/Remmel/Julm "Geografix", Alanis Morrisette "Flavors Of Entanglement", Guillemots "Red"

  1. Cloning and Analysis of Genes SAMS From Glycine soja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jinping; BAI Xi; LI Yong; JI Wei; WANG Xi; ZHU Yanming

    2008-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) plays important role in trans-methyl reactions. Under the condition of drought (30%PEG),salinity (200 mmol·L-1 NaCI) and low temperature (4℃),total RNA was extracted from the leaf and the first strand of eDNA was synthesized with reverse transcription.S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (SAMS gene) was amplified by PeR with the first strand eDNA as template and a pair of primers which was based on constructed ESTs sequence.Full-length SAMS gene sequence was obtained by BLAST comparison. According to the analysis, completed sequence of SAMS gene was integrality.The sequence of the SAMS gene was 1185 bp in length with an opening reading frame (ORF) encoding 394 amino acids.The cDNA sequence showed a significant homology to the SAM genes from Phaseolus lunatus (89%),Medicago sativa (85%).A prokaryotie expression vectors based on pET-32b had been constructed and prokaryotie expression was analyzed in order to lay a strong foundation for resist adversity function analysis through situation of genie expression analysis.

  2. Obituary: Sam Roweis (1972-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David

    2011-12-01

    Computer scientist and statistical astronomer Sam Roweis took his own life in New York City on 2010 January 12. He was a brilliant and accomplished researcher in the field of machine learning, and a strong advocate for the use of computational statistics for automating discovery and scientific data analysis. He made several important contributions to astronomy and was working on adaptive astronomical data analysis at the time of his death. Roweis obtained his PhD in 1999 from the California Institute of Technology, where he worked on a remarkable range of subjects, including DNA computing, modeling of dynamical systems, signal processing, and speech recognition. During this time he unified and clarified some of the most important data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis, Hidden Markov Models, and Expectation Maximization. His work was aimed at making data analysis and modeling faster, but also better justified scientifically. The last years of his PhD were spent in Princeton NJ, where he came in contact with a young generation of cosmologists thinking about microwave background and large-scale structure data. In a postdoc at University College London, Roweis co-created the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm; a simple but flexible technique for mapping a large data set onto a low-dimensional manifold. The LLE paper obtained more than 2700 citations in 9 years, launched a new sub-field of machine learning known as "manifold learning," and inspired work in data visualization, search, and applied mathematics. In 2001, Roweis took a faculty job at the University of Toronto Computer Science Department. He continued working on data analysis methods that have probabilistic interpretation and therefore scientific applicability, but at the same time have good performance on large data sets. He was awarded a Sloan Fellowship, a Canada Research Chair, and a fellowship of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, among other honors and awards

  3. Native interface of the SAM domain polymer of TEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowie James U

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TEL is a transcriptional repressor containing a SAM domain that forms a helical polymer. In a number of hematologic malignancies, chromosomal translocations lead to aberrant fusions of TEL-SAM to a variety of other proteins, including many tyrosine kinases. TEL-SAM polymerization results in constitutive activation of the tyrosine kinase domains to which it becomes fused, leading to cell transformation. Thus, inhibitors of TEL-SAM self-association could abrogate transformation in these cells. In previous work, we determined the structure of a mutant TEL-SAM polymer bearing a Val to Glu substitution in center of the subunit interface. It remained unclear how much the mutation affected the architecture of the polymer, however. Results Here we determine the structure of the native polymer interface. To accomplish this goal, we introduced mutations that block polymer extension, producing a heterodimer with a wild-type interface. We find that the structure of the wild-type polymer interface is quite similar to the mutant structure determined previously. With the structure of the native interface, it is possible to evaluate the potential for developing therapeutic inhibitors of the interaction. We find that the interacting surfaces of the protein are relatively flat, containing no obvious pockets for the design of small molecule inhibitors. Conclusion Our results confirm the architecture of the TEL-SAM polymer proposed previously based on a mutant structure. The fact that the interface contains no obvious potential binding pockets suggests that it may be difficult to find small molecule inhibitors to treat malignancies in this way.

  4. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  5. Simulated SAM A-scans on multilayer MEMS components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Greisen, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    A spreadsheet program for simulation of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) A-scans on multilayer structures has been developed. Using this program, structure variations in samples can be analysed better. Further samples can be prepared to get optimal signal for enhanced failure and materials anal...

  6. Ensuring GRID resource availability with the SAM framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Closier, J; Santinelli, R

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has chosen to use the SAM framework (Service Availability Monitoring Environment from EGEE-II) [1] make extensive tests of the LHCb environment at all the accessible grid resources. The availability and the proper definition of the local Computing and Storage Elements, user interfaces as well as the WLCG software environment are checked. The SAM framework is also used to pre-install the LHCb applications in the shared software area provided by each site. The deployment of the LHCb applications is based on a python tool developed inside the experiment. It is used for software management including incremental installation of interdependent packages and clean package removal. After the application software is installed a validation test of the whole MC chain is run. According to the results of the experiment specific SAM tests, the sites are (re)integrated into the LHCb production system managed by DIRAC [2]. The possibility of automated dynamic site certification using the SAM test suite is ...

  7. ISO19770-1:2012 SAM process guidance

    CERN Document Server

    Canavan, Rory

    2012-01-01

    The pocket guide offers a concise summary of the principles of software asset management as conveyed by ISO 19770-1: 2012, and provides advice and guidance on how to kick-start your own SAM programme - something the Standard alone doesn't offer.

  8. Automation of one-loop calculations with GoSam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soden-Fraunhofen, Johann Felix von [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The program package GoSam can be used to calculate multi-leg one-loop amplitudes within and beyond the Standard Model. An extension is additionally presented which allows to calculate integrals where the rank is larger than the number of propagators. One possible application of this feature is the calculation of QCD corrections within models involving extra dimensions.

  9. Social Activity Method (SAM): A Fractal Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, "social activity method" (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for "modes of recontextualisation" that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity--which might be school mathematics or social research or any…

  10. 77 FR 67813 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ..., Assistant Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration, Department of Energy, Williams Center Tower I... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Rate Order Approving an Extension of Power Rate on an Interim Basis....

  11. Sample Analysis at Mars Organic Contaminants Library (SAM-OCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Raul; Misra, Prabhakar; Canham, John; Mahaffy, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Organic Contaminants Library (SAM-OCL) was developed as one of several components for the Mars rover mission's Contamination Control Protocol. The purpose of SAM-OCL is to determine the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) signals of different materials composing the Mars Science Laboratory rover. In turn, this allows us to determine which GCMS signals originate from terrestrial contamination or rover material outgassing. The GCMS spectral library has several supplemental components, of which its descriptor spreadsheets are the most important, aimed to make SAM-OCL easily and readily accessible to users in and out of the Mars rover mission. One spreadsheet describes the contaminants that can be found in each file, while the other describes the information regarding each file. The library, along with its supplemental materials, is useful from an organizational and practical sense. Through them we are able to organize large volumes of GCMS data while breaking down the components that each material sample is made off. This allows us easy and fast access to information that will be critical when doing analysis in the data that the SAM instrumentation will obtain.

  12. Role of Sam68 in Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Sánchez-Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The STAR family of proteins links signaling pathways to various aspects of post-transcriptional regulation and processing of RNAs. Sam68 belongs to this class of heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K (hnRNP K homology (KH single domain-containing family of RNA-binding proteins that also contains some domains predicted to bind critical components in signal transduction pathways. In response to phosphorylation and other post-transcriptional modifications, Sam68 has been shown to have the ability to link signal transduction pathways to downstream effects regulating RNA metabolism, including transcription, alternative splicing or RNA transport. In addition to its function as a docking protein in some signaling pathways, this prototypic STAR protein has been identified to have a nuclear localization and to take part in the formation of both nuclear and cytosolic multi-molecular complexes such as Sam68 nuclear bodies and stress granules. Coupling with other proteins and RNA targets, Sam68 may play a role in the regulation of differential expression and mRNA processing and translation according to internal and external signals, thus mediating important physiological functions, such as cell death, proliferation or cell differentiation.

  13. Spatio-angularly multiplexed (SAM) holographic storage in photorefractive crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    In this thesis a novel multiplexing scheme for dense holographic storage in photorefractive crystals, Spatio-Angular Multiplexing (or SAM), is described in detail. In SAM Fourier transform holograms are formed in spatially overlapping regions of a crystal and are distinguished from one another by using variously angled reference beams. SAM takes advantage of both the high storage density possible using angularly multiplexed volume holograms and also the low crosstalk possible using spatially multiplexed Fourier transform holograms. Compared to pure spatial multiplexing, SAM increases the storage capacity by fully utilising the volume of the storage medium. On the other hand, SAM reduces the number of holograms overlapping any one hologram in a given volume, and so increases the diffraction efficiency achievable as compared to pure angular multiplexing. SAM offers the possibility of incorporating the recorded crystal into a content addressable memory (CAM) system for parallel access of all stored patterns. In order to obtain the maximum diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio, the hologram must be replayed by a readout beam incident at the correct angle of readout beam. The optimum angle may be shifted away from the angle used in recording by a ''Bragg-shift", caused (under certain conditions) by phase coupling between the two writing beams during recording. Although this Bragg shift is small, a large diffraction efficiency enhancement is obtained when the grating is read out at the optimum angle. We have calculated the Bragg shift, using a numerical calculation based on an earlier theory, and have obtained good agreement with experiment. Using the novel SAM scheme, we have succeeded in storing 756 high resolution binary patterns in an Fe:LiNbO3 crystal of volume 1cm3, with an average diffraction efficiency of 0.5%. This large database is designed for practical use in a novel associative memory system, called a high order feedback neural network (HOFNET

  14. The Performance of CSAM SAM when Cycle Length is extended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to verify validation of that, CPC Axial Power Distribution is compared with Axial Power Distribution based on ICI every week. The difference between CPC Axial Power Distribution and Axial Power Distribution based on ICI increases according as fuels are burned. It is called CPC Axial Power Distribution Root Mean Square Error (CPC RMS Error). SAM and calibration of ex-core detector are important factors influencing the magnitude of the difference. According to vendor, the difference is limited by 8%. Otherwise, CPC penalty increases as many as difference increase. Therefore, KHNP developed Constrained Simulated Annealing Method (CSAM), which has better performance than that of Least Square Method (LSM), to calculate SAM constant. The CSA SAM contributed largely to maintain CPC operating margin. Somewhat, KHNP is developing the technology to be able to operate nuclear power plants for 24 month to optimize their efficiency. This paper shows trends of CPC RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation. Trends are based on data of a few OPR1000s under operation. It is data of OPR1000s that CSA SAM is applied. KHNP is developing the technology to extend operation cycle length in order to optimize the operation efficiency of OPR1000. To verify effect of extended operation cycle length on CPC, CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation was expected using operation data of six cycles in OPR1000. In cases that CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error exceeds threshold, operation margin is decreased due to CPC penalty. To prevent CPC operation margin from being decreased, improved method to calculate SAM or to calibrate ex-core detector is required. KHNP will consider the way to maintain CPC operation margin along with 24 month operation technology development, hereafter.

  15. Influence of the wet chemistry on the SAM GCMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Miller, K.; Eigendbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Pinnick, V. T.; Coll, P. J.; François, P.; Cabane, M.; Teinturier, S.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin, J. P.; Summons, R. E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The SAM GC-MS instrument on the Curiosity rover allows to analyze volatile compounds from the atmosphere or volatile compounds from the Martian regolith and refractory compounds in the regolith after sample treatment using wet chemistry. One portion of the wet chemistry experiment is composed of MTBSTFA (N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (dimethylformamide). Indeed, chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GC-MS. Results obtained on Rocknest (Leshin et al. 2013; Glavin et al. 2013) and John Klein showed the presence of MTBSTFA reaction products in the system. This means that MTBSTFA is part of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF filled derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. As such, in order to better understand the portion of products detected coming from internal reactions, we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM pyrolysis and gas processing system. Specifically, we have investigated possible MTBSTFA reactions with organics at high temperatures (100°C up to 600°C) from the SAM trap (Tenax) and with oxychlorine compounds present on Mars (Glavin et al. 2013). References: Leshin et al. Science, in press; Glavin et al. JGR-Planets, accepted.

  16. DNA adenine methylation of sams1 gene in symbiont-bearing Amoeba proteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taeck J

    2008-10-01

    The expression of amoeba sams genes is switched from sams1 to sams2 when amoebae are infected with Legionella jeonii. To elucidate the mechanism for the inactivation of host sams1 gene by endosymbiotic bacteria, methylation states of the sams1 gene of D and xD amoebae was compared in this study. The sams1 gene of amoebae was methylated at an internal adenine residue of GATC site in symbiont-bearing xD amoebae but not in symbiont-free D amoebae, suggesting that the modification might have caused the inactivation of sams1 in xD amoebae. The sams1 gene of xD amoebae was inactivated at the transcriptional level. Analysis of DNA showed that adenine residues in L. jeonii sams were also methylated, implying that L. jeonii bacteria belong to a Dam methylase-positive strain. In addition, both SAM and Met appeared to act as negative regulators for the expression of sams1 whereas the expression of sams2 was not affected in amoebae.

  17. Genome sequencing and annotation of Stenotrophomonas sp. SAM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SAM8, isolated from environmental water. The draft genome size is 3,665,538 bp with a G + C content of 67.2% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDAV00000000.

  18. Jo Ann Baumgartner and Sam Earnshaw: Organizers and Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Jo Ann Baumgartner directs the Wild Farm Alliance, based in Watsonville, California. WFA’s mission, as described on the organization’s website, is “to promote agriculture that helps to protect and restore wild Nature.” Through research, publications, presentations, events, policy work, and consulting, the organization works to “connect food systems with ecosystems.” Sam Earnshaw is Central Coast regional coordinator of the Community Alliance with Family Farmers. Working with CAFF’s f...

  19. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  20. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczycky, Mark W; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2015-04-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  1. CE-SAM: a conversational interface for ISR mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Diego; Parizas, Christos; Preece, Alun; Braines, Dave; Mott, David; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.

    2013-05-01

    There is considerable interest in natural language conversational interfaces. These allow for complex user interactions with systems, such as fulfilling information requirements in dynamic environments, without requiring extensive training or a technical background (e.g. in formal query languages or schemas). To leverage the advantages of conversational interactions we propose CE-SAM (Controlled English Sensor Assignment to Missions), a system that guides users through refining and satisfying their information needs in the context of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations. The rapidly-increasing availability of sensing assets and other information sources poses substantial challenges to effective ISR resource management. In a coalition context, the problem is even more complex, because assets may be "owned" by different partners. We show how CE-SAM allows a user to refine and relate their ISR information needs to pre-existing concepts in an ISR knowledge base, via conversational interaction implemented on a tablet device. The knowledge base is represented using Controlled English (CE) - a form of controlled natural language that is both human-readable and machine processable (i.e. can be used to implement automated reasoning). Users interact with the CE-SAM conversational interface using natural language, which the system converts to CE for feeding-back to the user for confirmation (e.g. to reduce misunderstanding). We show that this process not only allows users to access the assets that can support their mission needs, but also assists them in extending the CE knowledge base with new concepts.

  2. Ablation of the Sam68 RNA binding protein protects mice from age-related bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Richard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Src substrate associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68 is a KH-type RNA binding protein that has been shown to regulate several aspects of RNA metabolism; however, its physiologic role has remained elusive. Herein we report the generation of Sam68-null mice by homologous recombination. Aged Sam68-/- mice preserved their bone mass, in sharp contrast with 12-month-old wild-type littermates in which bone mass was decreased up to approximately 75%. In fact, the bone volume of the 12-month-old Sam68-/- mice was virtually indistinguishable from that of 4-month-old wild-type or Sam68-/- mice. Sam68-/- bone marrow stromal cells had a differentiation advantage for the osteogenic pathway. Moreover, the knockdown of Sam68 using short hairpin RNA in the embryonic mesenchymal multipotential progenitor C3H10T1/2 cells resulted in more pronounced expression of the mature osteoblast marker osteocalcin when differentiation was induced with bone morphogenetic protein-2. Cultures of mouse embryo fibroblasts generated from Sam68+/+ and Sam68-/- littermates were induced to differentiate into adipocytes with culture medium containing pioglitazone and the Sam68-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts shown to have impaired adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, in vivo it was shown that sections of bone from 12-month-old Sam68-/- mice had few marrow adipocytes compared with their age-matched wild-type littermate controls, which exhibited fatty bone marrow. Our findings identify endogenous Sam68 as a positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation and a negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation, which is consistent with Sam68 being a modulator of bone marrow mesenchymal cell differentiation, and hence bone metabolism, in aged mice.

  3. SAM Overview and Operation at the D0 Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LauriLoebel-Carpenter; LeeLueking; 等

    2001-01-01

    SAM is a network-distributed data management system developed at Fermilab for use with Run II data,It is being Employed by the D0 Experiment to store,manage,deliver,and track processing of all data.We describe the design and features of the system including resource management and data transfer mechanisms,We show the operational experience D0 has accumulated to date including data acquisition processing,and all levels of access and delivery.We present various configurations of the system and describe their use in the collaboration.

  4. Multiple endmember spectral-angle-mapper (SAM) analysis improves discrimination of Savanna tree species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available architecture. Several mapping methods are applied in remote sensing to quantify species or vegetation community distribution at the local to regional scale. The most commonly used methods include maximum likelihood, spectral mixture analysis (SMA)[1...] and spectral angle mapper (SAM)[2]. The application of some of these methods including SAM and SMA has become popular with the advent of hyperspectral remote sensing. SAM determines the degree of similarity between two spectra by treating the spectra...

  5. Cardiological aging in SAM model: effect of chronic treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, K; Vara, E; García, C; Ariznavarreta, C; Escames, G; Tresguerres, J A F

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on different parameters related to inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in hearts from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated mice (SAM-P8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAM-R1), and the influence of chronic administration of Growth Hormone (GH) on old SAM-P8 mice. Forty male mice were used. Animals were divided into five experimental groups: two 10 month old untreated groups (SAM-P8/SAM-R1), two 2 month old young groups (SAM-P8/SAM-R1) and one 10 month old group (SAM-P8) treated with GH for 30 days. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 10, heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases, NFkB, Bad, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were submitted to a two way ANOVA statistical evaluation using the Statgraphics program. Inflammation, as well as, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers were increased in the heart of old SAM-P8 males, as compared to young controls and this situation was not observed in the old SAM-R1 mice. Exogenous GH administration reverted the effect of aging in the described parameters of old SAM-P8 mice. Our results suggest that inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress could play an important role in the observed cardiovascular alterations related to aging of SAM-P8 mice and that GH may play a potential protective effect on the cardiovascular system of these animals.

  6. [Effects of Sam68 gene silence on proliferation of acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Juan; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ya-Ni; Pang, Tian-Xiang; Li, Qing-Hua

    2014-08-01

    This study was purpose to investigate the effect of Sam68 gene silence on proliferation of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat. The sequence of shRNA targeting the site 531-552 of Sam68 mRNA was designed and chemically synthesized, then a single-vector lentiviral, Tet-inducible shRNA-Sam68 system (pLKO-Tet-On) was constructed; next the Jurkat cells were infected with lentivirus to create stable cell clones with regulatable Sam68 gene expression. The inhibitory efficiency of Sam68 gene was assayed by Real-time PCR and Western blot; the cell activity of Jurkat cells was detected with MTT assay; the change of colony forming potential of Jurkat cells was analyzed by colony forming test; the cell cycle distribution was tested by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the expression of Sam68 in experimental cells was statistically decreased as compared with that of the control cells; the cells activity and colony forming capacity of the Jurkat cells with Sam68 gene silence were significantly inhibited; with Sam68 gene silencing, the percentage of S phase cells was significantly increased, while the percentage of G2 phase cells was significantly decreased. It is concluded that the silencing Sam68 gene using shRNA interference can effectively inhibit the proliferation of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat.

  7. SAM-2 ground-truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement-2 (SAM 2) sensor on the Nimbus G satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Pepin, T. J.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SAM-2 will fly aboard the Nimbus-G satellite for launch in the fall of 1978 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol extinction in high latitude bands. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. The SAM-2 expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of polar stratospheric aerosols are used in the SAM-2 and correlative sensor analyses.

  8. de regresión OLS y SAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Vilalta y Perdomo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es demostrar que debido a que algunos fenómenos sociales presentan variación espacial, la modelación de los mismos tiene implicaciones metodológicas importantes, y por lo tanto es recomendable utilizar una técnica de regresión que incorpore la espacialidad de los datos en su diseño. Se siguen dos procedimientos generales: primero se calcula el coeficiente de autocorrelación I de Moran para demostrar la espacialidad del comportamiento electoral en el México urbano entre 1994 y 2000; después se comparan dos técnicas de regresión, ols y sam. De la comparación se concluye que la técnica sam es más robusta que la ols con base en que la primera obtiene coeficientes de regresión más precisos y detecta efectos regionales estadísticamente significativos aun en la presencia de modelos con problemas de heterodasticidad.

  9. Winning Attitude & Dedication to Physical Therapy Keep Sam Schmidt on Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Nikki Prevenslik

    2006-01-01

    This article relates how Sam Schmidt returned to living a productive life after an accident left him with spinal cord injury. Schmidt was a former Indy Racing League driver who founded Sam Schmidt Motorsports after his accident in 2000. Schmidt's car hit the wall as he exited turn two during a practice session at Walt Disney World Speedway in…

  10. Regioselective patterning of multiple SAMs and applications in surface-guided smart microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanzhao; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin

    2014-12-24

    A top-down nanofabrication technology is developed to integrate multiple SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) into regioselective patterns. With ultraviolet light exposure through regioselectively hollowed hard mask, an existing SAM at designated microregions can be removed and a dissimilar kind of SAM can be regrown there. By repeating the photolithography-like process cycle, diverse kinds of SAM building blocks can be laid out as a desired pattern in one microfluidic channel. In order to ensure high quality of the surface modifications, the SAMs are vapor-phase deposited before the channel is closed by a bonding process. For the first time the technique makes it possible to integrate three or more kinds of SAMs in one microchannel. The technique is very useful for multiplex surface functionalization of microfluidic chips where different segments of a microfluidic channel need to be individually modified with different SAMs or into arrayed pattern for surface-guided fluidic properties like hydrophobicity/philicity and/or oleophobicity/philicity, etc. The technique has been well validated by experimental demonstration of various surface-directed flow-guiding functions. By modifying a microchannel surface into an arrayed pattern of multi-SAM "two-tone" stripe array, surface-guiding-induced 3D swirling flow is generated in a microfluidic channel that experimentally exhibits quick oil/water mixing and high-efficiency oil-to-water chemical extraction.

  11. Chemical analyses of hydroxyapatite formation on SAM surfaces modified with COOH, NH(2), CH(3), and OH functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Isao; Akamatsu, Mai; Fujii, Eri; Poolthong, Suchit; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2010-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation was examined at the surface of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified with four functional groups, -COOH, -NH(2), -CH(3), and -OH. For COOH-SAM and NH(2)-SAM, scanning electron spectroscopic observation showed that flake-like sheet crystals covered the whole wafer and small broccoli-like crystals were observed occasionally on the flake-like crystal base layer. For CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM, no flake-like sheet crystals were observed; broccoli-like crystals were observed in a dispersed manner for CH(3)-SAM, but in localized spots for OH-SAM. X-ray diffraction patterns showed a strong apatite pattern oriented toward the c-axis direction for COOH-SAM. ESCA analysis revealed distinct Ca, P, O peaks for COOH-, NH(2)-, CH(3)-, and OH-SAM. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that during the supply of supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, the deposition of precipitates increased monotonically with time for COOH-SAM, increased slightly for NH(2)-SAM, but little increase in deposition was detected for CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM.

  12. Sam Shepard's plays according to Slovenian theatre directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Oblak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the productions of Sam Shepard's plays in Slovenia during 1985-2000 and the author of the paper primarily pays attention to the Slovenian directors' approach to Shepard's works and the problems that have arisen in the process. Five of Shepard's plays have been staged to date in Slovenia, two early works and three works of new realism. In interviews with the directors (Vinko Möderndorfer, Primož Bebler, Boris Kobal, Dušan Jovanovic and Boris Cavazza as well as three actresses and a choreographer (Alenka Vidrih, Barbara Babič, Vesna Jevnikar, Tanja Zgonc it has emerged that the transplantation of typically American issues to Slovenia and their treatment necessitated a different approach from the one normally taken by the Slovenian directors and actors. Shepard's plays being idiosyncratic, the theatre artists had to either accommodate his material or treat it with different methods that were adapted to suit the Slovenian environment.

  13. NaCo/SAM observations of sources at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Schödel, R.; Alberdi, A.; Pott, J. U.

    2012-07-01

    Sparse aperture masking (SAM) interferometry combined with Adaptive Optics (AO) is a technique that is uniquely suited to investigate structures near the diffraction limit of large telescopes. The strengths of the technique are a robust calibration of the Point Spread Function (PSF) while maintaining a relatively high dynamic range. We used SAM+AO observations to investigate the circumstellar environment of several bright sources with infrared excess in the central parsec of the Galaxy. For our observations, unstable atmospheric conditions as well as significant residuals after the background subtraction presented serious problems for the standard approach of calibrating SAM data via interspersed observations of reference stars. We circumvented these difficulties by constructing a synthesized calibrator directly from sources within the field-of-view. When observing crowded fields, this novel method can boost the efficiency of SAM observations because it renders interspersed calibrator observations unnecessary. Here, we presented the first NaCo/SAM images reconstructed using this method.

  14. Social activity method (SAM): A fractal language for mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-09-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, social activity method (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for modes of recontextualisation that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity - which might be school mathematics or social research or any empirically observed regularity of practice - recontextualises the practice of another and I shall also present, deploy, and develop an existing scheme - domains of action - in an analysis of school mathematics examination papers and in the structuring of what I refer to as the esoteric domain. This domain is here conceived as a hybrid domain of, first, linguistic and extralinguistic resources that are unambiguously mathematical in terms of both expression and content and, second, pedagogic theory - often tacit - that enables the mathematical gaze onto other practices and so recontextualises them. A second and more general theme that runs through the paper is the claim that there is nothing that is beyond semiosis, that there is nothing to which we have direct access, unmediated by interpretation. This state of affairs has implications for mathematics education. Specifically, insofar as an individual's mathematical semiotic system is under continuous development - the curriculum never being graspable all at once - understanding - as a stable semiotic moment - of any aspect or object of mathematics is always localised to the individual and is at best transient, and the sequencing of such moments may well also be more individualised than consistent in some correspondence with the sequencing of the curriculum. This being the case, a concentration on understanding as a goal may well serve to inhibit the pragmatic acquisition and deployment of mathematical technologies, which should be the principal aim of mathematics teaching and learning. The paper is primarily concerned with mathematics education. SAM, however, is a language that is available for

  15. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  16. Analysis of a regional change in the sign of the SAM-temperature relationship in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; di Battista, Stefano; Naik, Sushant S.; Thamban, Meloth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines regional atmospheric circulation changes associated with a reversal in the sign of the relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and near-surface temperatures at Halley station, East Antarctica, during the 1980s. We show that the key factor affecting the regional SAM-temperature relationship (STR) is the relative magnitude of two climatological low pressure centres to the west and east of the area, which determines the source region of air masses advected into the locality. The principal difference affecting the STR is shown to be a trend towards a significantly weaker climatological low (higher pressure) at ~20°E during a positive phase of the SAM. Specifically, it is variations in the phase and magnitude of the wave number three patterns of atmospheric circulation, the non-annular component of the SAM, which are the principal factors governing the regional STR. A similar reversal is observed in the sign of the correlation between the SAM and oxygen-isotope values from an ice core located some 1,200 km east of Halley. This relationship is examined throughout the 20th Century, by comparing the isotope data to SAM reconstructions, and demonstrates marked decadal variability. Thus, these data suggest that switches in the STR are more likely to reflect natural variability in the long-wave patterns over the Southern Ocean rather than the influence of an anthropogenic forcing. This finding is important when considering the potential utility of Antarctic isotope data as a proxy for the SAM.

  17. The integrated conjugative plasmid pSAM2 of Streptomyces ambofaciens is related to temperate bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccard, F; Smokvina, T; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1989-03-01

    Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 and derivatives contain the 11-kb element pSAM2 present in an integrated state or as a free and integrated plasmid. This element, able to integrate site-specifically in the genome of different Streptomyces species, is conjugative and mobilizes chromosomal markers. Besides these plasmid functions, we have shown that the site-specific recombination system of pSAM2 presents strong similarities with that of several temperate phages. The integration event is promoted by a site-specific recombinase of the integrase family. The int gene encoding this integrase is closely linked to the plasmid attachment site (attP). A small open reading frame (ORF) overlaps the int gene and the predicted protein exhibits similarities with Xis proteins involved in phages excision. The integrated copy of pSAM2 in strain ATCC23877 is flanked by att sequences (attL and attR). Another att sequence (attX) is present in this strain and attX and attL are the boundaries of a 42-kb fragment (xSAM1) absent, as well as pSAM2, from S.ambofaciens DSM40697. Sequences partially similar to pSAM2 int gene are found near the chromosomal integration zone in both S.ambofaciens strains. The possible origin of pSAM2, an element carrying plasmid as well as phage features, is discussed.

  18. Sam68 exerts separable effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnick Ross J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA-binding protein Sam68 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including transcription, RNA splicing and export, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle progression and replication of the human immunodeficiency virus and poliovirus. However, the precise impact it has on essential cellular functions remains largely obscure. Results In this report we show that conditional overexpression of Sam68 in fibroblasts results in both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle is associated with decreased levels of cyclins D1 and E RNA and protein, resulting in dramatically reduced Rb phosphorylation. Interestingly, cell cycle arrest does not require the specific RNA binding ability of Sam68. In marked contrast, induction of apoptosis by Sam68 absolutely requires a fully-functional RNA binding domain. Moreover, the anti-cancer agent trichostatin A potentiates Sam68-driven apoptosis. Conclusions For the first time we have shown that Sam68, an RNA binding protein with multiple apparent functions, exerts functionally separable effects on cell proliferation and survival, dependent on its ability to bind specifically to RNA. These findings shed new light on the ability of signal transducing RNA binding proteins to influence essential cell function. Moreover, the ability of a class of anti-cancer therapeutics to modulate its ability to promote apoptosis suggests that Sam68 status may impact some cancer treatments.

  19. Structural analysis of a putative SAM-dependent methyltransferase, YtqB, from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Cheol; Song, Wan Seok; Yoon, Sung-il

    2014-04-18

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) methylate diverse biological molecules using a SAM cofactor. The ytqB gene of Bacillus subtilis encodes a putative MTase and its biological function has never been characterized. To reveal the structural features and the cofactor binding mode of YtqB, we have determined the crystal structures of YtqB alone and in complex with its cofactor, SAM, at 1.9 Å and 2.2 Å resolutions, respectively. YtqB folds into a β-sheet sandwiched by two α-helical layers, and assembles into a dimeric form. Each YtqB monomer contains one SAM binding site, which shapes SAM into a slightly curved conformation and exposes the reactive methyl group of SAM potentially to a substrate. Our comparative structural analysis of YtqB and its homologues indicates that YtqB is a SAM-dependent class I MTase, and provides insights into the substrate binding site of YtqB.

  20. Friction Properties of OTS SAMs and Silicon Surface under Water Lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHANG Xiangjun; AHMED Imad; LIU Ying; WEN Shizhu

    2009-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of silicon surface covered with octadecyltrichloro-silane (OTS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were investigated by a UMT-2 microtribometer with and without water as lubricant, and then compared with that of bare silicon surface. Dry friction measurement results show that OTS SAMs have a very low friction coefficient compared to bare silicon surface under lower sliding velocity and normal contact load. However, heavy wear occurs on OTS SAMs under higher contact stress and sliding velocity. Under water lubrication, OTS SAMs can prevent wear obviously and meanwhile present low coefficient of friction even under high velocities.The improved frictional and anti-wear property on OTS SAMs surface is attributed to the hydrophobic property of OTS and hydrodynamic effect of water. Furthermore, a wear critical phase diagram for OTS SAMs with and without water was proposed, which indicates that OTS SAMs working under water lubrication owns a wider range of available load and velocity to reduce friction and prevent wear.

  1. Polyamine uptake by DUR3 and SAM3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2007-03-09

    It has been reported that GAP1 and AGP2 catalyze the uptake of polyamines together with amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have looked for polyamine-preferential uptake proteins in S. cerevisiae. DUR3 catalyzed the uptake of polyamines together with urea, and SAM3 was found to catalyze the uptake of polyamines together with S-adenosylmethionine, glutamic acid, and lysine. Polyamine uptake was greatly decreased in both DUR3- and SAM3-deficient cells. The K(m) values for putrescine and spermidine of DUR3 were 479 and 21.2 mum, respectively, and those of SAM3 were 433 and 20.7 mum, respectively. Polyamine stimulation of cell growth of a polyamine requiring mutant, which is deficient in ornithine decarboxylase, was not influenced by the disruption of GAP1 and AGP2, but it was diminished by the disruption of DUR3 and SAM3. Furthermore, the polyamine stimulation of cell growth of a polyamine-requiring mutant was completely inhibited by the disruption of both DUR3 and SAM3. The results indicate that DUR3 and SAM3 are major polyamine uptake proteins in yeast. We previously reported that polyamine transport protein kinase 2 regulates polyamine transport. It was found that DUR3 (but not SAM3) was activated by phosphorylation of Thr(250), Ser(251), and Thr(684) by polyamine transport protein kinase 2.

  2. Sam68 Mediates the Activation of Insulin and Leptin Signalling in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pérez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. High insulin and leptin levels seem to have a role modulating the growth of these tumours. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein with signalling functions that has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Moreover, Sam68 may be recruited to insulin and leptin signalling pathways, mediating its effects on survival, growth and proliferation in different cellular types. We aimed to study the expression of Sam68 and its phosphorylation level upon insulin and leptin stimulation, and the role of Sam68 in the proliferative effect and signalling pathways that are activated by insulin or leptin in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. In the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474, Sam68 protein quantity and gene expression were increased upon leptin or insulin stimulation, as it was checked by qPCR and immunoblot. Moreover, both insulin and leptin stimulation promoted an increase in Sam68 tyrosine phosphorylation and negatively regulated its RNA binding capacity. siRNA was used to downregulate Sam68 expression, which resulted in lower proliferative effects of both insulin and leptin, as well as a lower activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways promoted by both hormones. These effects may be partly explained by the decrease in IRS-1 expression by down-regulation of Sam68. These results suggest the participation of Sam68 in both leptin and insulin receptor signaling in human breast cancer cells, mediating the trophic effects of these hormones in proliferation and cellular growth.

  3. Automation of One-Loop Calculations with GoSam: Present Status and Future Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Gavin; Heinrich, Gudrun; Luisoni, Gionata; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Ossola, Giovanni; Reiter, Thomas; Tramontano, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe the GoSam (Golem/Samurai) framework for the automated computation of multi-particle scattering amplitudes at the one-loop level. The amplitudes are generated analytically in terms of Feynman diagrams, and can be evaluated using either D-dimensional integrand reduction or tensor decomposition. GoSam can be used to compute one-loop corrections to Standard Model (QCD and EW) processes, and it is ready to link generic model files for theories Beyond SM. We show the main features of GoSam through its application to several examples of different complexity.

  4. Efficient Data Mining in SAMS through Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rahul B. Diwate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a protocol for secure mining of association rules in distributed databases. Previous techniques all people deals with different database, now a day’s people also deals with the distributed database. Can we develop a kind of application in which the people can access the distributed data which is already store in remote location in encrypted format? This proposes system technique is used for efficient data mining in SAMS (Student Assessment Management System through association rules in distributed databases. The current leading techniques are that of Kantarcioglu and Clifton. This proposed system is ready to implements two methods, one that computes the union of private subsets that each of the interacting users hold, and another that tests the inclusion of an element held by one user in a subset held by another .We propose a protocol for secure mining through association rule consist a different level of execution process to secure storage of data and access of data. This paper will focus on such process for secure storage plus secure access of data

  5. Sam Goudsmit--His Physics and His Statesmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2010-03-01

    Sam Goudsmit was already a famous theoretical physicist in his thirties, mainly because of his co-discovery of electron spin with George Uhlenbeck while both were students of Paul Ehrenfest in Holland in 1925. He and Uhlenbeck continued their thriving careers at the University of Michigan. Goudsmit's style as a physicist was always to make as close a connection between theory and experiment as possible. Thus, for example, his development with his student Robert Bacher of the technique called ``fractional parentage'' used fruitfully in both atomic and nuclear physics to compute energy levels of unknown states in terms of know ones. He also delved deeply into problems related to determinations of nuclear spins and moments. Partly because of his service as scientific leader of the Alsos project at the end of WWII he became a leading statesman of science. I will describe some of his achievements both as a physicist and as a statesman, prior to his becoming Editor in Chief of the American Physical Society.

  6. Must, valge + hall : Sam Wagstaffi ja Robert Mapplethorpe'i portree / Madis Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Madis

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  7. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  8. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  9. Tandem SAM Domain Structure of Human Caskin1: A Presynaptic, Self-Assembling Scaffold for CASK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Hinde, Elizabeth; Knight, Mary Jane; Pennella, Mario A.; Ear, Jason; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Bowie, James U. (UCI); (UCLA)

    2012-02-07

    The synaptic scaffolding proteins CASK and Caskin1 are part of the fibrous mesh of proteins that organize the active zones of neural synapses. CASK binds to a region of Caskin1 called the CASK interaction domain (CID). Adjacent to the CID, Caskin1 contains two tandem sterile a motif (SAM) domains. Many SAM domains form polymers so they are good candidates for forming the fibrous structures seen in the active zone. We show here that the SAM domains of Caskin1 form a new type of SAM helical polymer. The Caskin1 polymer interface exhibits a remarkable segregation of charged residues, resulting in a high sensitivity to ionic strength in vitro. The Caskin1 polymers can be decorated with CASK proteins, illustrating how these proteins may work together to organize the cytomatrix in active zones.

  10. Role of SAM Chain Length in Enhancing the Sensitivity of Nanopillar Modified Electrodes for Glucose Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report, alkanethiol self assembled monolayers (SAM with two different chain lengths were used to immobilize the functionalizing enzyme (glucose oxidase onto gold nanopillar modified electrodes and the electrochemical processes of these functionalized electrodes in glucose detection were investigated. First, the formation of these SAMs on the nanopillar modified electrodes was characterized by the cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, and then the detection sensitivity of these functionalized electrodes to glucose was evaluated by the amperometry technique. Results showed that the SAM of alkanethiols with a longer chain length resulted in a higher degree of surface coverage with less defect and a higher electron transfer resistance, whereas the SAM of alkanethiols with a shorter chain length gave rise to a higher detection sensitivity to glucose. This study sheds some new insight into how to enhance the sensing performance of nanopillar modified electrodes.

  11. Must, valge + hall : Sam Wagstaffi ja Robert Mapplethorpe'i portree / Madis Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Madis

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  12. Frequency response and design consideration of GaN SAM avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Yang, Guofeng; Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Wang, Guosheng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a method is developed for estimating the frequency response characteristics of GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM). The method calculates the total diode current with varying frequency by solving transport equations analytically and uses a commercial device simulator as a supplement for determining the exact electrical field profile within the device. Due to the high carrier saturation velocity of GaN, a high-gain-bandwidth product over THz is found achievable for GaN SAM-APDs. The potential performances of GaN SAM-APDs with different structural designs are further compared through numerical studies. It is found that a close-to-reach-through design is attractive for simultaneously achieving both relatively low operation voltage and high working frequency. In addition, transit-time limit and RC-delay limit for the frequency response of GaN SAM-APDs are also discussed.

  13. Bringing a Chemical Laboratory Named Sam to Mars on the 2011 Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Bleacher, L.; Jones, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Manning, H. L.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.; Sam Team

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: An important goal of upcoming missions to Mars is to understand if life could have developed there. The task of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments [1] and the other Curiosity investigations [2] is to move us steadily toward that goal with an assessment of the habitability of our neighboring planet through a series of chemical and geological measurements. SAM is designed to search for organic compounds and inorganic volatiles and measure isotope ratios. Other instruments on Curiosity will provide elemental analysis and identify minerals. SAM will analyze both atmospheric samples and gases evolved from powdered rocks that may have formed billions of years ago with Curiosity providing access to interesting sites scouted by orbiting cameras and spectrometers. SAM Instrument Suite: SAM’s instruments are a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), a 6-column Gas Chromatograph (GC), and a 2-channel Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). SAM can identify organic compounds in Mars rocks to sub-ppb sensitivity and secure precise isotope ratios for C, H, and O in carbon dioxide and water and measure trace levels of methane and its carbon 13 isotope. The SAM gas processing system consists of valves, heaters, pressure sensors, gas scrubbers and getters, traps, and gas tanks used for calibration or combustion experiments [2]. A variety of calibrant compounds interior and exterior to SAM will allow the science and engineering teams to assess SAM’s performance. SAM has been calibrated and tested in a Mars-like environment. Keeping Educators and the Public Informed: The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) goals of the SAM team are to make this complex chemical laboratory and its data widely available to educators, students, and the public. Formal education activities include developing templates for professional development workshops for educators to teach them about SAM and Curiosity, incorporating data into Mars Student Data Teams, and writing articles

  14. Benchmark Simulation of Natural Circulation Cooling System with Salt Working Fluid Using SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. K.; Scarlat, R. O.; Hu, R.

    2017-09-03

    Liquid salt-cooled reactors, such as the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR), offer passive decay heat removal through natural circulation using Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops. The behavior of such systems should be well-understood through performance analysis. The advanced system thermal-hydraulics tool System Analysis Module (SAM) from Argonne National Laboratory has been selected for this purpose. The work presented here is part of a larger study in which SAM modeling capabilities are being enhanced for the system analyses of FHR or Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Liquid salt thermophysical properties have been implemented in SAM, as well as properties of Dowtherm A, which is used as a simulant fluid for scaled experiments, for future code validation studies. Additional physics modules to represent phenomena specific to salt-cooled reactors, such as freezing of coolant, are being implemented in SAM. This study presents a useful first benchmark for the applicability of SAM to liquid salt-cooled reactors: it provides steady-state and transient comparisons for a salt reactor system. A RELAP5-3D model of the Mark-1 Pebble-Bed FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR), and in particular its DRACS loop for emergency heat removal, provides steady state and transient results for flow rates and temperatures in the system that are used here for code-to-code comparison with SAM. The transient studied is a loss of forced circulation with SCRAM event. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of SAM to FHR or any other molten salt reactors. While building these models in SAM, any gaps in the code’s capability to simulate such systems are identified and addressed immediately, or listed as future improvements to the code.

  15. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  16. The Combustion Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Graham, H. V.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Fuentes, J.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The combustion experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on Curiosity will heat a sample of Mars regolith in the presence of oxygen and measure composition of the evolved gases using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS). QMS will enable detection of combustion products such as CO, CO2, NO, and other oxidized species, while TLS will enable precise measurements of the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (delta(sup 13)C) of the evolved CO2 and hydrogen isotopic composition (deltaD) of H2O. SAM will perform a two-step combustion to isolate combustible materials below approx.550 C and above approx.550 C. The combustion experiment on SAM, if properly designed and executed, has the potential to answer multiple questions regarding the origins of volatiles seen thus far in SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA) on Mars. Constraints imposed by SAM and MSL time and power resources, as well as SAM consumables (oxygen gas), will limit the number of SAM combustion experiments, so it is imperative to design an experiment targeting the most pressing science questions. Low temperature combustion experiments will primarily target the quantification of carbon (and nitrogen) contributed by SAM wet chemistry reagants MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) and DMF (Dimethylformamide), which have been identified in the background of blank and sample runs and may adsorb to the sample while the cup is in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). In addition, differences between the sample and "blank" may yield information regarding abundance and delta(sup 13)C of bulk (both organic and inorganic) martian carbon. High temperature combustion experiments primarily aim to detect refractory organic matter, if present in Cumberland fines, as well as address the question of quantification and deltaD value of water evolution associated with hydroxyl hydrogen in clay minerals.

  17. Mechanism and Correlated Factors of SAM Phenomenon after Aortic Valve Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; WEN Jianguo; SHU Liliang; LIU Chao; ZHANG Jingchao; ZHAO Wenzeng

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and correlated factors of systolic anterior motion (SAM) phenomenon after aortic valve replacement, 48 patients with severe aortic valvular stenosis were studied. Tested by echo-Doppler one week after aortic valve replacement, the patients were divided into two groups: SAM group and non-SAM group. The data of the left ventricular end-diastolic diameters, the left ventricular end-systolic diameters, the left ventricular outflow diameters, the thickness of the interventricular septum, the posterior wall of left ventricle, the blood velocities of left ventricular outflow and intra-cavitary gradients were recorded and compared. The results showed that no patients died during or after the operation. The blood velocities of left ventricular outflow was increased significantly in 9 patients (>2.5 m/s), and 6 of them developed SAM phenomenon. There was significant difference in all indexes (P<0.05 or P<0.01) except the posterior wall of left ventricle (P>0.05) between two groups. These indicated that the present of SAM phenomenon after aortic valve replacement may be directly related to the increase of blood velocities of left ventricular outflow and intra-cavitary gradients. It is also suggested that smaller left ventricular diastolic diameters, left ventricular systolic diameters, left ventricular outflow diameters and hypertrophy of interventricular septum may be the anatomy basis of SAM phenomenon.

  18. ParaSAM: a parallelized version of the significance analysis of microarrays algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok; Zhao, Jieping; Podolsky, Robert; McIndoe, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) is a widely used permutation-based approach to identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray datasets. While SAM is freely available as an Excel plug-in and as an R-package, analyses are often limited for large datasets due to very high memory requirements. We have developed a parallelized version of the SAM algorithm called ParaSAM to overcome the memory limitations. This high performance multithreaded application provides the scientific community with an easy and manageable client-server Windows application with graphical user interface and does not require programming experience to run. The parallel nature of the application comes from the use of web services to perform the permutations. Our results indicate that ParaSAM is not only faster than the serial version, but also can analyze extremely large datasets that cannot be performed using existing implementations. A web version open to the public is available at http://bioanalysis.genomics.mcg.edu/parasam. For local installations, both the windows and web implementations of ParaSAM are available for free at http://www.amdcc.org/bioinformatics/software/parasam.aspx.

  19. Fabrication and Surface Properties of Composite Films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Ke Xin

    2008-12-16

    Through synthetic architecture and functionalization with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), complex nanocomposite films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO2 have been facilely prepared in this work. The nanostructured films are highly uniform and porous, showing a wide range of tunable wettabilities from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity (water contact angles: 0° to 170°). Our approach offers synthetic flexibility in controlling film architecture, surface topography, coating texture, crystallite size, and chemical composition of modifiers (e.g., SAMs derived from alkanethiols). For example, wettability properties of the nanocomposite films can be finely tuned with both inorganic phase (i.e., ZnO/SiO2 and Pt/ZnO/SiO2) and organic phase (i.e., SAMs on Pt/ZnO/SiO2). Due to the presence of catalytic components Pt/ZnO within the nanocomposites, surface reactions of the organic modifiers can further take place at room temperature and elevated temperatures, which provides a means for SAM formation and elimination. Because the Pt/ZnO forms an excellent pair of metal-semiconductors for photocatalysis, the anchored SAMs can also be modified or depleted by UV irradiation (i.e., the films possess self-cleaning ability). Potential applications of these nanocomposite films have been addressed. Our durability tests also confirm that the films are thermally stable and structurally robust in modification- regeneration cycles. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  20. Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Yavor; Marshall, John; Hausmann, Ute; Armour, Kyle C.; Ferreira, David; Holland, Marika M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) around Antarctica respond to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on multiple timescales. To that end we examine the relationship between SAM and SST within unperturbed preindustrial control simulations of coupled general circulation models (GCMs) included in the Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We develop a technique to extract the response of the Southern Ocean SST (55°S-70°S) to a hypothetical step increase in the SAM index. We demonstrate that in many GCMs, the expected SST step response function is nonmonotonic in time. Following a shift to a positive SAM anomaly, an initial cooling regime can transition into surface warming around Antarctica. However, there are large differences across the CMIP5 ensemble. In some models the step response function never changes sign and cooling persists, while in other GCMs the SST anomaly crosses over from negative to positive values only 3 years after a step increase in the SAM. This intermodel diversity can be related to differences in the models' climatological thermal ocean stratification in the region of seasonal sea ice around Antarctica. Exploiting this relationship, we use observational data for the time-mean meridional and vertical temperature gradients to constrain the real Southern Ocean response to SAM on fast and slow timescales.

  1. Discrimination between Closely Related Cellular Metabolites by the SAM-I Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montange, R.; Mondragon, E; van Tyne, D; Garst, A; Ceres, P; Batey, R

    2010-01-01

    The SAM-I riboswitch is a cis-acting element of genetic control found in bacterial mRNAs that specifically binds S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). We previously determined the 2.9-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of the effector-binding domain of this RNA element, revealing details of RNA-ligand recognition. To improve this structure, variations were made to the RNA sequence to alter lattice contacts, resulting in a 0.5-{angstrom} improvement in crystallographic resolution and allowing for a more accurate refinement of the crystallographic model. The basis for SAM specificity was addressed by a structural analysis of the RNA complexed to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sinefungin and by measuring the affinity of SAM and SAH for a series of mutants using isothermal titration calorimetry. These data illustrate the importance of two universally conserved base pairs in the RNA that form electrostatic interactions with the positively charged sulfonium group of SAM, thereby providing a basis for discrimination between SAM and SAH.

  2. The impact of a ligand binding on strand migration in the SAM-I riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available Riboswitches sense cellular concentrations of small molecules and use this information to adjust synthesis rates of related metabolites. Riboswitches include an aptamer domain to detect the ligand and an expression platform to control gene expression. Previous structural studies of riboswitches largely focused on aptamers, truncating the expression domain to suppress conformational switching. To link ligand/aptamer binding to conformational switching, we constructed models of an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-I riboswitch RNA segment incorporating elements of the expression platform, allowing formation of an antiterminator (AT helix. Using Anton, a computer specially developed for long timescale Molecular Dynamics (MD, we simulated an extended (three microseconds MD trajectory with SAM bound to a modeled riboswitch RNA segment. Remarkably, we observed a strand migration, converting three base pairs from an antiterminator (AT helix, characteristic of the transcription ON state, to a P1 helix, characteristic of the OFF state. This conformational switching towards the OFF state is observed only in the presence of SAM. Among seven extended trajectories with three starting structures, the presence of SAM enhances the trend towards the OFF state for two out of three starting structures tested. Our simulation provides a visual demonstration of how a small molecule (<500 MW binding to a limited surface can trigger a large scale conformational rearrangement in a 40 kDa RNA by perturbing the Free Energy Landscape. Such a mechanism can explain minimal requirements for SAM binding and transcription termination for SAM-I riboswitches previously reported experimentally.

  3. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-03

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins.

  4. Human cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) contains two classes of binding sites for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM): complex regulation of CBS activity and stability by SAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Angel L; Majtan, Tomas; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Kraus, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    CBS (cystathionine β-synthase) is a multidomain tetrameric enzyme essential in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism, whose activity is enhanced by the allosteric regulator SAM (S-adenosylmethionine). Missense mutations in CBS are the major cause of inherited HCU (homocystinuria). In the present study we apply a novel approach based on a combination of calorimetric methods, functional assays and kinetic modelling to provide structural and energetic insight into the effects of SAM on the stability and activity of WT (wild-type) CBS and seven HCU-causing mutants. We found two sets of SAM-binding sites in the C-terminal regulatory domain with different structural and energetic features: a high affinity set of two sites, probably involved in kinetic stabilization of the regulatory domain, and a low affinity set of four sites, which are involved in the enzyme activation. We show that the regulatory domain displays a low kinetic stability in WT CBS, which is further decreased in many HCU-causing mutants. We propose that the SAM-induced stabilization may play a key role in modulating steady-state levels of WT and mutant CBS in vivo. Our strategy may be valuable for understanding ligand effects on proteins with a complex architecture and their role in human genetic diseases and for the development of novel pharmacological strategies.

  5. Probing the nature and resistance of the molecule-electrode contact in SAM-based junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wan, Albert; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-07-01

    It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible.It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, Nyquist

  6. Drug delivery from therapeutic self-assembled monolayers (T-SAMs) on 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatro, Anil; Johnson, Dave M; Patel, Devang N; Feldman, Marc D; Ayon, Arturo A; Agrawal, C Mauli

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on 316L stainless steel (SS) has been demonstrated as a viable method to deliver drugs for localized coronary artery stent application. SAMs are highly-ordered, nano-sized molecular coatings, adding 1-10 nm thickness to a surface. Hydroxyl terminated alkanethiol SAMs of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (-OH SAM) were formed on 316L SS with 48 hr immersion in ethanolic solutions. Attachment of ibuprofen (a model drug) to the functional SAMs was carried out in toluene for 5 hrs at 60 degrees C using Novozume-435 as a biocatalyst. SAM formation and subsequent attachment of ibuprofen was characterized collectively using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and contact angle (CA) measure-ments. The quantitative in vitro release of ibuprofen into a "physiological" buffer solution was characterized using reverse phase HPLC. Drug release kinetics showed that 14.1 microg of ibuprofen eluted over a period of 35 days with 2.7microg being eluted in the first day and the remaining being eluted over a period of 35 days. The drug release kinetics showed an increase in ibuprofen elution that occurred during first 14 days (2.7microg in 1 day to 9.5 microg in 14 days), following which there was a decrease in the rate of elution. Thus, functional SAMs on 316L SS could be used as tethers for drug attachment and could serve as a drug delivery mechanism from stainless steel implants such as coronary artery stents.

  7. A simulation study on the thermal and wetting behavior of alkane thiol SAM on gold (111) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Meena Devi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structural, thermal and wetting properties of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkane thiol on gold surface. The specific heat capacity of the gold SAM surface was found to linearly increase with the temperature in the range 100-300 K. It was found to drop down at 400 K and this decrease might be attributed to the disorder of the SAM chains. Hydration of gold SAM surface for two different terminal groups, namely methyl (hydrophobic), and hydroxy (hydrophilic) was studied at room temperature. The difference in their wetting behavior and the structure of their interfacial water were examined from the estimation of the z density profile, radial distribution function, hydrogen bonds and orientation of water dipoles in the interfacial region. The present simulation results suggest that the wetting behavior of the gold SAM surface can be modified by altering the terminal functional group of the SAM chains.

  8. SAM Sample preparation and its impact on the detection of organic compounds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel; Belmahdi, Imene; François, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; navarro, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Pinnick, Veronica; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The wet chemistry experiments on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) [1] experiment in the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission supports extraction of polar organic compounds from solid samples that improves their detection either by increasing the release of chemical species from solid sample matrices, or by changing their chemical structure to make compounds more amenable to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The wet chemistry approach provides an alternative to the nominal inert-thermal desorption/pyrolysis analytical protocol used by SAM [1] that is more aptly suited for polar components. SAM, includes two different wet chemistry experiments: MTBSTFA derivatization [2-3] and TMAH thermochemolysis [4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA products in the SAM evolved gas analysis and GCMS experiments, and the implications of this detection. Solid sample were heated up to approximately 840°C at a rate of 35°C/min under He flow. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (Tenax®) over a specific temperature range. Adsorbed volatiles on the GC injection trap (IT) were then released into the GC column (CLP-MXT 30m x 0.25mm x 0.25µm) by rapidly heating the IT to 300°C. Then, in order better understand the part of compounds detected coming from internal reaction we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM device. We have investigated the thermal degradation of Tenax®, and possible interaction with MTBSTFA and perchlorate in the SAM trap (Tenax®) to better constrain interpretations of SAM results on Mars. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [3] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13 [4] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency

  9. Carbon-sulfur bond-forming reaction catalysed by the radical SAM enzyme HydE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohac, Roman; Amara, Patricia; Benjdia, Alhosna; Martin, Lydie; Ruffié, Pauline; Favier, Adrien; Berteau, Olivier; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.; Nicolet, Yvain

    2016-05-01

    Carbon-sulfur bond formation at aliphatic positions is a challenging reaction that is performed efficiently by radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzymes. Here we report that 1,3-thiazolidines can act as ligands and substrates for the radical SAM enzyme HydE, which is involved in the assembly of the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. Using X-ray crystallography, in vitro assays and NMR spectroscopy we identified a radical-based reaction mechanism that is best described as the formation of a C-centred radical that concomitantly attacks the sulfur atom of a thioether. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a radical SAM enzyme that reacts directly on a sulfur atom instead of abstracting a hydrogen atom. Using theoretical calculations based on our high-resolution structures we followed the evolution of the electronic structure from SAM through to the formation of S-adenosyl-L-cysteine. Our results suggest that, at least in this case, the widely proposed and highly reactive 5‧-deoxyadenosyl radical species that triggers the reaction in radical SAM enzymes is not an isolable intermediate.

  10. Oxygen Attachment on Alkanethiolate SAMs Induced by Low-Energy Electron Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Sylvain; Bass, Andrew D.; Steffenhagen, Marie; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of 18O2 with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of 1-dodecanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, 1-butanethiol, and benzyl mercaptan chemisorbed on gold, were studied by the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anionic fragments over the incident electron energy range 2–20 eV. Dosing the SAMs with 18O2 at 50 K, results in the ESD of 18O− and 18OH−. Electron irradiation of samples prior to 18O2 deposition demonstrates that intensity of subsequent 18O− and 18OH− desorption signals increase with electron fluence and that absent electron pre-irradiation, no 18O− and 18OH− ESD signals are observed, since oxygen is unable to bind to the SAMs. A minimum incident electron energy of 6–7 eV is required to initiate the binding of 18O2 to the SAMs. O2 binding is proposed to proceed by the formation of CHx−1• radicals via resonant dissociative electron attachment and non-resonant C–H dissociation processes. The weaker signals of 18O− and 18OH− from short-chain SAMs are related to the latter’s resistance to electron induced damage, due to the charge-image dipole quenching and electron delocalization. Comparison between the present results and those for DNA oligonucleotides self-assembled on Au [Mirsaleh-Kohan, N. et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 136, 235104] indicates that the oxygen binding mechanism is common to both systems. PMID:23537075

  11. Structural and functional comparison of HemN to other radical SAM enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Gunhild; Kervio, Eric; Morlock, Gaby; Heinz, Dirk W; Jahn, Dieter; Retey, Janos; Schubert, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-10-01

    Radical SAM enzymes have only recently been recognized as an ancient family sharing an unusual radical-based reaction mechanism. This late appreciation is due to the extreme oxygen sensitivity of most radical SAM enzymes, making their characterization particularly arduous. Nevertheless, realization that the novel apposition of the established cofactors S-adenosylmethionine and [4Fe-4S] cluster creates an explosive source of catalytic radicals, the appreciation of the sheer size of this previously neglected family, and the rapid succession of three successfully solved crystal structures within a year have ensured that this family has belatedly been noted. In this review, we report the characterization of two enzymes: the established radical SAM enzyme, HemN or oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from Escherichia coli, and littorine mutase, a presumed radical SAM enzyme, responsible for the conversion of littorine to hyoscyamine in plants. The enzymes are compared to other radical SAM enzymes and in particular the three reported crystal structures from this family, HemN, biotin synthase and MoaA, are discussed.

  12. Celiac Disease in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM): A Hospital Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniwal, Neetu; Ameta, Gaurav; Chahar, Chandra Kumar

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of Celiac disease among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This prospective observational study was conducted in PBM Children Hospital, Bikaner from July 2012 through December 2013. All consecutively admitted children with SAM were recruited. All subjects were screened for Celiac disease by serological test for IgA-anti tissue Transglutaminase (IgA tTG) antibodies. All seropositive children underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for small bowel biopsy for the confirmation. Clinical features of patients with and without celiac disease were compared. The sero-prevalence (IgA tTg positivity) of Celiac disease was found to be 15.38% while prevalence of biopsy confirmed Celiac disease was 14.42% among SAM children. Abdominal distension, diarrhea, anorexia, constipation, pain in abdomen, vitamin deficiencies, edema, clubbing and mouth ulcers were more common in patients of Celiac disease compared to patients without Celiac disease but the difference was statistically significant only for abdominal distension and pain abdomen. There is a high prevalence of Celiac disease in SAM. Screening for Celiac disease (especially in presence of pain abdomen and abdominal distension) should be an essential part of work-up in all children with SAM.

  13. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  14. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Janet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV, revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

  15. Bringing a Chemical Laboratory Named Sam to Mars on the 2011 Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Bleacher, L.; Jones, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.; Atreya, S. A.; Manning, H.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of upcoming missions to Mars is to understand if life could have developed there. The task of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments [1] and the other Curiosity investigations [2] is to move us steadily toward that goal with an assessment of the habitability of our neighboring planet through a series of chemical and geological measurements. SAM is designed to search for organic compounds and inorganic volatiles and measure isotope ratios. Other instruments on Curiosity will provide elemental analysis and identify minerals. SAM will analyze both atmospheric samples and gases evolved from powdered rocks that may have formed billions of years ago with Curiosity providing access to interesting sites scouted by orbiting cameras and spectrometers.

  16. Data handling with SAM and art at the NOνA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Davies, G. S.; Illingworth, R.; Mayer, N.; Mengel, M.; Norman, A.; Rocco, D.; Zirnstein, J.

    2015-12-01

    During operations, NOvA produces between 5,000 and 7,000 raw files per day with peaks in excess of 12,000. These files must be processed in several stages to produce fully calibrated and reconstructed analysis files. In addition, many simulated neutrino interactions must be produced and processed through the same stages as data. To accommodate the large volume of data and Monte Carlo, production must be possible both on the Fermilab grid and on off-site farms, such as the ones accessible through the Open Science Grid. To handle the challenge of cataloging these files and to facilitate their off-line processing, we have adopted the SAM system developed at Fermilab. SAM indexes files according to metadata, keeps track of each file's physical locations, provides dataset management facilities, and facilitates data transfer to off-site grids. To integrate SAM with Fermilab's art software framework and the NOvA production workflow, we have developed methods to embed metadata into our configuration files, art files, and standalone ROOT files. A module in the art framework propagates the embedded information from configuration files into art files, and from input art files to output art files, allowing us to maintain a complete processing history within our files. Embedding metadata in configuration files also allows configuration files indexed in SAM to be used as inputs to Monte Carlo production jobs. Further, SAM keeps track of the input files used to create each output file. Parentage information enables the construction of self-draining datasets which have become the primary production paradigm used at NOvA. In this paper we will present an overview of SAM at NOvA and how it has transformed the file production framework used by the experiment.

  17. Basis for ligand discrimination between ON and OFF state riboswitch conformations: the case of the SAM-I riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyapati, Vamsi Krishna; Huang, Wei; Spedale, Jessica; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-06-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind to effector ligands and control gene expression. Most consist of two domains. S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) binds the aptamer domain of the SAM-I riboswitch and induces conformational changes in the expression domain to form an intrinsic terminator (transcription OFF state). Without SAM the riboswitch forms the transcription ON state, allowing read-through transcription. The mechanistic link between the SAM/aptamer recognition event and subsequent secondary structure rearrangement by the riboswitch is unclear. We probed for those structural features of the Bacillus subtilis yitJ SAM-I riboswitch responsible for discrimination between the ON and OFF states by SAM. We designed SAM-I riboswitch RNA segments forming "hybrid" structures of the ON and OFF states. The choice of segment constrains the formation of a partial P1 helix, characteristic of the OFF state, together with a partial antiterminator (AT) helix, characteristic of the ON state. For most choices of P1 vs. AT helix lengths, SAM binds with micromolar affinity according to equilibrium dialysis. Mutational analysis and in-line probing confirm that the mode of SAM binding by hybrid structures is similar to that of the aptamer. Altogether, binding measurements and in-line probing are consistent with the hypothesis that when SAM is present, stacking interactions with the AT helix stabilize a partially formed P1 helix in the hybrids. Molecular modeling indicates that continuous stacking between the P1 and the AT helices is plausible with SAM bound. Our findings raise the possibility that conformational intermediates may play a role in ligand-induced aptamer folding.

  18. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  19. Oxygen Attachment on Alkanethiolate SAMs Induced by Low-Energy Electron Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Sylvain; Bass, Andrew D.; Steffenhagen, Marie; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of 18O2 with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of 1-dodecanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, 1-butanethiol, and benzyl mercaptan chemisorbed on gold, were studied by the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anionic fragments over the incident electron energy range 2–20 eV. Dosing the SAMs with 18O2 at 50 K, results in the ESD of 18O− and 18OH−. Electron irradiation of samples prior to 18O2 deposition demonstrates that intensity of subsequent 18O− and 18OH− desorption signals increase...

  20. Mineral classification map using MF and SAM techniques: A case study in the Nohwa Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Sun; Yoon, Wang-Jung [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this study is to map pyprophyllite distribution at surface of the Nohwa deposit, Korea by using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) data. For this, combined Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), and Matched Filtering (MF) technique based on mathematical algorithm was applied. The regional distribution of high-grade and low-grade pyrophyllite in the Nohwa deposit area could be differentiated by this method. The results of this study show that ASTER data analysis using combination of SAM and MF techniques will assist in exploration of pyrophyllite at the exposed surface.

  1. Mechanistic studies of the radical SAM enzyme spore photoproduct lyase (SPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei

    2012-11-01

    Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) repairs a special thymine dimer 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, which is commonly called spore photoproduct or SP at the bacterial early germination phase. SP is the exclusive DNA photo-damage product in bacterial endospores; its generation and swift repair by SPL are responsible for the spores' extremely high UV resistance. The early in vivo studies suggested that SPL utilizes a direct reversal strategy to repair the SP in the absence of light. The research in the past decade further established SPL as a radical SAM enzyme, which utilizes a tri-cysteine CXXXCXXC motif to harbor a [4Fe-4S] cluster. At the 1+ oxidation state, the cluster provides an electron to the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which binds to the cluster in a bidentate manner as the fourth and fifth ligands, to reductively cleave the CS bond associated with the sulfonium ion in SAM, generating a reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl (5'-dA) radical. This 5'-dA radical abstracts the proR hydrogen atom from the C6 carbon of SP to initiate the repair process; the resulting SP radical subsequently fragments to generate a putative thymine methyl radical, which accepts a back-donated H atom to yield the repaired TpT. SAM is suggested to be regenerated at the end of each catalytic cycle; and only a catalytic amount of SAM is needed in the SPL reaction. The H atom source for the back donation step is suggested to be a cysteine residue (C141 in Bacillus subtilis SPL), and the H-atom transfer reaction leaves a thiyl radical behind on the protein. This thiyl radical thus must participate in the SAM regeneration process; however how the thiyl radical abstracts an H atom from the 5'-dA to regenerate SAM is unknown. This paper reviews and discusses the history and the latest progress in the mechanistic elucidation of SPL. Despite some recent breakthroughs, more questions are raised in the mechanistic understanding of this intriguing DNA repair enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue

  2. Systematic Analysis Method of Shear-Wave Splitting:SAM Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Liu Xiqiang; Liang Wei; Hao Ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to make a more effective use of the data from regional digital seismograph networks and to promote the study on shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake stressforecasting, SAM software system, i.e., the software on systematic analysis method of shear wave splitting has been developed. This paper introduces the design aims, system structure,function and characteristics about the SAM software system and shows some graphical interfaces of data input and result output. Lastly, it discusses preliminarily the study of shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake forecasting.

  3. Rhodium deposition onto a 4-mercaptopyridine SAM on Au(1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolova, M. [Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Kayser, M. [Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Kolb, D.M. [Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: dieter.kolb@uni-ulm.de; Boyen, H.-G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Ziemann, P. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Mayer, D. [BASF Electronic Materials GmbH, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Wirth, A. [BASF Electronic Materials GmbH, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2007-02-10

    The application of a recently developed method for the deposition of Pd and Pt on top of a SAM, has been successfully extended to Rh, thus proving the versatility of the new concept. Experimental evidence from cyclic voltammetry, in situ STM and ex situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy is presented for the deposition of monoatomic high rhodium islands onto a 4-mercaptopyridine self-assembled monolayer on a Au(1 1 1) electrode. By repetitive complexation of the Rh ions to the ring-nitrogen and reduction in a Rh-ion free solution, an almost completely covered SAM is obtained. The consequences of making contacts for molecular electronics are briefly discussed.

  4. Analysis of the interactions between host factor Sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Interestingly, Sam68, is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviru...

  5. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Adamkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  6. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Malgorzata; O'Hagan, David; Hähner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C-C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  7. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Summary C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage. PMID:25550756

  8. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin A. Buckholtz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons and triacontanoic (30 carbons acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications.

  9. Molecular junctions based on SAMs of cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Zhongming; Li, Tao; Jennum, Karsten Stein

    2012-01-01

    Cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s (OPEs) with an extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety (OPE5-TTF and OPE3-TTF) and their simple analogues (OPE5-S and OPE3) without conjugated substituents were used to form high quality self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ultra-flat gold substrates...

  10. Constraints on the Mineralogy of Gale Crater Mudstones from MSL SAM Evolved Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Hogancamp, J. V. (Clark); Knudson, C. A.; Andrejkovicova, S.; Archer, P. D.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) have analysed more than 150 micron fines from 14 sites at Gale Crater. Here we focus on the mudstone samples. Two were drilled from sites John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) in the Sheepbed mudstone. Six were drilled from Murray Formation mudstone: Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave (MJ), Telegraph Peak (TP), Buckskin (BK), Oudam (OU), Marimba (MB). SAM's evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) detected H2O, CO2, O2, H2, SO2, H2S, HCl, NO, and other trace gases, including organic fragments. The identity and evolution temperature of evolved gases can support CheMin mineral detection and place constraints on trace volatile-bearing phases or phases difficult to characterize with X-ray diffraction (e.g., amorphous phases). Here we will focus on SAM H2O data and comparisons to SAM-like analyses of key reference materials.

  11. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Crego-Calama

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs on glass were previouslydeveloped in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs arecomprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer onglass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptordesign, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules.Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions andthe properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs wasgenerated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show variedresponses to a series cations such as Cu2+ , Co2+ , Pb2+ , Ca2+ and Zn2+ . These surfaces are notdesigned to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to producefingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselectiveresponses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic patternfor each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  12. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; van der Baan, Frederieke; Zimmerman, Rebecca S.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Crego-Calama, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass were previously developed in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs are comprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer on glass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptor design, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules. Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions and the properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs was generated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show varied responses to a series cations such as Cu2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+. These surfaces are not designed to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to produce fingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselective responses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic pattern for each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  13. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  14. Halomethane production in plants: Structure of the biosynthetic SAM-dependent halide methyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, Jason W.; James, Agata B.; Edwards, Robert; Naismith, James H.; O’Hagan, David

    2012-01-01

    A product structure of the halomethane producing enzyme in plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) is reported and a model for presentation of chloride/bromide ion to the methyl group of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is presented to rationalise nucleophilic halide attack for halomethane production, gaseous natural products that are produced globally. PMID:20376845

  15. Initial SAM Calibration Gas Experiments on Mars: Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H,; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  16. Initial SAM calibration gas experiments on Mars: Quadrupole mass spectrometer results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H.; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Prats, Benito D.; Raaen, Eric; Wong, Michael H.

    2017-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  17. cljam: a library for handling DNA sequence alignment/map (SAM) with parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Toshiki; Yamada, Atsuo; Aoki, Takashi; Nishimura, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing can determine DNA bases and the results of sequence alignments are generally stored in files in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format and the compressed binary version (BAM) of it. SAMtools is a typical tool for dealing with files in the SAM/BAM format. SAMtools has various functions, including detection of variants, visualization of alignments, indexing, extraction of parts of the data and loci, and conversion of file formats. It is written in C and can execute fast. However, SAMtools requires an additional implementation to be used in parallel with, for example, OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) libraries. For the accumulation of next-generation sequencing data, a simple parallelization program, which can support cloud and PC cluster environments, is required. We have developed cljam using the Clojure programming language, which simplifies parallel programming, to handle SAM/BAM data. Cljam can run in a Java runtime environment (e.g., Windows, Linux, Mac OS X) with Clojure. Cljam can process and analyze SAM/BAM files in parallel and at high speed. The execution time with cljam is almost the same as with SAMtools. The cljam code is written in Clojure and has fewer lines than other similar tools.

  18. Local sphere-based co-registration for SAM group analysis in subjects without individual MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinstraeter, O; Teismann, Inga K; Wollbrink, A; Suntrup, S; Stoeckigt, K; Dziewas, R; Pantev, C

    2009-03-01

    Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) is a powerful MEG source localization method to analyze evoked as well as induced brain activity. To gain structural information of the underlying sources, especially in group studies, individual magnetic resonance images (MRI) are required for co-registration. During the last few years, the relevance of MEG measurements on understanding the pathophysiology of different diseases has noticeable increased. Unfortunately, especially in patients and small children, structural MRI scans cannot always be performed. Therefore, we developed a new method for group analysis of SAM results without requiring structural MRI data that derives its geometrical information from the individual volume conductor model constructed for the SAM analysis. The normalization procedure is fast, easy to implement and integrates seamlessly into an existing landmark based MEG-MRI co-registration procedure. This new method was evaluated on different simulated points as well as on a pneumatic index finger stimulation paradigm analyzed with SAM. Compared with an established MRI-based normalization procedure (SPM2) the new method shows only minor errors in single subject results as well as in group analysis. The mean difference between the two methods was about 4 mm for the simulated as well as for finger stimulation data. The variation between individual subjects was generally higher than the error induced by the missing MRIs. The method presented here is therefore sufficient for most MEG group studies. It allows accomplishing MEG studies with subject groups where MRI measurements cannot be performed.

  19. Statement of Facts for 1977 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Walker Thomas v. Sam Nomad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil case over an automobile accident. Walker Thomas is suing Sam Nomad for damages that resulted from a collision, for which both parties blame the other. The handout clarifies the laws and…

  20. Evidence for Smectite Clays from MSL SAM Analyses of Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Brunner, Anna; Archer, Paul Douglas; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Drilled samples of mudstone from the Sheepbed unit at Yellowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL instruments including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments in MSL's Analytical Laboratory. CheMin analyses revealed the first in situ X-ray diffraction based evidence of clay minerals on Mars, which are likely trioctahedral smectites (e.g., saponite) and comprise approx 20% of the mudstone sample (e.g., Bristow et al., this meeting). SAM analyses, which heated the mudstone samples to 1000 C and monitored volatiles evolved to perform in situ evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS), resulted in a H2O trace exhibiting a wide evolution at temperatures clay mineral. Comparison to EGA-MS data collected under SAM-like conditions on a variety of clay mineral reference materials indicate that a trioctahedral smectite, such as saponite, is most consistent with the high temperature H2O evolution observed. There may also be SAM EGA-MS evidence for a small high temperature H2O evolution from scoop samples from the Yellowknife Bay Rocknest sand shadow bedform. As in the mudstone samples, this evolution may indicate the detection of smectite clays, and the idea that minor clays may be present in Rocknest materials that could be expected to be at least partially derived from local sources is reasonable. But, because smectite clays were not definitively observed in CheMin analyses of Rocknest materials, they must be present at much lower abundances than the approx 20% observed in the mudstone samples. This potential detection underscores the complementary nature of the MSL CheMin and SAM instruments for investigations of martian sample mineralogy. Information on the nature of Yellowknife Bay clay minerals may also be available from the detection of H2 evolved during SAM EGA-MS at high temperature. A likely source of at least some of this H2 is H2O evolved from the smectite clays at high temperature, and it is possible these evolutions can

  1. Consensus Statement National Consensus Workshop on Management of SAM Children through Medical Nutrition Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, H P S; Kapil, Umesh; Vir, Sheila

    2010-08-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important preventable and treatable cause of morbidity and mortality in children below five years of age in India. The concerned stakeholders are not in agreement about the role of product based medical nutrition therapy in the management of this condition. In November 2009, a National Consensus Workshop was organized by the Department of Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Delhi, and the Sub-specialty Chapter on Nutrition, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Presentations by eminent national and international scientists, the ensuing discussions, and opinions expressed by the participants provided the basic framework for drafting the consensus statement. The draft of the consensus statement was circulated to all the participants; it underwent two revisions after consideration of their comments. (i) Critically appraise the current global evidence on the utility of Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) for the management of SAM in under five children; (ii) Formulate a consensus amongst stakeholders regarding the need to introduce product based MNT for the management of SAM in under five children in India; (iii) Identify research priorities for MNT for the management of SAM in under five children in India; and (iv)Ascertain potential challenges for introducing product based MNT in India, if consensus opinion identifies such a need. Guidelines related to the role of MNT in management of children suffering from SAM are presented. Global and regional data document the effectiveness of MNT using ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) and locally formulated products. Adequate caution should be exercised to ensure that MNT for SAM does not interfere with measures for the holistic prevention of childhood undernutrition. Indian manufacture of RUTF is feasible, and can be scaled up. Product

  2. Analysis of chlorocarbon compounds identified in the SAM Investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Glavin, D.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Martin, M.; Miller, K.; Steele, A.; Szopa, C.; SAM; MSL science Team

    2013-10-01

    The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) mode of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment was designed for the separation and identification of the chemical components of the gases released from a solid sample or trapped from the atmosphere. Gases from solid samples are either produced by heating a cell from ambient to >800-1100oC (EGA mode) or by wet chemistry extraction and reactions (not yet employed on Mars). Prior to EGA analysis of portions of the first 3 solid samples (Rocknest, John Klein and Cumberland) collected by MSL and delivered to SAM, an internal SAM blank run was carried out with an empty quartz cup. These blank analyses are required to understand the background signal intrinsic to the GCMS and its gas manifolds and traps. Several peaks have been identified as part of SAM background, some of them below the nmol level, which attests of the sensitivity of the instrument and as-designed performance of the GCMS. The origin of each peak has been investigated, and two major contributors are revealed; residual vapor from one of the chemicals used for SAM wet chemistry experiment: N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and the Tenax from the hydrocarbon trap. Supporting lab experiments are in progress to understand the reaction pathways of the molecules identified in the SAM background. These experiments help elucidate which molecules may be interpreted as indigenous to Mars. Of the three solid samples analyzed on 11 runs, it was possible to detect and identify several chlorinated compounds including several chlorohydrocarbons. The chlorine is likely derived from the decomposition of martian perchlorates or other indigenous Cl-containing species while the origin of the carbon is presently under investigation for each detected molecule. To date, a subset these molecules have been identified in lab studies and a terrestrial contribution to the observed products are more easily explained. The combined results from SAM and

  3. Insights into the structure, function and evolution of the radical-SAM 23S rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karminska, K. H.; Purta, E.; Hansen, L .H.

    2010-01-01

    of a 4Fe-4S cluster, a SAM molecule coordinated to the iron-sulfur cluster (SAM1) and a SAM molecule that is the putative methyl group donor (SAM2). All mutations at predicted functional sites affect Cfr activity significantly as assayed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and primer extension analysis....... The investigation has identified essential amino acids and Cfr variants with altered reaction mechanisms and represents a first step towards understanding the structural basis of Cfr activity....

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the SAMS gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.

  5. Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and

  6. Early Evolved Gas Results from the Curiosity Rover’s SAM Investigation at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Franz, H.; McAdam, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Stern, J.; SAM Science Team; MSL Science Team

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is designed to explore the habitability of the selected landing site at Gale crater. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite contributes to this study with a search for organic compounds, an analysis of the composition of inorganic volatiles, and measurements of the isotopic composition light elements. Both atmospheric and solid samples are analyzed. The layers in the central mound (Mt. Sharp) of Gale crater are important targets for the MSL mission. However, in situ measurements made during the past year of interesting regions close to the Bradbury landing site have revealed a diverse geology and several primary mission objectives have already been realized. SAM is located in the interior of the Curiosity rover. The MSL cameras, a laser induced breakdown spectrometer, and elemental analysis instrumentation serves to locate sampling sites and interogate candidate materials before solid sample is collected either with a drill or a scoop for delivery to SAM and the XRD instrument CheMin. SAM integrates a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS), and a 6-column gas chromatograph (GC) with a solid sample transport system and a gas processing and enrichment system. Results of SAM atmospheric composition analyses have already been reported (1,2). To date, multiple SAM evolved gas experiments have examined samples from fines scooped from an aeolian drift and from two drilled samples of a mudstone. Major evolved gases are H2O, CO2, O2, SO2, H2S, H2, and a number of minor species. These data help confirm the likely presence of perchlorates, the presence of phylosillicates, and both reduced and oxidized compounds evolved from the same sample. 1) P.R. Mahaffy et al., Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Gases in the Martian Atmosphere from the Curiosity Rover, Science 343, (2013). 2) C.R. Webster et al., Isotope Ratios of H, C and O in Martian Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Water Measured by the

  7. A modular approach for the construction and modification of glyco-SAMs utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Mike; Winkler, Tobias; Terfort, Andreas; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2008-06-21

    We report the synthesis of a broad variety of functionalized molecules for assembly on gold, allowing the formation of biologically relevant SAMs by a modular approach: either utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkynes and azides in solution or by 'click on SAM'. Extensive studies into the various parameters of SAM formation and stability have been carried out, leading us to deduce reliable conditions under which glyco-decorated self-assembled monolayers can be formed and studied such as in SPR-supported binding assays.

  8. Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Investigation: Overview of Results from the First 120 Sols on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.; Archer, P. D.; Atreya, S. K.; Benna, M.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Brunner, A. E.; Buch, A.; Coll, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    During the first 120 sols of Curiosity s landed mission on Mars (8/6/2012 to 12/7/2012) SAM sampled the atmosphere 9 times and an eolian bedform named Rocknest 4 times. The atmospheric experiments utilized SAM s quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometer (TLS) while the solid sample experiments also utilized the gas chromatograph (GC). Although a number of core experiments were pre-programmed and stored in EEProm, a high level SAM scripting language enabled the team to optimize experiments based on prior runs.

  9. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) IN {sup 18}F-FDG PET assessment of treatment response in colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Goethals, I.; Wiele, C.V. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Bruyne, S. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damme, N. van; Ceelen, W. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ghent (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Troisi, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of General and Hepato-Biliary Surgery, Liver Transplantation Service, Ghent (Belgium); Laurent, S.; Geboes, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2013-08-15

    Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a PET parameter for assessing the total metabolic load of malignant processes, avoiding partial volume effects and lesion segmentation. The potential role of this parameter in the assessment of response to chemotherapy and bevacizumab was tested in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with potentially resectable liver metastases (mCRC). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 18 mCRC patients with liver metastases before treatment and after five cycles of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI and bevacizumab. Of the 18 patients, 16 subsequently underwent resection of liver metastases. Baseline and follow-up SUV{sub max}, and SAM as well as reduction in SUV{sub max} ({nabla}SUV{sub max}) and SAM ({nabla}SAM) of all liver metastases were correlated with morphological response, and progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS). A significant reduction in metabolic activity of the liver metastases was seen after chemotherapy with a median {nabla}SUV{sub max} of 25.3 % and {nabla}SAM of 94.5 % (p = 0.033 and 0.003). Median baseline SUV{sub max} and SAM values were significantly different between morphological responders and nonresponders (3.8 vs. 7.2, p = 0.021; and 34 vs. 211, p = 0.002, respectively), but neither baseline PET parameters nor morphological response was correlated with PFS or OS. Follow-up SUV{sub max} and SAM as well as {nabla}SAM were found to be prognostic factors. The median PFS and OS in the patient group with a high follow-up SUV{sub max} were 10.4 months and 32 months, compared to a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached in the group with a low follow-up SUV{sub max} (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). The patient group with a high follow-up SAM and a low {nabla}SAM had a median PFS and OS of 9.4 months and 32 months, whereas the other group had a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached (p = 0.002 for both PFS and OS). {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is a useful

  10. Evolved Gas Analyses of Sedimentary Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Stimson Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 10 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g, H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC1). The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize the evolved H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 gas traces of sediments analyzed by SAM through sol 1178, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results releative to understanding the geochemical history of Gale Crater.

  11. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  12. Evolution of SAM in an Enhanced Model for Monitoring WLCG Services

    CERN Document Server

    Collados, D; Traylen, S; Imamagic, E; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    It is four years now since the first prototypes of tools and tests started to monitor the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) services. One of these tools is the Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) framework, which superseded the SFT tool, and has become a keystone for the monthly WLCG availability and reliability computations. During this time, the grid has evolved into a robust, production-level infrastructure, in no small part thanks to the extensive monitoring infrastructure which includes testing, visualization and reporting. Experience gained with monitoring has led to emerging grid monitoring standards, and provided valuable input for the Operations Automation Strategy aimed at the regionalization of monitoring services. This change in scope, together with an ever-increasing number of services and infrastructures, make enhancements in the architecture of existing monitoring tools a necessity. This paper describes the present architecture of SAM, an enhanced and distributed model for monitoring WLCG s...

  13. Validation of aerosol measurements by the satellite sensors SAM II and Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Swissler, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A global data base on stratospheric aerosols has been obtained with the aid of the sensors SAM II and SAGE since the satellites carrying the sensors were launched in October 1978 and Feburary 1979, respectively. Several major comparative experiments have been conducted to acquire correlative data for validating the extinction profiles measured by these satellite sensors. The present investigation has the objective to present results from the first two of these experiments, which were conducted at Sondrestorm, Greenland, in November 1978, and at Poker Flat, Alaska, in July 1979. In both experiments, extinction profiles derived from the correlative sensors (dustsonde, lidar, filter, wire impactor) agreed, to within their respective uncertainties, with the extinction profiles measured by SAM II and SAGE (which in turn agreed with each other).

  14. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  15. The SAM framework: modeling the effects of management factors on human behavior in risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D M; Paté-Cornell, M E

    1996-08-01

    Complex engineered systems, such as nuclear reactors and chemical plants, have the potential for catastrophic failure with disastrous consequences. In recent years, human and management factors have been recognized as frequent root causes of major failures in such systems. However, classical probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) techniques do not account for the underlying causes of these errors because they focus on the physical system and do not explicitly address the link between components' performance and organizational factors. This paper describes a general approach for addressing the human and management causes of system failure, called the SAM (System-Action-Management) framework. Beginning with a quantitative risk model of the physical system, SAM expands the scope of analysis to incorporate first the decisions and actions of individuals that affect the physical system. SAM then links management factors (incentives, training, policies and procedures, selection criteria, etc.) to those decisions and actions. The focus of this paper is on four quantitative models of action that describe this last relationship. These models address the formation of intentions for action and their execution as a function of the organizational environment. Intention formation is described by three alternative models: a rational model, a bounded rationality model, and a rule-based model. The execution of intentions is then modeled separately. These four models are designed to assess the probabilities of individual actions from the perspective of management, thus reflecting the uncertainties inherent to human behavior. The SAM framework is illustrated for a hypothetical case of hazardous materials transportation. This framework can be used as a tool to increase the safety and reliability of complex technical systems by modifying the organization, rather than, or in addition to, re-designing the physical system.

  16. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  17. Should India Use Commercially Produced Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF For Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radha holla

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, nearly 20 million children under five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM, a condition which contributes to one million child deaths annually. In India 48% of children under five years of age are stunted and 43 percent are underweight; almost 8 million suffer from SAM. Malnutrition is not a new problem in India, nor is SAM. Several hospitals and non-government organizations are engaged in community-based management of malnutrition using locally produced/procured and locally processed foods along with intensive nutrition education. These programs enable parents to meet the nutritional requirements of their children with foods that are available at low cost. The Supreme Court of India has also directed the government to universalize the Integrated Child Development Scheme and provide one hot cooked meal to children under six years of age to supplement their nutrition. The blame for the increasing number of severely malnourish children can be laid at the door of policies that have destroyed poor people’s access to food. Nonetheless, there is urgent need to ensure that these children do not die; that they recover and maintain a healthy nutritional status. The current thinking – that a centrally produced and processed Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF should supplant the locally prepared indigenous foods in treatment of SAM – ignores the multiple causes of malnutrition and destroys the diversity of potential solutions based on locally available foods. This position paper has been drafted by Dr. Vandana Prasad, Radha Holla and Dr. Arun Gupta, members of the Working Group for Children Under Six – a joint effort of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (People’s Health Movement – India and the Right to Food Campaign which been advocating for the last three years with the Indian government for decentralized and community-based strategies to combat and prevent malnutrition in children.

  18. SAMMate: a GUI tool for processing short read alignments in SAM/BAM format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemington Erik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM or Binary SAM (BAM format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. Results We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. Conclusions With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.

  19. Sarm1-mediated axon degeneration requires both SAM and TIR interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Josiah; Summers, Daniel W; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2013-08-14

    Axon degeneration is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that eliminates damaged or unneeded axons. Manipulation of this poorly understood pathway may allow treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. In an RNAi-based screen performed in cultured mouse DRG neurons, we observed strong suppression of injury-induced axon degeneration upon knockdown of Sarm1 [SARM (sterile α-motif-containing and armadillo-motif containing protein)]. We find that a SARM-dependent degeneration program is engaged by disparate neuronal insults: SARM ablation blocks axon degeneration induced by axotomy or vincristine treatment, while SARM acts in parallel with a soma-derived caspase-dependent pathway following trophic withdrawal. SARM is a multidomain protein that associates with neuronal mitochondria. Deletion of the N-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence disrupts SARM mitochondrial localization in neurons but does not alter its ability to promote axon degeneration. In contrast, mutation of either the SAM (sterile α motif) or TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor) domains abolishes the ability of SARM to promote axonal degeneration, while a SARM mutant containing only these domains elicits axon degeneration and nonapoptotic neuronal death even in the absence of injury. Protein-protein interaction studies demonstrate that the SAM domains are necessary and sufficient to mediate SARM-SARM binding. SARM mutants lacking a TIR domain bind full-length SARM and exhibit strong dominant-negative activity. These results indicate that SARM plays an integral role in the dismantling of injured axons and support a model in which SAM-mediated multimerization is necessary for TIR-dependent engagement of a downstream destruction pathway. These findings suggest that inhibitors of SAM and TIR interactions represent therapeutic candidates for blocking pathological axon loss and neuronal cell death.

  20. Mitofilin and CHCHD6 physically interact with Sam50 to sustain cristae structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Wu, Zhifei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Yajie; Xue, Jie; Chen, Si; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Song, Zhiyin; Chen, Shi

    2015-11-04

    The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) invaginates to form cristae and the maintenance of cristae depends on the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex. Mitofilin and CHCHD6, which physically interact, are two components of the MICOS. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments with Mitofilin and CHCHD6 antibodies and identified a complex containing Mitofilin, Sam50, and CHCHD 3 and 6. Using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), we generated knockdown/knockout clones of Mitofilin and CHCHD6. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that vesicle-like cristae morphology appeared in cell lines lacking Mitofilin, and mitochondria exhibited lower cristae density in CHCHD6-knockout cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that knockdown of Mitofilin, but not knockout of CHCHD6, affected their binding partners that control cristae morphology. We also demonstrated that Mitofilin and CHCHD6 directly interacted with Sam50. Additionally, we observed that Mitofilin-knockdown cells showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and intracellular ATP content, which were minimally affected in CHCHD6-knockout cells. Taken together, we conclude that the integrity of MICOS and its efficient interaction with Sam50 are indispensable for cristae organization, which is relevant to mitochondrial function.

  1. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ryberg, David Severin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a variety of system designs and locations. Many independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort verifying these models beyond the system designs and locations on which they were based. Moreover, major PV modeling software products have not yet incorporated any of these models into their workflows. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. (2013) into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work, we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and we discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for three PV arrays. Next, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical data set to estimate average snow losses across the United States for two typical PV system designs. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nationwide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  2. Selective in situ potential-assisted SAM formation on multi electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Lauriene; Toader, Violeta; Lennox, R. Bruce; Grutter, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The selective modification of individual components in a biosensor array is challenging. To address this challenge, we present a generalizable approach to selectively modify and characterize individual gold surfaces in an array, in an in situ manner. This is achieved by taking advantage of the potential dependent adsorption/desorption of surface-modified organic molecules. Control of the applied potential of the individual sensors in an array where each acts as a working electrode provides differential derivatization of the sensor surfaces. To demonstrate this concept, two different self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-forming electrochemically addressable ω-ferrocenyl alkanethiols (C11) are chemisorbed onto independent but spatially adjacent gold electrodes. The ferrocene alkanethiol does not chemisorb onto the surface when the applied potential is cathodic relative to the adsorption potential and the electrode remains underivatized. However, applying potentials that are modestly positive relative to the adsorption potential leads to extensive coverage within 10 min. The resulting SAM remains in a stable state while held at potentials <200 mV above the adsorption potential. In this state, the chemisorbed SAM does not significantly desorb nor do new ferrocenylalkythiols adsorb. Using three set applied potentials provides for controlled submonolayer alkylthiol marker coverage of each independent gold electrode. These three applied potentials are dependent upon the specifics of the respective adsorbate. Characterization of the ferrocene-modified electrodes via cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that each specific ferrocene marker is exclusively adsorbed to the desired target electrode.

  3. SAMSVM: A tool for misalignment filtration of SAM-format sequences with support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Ding, Xiaofan; Sun, Xing; Tsang, Shui-Ying; Xue, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Sequence alignment/map (SAM) formatted sequences [Li H, Handsaker B, Wysoker A et al., Bioinformatics 25(16):2078-2079, 2009.] have taken on a main role in bioinformatics since the development of massive parallel sequencing. However, because misalignment of sequences poses a significant problem in analysis of sequencing data that could lead to false positives in variant calling, the exclusion of misaligned reads is a necessity in analysis. In this regard, the multiple features of SAM-formatted sequences can be treated as vectors in a multi-dimension space to allow the application of a support vector machine (SVM). Applying the LIBSVM tools developed by Chang and Lin [Chang C-C, Lin C-J, ACM Trans Intell Syst Technol 2:1-27, 2011.] as a simple interface for support vector classification, the SAMSVM package has been developed in this study to enable misalignment filtration of SAM-formatted sequences. Cross-validation between two simulated datasets processed with SAMSVM yielded accuracies that ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with F-scores ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 in 14 groups characterized by different mutation rates from 0.001 to 0.1, indicating that the model built using SAMSVM was accurate in misalignment detection. Application of SAMSVM to actual sequencing data resulted in filtration of misaligned reads and correction of variant calling.

  4. Major Volatiles from MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analyses: Yellowknife Bay Through Lower Mount Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Stern, J. C.; Freissinet, C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) analysed several subsamples of Klein ("JK") and Cumberland ("CB"). One was drilled from the Windjana ("WJ") site on a sandstone of the Kimberly formation investigated on route to Mount Sharp. Another was drilled from the Confidence Hills ("CH") site on a sandstone of the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp (Pahrump Hills). Outcrops are sedimentary rocks that are largely of fluvial or lacustrine origin, with minor aeolian deposits.. SAM's evolved gas analysis (EGA) mass spectrometry detected H2O, CO2, O2, H2, SO2, H2S, HCl, NO, and other trace gases, including organic fragments. The identity and evolution temperature (T) of evolved gases can support CheMin mineral detection and place constraints on trace volatile-bearing phases or phases difficult to characterize with XRD (e.g., X-ray amorphous phases). They can also give constraints on sample organic chemistry. Here, we discuss trends in major evolved volatiles from SAM EGA analyses to date.

  5. Microtribological and electrochemical corrosion behaviors of polydopamine coating on APTS-SAM modified Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Junfei [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang Jinqing, E-mail: jqwang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhou Jinfang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ren Sili, E-mail: slren@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Shengrong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A polydopamine coating (coded as PDAc) was prepared successfully on a Si substrate through a two-step process. Briefly, to improve the adhesion of PDAc on the Si substrate, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (coded as APTS-SAM) was firstly generated on the bare Si wafer. Thereafter, the PDAc with different thickness was fabricated through the chemical adsorption and autopolymerization of the dopamine hydrochloride on the APTS-SAM coated Si substrate. The formation of PDAc on the APTS-SAM modified Si substrate was proved by the characterizations of contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), etc. The ellipsometric thickness measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image analysis showed that the PDAc became thicker and rougher with the deposition time prolongation. Microtribological study showed that the thickness and roughness of the PDAc played a significant role in the tribological properties. In comparison with the bare Si substrate, the PDAc with thinner thickness possessed lower friction and was anticipated to be used as protecting coating in the field of boundary lubrication. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of the prepared PDAc were investigated using the electrochemical station and a low corrosion current density was revealed, implying that the PDAc had good anti-corrosion capability and might find potential applications in the field of corrosion resistance.

  6. Microtribological and electrochemical corrosion behaviors of polydopamine coating on APTS-SAM modified Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junfei; Wang, Jinqing; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Jinfang; Ren, Sili; Yang, Shengrong

    2009-11-01

    A polydopamine coating (coded as PDAc) was prepared successfully on a Si substrate through a two-step process. Briefly, to improve the adhesion of PDAc on the Si substrate, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (coded as APTS-SAM) was firstly generated on the bare Si wafer. Thereafter, the PDAc with different thickness was fabricated through the chemical adsorption and autopolymerization of the dopamine hydrochloride on the APTS-SAM coated Si substrate. The formation of PDAc on the APTS-SAM modified Si substrate was proved by the characterizations of contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), etc. The ellipsometric thickness measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image analysis showed that the PDAc became thicker and rougher with the deposition time prolongation. Microtribological study showed that the thickness and roughness of the PDAc played a significant role in the tribological properties. In comparison with the bare Si substrate, the PDAc with thinner thickness possessed lower friction and was anticipated to be used as protecting coating in the field of boundary lubrication. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of the prepared PDAc were investigated using the electrochemical station and a low corrosion current density was revealed, implying that the PDAc had good anti-corrosion capability and might find potential applications in the field of corrosion resistance.

  7. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  8. Conformational heterogeneity of the SAM-I riboswitch transcriptional ON state: a chaperone-like role for S-adenosyl methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kim, Joohyun; Jha, Shantenu; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-05-18

    Riboswitches are promising targets for the design of novel antibiotics and engineering of portable genetic regulatory elements. There is evidence that variability in riboswitch properties allows tuning of expression for genes involved in different stages of biosynthetic pathways by mechanisms that are not currently understood. Here, we explore the mechanism for tuning of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-I riboswitch folding. Most SAM-I riboswitches function at the transcriptional level by sensing the cognate ligand SAM. SAM-I riboswitches orchestrate the biosynthetic pathways of cysteine, methionine, SAM, and so forth. We use base-pair probability predictions to examine the secondary-structure folding landscape of several SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We predict different folding behaviors for different SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We identify several "decoy" base-pairing interactions involving 5' riboswitch residues that can compete with the formation of a P1 helix, a component of the ligand-bound "transcription OFF" state, in the absence of SAM. We hypothesize that blockage of these interactions through SAM contacts contributes to stabilization of the OFF state in the presence of ligand. We also probe folding patterns for a SAM-I riboswitch RNA using constructs with different 3' truncation points experimentally. Folding was monitored through fluorescence, susceptibility to base-catalyzed cleavage, nuclear magnetic resonance, and indirectly through SAM binding. We identify key decision windows at which SAM can affect the folding pathway towards the OFF state. The presence of decoy conformations and differential sensitivities to SAM at different transcript lengths is crucial for SAM-I riboswitches to modulate gene expression in the context of global cellular metabolism.

  9. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  10. The early 1990s change in ENSO-PSA-SAM relationships and its impact on Southern Hemisphere climate

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, JY; Paek, H; Saltzman, ES; T. Lee

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Meteorological Society. This study uncovers an early 1990s change in the relationships between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two leading modes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric variability: the southern annular mode (SAM) and the Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern. During austral spring, while the PSA maintained a strong correlation with ENSO throughout the period 1948-2014, the SAM-ENSO correlation changed from being weak before the early 1990s to being ...

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) stably expressing CRISPR-based synergistic activation mediator (SAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Human fibroblasts were engineered to express the CRISPR-based synergistic activation mediator (SAM) complex: dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1. Two induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) clones expressing SAM were established by transducing these fibroblasts with lentivirus expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4...... a novel, useful tool to investigate genetic regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation through CRISPR-mediated activation of endogenous genes....

  12. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coscia, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Franz, Heather B.; Grotzinger, John P.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Martin, Mildred G.; McKay, Christopher; Ming, Douglas W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pavlov, Alexander; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the

  13. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  14. Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection

  15. Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coscia, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Franz, Heather B.; Grotzinger, John P.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Martin, Mildred G.; McKay, Christopher; Ming, Douglas W.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Pavlov, Alexander; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2013-10-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of ~0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the Martian regolith.

  16. Sum-frequency generation analyses of the structure of water at amphoteric SAM-liquid water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kouji; Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kitano, Hiromi; Noguchi, Hidenori; Uosaki, Kohei

    2014-09-01

    Surfaces of both a cover glass and the flat plane of a semi-cylindrical quartz prism were modified with a mixture of positively and negatively charged silane coupling reagents (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propylmethylphosphonate (THPMP), respectively). The glass surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) prepared at a mixing ratio of APTES:THPMP=4:6 was electrically almost neutral and was resistant to non-specific adsorption of proteins, whereas fibroblasts gradually adhered to an amphoteric (mixed) SAM surface probably due to its stiffness, though the number of adhered cells was relatively small. Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra indicated that total intensity of the OH stretching region (3000-3600cm(-1)) for the amphoteric SAM-modified quartz immersed in liquid water was smaller than those for the positively and negatively charged SAM-modified quartz prisms and a bare quartz prism in contact with liquid water. These results suggested that water molecules at the interface of water and an amphoteric SAM-modified quartz prism are not strongly oriented in comparison with those at the interface of a lopsidedly charged SAM-modified quartz prism and bare quartz. The importance of charge neutralization for the anti-biofouling properties of solid materials was strongly suggested.

  17. STM study of short chain hydrophobic thiol SAMs on HOPG and Au capped HOPG under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alexis; Maurer, Mackenzie; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled monolayer(SAM) surfaces provide common architecture in many device applications including sensor engineering. The conductivity characteristics and surface molecular structure and orientation of these SAM are important as physiochemical properties are dependent on the surface arrangement. SAMs used in this study are short chain -R terminated (hydrophobic) 1-Butanethiol on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) surface and on thermally annealed Au thin film capped on HOPG. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), contact angle measurements and reflective spectroscopy are used to assess the SAM layered surfaces. Solutions of 1-Butanethiol, dissolved in 200 proof Ethanol with 5mM concentration were prepared for the self-assembly process. These solutions were used in developing SAMs on purchased, freshly cleaved HOPG substrates. Au thin layers were sputter deposited on HOPG and subsequently annealed. Initial data shows low Au deposition yields rougher inconsistent surfaces. Ambient conditions under which data was obtained impose fresh surfaces for each investigation. Tentative surface structure, consistency and thiol molecular arrangement of the SAM layer on HOPG and Au capped HOPG will be discussed. National Science Foundation.

  18. Supplementary Material for: A new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions. Results We demonstrate that the crystal structure of the Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) domain tandem (SAM1-SAM2) oligomer from CASKIN2 is different than CASKIN1, with the minimal repeating unit being a dimer, rather than a monomer. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity methods revealed differences in monomer/dimer equilibria across a range of concentrations and ionic strengths for the wild type CASKIN2 SAM tandem and a structure-directed double mutant that could not oligomerize. Further distinguishing CASKIN2 from CASKIN1, EGFP-tagged SAM tandem proteins expressed in Neuro2a cells produced punctae that were distinct both in shape and size. Conclusions This study illustrates a new way in which neuronal SAM domains can assemble into large macromolecular assemblies that might concentrate and amplify synaptic responses.

  19. Influence of chain ordering on frictional properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in nano-lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of organic films to substrates is important in applications that involve solid surfaces in sliding contact. Although the thickness of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is only a few nanometers, they can drastically modify the frictional properties of the underlying substrate, and thus have great potential for serving as boundary lubricants on micro- and nano-scales. This review focuses on the relationship between the structural and compositional properties of SAMs and their frictional response. Adhesion of SAMs to the substrate surface usually occurs through chemisorption of the head groups on the constituent molecules, with molecular interactions such as van der Waals interactions playing important roles in organizing the molecules into surface films, and in controlling their tribological behavior. The durability and wear resistance of SAMs depend on the nature and strength of the binding forces between the head groups and the substrate surfaces, while the adhesion and friction forces are strongly influenced by the interactions of the terminal groups with the counterfaces. Results from both experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations consistently indicate that structural ordering of alkyl chains in SAMs reduces their frictional response, and that SAMs formed by molecules with alkyl chains longer than 8 to 10 methylene units are well organized, exhibiting low levels of friction. Less densely packed or more disordered monolayers inherently possess greater numbers of conformational defects at room temperature and present lower barriers to defect creation under the action of a contacting surface, and thus exhibit higher friction. Cross-linking of the spacer chains can reduce the frictional response of disordered films by increasing the chain ordering, but has little impact on SAMs that are already well ordered. On the other hand, introduction of sterically demanding terminal groups and dissimilar molecules reduces molecular ordering in SAMs

  20. Loving Sam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author came to love Mark Twain's writings, taught "Huckleberry Finn" and other of Twain's writings to a ninth-grade class in a Hasidic Jewish Academy, and learned to really love Samuel Clemens. Describes how this love inspired the author to write two books celebrating what she has valued most in 40 years of reading Mark Twain.…

  1. Formation and Stability of Phenylphosphonic Acid Monolayers on ZnO: Comparison of In Situ and Ex Situ SAM Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Alexandra; Klöffel, Tobias; Meyer, Bernd; Witte, Gregor

    2016-05-24

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) enable an electronic interface tailoring of conductive metal oxides and offer an alternative to common transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices. Here, the influence of surface orientation and pretreatment on the formation and stability of SAMs has been studied for the case of phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) on ZnO single crystals. Using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, the thermal stability and orientational ordering of PPA-SAMs on the polar and mixed-terminated ZnO surfaces were analyzed. On all surfaces, PPA-SAMs remain stable up to 550 K, while at higher temperatures a C-P bond cleavage and dissociative desorption takes place yielding two distinct desorption peaks. Based on DFT calculations, these desorption channels are attributed to protonated and deprotonated chemisorbed PPA molecules, which can be related to tri- and bidentate species, hence allowing to determine their relative abundance from the intensity ratio. Beside immersion, an alternative monolayer preparation based on vacuum deposition in combination with controlled desorption of excess multilayers is demonstrated. This enables a SAM preparation on bare ZnO surfaces without any precoating due to exposure to ambient air, which is further compared with SAM formation on intentionally hydroxylated substrates. Corresponding TDS data indicate that initial hydroxylation favors the formation of tridentate and deprotonated bidentate, while the OMBD preparation on bare surfaces yields a larger fraction of protonated bidentate species. The orientation of PPA molecules adopted in the SAMs was determined from the dichroism of K-edge NEXAFS measurements and reveals an almost upright orientation for the deprotonated species, while a slight tilting is obtained for monolayer films with a large fraction of protonated

  2. 沉默Sam68基因表达抑制乳腺癌细胞的上皮-间质转化%Sam68 gene-silencing inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝紫桥; 章乐虹; 潘小梅; 刘毅俊; 邹颖; 陈欣欣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨沉默Sam68 (Src-associated substrated during mitosis of 68KD)基因表达对乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞上皮-间质转化(epithelial-mesenchymal transition,EMT)的影响.方法:采用实时荧光定量PCR和蛋白质印迹法检测具有不同侵袭能力的乳腺癌MDA-MB-231和MCF-7细胞中Sam68 mRNA及蛋白的表达情况;选择Sam68高表达的MDA-MB-231细胞,利用siRNA技术沉默细胞中内源性Sam68蛋白的表达.随后,采用实时荧光定量PCR和蛋白质印迹法检测EMT标志物E-钙黏蛋白(E-cadherin)和波形蛋白(vimentin) mRNA及蛋白的表达;采用CCK-8法、Transwell小室迁移和侵袭实验检测沉默Sam68基因表达后对乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞增殖,迁移和侵袭的影响.结果:Sam68蛋白在高侵袭性的间质型乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞中高表达(P<0.05);采用siRNA沉默MDA-MB-231细胞内源性Sam68蛋白的表达后,E-cadherin的表达水平明显上调(P<0.05),而vimentin的表达水平明显下调(P<0.05);MDA-MB-231细胞的增殖能力以及细胞的迁移和侵袭能力明显降低(P值均< 0.05),细胞可能发生间质-上皮转化.结论:Sam68在高侵袭性乳腺癌细胞中高表达,沉默Sam68基因的表达能抑制EMT的发生,并降低细胞增殖、侵袭和迁移能力.

  3. Roles of SAM and DDHD domains in mammalian intracellular phospholipase A1 KIAA0725p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroki; Baba, Takashi; Sato, Seiichi; Ohtsuki, Ryuya; Takemori, Aya; Watanabe, Takuya; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Tani, Katsuko

    2012-04-01

    Members of the intracellular phospholipase A1 family of proteins have been implicated in organelle biogenesis and membrane trafficking. The mammalian family comprises three members: phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 (PA-PIA1)/DDHD1, p125/Sec23ip and KIAA0725p/DDHD2, all of which have a DDHD domain. PA-PLAI is mostly cytosolic, while KIAA0725p and p125 are more stably associated with the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and ER exit sites, respectively. Here we show that KIAAO725p and p125 are novel phosphoinositide-binding proteins. Deletion and mutational analyses of KIAAO725p suggested that a sterile alpha-motif (SAM), which is also present inp125, but not in cytosolic PA-PLAI, and the following DDHD domain comprise a minimal region for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (Pl(4)P)-binding. A construct with mutations in the positively charged cluster of the SAM domain is defective in both phosphoinositide-binding and Golgi/ERGIC targeting. Consistent with the view that the Pl(4)P-binding is important for the membrane association of KIAA0725p, expression of phosphoinositide phosphatase Sacd reduces the association of expressed KIAAO725p with membranes. In addition, we show that deletion of the DDHD domain or introduction of point mutations at the conserved aspartate or histidine residues in the domain abolishes the phospholipase activity of KIAAO725p and PA-PLA1. Together, our results suggest that KIAAO725p is targeted to specific organelle membranes in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner, and that its SAM and DDHD domains are essential for its phosphoinositide-binding and phospholipase activity.

  4. Voltammetric Determination of Prochlorperazine and Ethopropazine Using a Gold Electrode Modified with Decanethiol SAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baizhao Zeng

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltammetric behavior of prochlorperazine and ethopropazine at a decanethiol (DEC self-assembled monolayer (SAM modified gold electrode (DEC/Au has been studied. It was observed that prochlorperazine exhibited an anodic peak at about 0.60 V (vs SCE, while ethopropazine exhibited two anodic peaks at about 0.49 V and 0.58 V on DEC/Au in pH 10 sodium carbonate buffer. This was due to their different electrochemical oxidation mechanisms. In this case, the oxidation of prochlorperazine and ethopropazine included one 2e step and two 1e steps, respectively. In the presence of some reductants such as ascorbic acid, the oxidation products of them can catalyze the oxidation of the reductants and thus make the peaks grow. In addition, it was found that the SAM structure became not so compact when prochlorperazine and ethopropazine were present, resulting from their permeating in the SAM. Various conditions were optimized for their determination. Under the selected conditions (i.e. 0.080 M pH 10 sodium carbonate buffer; scan rate: 100 mV/s; accumulation potential: –0.4 V or 0 V; accumulation time: 60 s, the peak currents were linear to prochlorperazine concentration in the ranges of 0.1~2.0 μM and 5.0~50 μM, and linear with ethopropazine in the ranges of 10 nM~0.1 μM and 0.5~20 μM. The RSD was 4.28% for 8 successive measurements of 1.0 μM prochlorperazine. The influence of some coexistents was examined.

  5. SAMS--a systems architecture for developing intelligent health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Özgün; Erdur, Rıza Cenk; Türksever, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, SAMS, a novel health information system architecture for developing intelligent health information systems is proposed and also some strategies for developing such systems are discussed. The systems fulfilling this architecture will be able to store electronic health records of the patients using OWL ontologies, share patient records among different hospitals and provide physicians expertise to assist them in making decisions. The system is intelligent because it is rule-based, makes use of rule-based reasoning and has the ability to learn and evolve itself. The learning capability is provided by extracting rules from previously given decisions by the physicians and then adding the extracted rules to the system. The proposed system is novel and original in all of these aspects. As a case study, a system is implemented conforming to SAMS architecture for use by dentists in the dental domain. The use of the developed system is described with a scenario. For evaluation, the developed dental information system will be used and tried by a group of dentists. The development of this system proves the applicability of SAMS architecture. By getting decision support from a system derived from this architecture, the cognitive gap between experienced and inexperienced physicians can be compensated. Thus, patient satisfaction can be achieved, inexperienced physicians are supported in decision making and the personnel can improve their knowledge. A physician can diagnose a case, which he/she has never diagnosed before, using this system. With the help of this system, it will be possible to store general domain knowledge in this system and the personnel's need to medical guideline documents will be reduced.

  6. PhnJ – A novel radical SAM enzyme from the C–P lyase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh S. Kamat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PhnJ from the C–P lyase complex catalyzes the cleavage of the carbon–phosphorus bond in ribose-1-phosphonate-5-phosphate (PRPn to produce methane and ribose-1,2-cyclic-phosphate-5-phosphate (PRcP. This protein is a novel radical SAM enzyme that uses glycyl and thiyl radicals as reactive intermediates in the proposed reaction mechanism. The overall reaction is initiated with the reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM by a reduced [4Fe–4S]1+-cluster to form an Ado-CH2∙ radical intermediate. This intermediate abstracts the proR hydrogen from Gly-32 of PhnJ to form Ado-CH3 and a glycyl radical. In the next step, there is hydrogen atom transfer from Cys-272 to the Gly-32 radical to generate a thiyl radical. The thiyl radical attacks the phosphorus center of the substrate, PRPn, to form a transient thiophosphonate radical intermediate. This intermediate collapses via homolytic C–P bond cleavage and hydrogen atom transfer from the proS hydrogen of Gly-32 to produce a thiophosphate intermediate, methane, and a radical intermediate at Gly-32. The final product, PRcP, is formed by nucleophilic attack of the C2-hydroxyl on the transient thiophosphate intermediate. This reaction regenerates the free thiol group of Cys-272. After hydrogen atom transfer from Cys-272 to the Gly-32 radical, the entire process is repeated with another substrate molecule without the use of another molecule of SAM or involvement from the [4Fe–4S]-cluster again.

  7. Postmodernism and Language in Sam Shepard's True West and Tooth of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Mehrabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Shepard has gained a reputation as one of America's foremost living playwrights. In over forty plays, Shepard has broken down traditional notions of dramaturgy in combining both modernist notions of the absurd and familiar icons from the American cultural landscape with an energy tinged by anarchy and violence. Moreover, Shepard has been considered by many critics as a postmodern dramatist. Hassan (1987 piles up a lengthy list of artists from various disciplines whose names epitomize postmodernism for him. The playwrights are: Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Harold Pinter and only Sam Shepard and August Wilson from America. One characteristic of postmodern literature in general, is a focus on the instability of meaning and the inadequacy of language to completely and accurately represent truth, along with an irony and playfulness in the treatment of linguistic constructs. In other words, there is a questioning of language as a medium of perception and communication. Language can name the pain but it can’t be the pain; language cannot reach the actual individual feeling. Language is not strong enough to convey the intense emotion.  In postmodern poetics, there is a paradigmatic shift from the idea that language is transparent to the disclosure of its physicality, its intimacy, its obdurate persistence, and its paradoxical fragility. Thus, language is an insufficient means for transforming the ideas that exist in one's mind. The aim of the present article would be to present the ways in which the dramatic language of Sam Shepard, as a postmodern drama, demonstrates inadequacy of language in communication. In order to reach this goal, however, a number of his early dramas will be brought under scrutiny with regard to their language and style from the postmodern point of view. Keywords: Fragmentation, Postmodernism, Language, Grand Narratives, American Drama

  8. Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.

  9. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  10. Potensi Tinggalan Arkeologis di Kawasan Bandar Udara Sam Ratulangi Manado: Upaya Pelestarian, Pemanfaatan, dan Pengembangan bagi Masyarakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanuddin W. Marzuki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The area of Sam Ratulangi airport’s Manado has archaeological heritage which has been know as it is closed for public. This research used descriptive method, using inductive reasoning. Meanwhile, the analysis method used morphologyl, technology, and contextual analysis. This research aimed to find out the potential of archaeological heritage in Sam Ratulangi airport area of Manado. In addition to its strategy of preservation the haritage included veilbox, bungker, and waruga. The preservation can be conducted by doing protection, development, and utilization. The preservation both physical and non physical protection. The effort for its development and utilization was conducted for the purpose of science, education, culture, and tourism. Kawasan Bandar Udara Sam Ratulangi Manado mempunyai potensi tinggalan arkeologis yang selama ini tidak diketahui masyarakat luas, dikarenakan letak tinggalan yang berada dalam kawasan tertutup untuk umum. Penelitian menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan penalaran induktif. Metode analisis menggunakan analisis morfologi, teknologi dan kontekstual. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui potensi tinggalan arkeologis yang terdapat di kawasan Bandar Udara Sam Ratulangi dan strategi pelestariannya. Tinggalan arkeologis yang terdapat di kawasan Bandar Udara Sam Ratulangi meliputi veilbox, bungker, dan waruga. Upaya pelestarian dapat dilakukan dengan cara perlindungan, pengembangan dan pemanfaatan. Upaya perlindungan meliputi perlindungan secara fisik dan non fisik. Upaya pengembangan dan pemanfaatan dilakukan untuk kepentingan ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, kebudayaan dan pariwisata.

  11. Study of the resistance of SAMs on aluminium to acidic and basic solutions using dynamic contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Newman, Roger C; McAlpine, Eoghan; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-01-30

    We report the development of a method to determine the aqueous stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using the Wilhelmy plate dynamic contact angle (DCA) experiment. The DCA is measured in solutions over a range of pH values for alkyl carboxylic and alkyl phosphonic acid SAMs formed on magnetron-sputtered aluminum. The change in DCA on repeated immersion is used as a measure of the degradation of the SAMs by hydrolytic attack. The short and intermediate chain length alkyl acids are not stable in water of neutral pH, whereas molecules with the longest alkyl chains show considerably greater stability in neutral and both high and low pH solutions. The packing density inferred from the DCA and the contact angle hysteresis suggests the C18CO2H monolayer to be slightly less well packed than that of the C18P(=O)(OH)2; this is consistent with related friction force microscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy findings published elsewhere (Foster, T. T.; Alexander, M. R.; Leggett, G. J.; McAlpine, E. Langmuir 2006, 22, 9254-9259). The resistance of the SAMs to acid and alkaline environments is discussed in the context of aluminum oxide solubility, SAM packing density, and the resistance of the interfacial phosphate and carboxylate functionalities to different aqueous conditions.

  12. Evolved Gas Analyses of the Murray Formation in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Thompson, L. M.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 13 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM-evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g., H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HCl) [1- 6]. The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize recent evolved SO2, CO2, O2, and NO gas traces of the Murray formation mudstone, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results relative to understanding the geological history of Gale Crater.

  13. Insights into the structure, function and evolution of the radical-SAM 23S rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karminska, K. H.; Purta, E.; Hansen, L .H.

    2010-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers combined resistance to five classes of antibiotics that bind to the peptidyl tranferase center of bacterial ribosomes by catalyzing methylation of the C-8 position of 23S rRNA nucleotide A2503. The same nucleotide is targeted by the housekeeping methyltransferase...... of a 4Fe-4S cluster, a SAM molecule coordinated to the iron-sulfur cluster (SAM1) and a SAM molecule that is the putative methyl group donor (SAM2). All mutations at predicted functional sites affect Cfr activity significantly as assayed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and primer extension analysis...

  14. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of SAMS gene in a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba%红树植物杯萼海桑SAMS 基因的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋红; 张自德; 王峰

    2013-01-01

    Sonneratia alba is one of the most salt-tolerant mangroves.S-adenosylmethionine synthetase(SAMS)which was in response to abiotic stresses played an important role in salt tolerance.In order to study the biological mecha-nism of S.alba for adapting stress,the coding region of SaSAMS gene which codes a key enzyme in the S-adenosyl-methionine(SAM)biosynthetic pathway was isolated.Based on the annotation of root transcriptome of S.alba,prim-ers was designed and cDNA of SaSAMS gene was amplified by PCR.The complete coding sequence of SaSAMS gene was 1 182 bp and it encoded a protein of 393 amino acids.Homology comparison and evolutionary tree analysis showed that the SAMS amino acid sequences were relatively conserved in plants.The SaSAMS gene was cloned from a mangrove tree S.alba for the first time and this would facilitate further investigation on molecular mechanism of stress tolerance and regulation networks of stress-related genes in S.alba.%红树植物杯萼海桑是最耐盐的红树植物之一.S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶(S-adenosylmethionine syn-thetase,SAMS)是 S-腺苷甲硫氨酸(S-adenosylmethionine,SAM)生物合成途径的关键酶.SAMS 作为一个逆境胁迫响应蛋白在植物的耐盐调控中发挥着极其重要的作用.本文结合杯萼海桑根的转录组注释,根据编码区序列设计引物,通过PCR克隆杯萼海桑SAMS 基因的编码区 cDNA,并对其进行生物信息分析,为研究杯萼海桑适应逆境的机制奠定理论基础.结果显示PCR扩增了一个长1182 bp 的基因片段,该片段编码由393个氨基酸组成的S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶.同源性比对及进化树分析显示杯萼海桑的SAMS 氨基酸序列进化上相对保守.本研究首次从红树林植物杯萼海桑中克隆S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶基因,并获得其编码区序列,为进一步研究杯萼海桑应对逆境胁迫的分子生物学机制与胁迫相关基因调控网络奠定基础.

  15. Directed immobilization of reduced antibody fragments onto a novel SAM on gold for myoglobin impedance immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Md Morsaline; Hodges, Christopher S; Hays, Henry C W; Millner, P A

    2010-11-01

    The successful construction of an immunosensor depends on having an effective procedure for immobilising the bio-recognition element to the transducer surface. In the present study, an amino-terminated 4-aminothiophenol (ATP) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was modified with heterobifunctional crosslinker sulfosuccinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate to couple reduced anti-myoglobin half-antibody fragments. The disulphide groups present in the hinge region of IgG molecules were selectively cleaved by 2-mercaptoethylamine to produce reduced half-antibody fragments with free sulphydryl groups. The maleimide terminated 4-ATP SAM modified surface was coupled to these reduced antibody fragments to produce highly oriented immobilization of the half-antibody via its Fc domain and to allow free access to the Fv bindings sites. This represents an improvement by comparison with biotin/avidin mediated IgG attachment which is essentially randomly oriented. Functional immunosensors were able to detect myoglobin in both phosphate buffered saline and whole serum over the range of concentrations from 10(-13)M to 10(-6)M, and order of magnitude better than avidin/biotin linked immunosensors. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was carried out to elucidate the nanotopology of the immunosensor surface at different stages of fabrication; the images demonstrate that half antibodies bind as described and show structural changes on subsequent antigen binding.

  16. Post-translational modification of ribosomally synthesized peptides by a radical SAM epimerase in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Guillot, Alain; Ruffié, Pauline; Leprince, Jérôme; Berteau, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Ribosomally synthesized peptides are built out of L-amino acids, whereas D-amino acids are generally the hallmark of non-ribosomal synthetic processes. Here we show that the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to produce a novel type of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide that contains D-amino acids, and which we propose to call epipeptides. We demonstrate that a two [4Fe-4S]-cluster radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme converts L-amino acids into their D-counterparts by catalysing Cα-hydrogen-atom abstraction and using a critical cysteine residue as the hydrogen-atom donor. Unexpectedly, these D-amino acid residues proved to be essential for the activity of a peptide that induces the expression of LiaRS, a major component of the bacterial cell envelope stress-response system. Present in B. subtilis and in several members of the human microbiome, these epipeptides and radical SAM epimerases broaden the landscape of peptidyl structures accessible to living organisms.

  17. Superhydrophobic SAM Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Current Limiting Properties in Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Surge Protection Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabarullah, Noor H; Verrelli, Emanuele; Mauldin, Clayton; Navarro, Luis A; Golden, Josh H; Madianos, Leonidas M; Kemp, Neil T

    2015-06-09

    Surface interface engineering using superhydrophobic gold electrodes made with 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been used to enhance the current limiting properties of novel surge protection devices based on the intrinsic conducting polymer, polyaniline doped with methanesulfonic acid. The resulting devices show significantly enhanced current limiting characteristics, including current saturation, foldback, and negative differential effects. We show how SAM modification changes the morphology of the polymer film directly adjacent to the electrodes, leading to the formation of an interfacial compact thin film that lowers the contact resistance at the Au-polymer interface. We attribute the enhanced current limiting properties of the devices to a combination of lower contact resistance and increased Joule heating within this interface region which during a current surge produces a current blocking resistive barrier due to a thermally induced dedoping effect caused by the rapid diffusion of moisture away from this region. The effect is exacerbated at higher applied voltages as the higher temperature leads to stronger depletion of charge carriers in this region, resulting in a negative differential resistance effect.

  18. Absence of molecular slip on ultraclean and SAM-coated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Justin; Wood, Clay; Burton, Justin

    2016-11-01

    The liquid/solid boundary condition is a complex problem that is becoming increasingly important for the development of nanoscale fluidic devices. Many groups have now measured slip near an interface at nanoscale dimensions using a variety of experimental techniques. In simple systems, large slip lengths are generally measured for non-wetting liquid/solid combinations, but many conflicting measurements and interpretations remain. We have developed a novel pseudo-differential technique using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to measure slip lengths on various surfaces. A drop of one liquid is grown on the QCM in the presence of a second, ambient liquid. We have isolated any anomalous boundary effects such as interfacial slip by choosing two liquids which have identical bulk effects on the QCM frequency and dissipation in the presence of no-slip. Slip lengths are -less than 2 nm- for water (relative to undecane) on all surfaces measured, including plasma cleaned gold, SiO2, and two different self assembled monolayers (SAMs), regardless of contact angle. We also find that surface cleanliness is crucial to accurately measure slip lengths. Additionally, clean glass substrates appear to have a significant adsorbed water layer and SAM surfaces show excess dissipation, possibly associated with contact line motion. In addition to investigating other liquid pairs, future work will include extending this technique to surfaces with independently controllable chemistry and roughness, both of which are known to strongly affect interfacial hydrodynamics.

  19. SAM - Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP para Especificar Casos de Prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyer Domínguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro elementos que son relevantes al momento de definir las pruebas: Confiabilidad, Costo, Tiempo y Calidad. El tiempo de desarrollo y el costo del producto se incrementan cuando se desean pruebas confiables y un software de calidad. Pero ¿qué se puede hacer para que los involucrados comprendan que las pruebas deben ser vistas como una red de seguridad? Si la calidad no se contempla antes de comenzar las pruebas, entonces ella no estará cuando se éstas terminen. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la herramienta, SAM – Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP que permite especificar Casos de Prueba a partir de Casos de Uso incorporando elementos que promueven la verificación y validación de la trazabilidad entre la Gestión de Requerimientos, el Análisis y Diseño y las Pruebas. SAM soporta el proceso de pruebas de forma automatizada, mejorando la confiabilidad de las mismas

  20. Wet Chemistry on SAM: How it Helps to Detect Organics on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Danny; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Eigenbrode, Jen; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jen; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Dworkin, Jason; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars with wet chemistry. This analytical technique modifies organic components in such a way that improves their detection, either by releasing the compounds from sample matrices, or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter effect is particularly important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, onboards two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization [1-2] and thermochemolysis [3-4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment in SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in the first SAM analyzes, and the implications of this detection. Chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (Dimethylformamide) silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GCMS. The first samples of Martian soil (Rocknest, Gale crater) have been analyzed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) and via GC using thermal conductivity (TCD) and MS detection. The samples have been heated up to approximately 840°C with a heating rate of 35°C/min under He flow. The evolved gas was analyzed directly by the QMS in EGA mode. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax TA, Carbosieve G) over a specific temperature range. Trapped volatiles were then released by heating the trap to ~300 °C and sent to the GC under He flow. The first results obtained when running an analysis with an empty cup (no solid sample) showed the presence of MTBSTFA in the system. MTBSTFA was first detected in the EGA-QMS analysis blank then by GC-TCD-QMS analysis. This means that MTBSTFA is part

  1. Surface engineering and adhesion modification of SAM surfaces of 1-hexanethiol and 1-decanethiol: confining Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Morgan; Amroski, Alicia; Calabrese, Joseph; Senevirathne, Reshani; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2012-02-01

    Engineering surfaces for adhesion and confinement of bacteria is interesting towards development of respective biosensors, and bio machine interfacing. Investigation was focused towards modification of surfaces towards confinement and entrapment of the nonpathogenic strain Staphylococcus aureus or similar pathogenic strains and to study surface engineering. Clean, flat Au(111) on mica surfaces were used for self assembly for Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM). 1-hexanethiol, and 1-decanethiol were used at total 5 mM solutions in varying ratios, in 200 proof Ethanol solution. Resulting SAM layers were investigated for surface corrugation, morphology and structure variation at different thiol ratios. Observations will be discussed, quantitatively and qualitatively. Eventual mixture ratios were so selected towards optimum conditions for confining Staphylococcus aureus as a model system. SAM surfaces were investigated using intermittent contact, noncontact, lateral force and contact modes of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).

  2. Preparation and characterization of BiFeO3 thin films by the LPD on OH-functionalized organic SAMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were grown on OH-functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100°C. The BiFeO3 thin films were induced to synthesize on the OH-functionalized organic OTS monolayers prepared on hydroxylated glass substrate by self-assembling technique. The hydrophilic characteristic of the as-prepared OTS-SAMs was measured by contact angle tester. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-synthesized BFO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results show that compact and homogeneous BFO thin films can be formed on the OH-functionalized SAMs at low temperature.

  3. Sam68 regulates cell proliferation and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) via the AKT pathway in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaxun; Xu, Xiaohong; Miao, Xiaobing; Zhu, Xinghua; Yin, Haibing; He, Yunhua; Li, Chunsun; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuchan; He, Song

    2015-12-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis 68 kDa), a substrate for tyrosine kinase c-Src during mitosis, is up-regulated in a variety of human cancers and acts oncogenically promoting tumour progression. This study has explored biological function and clinical significance of Sam68 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). To examine Sam68 expression in NHL, clinically, eight diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and four reactive lymphoid hyperplasia fresh-frozen tissues were obtained for western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Using immunohistochemical staining, paraffin wax embedded sections from 164 cases of NHL patients were used to evaluate prognostic value of Sam68. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and soft agar colony assays were conducted to investigate the role of Sam68 in cell viability and cell proliferation respectively. Furthermore, effects of Sam68 on cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) was determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analysis. Expression status of Sam68 inversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHL, and it was also an independent prognostic factor for the outcomes. In addition, Sam68 was associated with proliferation of NHL cells. Knock-down of its gene inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation by delaying cell cycle progression. Furthermore, OCI-Ly8 and Jeko-1 cells adhering to FN and HS-5 expressed higher Sam68 protein, compared to their suspension counterparts. Sam68 promoted cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) via the AKT pathway. Increased Sam68 expression in NHL resulted in poor prognosis, and it promoted CAM-DR in NHL via AKT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hierarchical Storage Management at the NASA Center for Computational Sciences: From UniTree to SAM-QFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Ellen; Tarshish, Adina; Palm, Nancy; Patel, Sanjay; Saletta, Marty; Vanderlan, Ed; Rouch, Mike; Burns, Lisa; Duffy, Daniel; Caine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the data management issues associated with a large center like the NCCS and how these issues are addressed. More specifically, the focus of this paper is on the recent transition from a legacy UniTree (Legato) system to a SAM-QFS (Sun) system. Therefore, this paper will describe the motivations, from both a hardware and software perspective, for migrating from one system to another. Coupled with the migration from UniTree into SAM-QFS, the complete mass storage environment was upgraded to provide high availability, redundancy, and enhanced performance. This paper will describe the resulting solution and lessons learned throughout the migration process.

  5. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  6. Fabrication and tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer of n-alkyltrimethoxysilane on silicon: Effect of SAM alkyl chain length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lixia; Du, Pengcheng; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Kaifeng; Liu, Peng

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that the self-assembled organic molecules on a solid surface exhibit the friction-reducing performance. However, the effect of the molecular size of the self-assembled organic molecules has not been established. In the present work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different alkyl chain lengths (C6, C12, or C18) were fabricated on silicon substrate. The water contact angles of the SAMs increased from 26.8° of the hydroxylated silicon substrate to near 60° after self-assembly. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis results showed that the mean roughness (Ra) of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain length. The tribological properties of the SAMs sliding against Al2O3 ball were evaluated on an UMT-2 tribometer, and the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by means of Nano Scratch Tester and surface profilometry. It was found that lowest friction coefficient and smallest width of wear were achieved with the SAMs of C12 alkyl chain (C12-SAM). The superior friction reduction and wear resistance of the SAMs in comparison with the bare silicon substrate are attributed to good adhesion of the self-assembled films to the substrate, especially the C12-SAM with desirable alkyl chain length.

  7. Jeffries Matusita-Spectral Angle Mapper (JM-SAM) spectral matching for species level mapping at Bhitarkanika, Muthupet and Pichavaram mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, S.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral matching algorithm by integrating the stochastic Jeffries-Matusita measure (JM) and the deterministic Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), to accurately map the species and the associated landcover types of the mangroves of east coast of India using hyperspectral satellite images. The JM-SAM algorithm signifies the combination of a qualitative distance measure (JM) and a quantitative angle measure (SAM). The spectral capabilities of both the measures are orthogonally projected using the tangent and sine functions to result in the combined algorithm. The developed JM-SAM algorithm is implemented to discriminate the mangrove species and the landcover classes of Pichavaram (Tamil Nadu), Muthupet (Tamil Nadu) and Bhitarkanika (Odisha) mangrove forests along the Eastern Indian coast using the Hyperion image dat asets that contain 242 bands. The developed algorithm is extended in a supervised framework for accurate classification of the Hyperion image. The pixel-level matching performance of the developed algorithm is assessed by the Relative Spectral Discriminatory Probability (RSDPB) and Relative Spectral Discriminatory Entropy (RSDE) measures. From the values of RSDPB and RSDE, it is inferred that hybrid JM-SAM matching measure results in improved discriminability of the mangrove species and the associated landcover types than the individual SAM and JM algorithms. This performance is reflected in the classification accuracies of species and landcover map of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem. Thus, the JM-SAM (TAN) matching algorithm yielded an accuracy better than SAM and JM measures at an average difference of 13.49 %, 7.21 % respectively, followed by JM-SAM (SIN) at 12.06%, 5.78% respectively. Similarly, in the case of Muthupet, JM-SAM (TAN) yielded an increased accuracy than SAM and JM measures at an average difference of 12.5 %, 9.72 % respectively, followed by JM-SAM (SIN) at 8.34 %, 5.55% respectively. For Bhitarkanika, the combined

  8. SAMOS: a versatile multi-object-spectrograph for the GLAO system SAM at SOAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberto, Massimo; Donahue, Megan; Ninkov, Zoran; Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Gennaro, Mario; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    The 4.1-m SOAR telescope can play a unique role for LSST follow-up studies through an efficient use of its laser-guided Adaptive Optics Module (SAM) that routinely delivers images with FWHM extreme precision. SAMOS can capture R 2,000 - 2, 500 spectra with a nominal 0:33" slit width in the 3,500-9,500 Å spectral range reaching in 3600 s median SNR=5 at AB=22.9 with the red grating and 23.5 with the blue grating, comparable to 8-m class telescopes working in seeing limited conditions. In this contribution we present the SAMOS opto-mechanical design, concept of operation and provide a few examples of compelling science programs that can uniquely benefit from SAMOS sensitivity, angular resolution, versatility and simplicity of use.

  9. Soil Moisture Monitoring Using GNSS-R Signals; First Experimental Results with the SAM Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, A.; Martin-Puig, C.; Felip, D.; Garcia, M.; Caparrini, M.; Farres, E.; Ruffini, G.

    2009-04-01

    is the most sensitive band to soil volumetric water content, i.e. soil moisture. Secondly, variations on thermal background do not contaminate GNSS-R signals as they do for other remote sensing techniques, such as radiometry. Finally, GNSS scatterometry from space has a potential higher spatial resolution than microwave radiometry, due to the highly stable carrier and code modulations of the incident signals which enables the use of Delay Doppler Mapping. However, in order to be able to obtain accurate SM estimates there are several effects that need to be taken into consideration. Some of those are mainly due to diffuse scattering effects over the soil surface, for instance effects due to surface roughness, vegetation canopy, and noise. This paper reviews the theoretical approach for SM retrieval using GNSS-R, and focuses on the description of the development of an innovative GNSS-R system for soil moisture retrieval (named SAM). The validation campaigns performed with the SAM sensor, together with the results obtained are presented in the paper, which is finalized with the conclusions achieved and the ideas for future work on GNSS-R based sensors. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the European Space Agency for partially funding the SAM system development in the framework of the GSTP program, and Tragsatec for their collaboration in the acquisition of ground truth data and satellite imagery processing used for the SAM instrument validation. REFERENCES [1] A. Kavak, G. Xu, W.J. Vogel, GPS Multipath Fade Meassurements to Determine L-Band Ground Reflectivity Properties, University of Texas, Austin, 1998. [2] D. Masters, V. Zavorotny, S. Katzberg, W. Emery GPS Signal Scattering from Land for Moisture Content Determination IGARSS Proceedings, July 24-28, 2000.

  10. Charge dependent asphaltene adsorption onto metal substrate : electrochemistry and AFM, STM, SAM, SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batina, N.; Morales-Martinez, J. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico). Lab. de Nanotecnologia e Ingenieria Molecular; Ivar-Andersen, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark). Dept. Hem. Eng; Lira-Galeana, C. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro (Mexico). Molecular Simulation Research Program; De la Cruz-Hernandez, W.; Cota-Araiza, L.; Avalos-Borja, M. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Asphaltenes have been identified as the main component of pipeline molecular deposits that cause plugging of oil wells. In this study, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectroscopy (SAM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterized molecular deposits of Mexican crude oil and asphaltenes formed at a charged metal surface. The qualitative and quantitative characterization involved determining the size and shape of adsorbed molecules and aggregates, and the elemental analysis of all components in molecular films. Samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions directly from the crude oil or asphaltene in toluene solutions. The study showed that the formation of asphaltene deposit depends on the metal substrate charge. Asphaltenes as well as crude oil readily adsorbed at the negatively charged metal surface. Two elements were present, notably carbon and sulfur. Their content ratio varied depending on the metal substrate charge.

  11. Re-engineering SAM or Changing the Engine in the Train While it is Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, R.; Mengel, M.; Norman, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years at Fermilab we re-architect-ed our SAM1[1] family of data catalog and file transfer tools - including major changes - while continuing to transfer over 1 Pb/month of data to multiple existing experiments and bring new experiments on board. This work was done with less than 3 FTE-years of effort, and the changes made include major ones, such as changing interprocess communication protocols, migrating database back-ends, removing and replacing major components, and supporting new file delivery methods. This paper will summarize the approaches we have used to do this, including using design patterns like the Facade, Adapter, and Command patterns, and assisting experiments one at a time with client migration. This process has allowed us to modernize our infrastructure with reasonable costs in both calendar time and developer effort, while continuing to provide the operating service to our customers with minimal interruptions.

  12. Folding of SAM-II riboswitch explored by replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xu; Yongjun, Wang; Zhihong, Li

    2015-01-21

    Riboswitches are cis-acting RNA fragments that function via a conformational transition mechanism when a specific target molecule binds to its binding pocket, representing an inviting new class of biomolecular target for the development of antibiotics. To understand the folding mechanism of SAM-II riboswitch, occurring predominantly in proteobacteria, a 100ns replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation in explicit solvent is performed. Our results show that this RNA pseudoknot has multiple folding pathways, and various intermediate structures. The resultant riboswitch conformational transition map is well consistent with the recent fluorescence measurement, which confirms the dynamical properties of this pseudoknot. Moreover, a novel transition pathway is predicted. The global folding dynamics is mainly coupled with the helix rather than the loop region. The potential folding pathways of the riboswitch presented here should lead to a deeper understanding of the folding mechanism of the riboswitch, as well as the conformational change of RNA pseudoknot.

  13. Comparative protective abilities of organothiols SAM coatings applied to copper dissolution in aqueous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinapi, F. [Fonds pour la Formation a la Recherche dans l' Industrie et dans l' Agriculture, Rue d' Egmont 5, B-1000 Bruxelles (Belgium); Lejeune, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie et d' Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Delhalle, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie et d' Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mekhalif, Z. [Laboratoire de Chimie et d' Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)]. E-mail: zineb.mekhalif@fundp.ac.be

    2007-04-30

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by adsorption of n-organothiols molecules have been formed onto polycrystalline copper surfaces in order to build up barrier films protecting copper from oxidation. In this context, formation of n-dodecanethiol (DT), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and 11-perfluorobutylundecanethiol (F{sub 4}H{sub 11}) monolayers has been elaborated on copper and evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy while polarization and cyclic voltammetry curves were used to compare the inhibition efficiency of the three organic coatings. Furthermore, atomic absorption spectrometry measurements were carried out in domestic water and in NaCl 0.5 M solutions in order to evaluate and quantify the dissolution of copper electrodes before and after protection. Results showed evidences that, among the three organic compounds assessed, F{sub 4}H{sub 11} is the most suitable candidate to slow down the copper oxidation process.

  14. The Investigation of Identity Construction: A Foucauldian Reading of Sam Shepard's Buried Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidabadi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shepard is peculiarly powerful in his symbolic family problem plays: True West, Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class. He allegorizes the American experience and undermines the myth of America as the New Eden. The present study seeks to critically explore Sam Shepard's Buried Child in terms of Foucauldian conception of identity construction. Shepard is depicting a dystopian world with its bewildered characters; however he has still got a romantic view of individuals trying to grapple with the society in order to get unity and order. This Shephardian attitude towards human beings is seemingly a free agent that overlaps the Foucauldian view which establishes a philosophy focusing on the relationship between the self and the society. The present essay attempts to demonstrate the complicated relationship between the self and the opposing forces.

  15. Detection and Quantification of Nitrogen Compounds in the First Drilled Martian Solid Samples by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Christopher P.; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Buch, Arnaud; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Franz, Heather B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The Sampl;e Analysis at Mars (sam) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials from the three sites at Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include No, HCN, ClCN, and TFMA ((trifluoro-N-methyl-acetamide), Confirmation of indigenous Martian nitrogen-bearing compounds requires quantifying N contribution from the terrestrial derivatization reagents carried for SAM's wet chemistry experiment that contribute to the SAM background. Nitrogen species detected in the SAM solid sample analyses can also be produced during laboratory pyrolysis experiments where these reagents are heated in the presence of perchlorate a compound that has also been identified by SAM in Mars solid samples.

  16. Detection and Quantification of Nitrogen Compounds in the First Drilled Martian Solid Samples by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Freissinet, C.; McKay, C. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A. E.; Coll, P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D.; Steele, A.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Wray, J. J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials at Yellowknife Bay in Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include NO, HCN, ClCN, CH3CN, and TFMA (trifluoro-N-methyl-acetamide). Confirmation of indigenous Martian N-bearing compounds requires quantifying N contribution from the terrestrial derivatization reagents (e.g. N-methyl-N-tertbutyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, MTBSTFA and dimethylformamide, DMF) carried for SAM's wet chemistry experiment that contribute to the SAM background. Nitrogen species detected in the SAM solid sample analyses can also be produced during laboratory pyrolysis experiments where these reagents are heated in the presence of perchlorate, a compound that has also been identified by SAM in Mars solid samples.

  17. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul; Conrad, Pamela; Martin-Torres, Francisco; Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Grotzinger, John

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of perchlorates. Even if the source of the organic carbon detected is still unknown, the chlorine source was likely Martian. Two mechanisms have been hypothesized for the formation of soil perchlorate: (1) Atmospheric oxidation of chlorine; and (2) UV photooxidation of chlorides catalyzed by mineral catalysts [7]. The presence of soil perchlorates in the Martian surface has important implications for the detection of organics [2], carbonates [8] and nitrates [9] by SAM.

  18. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  19. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodek, Anna; Regan, Edward M; Bhalla, Nikhil; Hopkins, Neal A E; Goodchild, Sarah A; Estrela, Pedro

    2015-09-29

    An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH). HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct) upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  20. Vejsalg, gårdbutikker og fritidsfiskere - den informelle økonomi på Samsø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2007-01-01

    Bidraget behandler den uformelle økonomi på Samsø, med udgangspunkt i den første kortlægning nogensinde af den del af den uformelle økonomi som er forbundet med salg af produkter som er relaterede til naturgrundlaget. De mange vejboder er et iøjnefaldende element i landskabet, og nogle af dem har...

  1. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  2. Reactions Involving Calcium and Magnesium Sulfates as Potential Sources of Sulfur Dioxide During MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Knudson, C. A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) have analyzed several subsamples of 860 C). Sulfides or Fe sulfates were detected by CheMin (e.g., CB, MJ, BK) and could contribute to the high temperature SO2 evolution, but in most cases they are not present in enough abundance to account for all of the SO2. This additional SO2 could be largely associated with x-ray amorphous material, which comprises a significant portion of all samples. It can also be attributed to trace S phases present below the CheMin detection limit, or to reactions which lower the temperatures of SO2 evolution from sulfates that are typically expected to thermally decompose at temperatures outside the SAM temperature range (e.g., Ca and Mg sulfates). Here we discuss the results of SAM-like laboratory analyses targeted at understanding this last possibility, focused on understanding if reactions of HCl or an HCl evolving phase (oxychlorine phases, chlorides, etc.) and Ca and Mg sulfates can result in SO2 evolution in the SAM temperature range.

  3. A phase I study of a new polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, SAM486A, in cancer patients with solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridaens, R; Uges, DRA; Barbet, N; Choi, L; Seeghers, M; van der Graaf, WTA; Groen, HJM; Dumez, H; Van Buuren, [No Value; Muskiet, F; Capdeville, R; van Oosterom, AT; de Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    Because tumour cell proliferation is highly dependent upon up-regulation of de-novo polyamine synthesis, inhibition of the polyamine synthesis pathway represents a potential target for anticancer therapy. SAM486A (CGP 48664) is a new inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionin

  4. A Thermodynamics Model for the Emergence of a Stripe-like Binary SAM on a Nanoparticle Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xinwei; Ke, Pu Chun; Davis, Thomas P; Ding, Feng

    2015-10-01

    It has been under debate if a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with two immiscible ligands of different chain lengths and/or bulkiness can form a stripe-like pattern on a nanoparticle (NP) surface. The entropic gain upon such pattern formation due to difference in chain lengths and/or bulkiness has been proposed as the driving force in literature. Using atomistic discrete molecular dynamics simulations it is shown that stripe-like pattern could indeed emerge, but only for a subset of binary SAM systems. In addition to entropic contributions, the formation of a striped pattern also strongly depends upon interligand interactions governed by the physicochemical properties of the ligand constituents. Due to the interplay between entropy and enthalpy, a binary SAM system can be categorized into three different types depending on whether and under what condition a striped pattern can emerge. The results help clarify the ongoing debate and our proposed principle can aid in the engineering of novel binary SAMs on a NP surface.

  5. Response of sea surface fugacity of CO2 to the SAM shift south of Tasmania: Regional differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Gao, Libao; Cai, Wei-Jun; Yu, Weidong; Wei, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Using observational data collected south of Tasmania during 14 austral summer cruises during 1993-2011, we examined the response of sea surface fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) shift, which occurred around 2000. In the southern part of the Southern Ocean (SO) or the Polar Zone (PZ) and the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ), fCO2 increased faster at the sea surface than in the atmosphere before the SAM shift, but not after the shift. In the northern part of the SO or the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), however, surface fCO2 increased faster than atmospheric fCO2 both before and after the shift. The SAM shift had an important influence on the surface fCO2 trend in the PZ and PFZ but not in the SAZ, which we attribute to differences in regional oceanographic processes (upwelling versus nonupwelling). The SAM shift may have reversed the negative trend of SO CO2 uptake.

  6. "Ja sam sebe sudja : nikto ne volen..." : [luuletused] / Valmar Adams ; tlk.. ja lühibiograafia: Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Valmar, 1899-1993

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: "Ja sam sebe sudja: nikto ne volen..." ; So-vremennõm i so-prostranstvennõm poetam... ; Ja bõl rodnik ; Inferno ; Iz svitka Agasfera ; "Po tu storonu skorbi..." ; Dialog so smertju. Orig.: "Ma olen ise mõtestaja: keegi..." ; Kaasaegseile ja kaasruumseile poeetele ; Ma olin allikas ; Inferno ; Ahasveeruse rullist V ; "Sealpool suurt leina..." ; Dialoog surmaga

  7. Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Yellowknife Bay Sediments: Measurements by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Steele, A.; Ming, D. W.; McAdam, A. C.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Archer, P. D.; Brunner, A. E.; Grotzinger,J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Miller, K.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Webster, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater in Au-gust 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instru-ment suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) “Curiosity” rover has analyzed solid samples from the martian regolith in three locations, beginning with a scoop of aeolian deposits from the Rocknest (RN) sand shadow. Curiosity subsequently traveled to Yellowknife Bay, where SAM analyzed samples from two separate holes drilled into the Sheepbed Mudstone, designated John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). Evolved gas analysis (EGA) of all samples revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phas-es, in most cases at abundances below the detection limit of the CheMin instrument. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can help provide clues to the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of tem-peratures at which gases are evolved from solid sam-ples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gas-es may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from the JK and CB mudstone samples as measured with SAM’s quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and draw com-parisons to RN.

  8. Detection and Quantification of Nitrogen Compounds in Martian Solid Samples by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Christopher P.; Archer, Paul Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Ming, Douglas W/; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Mahaffay, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials from three sites at Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include NO, HCN, ClCN, CH3CN, and TFMA (trifluoro-Nmethyl-acetamide). On Earth, nitrogen is a crucial bio-element, and nitrogen availability controls productivity in many environments. Nitrogen has also recently been detected in the form of CN in inclusions in the Martian meteorite Tissint, and isotopically heavy nitrogen (delta N-15 approx +100per mille) has been measured during stepped combustion experiments in several SNC meteorites. The detection of nitrogen-bearing compounds in Martian regolith would have important implications for the habitability of ancient Mars. However, confirmation of indigenous Martian nitrogen bearing compounds will require ruling out their formation from the terrestrial derivatization reagents (e.g. N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide, MTBSTFA and dimethylformamide, DMF) carried for SAM's wet chemistry experiment that contribute to the SAM background. The nitrogen species we detect in the SAM solid sample analyses can also be produced during laboratory pyrolysis experiments where these reagents are heated in the presence of perchlorate, a compound that has also been identified by SAM in Mars solid samples. However, this does not preclude a Martian origin for some of these compounds, which are present in nanomolar concentrations in SAM evolved gas analyses. Analysis of SAM data and laboratory breadboard tests are underway to determine whether nitrogen species are present at higher concentrations than can be accounted for by maximum estimates of nitrogen contribution from MTBSTFA and DMF. In addition, methods are currently being developed to use GC Column 6, (functionally similar to a commercial Q-Bond column), to separate and identify

  9. Gas-Chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity - the 359 first sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Cyril; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Mahaffy, Paul; Buch, Arnaud; Goutail, Jean Pierre; Cabane, Michel; Glavin, Daniel; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Meftah, Mustapha; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Brunner, Anna; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Millan, Maeva; Pascalin

    Amongst the SAM suite of instruments, SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of windblown dust and sand collected at the Rocknest site, while the second site analyzed was a basin called “Yellowknife Bay” where two holes were drilled (John Klein & Cumberland) and analysis showed these sites to be a fluvio-lacustrine sediment.. For their analysis, these samples were subjected to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 850°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of a thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10mol). His channel is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species, as this last instrument does not have linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument first show that the performances of SAM-GC is representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, and also that results are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions (middle of the 70’s). Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, both by allowing the

  10. Fyn requires HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 to synergistically regulate apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yu; Cai, Lei; Zhu, Jin; Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Xiang-De; Wang, Shu-Guang; Bie, Ping; Jiang, Peng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Li, Xiao-Wu

    2011-10-01

    The Src family kinase Fyn, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HnRNP) A2B1 and Sam68 are thought to be associated with the metastasis of tumors, but their roles in the regulation of apoptosis remain unclear. This study investigated the role of Fyn and its potential relationship with HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Experimental design. We examined both the activity of Fyn and the expression of HnRNPA2B1 in human pancreatic cancer tissues and systematically investigated the apoptotic mechanisms induced by Fyn activity using multiple experimental approaches. We found that Fyn activity was increased in metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues. In the pancreatic cancer BxPc3 cell line, the inhibition of Fyn activity by kinase-dead Fyn downregulated HnRNPA2B1 expression. Further analysis showed that HnRNPA2B1 expression was associated with pancreatic cancer progression. In BxPc3 cells, HnRNPA2B1 bound to Bcl-x messenger RNA (mRNA), which affected splicing and therefore, the formation of Bcl-x(s). Downregulation of HnRNPA2B1 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in the increased formation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(s) and promoted apoptosis of BxPc3 cells. In addition, deactivation of Fyn in BxPc3 cells reduced Sam68 phosphorylation. This resulted in increased binding between Sam68 and Bcl-x mRNA, promoting the formation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L). The knockdown of Sam68 by RNAi also increased the formation of Bcl-x(L). Finally, HnRNPA2B1 overexpression or Sam68 knockdown could rescue pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis. Our results suggest a mechanism by which Fyn requires HnRNPA2B1 and Sam68 to coordinate and regulate apoptosis, thus promoting the proliferation and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  11. A Highly Coupled Network of Tertiary Interactions in the SAM-I Riboswitch and Their Role in Regulatory Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostenberg, Christopher; Ceres, Pablo; Polaski, Jacob T; Batey, Robert T

    2015-11-06

    RNA folding in vivo is significantly influenced by transcription, which is not necessarily recapitulated by Mg(2+)-induced folding of the corresponding full-length RNA in vitro. Riboswitches that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level are an ideal system for investigating this aspect of RNA folding as ligand-dependent termination is obligatorily co-transcriptional, providing a clear readout of the folding outcome. The folding of representative members of the SAM-I family of riboswitches has been extensively analyzed using approaches focusing almost exclusively upon Mg(2+) and/or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced folding of full-length transcripts of the ligand binding domain. To relate these findings to co-transcriptional regulatory activity, we have investigated a set of structure-guided mutations of conserved tertiary architectural elements of the ligand binding domain using an in vitro single-turnover transcriptional termination assay, complemented with phylogenetic analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry data. This analysis revealed a conserved internal loop adjacent to the SAM binding site that significantly affects ligand binding and regulatory activity. Conversely, most single point mutations throughout key conserved features in peripheral tertiary architecture supporting the SAM binding pocket have relatively little impact on riboswitch activity. Instead, a secondary structural element in the peripheral subdomain appears to be the key determinant in observed differences in regulatory properties across the SAM-I family. These data reveal a highly coupled network of tertiary interactions that promote high-fidelity co-transcriptional folding of the riboswitch but are only indirectly linked to regulatory tuning.

  12. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an allosteric activator of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and bioenergetics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Szczesny, Bartosz; Chao, Celia; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-09-15

    Recent data show that colon cancer cells selectively overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to maintain cellular bioenergetics, support tumor growth and stimulate angiogenesis and vasorelaxation in the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the allosteric CBS activator S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) on the proliferation and bioenergetics of the CBS-expressing colon cancer cell line HCT116. The non-transformed, non-tumorigenic colon epithelial cell line NCM356 was used as control. For assessment of cell proliferation, the xCELLigence system was used. Bioenergetic function was measured by Extracellular Flux Analysis. Experiments using human recombinant CBS or HCT116 homogenates complemented the cell-based studies. SAM markedly enhanced CBS-mediated H2S production in vitro, especially when a combination of cysteine and homocysteine was used as substrates. Addition of SAM (0.1-3 mM) to HCT116 cells induced a concentration-dependent increase H2S production. SAM exerted time- and concentration-dependent modulatory effects on cell proliferation. At 0.1-1 mM SAM increased HCT116 proliferation between 0 and 12 h, while the highest SAM concentration (3 mM) inhibited proliferation. Over a longer time period (12-24 h), only the lowest concentration of SAM used (0.1 mM) stimulated cell proliferation; higher SAM concentrations produced a concentration-dependent inhibition. The short-term stimulatory effects of SAM were attenuated by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or by stable silencing of CBS. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of SAM on cell proliferation was unaffected by CBS inhibition or CBS silencing. In contrast to HCT116 cells, the lower rate of proliferation of the low-CBS expressor NCM356 cells was unaffected by SAM. Short-term (1 h) exposure of HCT116 cells to SAM induced a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen consumption and bioenergetic function at 0

  13. In vivo CH3(CH2)11SAu SAM electrodes in the beating heart: in situ analytical studies relevant to pacemakers and interstitial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Howard A; Zavitz, Daniel H; Ovadia, Marc

    2003-01-01

    To study in vivo modification of the SAM equivalent circuit when a highly ordered SAM is used as a bioelectrode, dodecanethiolate SAM-Au intramuscular electrodes were studied in living rat heart in a challenging in situ perfused rat model by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The SAM layer experienced disintegration in vivo biological system, as NAA detected the presence of Au atoms that had leached into the surrounding living tissue. Therefore, the underlying Au surface became exposed during biological implant. Study by impedance spectroscopy, however, revealed perfect capacitive behavior for the SAM, similar to in vitro behavior. Electrodes showed a pure capacitive Nyquist plot with 86.1-89.4 degrees near-vertical line segments as the equivalent circuit locus, as for a parallel plate capacitor. Impedance magnitude varied linearly with 1/omega excluding diffusionally limited ionic charge transport. There was no diffusional conductive element Z(W infinity ) or spatially confined Warburg impedance Z(D). The effect of in vivo exposure of a highly ordered SAM is a 'sealing over' effect of new defects by the binding of proteinaceous or lipid species in the biological milieu, a fact of significance for SAM electrodes used either as pacemaker electrodes or as a platform for in vivo biosensors.

  14. Vibrational Stark Effect of the Electric-Field Reporter 4-Mercaptobenzonitrile as a Tool for Investigating Electrostatics at Electrode/SAM/Solution Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hildebrandt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-mercaptobenzonitrile (MBN in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on Au and Ag electrodes was studied by surface enhanced infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, to correlate the nitrile stretching frequency with the local electric field exploiting the vibrational Stark effect (VSE. Using MBN SAMs in different metal/SAM interfaces, we sorted out the main factors controlling the nitrile stretching frequency, which comprise, in addition to external electric fields, the metal-MBN bond, the surface potential, and hydrogen bond interactions. On the basis of the linear relationships between the nitrile stretching and the electrode potential, an electrostatic description of the interfacial potential distribution is presented that allows for determining the electric field strengths on the SAM surface, as well as the effective potential of zero-charge of the SAM-coated metal. Comparing this latter quantity with calculated values derived from literature data, we note a very good agreement for Au/MBN but distinct deviations for Ag/MBN which may reflect either the approximations and simplifications of the model or the uncertainty in reported structural parameters for Ag/MBN. The present electrostatic model consistently explains the electric field strengths for MBN SAMs on Ag and Au as well as for thiophenol and mercaptohexanoic acid SAMs with MBN incorporated as a VSE reporter.

  15. Assessing the suitability of written stroke materials: an evaluation of the interrater reliability of the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Ladner, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Written materials are frequently used to provide education to stroke patients and their carers. However, poor quality materials are a barrier to effective information provision. A quick and reliable method of evaluating material quality is needed. This study evaluated the interrater reliability of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) checklist in a sample of written stroke education materials. Two independent raters evaluated the materials (n = 25) using the SAM, and ratings were analyzed to reveal total percentage agreements and weighted kappa values for individual items and overall SAM rating. The majority of the individual SAM items had high interrater reliability, with 17 of the 22 items achieving substantial, almost perfect, or perfect weighted kappa value scores. The overall SAM rating achieved a weighted kappa value of 0.60, with a percentage total agreement of 96%. Health care professionals should evaluate the content and design characteristics of written education materials before using them with patients. A tool such as the SAM checklist can be used; however, raters should exercise caution when interpreting results from items with more subjective scoring criteria. Refinements to the scoring criteria for these items are recommended. The value of the SAM is that it can be used to identify specific elements that should be modified before education materials are provided to patients.

  16. The Search for Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer C.; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Chirstopher P.; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Coll, Partice J.; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Wong, Mike; Atreya, Sushiil K.; Wray, James J.; Steele, Andrew; Prats, Benito D.; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Buch, Arnaud; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ming, Douglas W.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as N2 but it was lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space, impact erosion, and chemical oxidation to nitrates. A nitrogen cycle may exist on Mars where nitrates, produced early in Mars' history, may have been later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux. Nitrates are a fundamental source of nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms, and they have evolved metabolic pathways to perform both oxidation and reduction to drive a complete biological nitrogen cycle. Therefore, the characterization of nitrogen in Martian soils is important to assess habitability of the Martian environment, particularly with respect to the presence of nitrates. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but N-containing species were not detected by TEGA or the MECA WCL. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in Nakhla meteorites, and if nitrogen was oxidized on Mars, this has important implications for the habitability potential of Mars. Here we report the results from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Curiosity rover during the first year of surface operations in Gale Crater. Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit and sedimentary rocks (John Klein) were heated to approx 835degC under helium flow and the evolved gases were analyzed by MS and GC-MS. Two and possibly three peaks may be associated with the release of m/z 30 at temperatures ranging from 180degC to 500degC. M/z 30 has been tentatively identified as NO; other plausible contributions include CH2O and an isotopologue of CO, 12C18O. NO, CH2O, and CO may be reaction products of reagents (MTBSTFA/DMF) carried from Earth for the wet chemical derivatization experiments with SAM and/or derived from indigenous soil nitrogenated organics. Laboratory analyses indicate that it is also possible that <550degC evolved NO is produced via reaction of HCl with

  17. Cloning and characterization of mr-s, a novel SAM domain protein, predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Chieko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterile alpha motif (SAM domains are ~70 residues long and have been reported as common protein-protein interaction modules. This domain is found in a large number of proteins, including Polycomb group (PcG proteins and ETS family transcription factors. In this work, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a novel SAM domain-containing protein, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland and is designated mouse mr-s (major retinal SAM domain protein. Results mr-s is evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish through human, organisms through which the mechanism of photoreceptor development is also highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the SAM domain of mr-s is most closely related to a mouse polyhomeotic (ph ortholog, Mph1/Rae28, which is known as an epigenetic molecule involved in chromatin modifications. These findings provide the possibility that mr-s may play a critical role by regulating gene expression in photoreceptor development. mr-s is preferentially expressed in the photoreceptors at postnatal day 3–6 (P3-6, when photoreceptors undergo terminal differentiation, and in the adult pineal gland. Transcription of mr-s is directly regulated by the cone-rod homeodomain protein Crx. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that the mr-s protein self-associates mainly through the SAM domain-containing region as well as ph. The mr-s protein localizes mainly in the nucleus, when mr-s is overexpressed in HEK293T cells. Moreover, in the luciferase assays, we found that mr-s protein fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain functions as a transcriptional repressor. We revealed that the repression activity of mr-s is not due to a homophilic interaction through its SAM domain but to the C-terminal region. Conclusion We identified a novel gene, mr-s, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and pineal gland. Based on its expression pattern and biochemical analysis

  18. Implementation of Simple Network Management Protocol on AT91 SAM9260 IPC Platform%基于AT91SAM9260工控机平台的SNMP协议实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金涛; 吴宣康

    2014-01-01

    介绍了SNMP协议的模型和MIB库,使用net-snmp-5.4.4开发包在fedora 8系统下搭建出SNMP协议开发环境,开发出能在AT91SAM9260工控机平台上运行的SNMP协议代理程序,并对代理程序的MIB库进行扩展.

  19. Startup Process Analysis of Embedded System based on AT91SAM9263%基于AT91SAM9263的嵌入式系统启动过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文俊; 裴焕斗

    2011-01-01

    以Atmel公司的AT91SAM9263为例分析研究了它的bootloader启动过程.对从系统上电后的第一条指令到加载Linux kernel的过程进行了分析,主要阐述了bootstrap和uboot的启动过程.掌握嵌入式开发的启动过程,对后续的开发至关重要.

  20. New insight into the electrochemical desorption of alkanethiol SAMs on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensa, Evangelina; Vericat, Carolina; Grumelli, Doris; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Park, Sung Hyun; Longo, Gabriel S; Szleifer, Igal; Méndez De Leo, Lucila P

    2012-09-21

    A combination of Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) under electrochemical control, Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (ECSTM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations has been used to shed light on the reductive desorption process of dodecanethiol (C12) and octadecanethiol (C18) SAMs on gold in aqueous electrolytes. Experimental PMIRRAS, ECSTM and MD simulations data for C12 desorption are consistent with formation of randomly distributed micellar aggregates stabilized by Na(+) ions, coexisting with a lying-down phase of molecules. The analysis of pit and Au island coverage before and after desorption is consistent with the thiolate-Au adatoms models. On the other hand, PMIRRAS and MD data for C18 indicate that the desorbed alkanethiolates adopt a Na(+) ion-stabilized bilayer of interdigitated alkanethiolates, with no evidence of lying down molecules. MD simulations also show that both the degree of order and tilt angle of the desorbed alkanethiolates change with the surface charge on the metal, going from bilayers to micelles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the alkanethiol desorption in the presence of water and the fact that chain length and counterions play a key role in a complex structure.

  1. Carbodiimide/NHS derivatization of COOH-terminated SAMs: activation or byproduct formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, Francisco; Benavides, Cindy Montenegro; Léonard, Didier; Souteyrand, Éliane; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-29

    COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used in biosensor technology to bind different amine-containing biomolecules. A covalent amide bond, however, can be achieved only if the carboxylic acids are activated. This activation process usually consists of forming an N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (NHS-ester) by consecutively reacting carboxylic acids with a carbodiimide and NHS. Though many papers report using this method,1-8 the experimental conditions vary greatly between them and chemical characterization at this stage is often omitted. Evidence of an efficient activation is therefore rarely shown. Furthermore, recent publications9-11 have highlighted the complexity of this process, with the possible formation of different byproducts. In this paper, we have conducted a study on NHS activation under different conditions with chemical characterization by polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). Our results indicate that the nature of the solvent and carbodiimide and the reactant concentrations play crucial roles in activation kinetics and efficiency.

  2. Calibration of SAMs with Particle Swarm Optimization: an application using intermediate and low redshift data

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Andrés N; Padilla, Nelson D; Domínguez, Mariano J; Tecce, Tomás E; Orsi, Álvaro; Yaryura, Yamila C; Lambas, Diego García; Gargiulo, Ignacio D; Arancibia, Alejandra M Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate method to select an optimal set of parameters in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and evolution (SAMs). Our approach compares the results of a model against a set of observables applying a stochastic technique called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a self-learning algorithm for localizing minima in multidimensional spaces that outperforms traditional sampling methods in terms of computational cost. We apply the PSO technique to the SAG semi-analytic model combined with merger trees extracted from a standard {\\Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. From the full set of model parameters used for the baryonic processes followed in SAG, we select six for tuning and keep all others fixed. In order to evaluate the ability of the PSO algorithm to find the best set of parameters, we perform several calibrations using different combinations of observed properties, both locally (e.g. z=0 K-, bj - and r- band luminosity functions, the black hole (BH) mass to bulge mass relation) and at i...

  3. Possible Detection of Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J.; Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H. B.; McKay, C. P.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Ming, D. W.; Brunner, A. E.; Glavin, D.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Jones, J. H.; Freissinet, C.; Leshin, L.; Wong, M.; Atreya, S.; Wray, J. J.; Steele, A.; Buch, A.; Prats, B. D.; Szopa, C.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as dinitrogen (N2). However, it has been lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space [1, 2], impact erosion [3], and chemical oxidation to nitrates [4]. Nitrates, produced early in Mars history, are later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux [5], making possible a nitrogen cycle on Mars. It is estimated that a layer of about 3 m of pure NaNO3 should be distributed globally on Mars [5]. Nitrates are a fundamental source for nitrogen to terrestrial microorganisms. Therefore, the detection of soil nitrates is important to assess habitability in the Martian environment. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but was unable to detect evolved N-containing species by TEGA and the MECA WCL [6]. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in the Nakhla meteorite [7]. The purpose of this work is to determine if nitrates were detected in first solid sample (Rocknest) in Gale Crater examined by the SAM instrument.

  4. Lysine-Tryptophan-Crosslinked Peptides Produced by Radical SAM Enzymes in Pathogenic Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramma, Kelsey R; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R

    2017-04-21

    Macrocycles represent a common structural framework in many naturally occurring peptides. Several strategies exist for macrocyclization, and the enzymes that incorporate them are of great interest, as they enhance our repertoire for creating complex molecules. We recently discovered a new peptide cyclization reaction involving a crosslink between the side chains of lysine and tryptophan that is installed by a radical SAM enzyme. Herein, we characterize relatives of this metalloenzyme from the pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus suis. Our results show that the corresponding enzymes, which we call AgaB and SuiB, contain multiple [4Fe-4S] clusters and catalyze Lys-Trp crosslink formation in their respective substrates. Subsequent high-resolution-MS and 2D-NMR analyses located the site of macrocyclization. Moreover, we report that AgaB can accept modified substrates containing natural or unnatural amino acids. Aside from providing insights into the mechanism of this unusual modification, the substrate promiscuity of AgaB may be exploited to create diverse macrocyclic peptides.

  5. Possible Worlds in Sam Shepard’s Fool for Love and Its Cinematic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Amani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to compare Sam Shepard’s Fool for Love, published in 1983, and its cinematic adaptation directed by Robert Altman, released in 1985, in terms of the notion of possible worlds (in the philosophically-oriented branch of cognitive poetics. In her discussion of possible worlds, Marie-Laure Ryan proposes a typology of accessibility relations (identity of properties, identity of inventory, compatibility of inventory, chronological, physical, taxonomic, logical, analytical, and linguistic compatibility in order to account for how the sense of the reality of our actual world reverberates in fictional worlds. Ryan also offers another typology, that is, the internal structure of the fictional world (knowledge worlds, intention worlds, wish worlds, obligation worlds, and fantasy worlds to show how the characters’ different conceptions of the world define and build up the narrative structure of fiction. It is argued that the change of medium – drama into film in this case – results in some changes in the possible worlds projected, since verbality and visuality give rise to some differences in terms of modes of perception. Also discussed is the significance in this regard of the spatio-temporal scope, which is confined in the case of drama, a genre often conceived to be performed, whereas in a movie the director is able to expand this scope as the occasion demands.

  6. Review and standardization of cell phone exposure calculations using the SAM phantom and anatomically correct head models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainz Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed articles using computational RF dosimetry to compare the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM to anatomically correct models of the human head. Published conclusions based on such comparisons have varied widely. We looked for reasons that might cause apparently similar comparisons to produce dissimilar results. We also looked at the information needed to adequately compare the results of computational RF dosimetry studies. We concluded studies were not comparable because of differences in definitions, models, and methodology. Therefore we propose a protocol, developed by an IEEE standards group, as an initial step in alleviating this problem. The protocol calls for a benchmark validation study comparing the SAM phantom to two anatomically correct models of the human head. It also establishes common definitions and reporting requirements that will increase the comparability of all computational RF dosimetry studies of the human head.

  7. Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the Subtropical Ridge and the SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, D A [Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St, Docklands, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ribbe, J, E-mail: a.cottrill@bom.gov.a [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Much of southern and eastern Australia including Queensland have experienced rainfall declines over recent decades affecting agricultural production and accelerating water infrastructure development. Rainfall declines from southern Australia have now been directly related to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the subtropical ridge. In southern and coastal Queensland, the rainfall declines have occurred mostly in the austral summer and autumn. Observations from this region reveal the rainfall decline is correlated to an increase in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) at many stations. The largest increases in MSLP are over southeast Queensland and coastal regions, where some of the largest rainfall declines occur. This study indicates the subtropical ridge as one of the main factors in the rainfall decline over this region. SAM is also likely to be important, although its seasonal influence, apart from winter, is harder to determine.

  8. Benchmark Simulations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Responses during EBR-II Inherent Safety Tests using SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Sumner, Tyler S.

    2016-04-17

    An advanced system analysis tool SAM is being developed for fast-running, improved-fidelity, and whole-plant transient analyses at Argonne National Laboratory under DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. As an important part of code development, companion validation activities are being conducted to ensure the performance and validity of the SAM code. This paper presents the benchmark simulations of two EBR-II tests, SHRT-45R and BOP-302R, whose data are available through the support of DOE-NE’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program. The code predictions of major primary coolant system parameter are compared with the test results. Additionally, the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code simulation results are also included for a code-to-code comparison.

  9. Detection of Nitric Oxide by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Implications for the Presence of Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L..; McKay, C. P.; Coll, P.; Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; McAdam, A.; Cabane, M.; Ming, D. W.; Glavin, D.; Leshin, L.; Wong, M.; Atreya, S.; Wray, J. J.; Steele, A.; Buch, A.; Prats, B. D.; Szopa, C.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Conrad, P.; Owen, T. C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Mars Science Laboratory is to determine whether the planet ever had environmental conditions able to support microbial life. Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, and is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Planetary models suggest that molecular nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere, but was rapidly lost to space by photochemistry, sputtering impact erosion, and oxidized and deposited to the surface as nitrate. Nitrates are a fundamental source for nitrogen to terrestrial microorganisms. Therefore, the detection of nitrates in soils and rocks is important to assess the habitability of a Martian environment. SAM is capable of detecting nitrates by their thermal decomposition into nitric oxide, NO. Here we analyze the release of NO from soils and rocks examined by the SAM instrument at Gale crater, and discuss its origin.

  10. On the correlation between electronic intramolecular delocalization and Au-S bonding strength of ruthenium tetraammine SAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Solange de O.; Paulo, Tercio de F.; Silva, Maria A.S. da; Carvalho, Idalina M.M. de; Sousa, Jackson R. de; Lopes, Luiz G. de F.; Dias-Filho, Francisco A.; Sousa, Eduardo H.S.; Moreira, Icaro de S.; Diogenes, Izaura C.N., E-mail: izaura@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Andrade, Gustavo F.S.; Temperini, Marcia L.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Longhinotti, Elisane [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Santiago, Marcelo O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Campus Cariri

    2010-07-01

    Trans-[Ru(L)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(L')](PF{sub 6}){sub n} type complexes, where L = 4-cyanopyridine (CNpy), NCS{sup -}, CN{sup -}, and L' = CNpy, 1,4-dithiane (1,4-dt), 4-mercaptopyridine (pyS) and thionicotinamide (tna), were synthesized and characterized. SAMs on gold of the complexes containing sulfur were studied by reductive desorption and SERS spectroscopy. Depending on the nature of L', the withdrawing capability of the CNpy ligand is strong enough to partially oxidize the ruthenium atom and, as a consequence, delocalize the s electronic density from the trans located ligand. The reductive desorption results showed that the stability of the SAMs is directly related to this effect. (author)

  11. Kto samõi bogatõi v Estonii / Sten-Aleks Pihlak, Kärt Blumberg, Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Eesti laevatranspordi kolmik - Ain Hanschmidt, Enn Pant ja Kalev Järvelill on Äripäeva rikaste edetabelis esimesed. Viimaste kuude suure aktsiahinnalanguse tõttu on paljud Äripäeva rikaste edetabelis olijad kaotanud igast kolmest kroonist kaks. Artiklis selgitatakse miks on Äripäeva Rikaste TOPis vähe naisi. Lisad: Iz TOP-500 samõhh bogatõhh ljudei v Estonii; Reitingi bogatshei za prezhnije godõ; Metodika

  12. A Descriptive Study of Military Police Officer Graduates of the Master of Arts Program of Sam Houston State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-07

    Inmates Evaluation of the Youthful Male First Time Offender Pre-Release Program. Unpublished master’s thesis, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville...Behavior 3 CJ 661 Social Policy 3 CJ 664 Treatment Practicum or 3 CJ 666 Seminar in the Rehabilitation and 3 Resocialization Process CJ 670 Internship in...and understanding of the dynamics of human behavior. Cooke, Joseph D. Jr. (1972). The Inmates’ Evaluation of the Youthful Male First Offender Pre

  13. Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene muta...

  14. Kto samõi bogatõi v Estonii / Sten-Aleks Pihlak, Kärt Blumberg, Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Eesti laevatranspordi kolmik - Ain Hanschmidt, Enn Pant ja Kalev Järvelill on Äripäeva rikaste edetabelis esimesed. Viimaste kuude suure aktsiahinnalanguse tõttu on paljud Äripäeva rikaste edetabelis olijad kaotanud igast kolmest kroonist kaks. Artiklis selgitatakse miks on Äripäeva Rikaste TOPis vähe naisi. Lisad: Iz TOP-500 samõhh bogatõhh ljudei v Estonii; Reitingi bogatshei za prezhnije godõ; Metodika

  15. BSA adsorption on aliphatic and aromatic acid SAMs: investigating the effect of residual surface charge and sublayer nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Anne; Humblot, Vincent; Al Housseiny, Rana; Boujday, Souhir; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the influence of surface charge and layer rigidity on Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption has been investigated. To this aim, Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) bearing terminal COOH or COO(-) groups were built on gold surfaces. The rigidity of the acid terminated SAMs was modified using either an aliphatic, mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), or an aromatic, mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) thiol. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Polarization Modulation Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and contact angle measurements, were used to deeply characterize the so-built layers. The surface charge was successfully modified by varying the pH of the rinsing solution. Indeed, COOH were the dominating species upon rinsing at pH 2 and COO(-) species dominated upon rinsing at pH 11. Rinsing at an intermediate pH, 5.5, led to the coexistence of both carboxylic and carboxylate moieties. The hydrophilic character of the surface was also found to depend on the rinsing pH, with a minimum after rinsing at intermediate pH. Using aromatic or aliphatic thiols did not affect the speciation but led to considerable differences in the hydrophilic character of these surfaces. Eventually, the adsorption of BSA on the acidic layers was investigated using PM-RAIRS. The results showed interesting differences between the charged layers. Thus, for both MUA and MBA -based SAMs, the amount of adsorbed proteins decreased when the amount of COO(-) on the surface increased. Interestingly, these effects were totally annihilated when the adsorption was carried out in PBS buffer. Moreover, for similar surface charges, the aromatic layers were able to bind higher amounts of proteins than the aliphatic ones. This work points out the key role of both surface charge and rigidity on protein adsorption. The influence of additional parameters, such as hydrophilicity and SAMs' rigidity is also established.

  16. MSL SAM-like Analyses of Hawaiian Altered Basaltic Materials: Implications for Analyses by the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Knudson, C. A.; Rogers, D.; Glotch, T. D.; Sutter, B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Downs, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of basaltic materials were collected during several traverses of the Kau Desert on the leeward side of the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, conducted by the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) team, a node of the Solar System Exploration and Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. Some of these samples had been exposed to circumneutral to slightly acidic alteration conditions from exposure to fog/rain, and acidic fog/rain, while others had been exposed to more acidic conditions due to proximity to fumaroles. The samples consisted of basalts with coatings, sands and soils, and ash, and were collected using organically clean protocols to enable investigation of organic chemistry and organic-mineral associations, in addition to mineralogy. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover has analyzed basaltic materials inferred to have been altered under conditions ranging from circumneutral to acidic, but several aspects of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite results are still being investigated and analyses of relevant terrestrial analogs can play an important role in interpretation of the data. For example, all materials analyzed to date have a significant amorphous component. Comparisons of the mineralogy obtained with the MSL CheMin instrument and volatiles evolved during SAM analyses indicate that, by mass balance, some portion of the volatiles, such as SO2 and H2O, are likely associated with this component. Many of the RIS4E samples also have a significant amorphous component, and field x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data indicate differences in the chemistry of this material in samples exposed to different alteration conditions. Preliminary SAM-like analyses indicate that the amorphous materials in some of these samples evolve volatiles such as H2O and SO2 during heating. Here we will discuss these results, and others, obtained through SAM-like analyses of selected samples.

  17. Structural basis of RNA recognition and dimerization by the STAR proteins T-STAR and Sam68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feracci, Mikael; Foot, Jaelle N.; Grellscheid, Sushma N.; Danilenko, Marina; Stehle, Ralf; Gonchar, Oksana; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Meyer, N. Helge; Liu, Yilei; Lahat, Albert; Sattler, Michael; Eperon, Ian C.; Elliott, David J.; Dominguez, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Sam68 and T-STAR are members of the STAR family of proteins that directly link signal transduction with post-transcriptional gene regulation. Sam68 controls the alternative splicing of many oncogenic proteins. T-STAR is a tissue-specific paralogue that regulates the alternative splicing of neuronal pre-mRNAs. STAR proteins differ from most splicing factors, in that they contain a single RNA-binding domain. Their specificity of RNA recognition is thought to arise from their property to homodimerize, but how dimerization influences their function remains unknown. Here, we establish at atomic resolution how T-STAR and Sam68 bind to RNA, revealing an unexpected mode of dimerization different from other members of the STAR family. We further demonstrate that this unique dimerization interface is crucial for their biological activity in splicing regulation, and suggest that the increased RNA affinity through dimer formation is a crucial parameter enabling these proteins to select their functional targets within the transcriptome. PMID:26758068

  18. Vnímání značky SAM 73 u cílových skupin

    OpenAIRE

    Talácková, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with SAM 73 brand perception of brand's target groups. The thesis consists of two parts. The theoretical part deals with marketing essentials, brand, marketing research and types of commercial communication. The practical part is dedicated to the introduction of SAM 73 brand, which is a sportswear and leisurewear manufacturer, and evaluation of the research based on questioning. In the last part the thesis proposes ideas for improvement of the brand communication.

  19. Against All Odds—“Sam Hall” and “The Man in Black”: From British Social Disparagement to American Defiant Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Sabine Zehelein

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the development of the “Sam Hall” topos from its 18th or 17th century British origins to William Blake, to the Dubliners’ version of a Celtic traditional, to Hayes’ Harvard version, and finally to Johnny Cash. As an expression of socio-cultural criticism, the outlaw Sam Hall has been formed into a prototype of American defiant individualism “against all odds.”

  20. In situ analysis of Mars soil and rocks samples with the SAM experiment: laboratory measurements supporting treatment and interpretation of the detection of organics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover detected numerous organic compounds when analyzing the solid samples collected on the way to Mount Sharp. But MTBSTFA, the chemical reactant for the chemical treatment of the refractory molecules present in the solid samples and present in cups of SAM, was shown to be unfortunately present in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). During the sample analysis, this chemical species reacts with the or...

  1. 植物中SAMMtases基因研究进展%Progress of SAM Mtases Gene Study in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆红梅; 夏冰; 高俊平; 张秀省; 汪仁; 彭峰; 何树兰

    2012-01-01

    SAM Mtases是从多种植物中分离到的一类S-腺苷-L-甲硫氨酸依赖性氧位甲基转移酶基因,该基因对植物体内木质素、类苯基丙烷、类黄酮类、生物碱和脂肪族化合物等许多次生代谢产物合成有直接的影响,并且在植物抗病、抗紫外线、杀虫、抗菌、植物激素生长和信号调节、植物共生、花粉管伸长和花粉生长等生理过程中起重要作用.该文总结了国内外已经克隆到的SAM Mtases同源基因的分离、分类及其功能,为进一步研究SAM Mtases 基因在植物生理代谢调控中的地位及在植物抗性及药用成分育种上的应用提供参考.%SAMMtases was S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent Omethyltransferase gene. The gene has a direct effect on plant lignin, class of phenyl propane, flavonoids, alkaloids and aliphatic compounds and many other secondary metabolite syntheses. It involved ir. plant disease resistance,UV resistance,insecticide, antiseptic, plant hormones,growth and signal conditioning,symbionts of plants,pollen tube elongation and pollen growth of plant allelopathy reaction. This review provides an overview on the research progress in separation,classification,and functions of SAM Mtases gene. It is helpful for better understanding of its position in plant physiological and metabolic regulation. We also highlight SAM Mtases gene as a candidate gene for plant resistance and plant secondary metabolism improvement.

  2. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soros Vanessa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 structural proteins are translated from incompletely spliced 9 kb and 4 kb mRNAs, which are transported to the cytoplasm by Crm1. It has been assumed that once in the cytoplasm, translation of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs occurs in the same manner as host mRNAs. Previous analyses have demonstrated that Sam68 and a mutant thereof, Sam68ΔC, have dramatic effects on HIV gene expression, strongly enhancing and inhibiting viral structural protein synthesis, respectively. While investigating the inhibition of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs by Sam68ΔC, we determined that the effect was independent of the perinuclear bundling of the viral RNA. Inhibition was dependent upon the nuclear export pathway used, as translation of viral RNA exported via the Tap/CTE export pathway was not blocked by Sam68ΔC. We demonstrate that inhibition of HIV expression by Sam68ΔC is correlated with a loss of PABP1 binding with no attendant change in polyadenosine tail length of the affected RNAs. The capacity of Sam68ΔC to selectively inhibit translation of HIV-1 RNAs exported by Crm1 suggests that it is able to recognize unique characteristics of these viral RNPs, a property that could lead to new therapeutic approaches to controlling HIV-1 replication.

  3. Effect of proline rich domain of an RNA-binding protein Sam68 in cell growth process, death and B cell signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-hua; FAN Tian-xue; PANG Tian-xiang; YUAN Wen-su; HAN Zhong-chao

    2006-01-01

    Background Sam68 plays an important role as a multiple functional RNA binding nuclear protein in cell cycle progress, RNA usage, signal transduction, and tyrosine phosphorylation by Src during mitosis. However, its precise impact on these essential cellular functions remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to further elucidate Sam68 functions in RNA metabolism, signal transduction regulation of cell growth and cell proliferation in DT40 cell line.Methods By using gene targeting method, we isolated a mutation form of Sam68 in DT40 cells and described its effect on cell growth process and signal transduction. Southern, Northern, and Western blot, phosphorylation and flow-cytometfic analyses were performed to investigate the Sam68 functions.Results A slower growth rate (2.1 hours growth elongation) and longer S phase (1.7 hours elongation) was observed in the Sam68 mutant cells. Serum depletion resulted in increased amounts of dead cells, and expansion of S phase in mutant cells. Upon B cell cross-linking, the maximal level of tyrosine phosphorylation on BLNK was observed to be significantly lower in mutant cells.Conclusions The proline rich domain of Sam68 is involved in cell growth control by modulating the function of mRNAs in S phase or earlier and the functions as an adaptor molecule in B cell signal transduction pathways.

  4. SAM: String-based sequence search algorithm for mitochondrial DNA database queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Alexander; Irwin, Jodi; Dür, Arne; Parsons, Thomas; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the haploid mitochondrial (mt) genome has numerous applications in forensic and population genetics, as well as in disease studies. Although mtDNA haplotypes are usually determined by sequencing, they are rarely reported as a nucleotide string. Traditionally they are presented in a difference-coded position-based format relative to the corrected version of the first sequenced mtDNA. This convention requires recommendations for standardized sequence alignment that is known to vary between scientific disciplines, even between laboratories. As a consequence, database searches that are vital for the interpretation of mtDNA data can suffer from biased results when query and database haplotypes are annotated differently. In the forensic context that would usually lead to underestimation of the absolute and relative frequencies. To address this issue we introduce SAM, a string-based search algorithm that converts query and database sequences to position-free nucleotide strings and thus eliminates the possibility that identical sequences will be missed in a database query. The mere application of a BLAST algorithm would not be a sufficient remedy as it uses a heuristic approach and does not address properties specific to mtDNA, such as phylogenetically stable but also rapidly evolving insertion and deletion events. The software presented here provides additional flexibility to incorporate phylogenetic data, site-specific mutation rates, and other biologically relevant information that would refine the interpretation of mitochondrial DNA data. The manuscript is accompanied by freeware and example data sets that can be used to evaluate the new software (http://stringvalidation.org). PMID:21056022

  5. MSL SAM-Like Evolved Gas Analyses of Si-rich Amorphous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Amy; Knudson, Christine; Sutter, Brad; Andrejkovicova, Slavka; Archer, P. Douglas; Franz, Heather; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Morris, Richard; Ming, Douglas; Sun, Vivian; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical analyses of several samples from Murray Formation mudstones and Stimson Formation sandstones by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) revealed the presence of Si-rich amorphous or poorly ordered materials. It is possible to identify the presence of high-SiO2 vs. lower SiO2 amorphous materials (e.g., basaltic glasses), based on the position of the resulting wide diffraction features in XRD patterns from the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument, but it is not possible to distinguish between several candidate high-SiO2 amorphous materials such as opal-A or rhyolitic glass. In the Buckskin (BS) sample from the upper Murray Formation, and the Big Sky (BY) and Greenhorn (GH) samples from the Stimson Formation, analyses by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument showed very broad H2O evolutions during sample heating at temperatures >450-500degC which had not been observed from previous samples. BS also had a significant broad evolution 500degC, or a broad peak centered around 400degC. For samples that produced two evolutions, the lower temperature peak is more intense than the higher temperature peak, a trend also exhibited by opal-A. This trend is consistent with data from BS, but does not seem consistent with data from BY and GH which evolved most of their H2O >500degC. It may be that dehydration of opal-A and/or rhyolitic glass can result in some preferential loss of lower temperature H2O, to produce traces that more closely resemble BY and GH. This is currently under investigation and results will be reported.

  6. Tracking the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction: The putative in situ detection of methane by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosi-ty at Gale crater has garnered significant attention because of the potential implications for the presence of geological methane sources or indigenous Martian organisms [1, 2]. SAM reported detection of back-ground levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69±0.25 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at the 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period, SAM observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2±2.1 ppbv (95% CI), implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source. There are many major unresolved questions regard-ing this detection: 1) What are the potential sources of the methane release? 2) What causes the rapid decrease in concentration? and 3) Where is the re-lease location? 4) How spatially extensive is the re-lease? 5) For how long is CH4 released? Regarding the first question, the source of methane, is so far not identified. It could be related with geo-logical process like methane release from clathrates [3], serpentinisation [4] and volcanism [5]; or due to biological activity from methanogenesis [6]. To answer the second question, the rapid decrease in concentration, it is important to note that the photo-chemical lifetime of methane is of order 100 years, much longer than the atmospheric mixing time scale, and thus the gas should tend to be well mixed except near a source or shortly after an episodic release. The observed spike of 7 ppb from the background of year, simulations were con-ducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional sim-ulations at Ls 225 and 315 were explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting cen-tered around Ls 270. Ls 270 was shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed by strong, flushing, northerly flow and large amplitude breaking mountain waves: air

  7. Influence of Oxychlorine Phases During the Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules: Implications for the Quest of Organics on Mars with the SAM Experiment Onboard the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Belmahdi, I.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D., Jr,; Sutter, B.; Mahaffy, P.

    2017-01-01

    One among the main objectives of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment is the in situ molecular analysis of gases evolving from solid samples heated up to approximately 850 degrees Centigrade, and collected by Curiosity on Mars surface/sub-surface in Gale crater. With this aim, SAM uses a gas-chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-QMS) devoted to separate, detect and identify both volatile inorganic and organic compounds. SAM detected chlorinated organic molecules produced in evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments. Several of these were also detected by the Viking experiments in 1976. SAM also detected oxychlorine compounds that were present at the Phoenix landing site. The oxychlorines may be prevelant over much of the martian surface. The C1 to C3 aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons (chloromethane and di- and trichloromethane) detected by SAM were attributed to reaction products occurring between the oxychlorines phases and the organic compounds coming from SAM instrument background. But SAM also showed the presence of a large excess of chlorobenzene and C2 to C4 dichloroalkanes among the volatile species released by the Cumberland sample of the Sheepbed mudstone. For the first time in the history of the Mars exploration, this proved the presence of Mars indigenous organic material at the Mars' surface. However, the identification of the precursor organic compounds of these chlorohydrocarbons is difficult due to the complexity of the reactions occurring during the sample pyrolysis. Laboratory pyrolysis experiments have demonstrated that oxychlorines phases such as perchlorates and chlorates, decomposed into dioxygen and volatile chlorine bearing molecules (HCl and/or Cl2) during the pyrolysis. These chemical species can then react with the organic molecules present in the martian solid samples through oxidation, chlorination and oxychlorination processes.

  8. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Calcite Under Reduced Operating Pressures: Implications for the 2011 MSL Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V. Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is scheduled for launch in 2011. The science objectives for MSL are to assess the past or present biological potential, to characterize the geology, and to investigate other planetary processes that influence habitability at the landing site. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is a key instrument on the MSL payload that will explore the potential habitability at the landing site [1]. In addition to searching for organic compounds, SAM will have the capability to characterized evolved gases as a function of increasing temperature and provide information on the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases such as carbonates, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and Fe-oxyhydroxides. The operating conditions in SAM ovens will be maintained at 30 mb pressure with a He carrier gas flowing at 1 sccm. We have previously characterized the thermal and evolved gas behaviors of volatile-bearing species under reduced pressure conditions that simulated operating conditions of the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) that was onboard the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission [e.g., 2-8]. TEGA ovens operated at 12 mb pressure with a N2 carrier gas flowing at 0.04 sccm. Another key difference between SAM and TEGA is that TEGA was able to perform differential scanning calorimetry whereas SAM only has a pyrolysis oven. The operating conditions for TEGA and SAM have several key parameter differences including operating pressure (12 vs 30 mb), carrier gas (N2 vs. He), and carrier gas flow rate (0.04 vs 1 sccm). The objectives of this study are to characterize the thermal and evolved gas analysis of calcite under SAM operating conditions and then compare it to calcite thermal and evolved gas analysis under TEGA operating conditions.

  9. Follow-Up of Post-Discharge Growth and Mortality after Treatment for Severe Acute Malnutrition (FuSAM Study): A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerac, Marko; Bunn, James; Chagaluka, George; Bahwere, Paluku; Tomkins, Andrew; Collins, Steve; Seal, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) plays a vital role in achieving global child survival targets. Effective treatment programmes are available but little is known about longer term outcomes following programme discharge. Methods From July 2006 to March 2007, 1024 children (median age 21.5 months, IQR 15–32) contributed 1187 admission episodes to an inpatient-based SAM treatment centre in Blantyre, Malawi. Long term outcomes, were determined in a longitudinal cohort study, a year or more after initial programme discharge. We found information on 88%(899/1024). Results In total, 42%(427/1024) children died during or after treatment. 25%(105/427) of deaths occurred after normal programme discharge, >90 days after admission. Mortality was greatest among HIV seropositive children: 62%(274/445). Other risk factors included age malnutrition at admission; and disability. In survivors, weight-for-height and weight-for-age improved but height-for-age remained low, mean −2.97 z-scores (SD 1.3). Conclusions Although SAM mortality in this setting was unacceptably high, our findings offer important lessons for future programming, policy and research. First is the need for improved programme evaluation: most routine reporting systems would have missed late deaths and underestimated total mortality due to SAM. Second, a more holistic view of SAM is needed: while treatment will always focus on nutritional interventions, it is vital to also identify and manage underlying clinical conditions such as HIV and disability. Finally early identification and treatment of SAM should be emphasised: our results suggest that this could improve longer term as well as short term outcomes. As international policy and programming becomes increasingly focused on stunting and post-malnutrition chronic disease outcomes, SAM should not be forgotten. Proactive prevention and treatment services are essential, not only to reduce mortality in the short term but also because they

  10. Identification of an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent arsenic methyltransferase in Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, Mohamad [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Packianathan, Charles; Qin, Jie [Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, FL33199 (United States); Hallauer, Janell; McDermott, Joseph R. [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Yang, Hung-Chi [Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Kwei-San 333, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Kan-Jen [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Zijuan, E-mail: liu2345@oakland.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Arsenic methylation is an important cellular metabolic process that modulates arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Biomethylation of arsenic produces a series of mono-, di- and tri-methylated arsenic metabolites that can be detected in tissues and excretions. Here we report that zebrafish exposed to arsenite (As{sup III}) produces organic arsenicals, including MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V} with characteristic tissue ratios, demonstrating that an arsenic methylation pathway exists in zebrafish. In mammals, cellular inorganic arsenic is methylated by a SAM-dependent arsenic methyltransferase, AS3MT. A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase homolog, As3mt, was identified by sequence alignment. Western blotting analysis showed that As3mt was universally expressed in zebrafish tissues. Prominent expression in liver and intestine correlated with methylated arsenic metabolites detected in those tissues. As3mt was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli for in vitro functional studies. Our results demonstrated that As3mt methylated As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} as an end product and produced MMA{sup III} and MMA{sup V} as intermediates. The activity of As3mt was inhibited by elevated concentrations of the substrate As{sup III} as well as the metalloid selenite, which is a well-known antagonistic micronutrient of arsenic toxicity. The activity As3mt was abolished by substitution of either Cys160 or Cys210, which corresponds to conserved cysteine residues in AS3MT homologs, suggesting that they are involved in catalysis. Expression in zebrafish of an enzyme that has a similar function to human and rodent orthologs in catalyzing intracellular arsenic biomethylation validates the applicability of zebrafish as a valuable vertebrate model for understanding arsenic-associated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Zebrafish methylated As{sup III} to MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V}. ► A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) was purified in E. coli.

  11. Potential precursor compounds for chlorohydrocarbons detected in Gale Crater, Mars, by the SAM instrument suite on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Kotrc, Benjamin; Francois, Pascaline; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of chlorinated organic compounds in near-surface sedimentary rocks by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover represents an important step toward characterizing habitable environments on Mars. However, this discovery also raises questions about the identity and source of their precursor compounds and the processes by which they become chlorinated. Here we present the results of analog experiments, conducted under conditions similar to SAM gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, in which we pyrolyzed potential precursor compounds in the presence of various Cl salts and Fe oxides that have been identified in Martian sediments. While chloromethanes could not be unambiguously identified, 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), which is one of the chlorinated compounds identified in SAM data, is formed from the chlorination of aliphatic precursors. Additionally, propanol produced more 1,2-DCP than nonfunctionalized aliphatics such as propane or hexanes. Chlorinated benzenes ranging from chlorobenzene to hexachlorobenzene were identified in experiments with benzene carboxylic acids but not with benzene or toluene. Lastly, the distribution of chlorinated benzenes depended on both the substrate species and the nature and concentration of the Cl salt. Ca and Mg perchlorate, both of which release O2 in addition to Cl2 and HCl upon pyrolysis, formed less chlorobenzene relative to the sum of all chlorinated benzenes than in experiments with ferric chloride. FeCl3, a Lewis acid, catalyzes chlorination but does not aid combustion. Accordingly, both the precursor chemistry and sample mineralogy exert important controls on the distribution of chlorinated organics.

  12. Evaluating auditory stream segregation of SAM tone sequences by subjective and objective psychoacoustical tasks, and brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena-Vanessa eDollezal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory stream segregation refers to a segregated percept of signal streams with different acoustic features. Different approaches have been pursued in studies of stream segregation. In psychoacoustics, stream segregation has mostly been investigated with a subjective task asking the subjects to report their percept. Few studies have applied an objective task in which stream segregation is evaluated indirectly by determining thresholds for a percept that depends on whether auditory streams are segregated or not. Furthermore, both perceptual measures and physiological measures of brain activity have been employed but only little is known about their relation. How the results from different tasks and measures are related is evaluated in the present study using examples relying on the ABA- stimulation paradigm that apply the same stimuli. We presented A and B signals that were sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM tones providing purely temporal, spectral or both types of cues to evaluate perceptual stream segregation and its physiological correlate. Which types of cues are most prominent was determined by the choice of carrier and modulation frequencies (fmod of the signals. In the subjective task subjects reported their percept and in the objective task we measured their sensitivity for detecting time-shifts of B signals in an ABA- sequence. As a further measure of processes underlying stream segregation we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. SAM tone parameters were chosen to evoke an integrated (1-stream, a segregated (2-stream or an ambiguous percept by adjusting the fmod difference between A and B tones (∆fmod. The results of both psychoacoustical tasks are significantly correlated. BOLD responses in fMRI depend on ∆fmod between A and B SAM tones. The effect of ∆fmod, however, differs between auditory cortex and frontal regions suggesting differences in representation related to the degree of perceptual ambiguity of

  13. Maturation of nitrogenase cofactor?the role of a class E radical SAM methyltransferase NifB

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the important reactions of N2-, CO- and CO2-reduction at its active cofactor site. Designated the M-cluster, this complex metallocofactor is assembled through the generation of a characteristic 8Fe-core prior to the insertion of Mo and homocitrate that completes the stoichiometry of the M-cluster. NifB catalyzes the critical step of radical SAM-dependent carbide insertion that occurs concomitant with the insertion a ?9th? sulfur and the rearrangement/coupling of two 4Fe-...

  14. Identification of 8-methyladenosine as the modification catalyzed by the radical SAM methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giessing, Anders; Jensen, Søren Skov; Rasmussen, Anette

    2009-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers combined resistance to five different classes of antibiotics that bind to the peptidyl transferase center of bacterial ribosomes. The Cfr-mediated modification has previously been shown to occur on nucleotide A2503 of 23S rRNA and has a mass corresponding......,8-dimethyladenosine. The mutation of single conserved cysteine residues in the radical SAM motif CxxxCxxC of Cfr abolishes its activity, lending support to the notion that the Cfr modification reaction occurs via a radical-based mechanism. Antibiotic susceptibility data confirm that the antibiotic resistance...

  15. Search for nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Freissinet, Caroline; Franz, Heather; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; McAdam, Amy; Cabane, Michel; Ming, Douglas; Glavin, Daniel; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Leshin, Laurie; Wong, Michael; Atreya, Sushil; Wray, James; Steele, Andrew; Buch, Arnaud; Prats, Benito

    2014-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mars Science Laboratory is to determine whether the planet ever had environmental conditions capable of supporting microbial life. Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, and is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) bio-molecules. Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as dinitrogen (N2). However, a fraction of N2 has been lost to space by sputtering and photochemical processes [1, 2], impact erosion [3], and chemical oxidation to nitrates [4, 5]. Nitrates produced early in Mars' history by photochemistry may later decompose back into N2 by the current impact flux [6]. It is estimated that the Martian surface could contain soil nitrates at levels of 0.3 wt.% N, if mixed homogenously [6], or a layer of pure NaNO3 of about 3 m thickness [5] distributed globally. Nitrates are a fundamental source for nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms. Therefore, the detection of soil nitrates is important to assess habitability in the Martian environment. The only previous attempt to search for soil nitrates was by TEGA and the MECA WCL on the Phoenix mission but no evolved N-containing species were detected [7]. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in two Martian meteorites: Nakhla [8] and EETA79001 [9]. SAM is capable of detecting nitrates by their thermal decomposition into nitric oxide, NO. SAM analyzed samples from Rocknest soil and two drill holes located at John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstones in the Sheepbed member of the Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. There appear to be several peaks associated with the release of m/z 30 in the temperature range from 150° C to 600° C. m/z 30 can be attributed to nitric oxide; however, other possible chemical interferences may be present and are assessed. The origin of nitric oxide is discussed and its thermal evolution is

  16. Isotopic Composition of Carbon Dioxide Released from Confidence Hills Sediment as Measured by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J.; Archer, P., Jr.; Conrad, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J.; Ming, D.; McAdam, A.; Morris, R.; Navarro-Gozalez, R.; Owen, T.; Steele, A.; Summons, R.; Sutter, B.; Webster, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity" rover drilled into the sediment at the base of Mount Sharp in a location namsed Cionfidence Hills (CH). CH marked the fifth sample pocessed by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite since Curiosity arrived in Gale Crater, with previous analyses performed at Rocknest (RN), John Klein (JK), Cumberland (CB), and Windjana (WJ). Evolved gas analysis (EGA) of all samples has indicated H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in the samples, often at abundances that would be below the detection limit of the CheMin instrument. By examining the temperatures at which gases are evolved from samples, SAM EGA data can help provide clues to the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases when their identities are unclear to CheMin. SAM may also detect gases evolved from amorphous material in solid samples, which is not suitable for analysis by CheMin. Finally, the isotopic composition of these gases may suggest possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. We will discuss C isotope ratios of CO2 evolved from the CH sample as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and draw comparisons to samples previously analyzed by SAM.

  17. Effects of the rate of releases from Sam Rayburn Reservoir on the Aeration Capacity of the Angelina River, eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Goss, Richard L.; Rathbun, Ira G.

    1980-01-01

    A three-phase study was conducted during July and August 1979 to determine the effects of varying release rates through the power-outlet works at Sam Rayburn Reservoir, eastern Texas, on aeration capacity of a 14-mile reach of the Angelina River below Sam Rayburn Dam. The dominant factors that affected the aeration capacity during the study time were time of travel and the dissolved-oxygen deficit of the releases. Aeration was low throughout the study but increased in response to increases in the dissolved-oxygen deficit and the duration of time that the releases were exposed to the atmosphere (time of travel). The average concentration of dissolved oxygen sustained by release of 8,800 cubic feet per second decreased from 5.0 milligrams per liter at a site near the power outlet to 4.8 milligrams per liter at a site about 14 miles downstream; the time of travel averaged about 8 hours. The average concentration of dissolved oxygen in flow sustained by releases of 2,200 cubic feet per second increased from 5.2 to 5.5 milligrams per liter; the time of travel averaged about 20 hours. (USGS)

  18. Microfluidic lithography of SAMs on gold to create dynamic surfaces for directed cell migration and contiguous cell cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian M; Barrett, Devin G; Westcott, Nathan P; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2008-08-19

    A straightforward, flexible, and inexpensive method to create patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold using microfluidics-microfluidic lithography-has been developed. Using a microfluidic cassette, alkanethiols were rapidly patterned on gold surfaces to generate monolayers and mixed monolayers. The patterning methodology is flexible and, by controlling the solvent conditions and thiol concentration, permeation of alkanethiols into the surrounding PDMS microfluidic cassette can be advantageously used to create different patterned feature sizes and to generate well-defined SAM surface gradients with a single microfluidic chip. To demonstrate the utility of microfluidic lithography, multiple cell experiments were conducted. By patterning cell adhesive regions in an inert background, a combination of selective masking of the surface and centrifugation achieved spatial and temporal control of patterned cells, enabling the design of both dynamic surfaces for directed cell migration and contiguous cocultures. Cellular division and motility resulted in directed, dynamic migration, while the centrifugation-aided seeding of a second cell line produced contiguous cocultures with multiple sites for heterogeneous cell-cell interactions.

  19. 5-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol on gold: SAM formation and electroactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulo, Tercio de F.; Silva, Maria A.S. da; Pinheiro, Solange de O.; Meyer, Emerson; Moreira, Icaro de S.; Diogenes, Izaura C.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: izaura@dqoi.ufc.br; Pinheiro, Lucidalva S.; Freire, Jose A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Tanaka, Auro A. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lima Neto, Pedro de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico Quimica

    2008-07-01

    5-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (Hpyt) spontaneously adsorbs on gold forming SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) that, based on STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) and electrochemical data, contain pinholes through which [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} and [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} probe molecules access the underlying gold electrode. For the former molecule, the dependence of the faradaic current on the electrolyte solution pH value allowed the evaluation of the surface pKa as 4.2. The thermodynamic parameters {delta}H{sub ads} and {delta}G{sub ads} for the Hpyt adsorption process could be described by the Langmuir model and were calculated as -20.01 and -39.39 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. Electrodic redox reaction of cytochrome c metalloprotein was accessed by using the Hpyt SAM with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 2.29 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Structure-Based Design of a Novel SMYD3 Inhibitor that Bridges the SAM-and MEKK2-Binding Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aller, Glenn S; Graves, Alan P; Elkins, Patricia A; Bonnette, William G; McDevitt, Patrick J; Zappacosta, Francesca; Annan, Roland S; Dean, Tony W; Su, Dai-Shi; Carpenter, Christopher L; Mohammad, Helai P; Kruger, Ryan G

    2016-05-03

    SMYD3 is a lysine methyltransferase overexpressed in colorectal, breast, prostate, and hepatocellular tumors, and has been implicated as an oncogene in human malignancies. Methylation of MEKK2 by SMYD3 is important for regulation of the MEK/ERK pathway, suggesting the possibility of selectively targeting SMYD3 in RAS-driven cancers. Structural and kinetic characterization of SMYD3 was undertaken leading to a co-crystal structure of SMYD3 with a MEKK2-peptide substrate bound, and the observation that SMYD3 follows a partially processive mechanism. These insights allowed for the design of GSK2807, a potent and selective, SAM-competitive inhibitor of SMYD3 (Ki = 14 nM). A high-resolution crystal structure reveals that GSK2807 bridges the gap between the SAM-binding pocket and the substrate lysine tunnel of SMYD3. Taken together, our data demonstrate that small-molecule inhibitors of SMYD3 can be designed to prevent methylation of MEKK2 and these could have potential use as anticancer therapeutics.

  1. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz.

  2. Functional Analysis of CP2-Like Domain and SAM-Like Domain in TFCP2L1, Novel Pluripotency Factor of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Min; Jang, Tae-Ho; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-06-01

    TFCP2L1 is a transcription factor that facilitates establishment and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells by forming a complex transcriptional network with other transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG). TFCP2L1 contains two distinct domains, the CP2-like domain at the N-terminus and the SAM-like domain at the C-terminus. In this study, we found that TFCP2L1 is hexamerized in solution via the C-terminal SAM-like domain. We also found that homo-oligomerization of SAM-like domain is dependent on the concentration of the proteins. Finally, we found that TFCP2L1 binds directly to DNA via the N-terminal CP2-like domain.

  3. The Detection of Evolved Oxygen from the Rocknest Eolian Bedform Material by the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) instrument at the Mars Curiosity Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; Ming, D.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A.; Mahaffy, P.; Stern, J.; Navarro-Gonzalex, R.; McKay, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover detected an O2 gas release from the Rocknest eolain bedform (Fig. 1). The detection of perchlorate (ClO4-) by the Mars Phoenix Lander s Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [1] suggests that perchlorate is a possible candidate for evolved O2 release detected by SAM. The perchlorate would also serve as a source of chlorine in the chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GCMS) [2,3]. Chlorates (ClO3-) [4,5] and/or superoxides [6] may also be sources of evolved O2 from the Rocknest materials. The work objectives are to 1) evaluate the O2 release temperatures from Rocknest materials, 2) compare these O2 release temperatures with a series of perchlorates and chlorates, and 3) evaluate superoxide O2- sources and possible perchlorate interactions with other Rocknest phases during QMS analysis.

  4. Niedualna uważność a stan samādhi w kontekście badań neurofenomenologicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr PŁANETA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare various meditative states, such as Buddhist dhyāna‑s, yogic nirbīja samādhi and nondual awareness (Tib. gñis‑med. The primary source texts I refere to are Yogasūtras of Patañjali, Ānāpānasmṛtisūtra (MN 118, Samādhisūtra (AN 4.41, The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. I also discuss some relevant claims of contemporary empirical studies. First, I define the key terms used in Eastern meditation studies as well as in neurophenomenology, a contemporary method applied to examining the meditative states of mind, such as samādhi, dhyāna, and śamatha. Inspired by Shinzen Young, I distinguish three groups of meditative states that might be identified with nondual awareness. These three groups are: (1 the second, the third and fourth Buddhist dhyāna being equivalent to nirvicāra samādhi and nirānanda samādhi in the classical Indian yoga; (2 nirbīja samādhi and (3 nondual awareness, typical to the Mahayāna contemplative traditions. I explain why we can recognize each of the above states as nondual awareness and how they differ from each other. Then, I make a comparison between meditation practice explained in Ānāpānasmṛtisūtra and nondual awareness presented in the Tibetan Buddhism. Besides, I discuss the above kinds of mental states in terms of recent neurophenomenological findings. While doing so, I am trying to demonstrate that our understanding of meditation can benefit from the empirical studies which help us to objectify this kind of subjective experience, to some degree, if they are given an adequate place in our study.

  5. A nano-patterned self assembled monolayer (SAM) rutile titania cancer chip for rapid, low cost, highly sensitive, direct cancer analysis in MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M; Gopal, Judy; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-12-01

    We developed a cancer chip by nano-patterning a highly sensitive SAM titanium surface capable of capturing and sensing concentrations as low as 10 cancer cells/mL from the environment by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The current approach evades any form of pretreatment and sample preparation processes; it is time saving and does not require the (expensive) conventional MALDI target plate. The home made aluminium (Al) target holder cost, on which we loaded the cancer chips for MALDI-TOF MS analysis, is about 60 USD. While the conventional stainless steel MALDI target plate is more than 700 USD. The SAM surface was an effective platform leading to on-chip direct MALDI-MS detection of cancer cells. We compared the functionality of this chip with the unmodified titanium surfaces and thermally oxidized (TO) titanium surfaces. The lowest detectable concentration of the TO chip was 10(3) cells/mL, while the lowest detectable concentration of the control or unmodified titanium chips was 10(6) cells/mL. Compared to the control surface, the SAM cancer chip showed 100,000 times of enhanced sensitivity and compared with the TO chip, 1000 times of increased sensitivity. The high sensitivity of the SAM surfaces is attributed to the presence of the rutile SAM, surface roughness and surface wettability as confirmed by AFM, XRD, contact angle microscope and FE-SEM. This study opens a new avenue for the potent application of the SAM cancer chip for direct cancer diagnosis by MALDI-TOF MS in the near future.

  6. The SAM software system for modeling severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors on full-scale and analytic training simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchaya, D. Yu.; Fuks, R. L.

    2014-04-01

    The architecture of the SAM software package intended for modeling beyond-design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors evolving into a severe stage with core melting and failure of the reactor pressure vessel is presented. By using the SAM software package it is possible to perform comprehensive modeling of the entire emergency process from the failure initiating event to the stage of severe accident involving meltdown of nuclear fuel, failure of the reactor pressure vessel, and escape of corium onto the concrete basement or into the corium catcher with retention of molten products in it.

  7. Thermal Reactivity of Organic Molecules in the Presence of Chlorates and Perchlorates and the Quest for Organics on Mars with the SAM Experiment Onboard the Curiostiy Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Cyril; Millan, Maeva; Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imene; Coll, Patrice; Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; archer, doug; sutter, brad; Summons, Roger; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Mahaffy, Paul; cabane, Michel

    2016-10-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment is the in situ molecular analysis of gases evolving from solid samples collected by Curiosity when they are heated up to ~850°C. With this aim SAM uses a gas-chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) able to detect and identify both inorganic and organic molecules released by the samples.During the pyrolysis, chemical reactions occur between oxychlorines, probably homogeneously distributed at Mars's surface, and organic compounds SAM seeks for. This was confirmed by the first chlorohydrocarbons (chloromethane and di- and trichloromethane) detected by SAM that were entirely attributed to reaction products occurring between these oxychlorines and organics from instrument background. But SAM also detected in the Sheepbed mudstone of Gale crater, chloroalkanes produced by reaction between oxychlorines and Mars indigenous organics, proving for the first time the presence of organics in the soil of Mars. However, the identification of the molecules at the origin of these chloroalkanes is much more difficult due to the complexity of the reactivity occurring during the sample pyrolysis. If a first study has already been done recently with this aim, it was relatively limited in terms of parameters investigated.This is the reason why, we performed a systematic study in the laboratory to help understanding the influence of oxychlorines on organic matter during pyrolysis. With this aim, different organic compounds from various chemical families (e.g. amino and carboxylic acids) mixed with different perchlorates and chlorates, in concentrations compatible with the Mars soil from estimations done with SAM measurements, were pyrolyzed under SAM like conditions. The products of reaction were analyzed and identified by GC-MS in order to show a possible correlation between them and the parent molecule. Different parameters were tested for the pyrolysis to evaluate their potential influence on the

  8. SAM Technical Review Committee Final Report: Summary and Key Recommendations from the Onsite TRC Meeting Held April 22-23, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, S.; Janzou, S.; Gilman, P.; Freeman, J.; Kaffine, L.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a broad and robust set of models and frameworks for analyzing both system performance and system financing. It does this across a range of technologies dominated by solar technologies including photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program requested the SAM development team to review the photovoltaic performance modeling with the development community and specifically, with the independent engineering community. The report summarizes the major effort for this technical review committee (TRC).

  9. Functionalization of Organic Semiconductors and Other Carbon-based Materials by Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Charge Transport in Organic Field-effect Transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bumsu

    In the first part of the thesis, studies of the charge carrier transport in organic semiconductors performed using organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with polymeric gate dielectric (parylene) are presented. By combining OFET and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies, the effect of bias-stress instability at the semiconductor/insulator interface have been investigated and understood. The effect is understood in terms of the transfer of holes from an accumulation channel of the semiconductor to localized states of the insulator that depends on energetic overlap between HOMO band tails of the semiconductor and the insulator. Second, surface functionalization of various materials such as organic single crystals, conjugated semiconductor polymers, graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) is described. In most cases, an enhanced surface conductivity is observed as a result of SAM treatment. Especially, fluorinated alkyl-silane (FTS) SAM induces the highest density of p-type charge carriers (in excess of an order of 1013cm-2), which leads to a strong surface hole-doping of these materials. In this thesis, (1) the mechanism of SAM nucleation, growth process and doping effect at the surface of organic single crystals and graphene is revealed. SAM nucleation occurs predominantly at molecular step edges or defect sites present at the surface and a consecutive lateral growth proceeds by cross-linking between SAM molecules. The strong hole-doping is explained by an interfacial charge transfer that during SAM formation. In addition, conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) confirms that conducting paths along the step edges are formed by FTS nucleation at the early stage of FTS growth on rubrene. (2) it is reported that conductivity of solution-deposited thin film of conjugated polymers increases by up to six orders of magnitude, reaching (1.1 ± 0.1) × 103 Scm-1 for poly (2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b

  10. Detecting Organic Compounds Released from Iron Oxidizing Bacteria using Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Like Instrument Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Popa, R.; Martin, M. G.; Freissinet, C.; Fisk, M. R.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Mars is a planet of great interest for Astrobiology since its past environmental conditions are thought to have been favourable for the emergence life. At present, the Red Planet is extremely cold and dry and the surface is exposed to intense UV and ionizing radiation, conditions generally considered to be incompatible with life as we know it on Earth. It was proposed that the shallow subsurface of Mars, where temperatures can be above freezing and liquid water can exist on rock surfaces, could harbor chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as the iron oxidizing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. HerB. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will provide the next opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds of possible biological origin on Mars. One instrument onboard MSL, called the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, will carry out a broad and sensitive search for organic compounds in surface samples using either high temperature pyrolysis or chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We present gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) data on crushed olivine rock powders that have been inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. HerB at different concentrations ranging from approx 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 7) cells per gram. The inoculated olivine samples were heated under helium carrier gas flow at 500 C and the pyrolysis products concentrated using a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap set at -20 C followed by trap heating and analysis by GC/Ms. In addition, the samples were also extracted using a low temperature "one-pot" chemical extraction technique using N-methyl, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC/MS analysis. We identified several aldehydes, thiols, and alkene nitriles after pyrolysis GC/MS analysis of the bacteria that were not found in the olivine control samples that had not been inoculated with bacteria. The distribution of pyrolysis products extracted from the

  11. Increasing the Fill Factor of Inverted P3HT:PCBM Solar Cells Through Surface Modification of Al-Doped ZnO via Phosphonic Acid-Anchored C60 SAMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubhan, Tobias; Salinas, Michael; Ebel, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electron extraction layers modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on inverted polymer solar cells is investigated. It is found that AZO modification with phosphonic acid-anchored Fullerene–SAMs leads to a reduction of the series resistance...

  12. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  13. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyu; Lowe, Stuart B; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2014-04-21

    Concerns over possible toxicities of conventional metal-containing quantum dots have inspired growing research interests in colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), or silicon quantum dots (SiQDs). This is related to their potential applications in a number of fields such as solar cells, optoelectronic devices and fluorescent bio-labelling agents. The past decade has seen significant progress in the understanding of fundamental physics and surface properties of silicon nanocrystals. Such understanding is based on the advances in the preparation and characterization of surface passivated colloidal silicon nanocrystals. In this critical review, we summarize recent advances in the methods of preparing high quality silicon nanocrystals and strategies for forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), with a focus on their bio-applications. We highlight some of the major challenges that remain, as well as lessons learnt when working with silicon nanocrystals (239 references).

  14. Coastal lagoon sediments and benthic foraminifera as indicator for Holocene sea-level change: Samsø, southern Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Morigi, Caterina; Pejrup, Morten

    relative sea-level to drop. Originally, two Pleistocene elevations existed as separated islands, which were high enough to reach above sea-level during the transgressions. Proceeding coastal erosion produced material that was transported longshore and that was successively accommodated in a shallow sound....... Over time, an extensive beach ridge system formed, which eventually connected the islands, giving Samsø its characteristic shape. Ephemeral shallow-water lagoons evolved in topographic depressions along the shores of the island, most of which became inactive until today. A semi-enclosed coastal lagoon...... remained in the NE part of the island, which developed around an archipelago of submerged moraine hills. In the scope of this project we will study the evolution of the coastal landscape from the mid-Holocene to present day. We use a multi-proxy approach to resolve local variations in sea...

  15. Sulphur-bearing Compounds Detected by MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analysis of Materials from Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Franz, H. B.; Archer, P. D. Jr.; Sutter, B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Atreya, S. K.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Brunner, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) analysed several subsamples of sample fines (gas analysis (EGA) mass spectrometry detected H2O, CO2, O2, H2, SO2, H2S, HCl, NO, OCS, CS2 and other trace gases. The identity of evolved gases and temperature (T) of evolution can support mineral detection by CheMin and place constraints on trace volatile-bearing phases present below the CheMin detection limit or difficult to characterize with XRD (e.g., X-ray amorphous phases). Here, we focus on potential constraints on phases that evolved SO2, H2S, OCS, and CS2 during thermal analysis.

  16. Detecting Organic Compounds Released from Iron Oxidizing Bacteria using Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)-like Instrument Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Popa, R.; Martin, M. G.; Freissinet, C.; Fisk, M. R.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Mars is a planet of great interest for Astrobiology since its past environmental conditions are thought to have been favourable for the emergence life. At present, the Red Planet is extremely cold and dry and the surface is exposed to intense UV and ionizing radiation, conditions generally considered to be incompatible with life as we know it on Earth. It was proposed that the shallow subsurface of Mars, where temperatures can be above freezing and liquid water can exist on rock surfaces, could harbor chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as the iron oxidizing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. HerB [Popa et al. 2012]. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will provide the next opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds of possible biological origin on Mars. One instrument onboard MSL, called the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, will carry out a broad and sensitive search for organic compounds in surface samples using either high temperature pyrolysis or chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry [Mahaffy et al. 2012]. We present gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) data on crushed olivine rock powders that have been inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. HerB at different concentrations ranging from ~102 to 107 cells per gram. The inoculated olivine samples were heated under helium carrier gas flow at 500°C and the pyrolysis products concentrated using a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap set at -20°C followed by trap heating and analysis by GC/MS. In addition, the samples were also extracted using a low temperature "one-pot" chemical extraction technique using N-methyl, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC/MS analysis [Stalport et al. 2012]. We identified several aldehydes, thiols, and alkene nitriles after pyrolysis GC/MS analysis of the bacteria that were not found in the olivine control samples that had not been inoculated with bacteria. The

  17. Mesospheric effects of solar ultraviolet variations - Further analysis of SME IR ozone and Nimbus 7 SAMS temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Huang, Z.; Bougher, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to improve the constraints on models of the mesospheric response to solar UV variations, an analysis is conducted of the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) IR ozone data and Nimbus 7 stratosphere and mesosphere sounder (SAMS) temperature data. Maximum low-altitude ozone and temperature-response amplitudes occur at about the same altitude, where a strong coupling between photochemical and thermal components of the mesospheric response is suggested by the simultaneous positive temperature and negative ozone response maxima. Increased Lyman-alpha dissociation of water vapor and temperature feedback are theorized to account for the negative ozone response. HO(x) chemical heating can increase as ozone destruction increases, and can therefore account for the positive temperature response.

  18. Mars Atmospheric Composition, Isotope Ratios and Seasonal Variations: Overview and Updates of the SAM Measurements at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Franz, H.; Trainer, M. G.; Wong, M. H.; Mischna, M. A.; Flesch, G.; Farley, K. A.; Owen, T. C.; Niles, P. B.; Jones, J. H.; Christensen, L. E.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    We will summarize the in situ measurements of atmospheric composition and the isotopic ratios of D/H in water, 13C/12C, 18O/16O, 17O/16O, and 13C18O/12C16O in carbon dioxide, 38Ar/36Ar, xKr/84Kr, and 15N/14N made in the martian atmosphere at Gale Crater from the Curiosity Rover using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)'s Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) and Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). With data over 700 sols since the Curiosity landing, we will discuss evidence and implications for changes on seasonal and other timescales. We will also present results for continued methane and methane enrichment experiments over this time period. Comparison between our measurements in the modern atmosphere and those of martian meteorites like ALH 84001 implies that the martian reservoirs of CO2 and H2O were largely established ~4 billion years ago, but that atmospheric loss or surface interaction may be still ongoing. References:[1] Mahaffy P. R. et al., Science, 341, 263-266, 2013, doi:10.1126/science.1237966. [2] Webster C. R. et al. (2013), Science, 341, 260-263, doi:10.1126/science.1237961. [3] Wong, M. H. et al. (2013), Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2013GL057840. [4] Atreya S. K. et al (2013), Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/2013GL057763. The research described here was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  19. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor SAM486A in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zuylen; C. Mueller; J. Verweij (Jaap); J.A. Ledermann; J. Bridgewater; A. Sparreboom (Alex); F.A.L.M. Eskens (Ferry); P. de Bruijn (Peter); I. Sklenar; A.S.Th. Planting (André); L. Choi; D. Bootle

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity, safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor SAM486A given in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) in cancer patients.

  20. Study of Fused Thiophene Based Organic Semiconductors and Interfacial Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) for Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jangdae

    In this thesis, the molecular packing motifs of our newly designed fused thiophenes, benzo[d,d]thieno[3,2-b;4,5-b]dithiophene (BTDT) derivatives, were studied by utilizing grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). Considering the potential of fused thiophene molecules as an environmentally stable, high performance semiconductor building block, it must be an important groundwork to investigate their thin film structures in relation to molecular structures, single crystal structures, and organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) performances. OTFT device performance is not only determined by semiconductor materials, but also influenced by the interfacial properties. Since there are three major components in TFT structures---electrodes, semiconductors, and dielectrics, two types of major interfaces exist. One is the semiconductor-electrode interface, and the other is the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Both of these interfaces have critical roles for TFT operation. For example, the semiconductor-electrode interface determines the charge injection barrier. Before charge carriers go through the electrode (source)-semiconductor-electrode (drain) pathways, the energy gaps between the work function of the electrodes and the HOMO energy of the semiconductor materials must be overcome for hole injection, or the energy gap between the metal work function of the electrodes and the LUMO energy of the semiconductor materials must be overcome for electron injection. These charge injection barriers are largely determined by the energetic structure of the semiconductor material and work function of the electrode. However, the size of energy gap can be modified by introducing an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of metal electrode. In addition, the structure of semiconductor films, especially within several monolayers right above the electrode, is greatly influenced by the SAM, and it changes charge injection property of OTFT devices. In this thesis

  1. Influencia del Estado de Oxidación del Ión Cobalto en la Estabilidad de Electrodos Modificados con Monocapas SAM-TOA-ANTA-Con+-HRP-NHis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Matheus*

    Full Text Available Influence of state oxidation of cobalt ion in the stability electrodes modified with monolayers SAM-TOA-ANTA-Con+-HRP-NHis. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM was used to investigate the adsorption of the HRP-NHis enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, which was modified by the addition of a tail of six histidine on its extreme N-terminal. The QCM operating at flow of 0.025 mL min-1 on a crystal whose gold electrode was modified with monolayers of SAM-TOA-ANTA-Co2+ and SAM-TOA-ANTA -Co3+. The oxidize form was obtained from the electrochemical oxidation of a monolayer of SAM-TOA-ANTA-Co2+. The results suggest that the HRP-NHis is attached to both monolayers in a similar way; on the contrary, the desortion of the attached protein is dramatically different. Thus, whereas the ligand-Co2+ bonds are reversible, which allows that the anchored protein is easily replaced by imidazol molecules. The 3+ oxidation state of the metal does not allow the interchange of protein by the imidazol molecules.

  2. In situ analysis of Mars soil and rocks samples with the SAM experiment: laboratory measurements supporting treatment and interpretation of the detection of organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover detected numerous organic compounds when analyzing the solid samples collected on the way to Mount Sharp. But MTBSTFA, the chemical reactant for the chemical treatment of the refractory molecules present in the solid samples and present in cups of SAM,was shown to be unfortunately present in the Sample Manipulation System(SMS). During the sample analysis, this chemical species reacts with the organic and inorganic molecules present in the samples. This reaction leads to the production and subsequent detection of numerous MTBSTFA derivatives which makes the treatment and the interpretation of the SAM data complex. Moreover, for the first time on Mars, the wet chemistry method was used on a Cumberland sample to help the GC separation and the MS identification of non volatile compounds. To ensure the identification of the organic molecules and try to discriminate organics generated internally to SAM from those present in the samples analyzed, it is mandatory to perform laboratory experimental calibrations under martian operating conditions.

  3. SAMS, a syndrome of short stature, auditory-canal atresia, mandibular hypoplasia, and skeletal abnormalities is a unique neurocristopathy caused by mutations in Goosecoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David A; Logan, Clare V; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Abdelhamed, Zakia A; Calder, Alistair; Khan, Shabana; Bonthron, David T; Clowes, Virginia; Sheridan, Eamonn; Ghali, Neeti; Chudley, Albert E; Dobbie, Angus; Stumpel, Constance T R M; Johnson, Colin A

    2013-12-05

    Short stature, auditory canal atresia, mandibular hypoplasia, and skeletal abnormalities (SAMS) has been reported previously to be a rare, autosomal-recessive developmental disorder with other, unique rhizomelic skeletal anomalies. These include bilateral humeral hypoplasia, humeroscapular synostosis, pelvic abnormalities, and proximal defects of the femora. To identify the genetic basis of SAMS, we used molecular karyotyping and whole-exome sequencing (WES) to study small, unrelated families. Filtering of variants from the WES data included segregation analysis followed by comparison of in-house exomes. We identified a homozygous 306 kb microdeletion and homozygous predicted null mutations of GSC, encoding Goosecoid homeobox protein, a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor. This confirms that SAMS is a human malformation syndrome resulting from GSC mutations. Previously, Goosecoid has been shown to be a determinant at the Xenopus gastrula organizer region and a segment-polarity determinant in Drosophila. In the present report, we present data on Goosecoid protein localization in staged mouse embryos. These data and the SAMS clinical phenotype both suggest that Goosecoid is a downstream effector of the regulatory networks that define neural-crest cell-fate specification and subsequent mesoderm cell lineages in mammals, particularly during shoulder and hip formation. Our findings confirm that Goosecoid has an essential role in human craniofacial and joint development and suggest that Goosecoid is an essential regulator of mesodermal patterning in mammals and that it has specific functions in neural crest cell derivatives.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of a 1,8-octanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (ODT-SAM) on a Au(111) single crystal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Raya, Daniel; Madueno, Rafael; Sevilla, Jose Manuel; Blazquez, Manuel; Pineda, Teresa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Cordoba (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Recently, it has becoming increasingly important to control the organization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of {omega}-functionalized thiols for its potential applications in the construction of more complex molecular architectures. In this paper, we report on the spontaneous formation of a SAM of octanedithiol (ODT) as a function of the modification time. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, double layer capacitance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization of this monolayer. The increase in modification time brings about changes in the octanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (ODT-SAM) reductive desorption voltammograms that indicate an evolution toward a more ordered and compact monolayer. This trend has also been found by following the changes in the electron transfer processes of the redox probe K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6}. In fact, the ODT-SAM formed at low-modification time does not significantly perturb the electrochemical response as it is typical of either a low coverage or of the presence of large defects in the layer. Upon increasing the modification time, the voltammograms of the redox probe adopt a sigmoidal shape indicating the existence of pinholes in the monolayer distributed as an array of microelectrodes. The surface coverage as well as the size and distribution of these pinholes have been determined by the impedance technique that gives a more reliable evaluation of these monolayer structural parameters. (author)

  5. Electrochemical characterization of a 1,8-octanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (ODT-SAM) on a Au(1 1 1) single crystal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Raya, Daniel; Madueno, Rafael; Sevilla, Jose Manuel; Blazquez, Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Pineda, Teresa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: tpineda@uco.es

    2008-11-15

    Recently, it has becoming increasingly important to control the organization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of {omega}-functionalized thiols for its potential applications in the construction of more complex molecular architectures. In this paper, we report on the spontaneous formation of a SAM of octanedithiol (ODT) as a function of the modification time. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, double layer capacitance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization of this monolayer. The increase in modification time brings about changes in the octanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (ODT-SAM) reductive desorption voltammograms that indicate an evolution toward a more ordered and compact monolayer. This trend has also been found by following the changes in the electron transfer processes of the redox probe K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6}. In fact, the ODT-SAM formed at low-modification time does not significantly perturb the electrochemical response as it is typical of either a low coverage or of the presence of large defects in the layer. Upon increasing the modification time, the voltammograms of the redox probe adopt a sigmoidal shape indicating the existence of pinholes in the monolayer distributed as an array of microelectrodes. The surface coverage as well as the size and distribution of these pinholes have been determined by the impedance technique that gives a more reliable evaluation of these monolayer structural parameters.

  6. Effect of the Presence of Chlorates and Perchlorates on the Pyrolysis of Organic Compounds: Implications for Measurements Done with the SAM Experiment Onboard the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Summons, R. E.; Mahaffy, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover carries a suite of instruments, one of which is the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment. SAM is devoted to the in situ molecular analysis of gases evolving from solid samples collected by Curiosity on Mars surface/sub-surface. Among its three analytical devices, SAM has a gaschromatograph coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-QMS). The GC-QMS is devoted to the separation and identification of organic and inorganic material. Before proceeding to the GC-QMS analysis, the solid sample collected by Curiosity is subjected to a thermal treatment thanks to the pyrolysis oven to release the volatiles into the gas processing system. Depending on the sample, a derivatization method by wet chemistry: MTBSTFA of TMAH can also be applied to analyze the most refractory compounds. The GC is able to separate the organic molecules which are then detected and identified by the QMS (Figure 1). For the second time after the Viking landers in 1976, SAM detected chlorinated organic compounds with the pyrolysis GC-QMS experiment. The detection of perchlorates salts (ClO4-) in soil at the Phoenix Landing site suggests that the chlorohydrocarbons detected could come from the reaction of organics with oxychlorines. Indeed, laboratory pyrolysis experiments have demonstrated that oxychlorines decomposed into molecular oxygen and volatile chlorine (HCl and/or Cl2) when heated which then react with the organic matter in the solid samples by oxidation and/or chlorination processes.

  7. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  8. Reduced response of Cystathionine Beta-Synthase (CBS) to S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM): Identification and functional analysis of CBS gene mutations in Homocystinuria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marisa I S; Colaço, Henrique G; Smith, Desirée E C; Ramos, Rúben J J F; Pop, Ana; van Dooren, Silvy J M; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Janssen, Mirian C H; Rivera, Isabel; Salomons, Gajja S; Leandro, Paula; Blom, Henk J

    2014-03-01

    A reduced response of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) to its allosteric activator S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) has been reported to be a cause of CBS dysfunction in homocystinuria patients. In this work we performed a retrospective analysis of fibroblast data from 62 homocystinuria patients and found that 13 of them presented a disturbed SAM activation. Their genotypic background was identified and the corresponding CBS mutant proteins were produced in E. coli. Nine distinct mutations were detected in 22 independent alleles: the novel mutations p.K269del, p.P427L, p.S500L and p.L540Q; and the previously described mutations p.P49L, p.C165Rfs*2, p.I278T, p.R336H and p.D444N. Expression levels and residual enzyme activities, determined in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, strongly correlated with the localization of the affected amino acid residue. C-terminal mutations lead to activities in the range of the wild-type CBS and to oligomeric forms migrating faster than tetramers, suggesting an abnormal conformation that might be responsible for the lack of SAM activation. Mutations in the catalytic core were associated with low protein expression levels, decreased enzyme activities and a higher content of high molecular mass forms. Furthermore, the absence of SAM activation found in the patients' fibroblasts was confirmed for all but one of the characterized recombinant proteins (p.P49L). Our study experimentally supports a deficient regulation of CBS by SAM as a frequently found mechanism in CBS deficiency, which should be considered not only as a valuable diagnostic tool but also as a potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches in classical homocystinuria.

  9. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  10. Effect of the presence of chlorates and perchlorates on the pyrolysis of organic compounds: implications for measurements done with the SAM experiment onboard the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Maeva; Szopa, Cyril; Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imène; Coll, Patrice; Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Archer, Doug; Sutter, Brad; Summons, Roger E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission is partly devoted to the in situ molecular analysis of gases evolving from solid samples collected on Mars surface/sub-surface. SAM has a gas-chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-QMS) devoted to the separation and identification of organic and inorganic material [1]. Before proceeding to the GC-QMS analysis, the solid sample collected by Curiosity is subjected to a thermal treatment thanks to the pyrolysis oven to release the volatiles into the gas processing system. As the Viking landers in 1976 [2], SAM detected chlorohydrocarbons with the pyrolysis GC-QMS experiment [3,4]. The detection of perchlorates salts in soil at the Phoenix Landing site [6] suggests that these chlorohydrocarbons could come from the reaction of organics with oxychlorines. Oxychlorines indeed decomposed into molecular oxygen and volatile chlorine when heated and react with the organic matter in the samples by oxidation and/or chlorination processes. [3,5,7,8]. During SAM pyrolysis, samples are heated to 850°C. SAM detected C1 to C3 chloroalkanes, entirely attributed to reaction products occurring during the pyrolysis experiment between oxychlorines and organic carbon from instrument background [3] and chlorobenzene and C2 to C4 dichloroalkanes produced by reaction between Mars endogenous organics with oxychlorines [4]. To help understanding the influence of perchlorate and chlorate salts on organic matter during SAM pyrolysis, we systemically study the reaction products formed during pyrolysis of various organic compounds mixed with various perchlorates and chlorates. We selected organics from simple molecule forms as for instance PAHs and amino acids to complex material (>30 carbon atoms) such as kerogen. The perchlorate and chlorate salts are prepared at 1 wt % concentration in silica and mixed with the organics to study the potential qualitative and

  11. In situ analysis of martian regolith with the SAM experiment during the first mars year of the MSL mission: Identification of organic molecules by gas chromatography from laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Coll, P.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; François, P.; Coscia, D.; Bonnet, J. Y.; Teinturier, S.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-09-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover, is specifically designed for in situ molecular and isotopic analyses of martian surface materials and atmosphere. It contributes to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions primary scientific goal to characterize the potential past, present or future habitability of Mars. In all of the analyses of solid samples delivered to SAM so far, chlorinated organic compounds have been detected above instrument background levels and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Freissinet et al., 2015; Glavin et al., 2013). While some of these may originate from reactions between oxychlorines and terrestrial organic carbon present in the instrument background (Glavin et al., 2013), others have been demonstrated to originate from indigenous organic carbon present in samples (Freissinet et al., 2015). We present here laboratory calibrations that focused on the analyses performed with the MXT-CLP GC column (SAM GC-5 channel) used for nearly all of the GC-MS analyses of the martian soil samples carried out with SAM to date. Complementary to the mass spectrometric data, gas chromatography allows us to separate and identify the species analyzable in a nominal SAM-GC run time of about 21 min. To characterize the analytical capabilities of this channel within the SAM Flight Model (FM) operating conditions on Mars, and their implications on the detection of organic matter, it is required to perform laboratory experimental tests and calibrations on spare model components. This work assesses the SAM flight GC-5 column efficiency, confirms the identification of the molecules based on their retention time, and enables a better understanding of the behavior of the SAM injection trap (IT) and its release of organic molecules. This work will enable further optimization of the SAM-GC runs for additional samples to be analyzed during the MSL mission.

  12. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Deborah; McColl, Elaine; Powell, Christine J; Shen, Jing; Sloper, John; Steen, Nick; Taylor, Robert; Tiffin, Peter; Vale, Luke; Clarke, Michael P

    2012-10-16

    Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T)] is a type of strabismus (squint) in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision). Treatment options for X(T) include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T) are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia) pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T). Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit.Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T). initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring); 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome) clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire); qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or loss to follow-up; reasons for agreeing/declining participation; variability of cure rates

  13. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  14. Comparison of SAM and OBIA as Tools for Lava Morphology Classification - A Case Study in Krafla, NE Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufaristama, Muhammad; Hölbling, Daniel; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2017-04-01

    The Krafla volcanic system is part of the Icelandic North Volcanic Zone (NVZ). During Holocene, two eruptive events occurred in Krafla, 1724-1729 and 1975-1984. The last eruptive episode (1975-1984), known as the "Krafla Fires", resulted in nine volcanic eruption episodes. The total area covered by the lavas from this eruptive episode is 36 km2 and the volume is about 0.25-0.3 km3. Lava morphology is related to the characteristics of the surface morphology of a lava flow after solidification. The typical morphology of lava can be used as primary basis for the classification of lava flows when rheological properties cannot be directly observed during emplacement, and also for better understanding the behavior of lava flow models. Although mapping of lava flows in the field is relatively accurate such traditional methods are time consuming, especially when the lava covers large areas such as it is the case in Krafla. Semi-automatic mapping methods that make use of satellite remote sensing data allow for an efficient and fast mapping of lava morphology. In this study, two semi-automatic methods for lava morphology classification are presented and compared using Landsat 8 (30 m spatial resolution) and SPOT-5 (10 m spatial resolution) satellite images. For assessing the classification accuracy, the results from semi-automatic mapping were compared to the respective results from visual interpretation. On the one hand, the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification method was used. With this method an image is classified according to the spectral similarity between the image reflectance spectrums and the reference reflectance spectra. SAM successfully produced detailed lava surface morphology maps. However, the pixel-based approach partly leads to a salt-and-pepper effect. On the other hand, we applied the Random Forest (RF) classification method within an object-based image analysis (OBIA) framework. This statistical classifier uses a randomly selected subset of training

  15. The Search for Organic Compounds of Martian Origin in Gale Crater by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument on Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, Paul; Miller, Kristen; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Archer, Douglas, Jr.; Brunner, Anna; Martin, Mildred; Buch, Arrnaud; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason; Grotzinger, John; Ming, Douglas; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    One of the key objectives of the Mars Science Laboratory rover and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles in the atmosphere and surface regolith and rocks to help assess the habitability potential of Gale Crater. The SAM instrument on the Curiosity rover can detect volatile organic compounds thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) (Mahaffy et al. 2012). The first solid samples analyzed by SAM, a scoop of windblown dust and sand at Rocknest, revealed several chloromethanes and a C4-chlorinated hydrocarbon derived primarily from reactions between a martian oxychlorine phase (e.g. perchlorate) and terrestrial carbon from N-methyl-N-(tertbutyldimethylsilyl)- trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) vapor present in the SAM instrument background (Glavin et al. 2013). After the analyses at Rocknest, Curiosity traveled to Yellowknife Bay and drilled two separate holes in a fluvio-lacustrine sediment (the Sheepbed unit) designated John Klein and Cumberland. Analyses of the drilled materials by both SAM and the CheMin X-Ray Diffraction instrument revealed a mudstone consisting of 20 wt% smectite clays (Ming et al. 2013; Vaniman et al. 2013), which on Earth are known to aid the concentration and preservation of organic matter. Oxychlorine compounds were also detected in the Sheepbed mudstone during pyrolysis; however, in contrast to Rocknest, much higher levels of chloromethanes were released from the Sheepbed materials, suggesting an additional, possibly martian source of organic carbon (Ming et al. 2013). In addition, elevated abundances of chlorobenzene and a more diverse suite of chlorinated alkanes including dichloropropane and dichlorobutane detected in Cumberland compared to Rocknest suggest that martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone (Freissinet et al. 2013

  16. Highlight on the indigenous organic molecules detected on Mars by SAM and potential sources of artifacts and backgrounds generated by the sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Belmahdi, I.; Szopa, C.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Coll, P. J.; Cabane, M.; Millan, M.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Pinnick, V. T.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Stambouli, M.; Dequaire, T.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Among the experiments which explore the martian soil aboard the Curiosity Rover, SAM experiment is mainly dedicated to the search for indigenous organic compounds. To reach its goals SAM can operate in different analysis modes: Pyrolysis-GC-MS and Pyrolysis-MS (EGA). In addition SAM includes wet chemistry experiments [1] to supports extraction of polar organic compounds from solid samples that improves their detection either by increasing the release of chemical species from solid sample matrices, or by changing their chemical structure to make compounds more amenable to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The two wet chemistry experimental capabilities of SAM provide alternatives to the nominal inert-thermal desorption/pyrolysis analytical protocol and are more aptly suited for polar components: MTBSTFA derivatization [2-3] and TMAH thermochemolysis [4-5]. Here we focus on the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment. In order to build a support used to help the interpretation of SAM results, we have investigated the artifacts and backgrounds sources generated by the all analysis process: Solid sample were heated up to approximately 840°C at a rate of 35°C/min under He flow. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (Tenax®) over a specific temperature range. Adsorbed volatiles on the GC injection trap (IT) were then released into the GC column (CLP-MXT 30m x 0.25mm x 0.25μm) by rapidly heating the IT to 300°C. Then, in order better understand the part of compounds detected coming from internal reaction we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM device: Among the sources of artifact, we test: (1) the thermal stability and the organic material released during the degradation of Tenax® and carbosieve, (2) the impact of MTBSTFA and a mixture of DMF and MTBSTFA on the adsorbent, (3) the reaction between the different adsorbents (Tenax® and Carbosieve) and calcium perchlorate and then (4) the sources

  17. Effects of unconditional cash transfers on the outcome of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM): a cluster-randomised trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellety, Emmanuel; Babakazo, Pélagie; Bangana, Amina; Mwamba, Gustave; Lezama, Ines; Zagre, Noël Marie; Ategbo, Eric-Alain

    2017-04-26

    Cash transfer programs (CTPs) aim to strengthen financial security for vulnerable households. This potentially enables improvements in diet, hygiene, health service access and investment in food production or income generation. The effect of CTPs on the outcome of children already severely malnourished is not well delineated. The objective of this study was to test whether CTPs will improve the outcome of children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over 6 months. We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial in children with uncomplicated SAM who received treatment according to the national protocol and counselling with or without a cash supplement of US$40 monthly for 6 months. Analyses were by intention to treat. The hazard ratio of reaching full recovery from SAM was 35% higher in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.69, P = 0.007). The adjusted hazard ratios in the intervention group for relapse to moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and SAM were 0.21 (95% CI = 0.11 to 0.41, P = 0.001) and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58, P = 0.001) respectively. Non-response and defaulting were lower when the households received cash. All the nutritional outcomes in the intervention group were significantly better than those in the control group. After 6 months, 80% of cash-intervened children had re-gained their mid-upper arm circumference measurements and weight-for-height/length Z-scores and showed evidence of catch-up. Less than 40% of the control group had a fully successful outcome, with many deteriorating after discharge. There was a significant increase in diet diversity and food consumption scores for both groups from baseline; the increase was significantly greater in the intervention group than the control group. CTPs can increase recovery from SAM and decrease default, non-response and relapse rates during and

  18. Potential sources of artifacts and backgrounds generated by the sample preparation of the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity Rover on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Belmahdi, Imene; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Miller, Kristen; Coll, Patrice; cabane, Michel; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the MSL mission. Three analytical devices are onboard SAM: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used on SAM, a sample preparation and gas processing system is implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) which is employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis [1].Volatile compounds and abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected with SAM when analyzing samples collected in several sites explored by Curiosity rover. Some volatile compounds (chlorinated and non-chlorinated) come from the degradation of the MTBSTFA under high temperature or by the reaction of Martian oxychlorine compounds (present in the samples) with terrestrial carbon coming from the derivatization agent (MTBSTFA) used in SAM [2,3]. But other chlorinated compounds do not follow this pathway. For example, Chlorobenzene has been detected by SAM but it cannot be formed by the reaction of MTBSTFA and perchlorates. Then, two other reaction pathways for chlorobenzene were therefore proposed: (1) reactions between the volatile thermal degradation products of perchlorates (e.g. O2, Cl2 and HCl) and Tenax® and (2) the interaction of perchlorates (T>200°C) with organic material from Mars's soil such as benzenecarboxylates. However, even if major part of the chlorobenzene detected has been identified as Martian origin [4] it is important to list all the potential byproducts able to be released from the Tenax®.Thus, this study inventory all the possible compounds which are originated from Tenax®, MTBSTFA and their interaction with perchlorate.References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Glavin, D., A. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4

  19. Moralidade e justiça na historiografia antiga: o 'manual' historiográfico de Luciano de Samósata Morality and justice in ancient history: Luciano de Samósata's "manual" on historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leme Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Como se deve escrever a história, de Luciano de Samósata, é o único tratado da Antigüidade sobre historiografia que chegou até nós. Foi escrito no contexto da produção "histórica" gerada pelas guerras párticas de Lucio Vero (segunda metade do século II d.C.. Para ressaltar a dupla posição política e moral do historiador - que deve, acima de tudo, ser justo -, Luciano critica duramente essas narrativas aduladoras e apresenta Tucídides como o historiador ideal.Luciano de Samosata’s How history should be written is the only known treatise on history from Antiquity. It was written in the context of the "historical" production spawned by Lucio Vero’ Parthian wars (second half of the second century A.D.. To underline the moral and political position of the historian - who must, above all, be just -, Luciano criticizes these flattering narratives and presents Thucydides as the model historian.

  20. Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater Measured by the TLS instrument in SAM on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several years, Earth-based telescopic and Mars orbit remote sensing instruments have reported significant abundances of methane on Mars ranging to tens of parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). These observations have reported "plumes" or localized patches of methane with variations on timescales much faster than model predictions, leading to speculation of sources from sub-surface methanogen bacteria, geological water-rock reactions, degassing of infalling comets, or UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust. Using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosity, we report in situ detection of methane at background levels of ~0.7 ppbv and also in an episodic release at ten times this value. We will discuss the mechanisms that are believed contributing to these two regimes, report new measurements made since the publication in Science1, and discuss the evidence and implications for seasonal vs. episodic release. Reference 1. "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015). The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  1. Single-case study in rehabilitation with SaM method (Sense and Mind): a proposal and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoli, Annalisa; Bortolotti, Adriana; Capettini, Manuela; Giacobbi, Giulia; Ramella, Marina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe a new rehabilitation approach for traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI is a heterogeneous disorder that could be associated with cognitive and behavioral impairments. The clinical complexity of TBI patients requires a specialized and integrated approach that involves several rehabilitation experts (Mazzucchi in La riabilitazione neuropsicologica, Elsevier-Masson, Milan, 2012). SaM method (SaMM) (Risoli in La riabilitazione spaziale, Carocci Faber, Rome, 2013) is a new rehabilitation approach based on "embodied cognition" theory (Gallese and Lakoff in Cogn Neuropsychol 22(3):455-479, 2005) and has the aim to improve spatial abilities through structured body exercises. The patient was a 35-year-old male who had TBI 9 months before. The patient was evaluated, before and after the treatment, with neuropsychological tests (Rey Test copy and reproduction, Elithorn Test, Trail Making Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), Lawton Index for IADL, level of cognitive functioning, and a qualitative process-oriented assessment with SaMM exercises. The patient was treated with SaMM for 4 months, three times a week. Several of the executed assessments showed an improvement after SaMM treatment. The patient also reported amelioration in some daily activities such as swimming and using phone and money. Further investigations are necessary, but the SaMM appeared to be a useful complementary restitutive approach for TBI patients.

  2. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Two Lectins from Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus L. Blossoms Related to the Sam n1 Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Girbes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sambucus species contain a number of lectins with and without antiribosomal activity. Here, we show that dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L. blossoms express two D-galactose-binding lectins that were isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. These proteins, which we named ebulin blo (A-B toxin and SELblo (B-B lectin—blo from blossoms—were subjected to molecular characterization and analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and tryptic peptide fingerprinting. Both lectins share a high degree of amino acid sequence homology with Sambucus lectins related to the Sam n1 allergen. Ebulin blo, but not SELblo, was highly toxic by nasal instillation to mice. Overall, our results suggested that both lectins would belong to an allergen family exemplified by Sam n1 and could trigger allergy responses. Furthermore, they raise a concern about ebulin blo toxicity.

  3. Fluorocarbon Contamination from the Drill on the Mars Science Laboratory: Potential Science Impact on Detecting Martian Organics by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H.; Freissinet, C.; Bower, H.; Floyd, M.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.; Feldman, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Evans, J.; Anderson, M.; Jandura, L.; Brown, K.; Logan, C.; Kuhn, S.; Anderson, R.; Beegle, L.; Limonadi, D.; Rainen, R.; Umland, J.

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or trade name: Teflon by Dupont Co.) has been detected in rocks drilled during terrestrial testing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) drilling hardware. The PTFE in sediments is a wear product of the seals used in the Drill Bit Assemblies (DBAs). It is expected that the drill assembly on the MSL flight model will also shed Teflon particles into drilled samples. One of the primary goals of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL is to test for the presence of martian organics in samples. Complications introduced by the potential presence of PTFE in drilled samples to the SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA or pyrolysisquadrupole mass spectrometry, pyr-QMS) and pyrolysis- gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Pyr- GCMS) experiments was investigated.

  4. Sterols of Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg6 Knockout Mutant Expressing the Pneumocystis carinii S-Adenosylmethionine:Sterol C-24 Methyltransferase (SAM:SMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.; Johnston, Laura Q.; Nkinin, Stephenson W.; Romero, Becky I.; Giner, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The AIDS-associated lung pathogen Pneumocystis is classified as a fungus although Pneumocystis has several distinct features such as the absence of ergosterol, the major sterol of most fungi. The P. carinii S-adenosylmethionine:sterol C24-methyltransferase (SAM:SMT) enzyme, coded by the erg6 gene, transfers either one or two methyl groups to the C-24 position of the sterol side chain producing both C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols in approximately the same proportions whereas most fungal SAM:SMT transfer only one methyl group to the side chain. The sterol compositions of wild type Sacchromyces cerevisiae, the erg6 knockout mutant (Δerg6), and Δerg6 expressing the P. carinii or the S. cerevisiae erg6 gene were analyzed by a variety of chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures to examine functional complementation in the yeast expression system. Detailed sterol analyses were obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The P. carinii SAM:SMT in the Δerg6 restored its ability to produce the C28 sterol ergosterol as the major sterol, and also resulted in low levels of C29 sterols. This indicates that while the P. carinii SAM:SMT in the yeast Δerg6 cells was able to transfer a second methyl group to the side chain, the action of Δ24(28)-sterol reductase (coded by the erg4 gene) in the yeast cells prevented the formation and accumulation of as many C29 sterols as that found in P. carinii. PMID:25230683

  5. Séries temporais de NDVI do sensor SPOT Vegetation e algoritmo SAM aplicados ao mapeamento de cana‑de‑açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Vicente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o mapeamento de área de cana‑de‑açúcar por meio de série temporal, de seis anos de dados do índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, oriundos do sensor Vegetation, a bordo do satélite "système pour l'observation de la Terre" (SPOT. Três classes de cobertura do solo (cana‑de‑açúcar, pasto e floresta, do Estado de São Paulo, foram selecionadas como assinaturas espectro‑temporais de referência, que serviram como membros extremos ("endmembers" para classificação com o algoritmo "spectral angle mapper" (SAM. A partir desta classificação, o mapeamento da área de cana‑de‑açúcar foi realizado com uso de limiares na imagem-regra do SAM, gerados a partir dos valores dos espectros de referência. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo SAM pode ser aplicado a séries de dados multitemporais de resolução moderada, o que permite eficiente mapeamento de alvo agrícola em escala mesorregional. Dados oficiais de áreas de cana‑de‑açúcar, para as microrregiões paulistas, apresentam boa correlação (r² = 0,8 com os dados obtidos pelo método avaliado. A aplicação do algoritmo SAM mostrou ser útil em análises temporais. As séries temporais de NDVI do sensor SPOT Vegetation podem ser utilizadas para mapeamento da área de cana‑de‑açúcar em baixa resolução.

  6. Identification of Phyllosilicates in Mudstone Samples Using Water Releases Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogancamp, J. V. (Clark); Ming, D. W.; McAdam, A. C.; Archer, P. D.; Morris, R. V.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Gellert, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Curiosity Rover has detected high temperature water releases from mud-stones in the areas of Yellowknife Bay, Pahrump Hills, Naukluft Plateau, and Murray Buttes in Gale crater. Dehydroxylation of phyllosilicates may have caused the high temperature water releases observed in these samples. Because each type of phyllosilicate undergoes dehydroxylation at distinct temperatures, these water releases can be used to help constrain the type of phyllosilicate present in each sample.

  7. 1,25(OH)2D3 acts as a bone-forming agent in the hormone-independent senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P/6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Macoritto, Michael; Dion, Natalie; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; Kremer, Richard

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D signaling regulates bone formation. However, the overall effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on bone turnover in vivo is still unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on bone turnover in SAM-P/6, a hormone-independent mouse model of senile osteoporosis characterized by a decrease in bone formation. Male and female 4-mo-old SAM-P/6 mice were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 (18 pmol/24 h) or vehicle for a period of 6 wk, and a group of age- and sex-matched nonosteoporotic animals was used as control. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine increased rapidly by >30 +/- 5% (P 2D3-treated SAM-P/6 animals, whereas BMD decreased significantly by 18 +/- 2% (P 2D3 significantly increased bone volume and other parameters of bone quality as well as subperiosteal bone formation rate compared with vehicle-treated SAM-P/6 mice. However, no effect on trabecular bone formation was observed. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of osteoclasts and eroded surfaces. A significant increase in circulating bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers was also observed. Finally, bone marrow cells, obtained from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals and cultured in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D3, differentiated more intensely into osteoblasts compared with those derived from vehicle-treated mice cultured in the same conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 acts simultaneously on bone formation and resorption to prevent the development of senile osteoporosis.

  8. Konsep Kehidupan Dalam Ruang Pada Kelenteng Sam Kouw Di Surakarta Studi Kasus : Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie, Kelenteng Poo An Kiong Dan Cetiya Ksiti Garbha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Susilowati Pradnya Paramita

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The kelenteng was used by three traditional religions brought by Chinese traders, namely Tao, Khonghucu and Buddhism which then together named Sam Kouw (Tri Darma The kelenteng Sam Kouw had many worshiped sculptures to which their worship ritualwas based. The kelenteng was taken care by a suhu acted as a mediator during the worship. Due to his role in worship, the Suhu and his family also stayed in the kelenteng.Based on that phenomenon, this research is focused on the rooms usage in kelenteng as a place of interaction of both worship and household routines. This research applies naturalistic qualitative methodology. The researcher played as the main instrument in collecting the data by observation, interview. The data gained during the research was formulated to some topics analyzed inductively before the researcher conducted an inter -topic dialog.. Thi s researched was conducted in three objects with cross sectional method to strengthen the data and sharpen the focus of observation. The three objects are: 1 Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie in Ketandan; 2 Kelenteng Poo An Kiong in Coyudan, and 3 Cetiya Ksiti Garbha in Srambatan  The result of the research shows that kelenteng Sam Kouw has a public worship room in front of kelenteng , has a particular worship room in behind of kelenteng , and always has a meditation room that has always perpendicular a prominent god altar.

  9. Characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon substrate comparative with polymer substrate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.moldovan@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Mihailescu, Carmen, E-mail: carmen_mihail28@yahoo.com [University of Bucharest, 90-92 Sos Panduri, Bucharest (Romania); Stan, Dana, E-mail: dana_stan2005@yahoo.com [DDS Diagnostic, 1 Segovia Street, Bucharest (Romania); Ruta, Lavinia, E-mail: laviniacoco@yahoo.com [University of Bucharest, 90-92 Sos Panduri, Bucharest (Romania); Iosub, Rodica, E-mail: rodica.iosub@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Gavrila, Raluca, E-mail: raluca.gavrila@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Purica, Munizer, E-mail: munizer.purica@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Vasilica, Schiopu, E-mail: vasilica.schiopu@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae, 077190 Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-08-30

    This article presents the characterization of two substrates, silicon and polymer coated with gold, that are functionalized by mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in order to efficiently immobilize the anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 polyclonal purified antibody. A biosurface functionalized by SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) technique has been developed. Immobilization of goat anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody was performed by covalently bonding of thiolate mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) realized on two substrates: polymer coated with gold and silicon coated with gold. The F(ab'){sub 2} fragments of the antibodies have been used for eliminating nonspecific bindings between the Fc portions of antibodies and the Fc receptor on cells. The properties of the monolayers and the biofilm formatted with attached antibody molecules were analyzed at each step using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In our study the gold-coated silicon substrates approach yielded the best results. These experimental results revealed the necessity to investigate each stage of the immobilization process taking into account in the same time the factors that influence the chemistry of the surface and the further interactions as well and also provide a solid basis for further studies aiming at elaborating sensitive and specific immunosensor or a microarray for the detection of E. coli O157:H7.

  10. Characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon substrate comparative with polymer substrate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Carmen; Mihailescu, Carmen; Stan, Dana; Ruta, Lavinia; Iosub, Rodica; Gavrila, Raluca; Purica, Munizer; Vasilica, Schiopu

    2009-08-01

    This article presents the characterization of two substrates, silicon and polymer coated with gold, that are functionalized by mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in order to efficiently immobilize the anti- Escherichia coli O157:H7 polyclonal purified antibody. A biosurface functionalized by SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) technique has been developed. Immobilization of goat anti- E. coli O157:H7 antibody was performed by covalently bonding of thiolate mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) realized on two substrates: polymer coated with gold and silicon coated with gold. The F(ab') 2 fragments of the antibodies have been used for eliminating nonspecific bindings between the Fc portions of antibodies and the Fc receptor on cells. The properties of the monolayers and the biofilm formatted with attached antibody molecules were analyzed at each step using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In our study the gold-coated silicon substrates approach yielded the best results. These experimental results revealed the necessity to investigate each stage of the immobilization process taking into account in the same time the factors that influence the chemistry of the surface and the further interactions as well and also provide a solid basis for further studies aiming at elaborating sensitive and specific immunosensor or a microarray for the detection of E. coli O157:H7.

  11. Increasing the fill factor of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells through surface modification of Al-doped ZnO via phosphonic acid-anchored C60 SAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubhan, Tobias [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Salinas, Michael; Halik, Marcus [Organic Materials and Devices (OMD)-Institute of Polymer Materials, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ebel, Alexander; Hirsch, Andreas [Institute for Organic Chemistry II, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Krebs, Frederick C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The influence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electron extraction layers modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on inverted polymer solar cells is investigated. It is found that AZO modification with phosphonic acid-anchored Fullerene-SAMs leads to a reduction of the series resistance, while increasing the parallel resistance. This results in an increased efficiency from 2.9 to 3.3%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Le samā‘ dans les milieux soufis du Maghreb (VIIe-Xe/XIIIe-XVIe siècles : pratiques, tensions et codification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry, Nelly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the visibility of samā‘ in manāqib literature, biographical dictionaries, Sufis manuals and juridical production of the Maghreb from the 7th/13th to the 10th/16th century. It examines attested forms of this practice, in the madyanī, šāḏilī, rifā‘ī and ‘Arūsiyya-Salāmiyya circles in Tunis, Kairouan, Ifrqiyan littoral and Tripoli’s area. It explores the great variety of jurist’s positions about this practice and the Sufis authorities attempts to elucidate the scriptural, doctrinal and ethical foundations, which punctuate the codification process of both dhikr and samā‘. Despite the suspicion created by “innovations” considered as blameful and stigmatized by some cheikhs who recommended a suspension of this practice, yet the intention is to regulate, to avert, more than forbid such practices. Samā‘, beyond the words used to designate it, seams to be a practice endowed with a great capacity of resistance: its importance attests its resonance in sanctity experiences in the Maghreb all along the Middle Ages

    Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la visibilidad del samā‘ en la literatura de los manāqib, los diccionarios biográficos, los manuales de sufismo y la producción jurídica del Magreb de los siglos VII/XIII a X/XVI. Se examinan las formas atestiguadas de esta práctica, en los madyanī, šāḏilī, rifā‘ī y los ‘Arūsiyya-Salāmiyya, en los círculos literarios de Túnez, Qairawān, el litoral de Ifrīqiya y el área tripolitana. Se explora la gran variedad de posicionamientos de los juristas magrebíes con respecto a esta práctica, así como los intentos de dilucidar, por parte de las autoridades sufíes, los fundamentos escriturales, doctrinales y éticos del ḏikr y el samā‘ que han jalonado los procesos de codificación de estas dos prácticas. A pesar de la

  13. ReefSAM - Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model: A new 3D coral reef evolution model/simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody

    2013-04-01

    Coral reefs show characteristic morphological patterns (e.g. coral dominated margins with detrital carbonate dominated lagoons/back-reef) and temporal development (e.g. Hopley et al. 2007). While the processes which lead to predictable patterns on a range of scales have been discussed qualitatively, a full quantitative understanding of the range of processes and parameters involved requires modelling. Previous attempts to model complex Holocene reef systems (i.e. One Tree Reef, GBR - Barrett and Webster 2012) using a carbonate stratigraphic forward model (Carbonate3D - Warrlich et al. 2002) identified a number of important but unsimulated processes and potential model improvements. ReefSAM has been written from scratch in Matlab using these findings and experiences from using Carbonate3D. It simulates coralgal accretion and carbonate sand production and transport. Specific improvements include: 1. a more complex hydrodynamic model based on wave refraction and incorporating vertical (depth) and lateral (substrate dependent) variations in transport energy and erosion. 2. a complex reef growth model incorporating depth, wave energy/turbidity and substrate composition. 3. Paleo-water depth, paleo-wave energy and bio-zone (combination of paleo-water depth and wave energy) model outputs allowing coralgal habitat changes through time and space to be simulated and compared to observational data. The model is compared to the well studied One Tree Reef - tests similar to those undertaken in Barrett and Webster 2012 with Carbonate3D are presented. Model development coincides with plans for further intensive drilling at One Tree Reef (mid 2013) providing an opportunity to test the model predictively. The model is still in active development. References: Barrett, S.J., Webster, J.M.,2012. Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef: Insights from 3D numerical modelling. Sedimentary Geology 265-266, 56-71. Warrlich, G.M.D., Waltham, D.A., Bosence D.W.J., 2002. Quantifying the

  14. Eldecalcitol improves mechanical strength of cortical bones by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in the senescence-accelerated SAM/P6 mice - a comparison with alfacalcidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Ayako; Sakai, Sadaoki; Saito, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2014-10-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), a 2β-hydroxypropyloxy derivative of 1α,25(OH)2D3, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption that has demonstrated a greater effect at reducing the risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients than alfacalcidol (ALF). In the present study, we used the senescence-accelerated mouse strain P6 (SAM/P6), which has low bone mass caused by osteoblast dysfunction, to evaluate the effect of ELD on cortical bone in comparison with ALF. Four-month-old SAM/P6 mice were given either ELD (0.025 or 0.05μg/kg) or ALF (0.2 or 0.4μg/kg) by oral gavage 5 times/week for 6 weeks. Both ELD and ALF increased serum calcium (Ca) in a dose-dependent manner. Serum Ca levels in the ELD 0.05μg/kg group were comparable to those of the ALF 0.2μg/kg group. ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly improved the bone biomechanical properties of the femur compared with the vehicle control group (pBone histomorphometry revealed that in the femoral endocortical surface, the suppression of bone resorption parameters (N.Oc/BS) and bone formation parameters (MS/BS) by ELD (0.05μg/kg) was greater than that by ALF (0.2μg/kg). In contrast, in the femoral periosteal surface, ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly increased bone formation parameters (BFR/BS, MS/BS) compared with the vehicle control group (pbone not only by inhibiting endocortical bone resorption but also by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in SAM/P6 mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  15. Detection of Evolved Carbon Dioxide in the Rocknest Eolian Bedform by the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Instrument at the Mars Curiosity Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H.; Ming, D. W.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P.; Stern, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument detected four releases of carbon dioxide (CO2) that ranged from 100 to 700 C from the Rocknest eolian bedform material (Fig. 1). Candidate sources of CO2 include adsorbed CO2, carbonate(s), combusted organics that are either derived from terrestrial contamination and/or of martian origin, occluded or trapped CO2, and other sources that have yet to be determined. The Phoenix Lander s Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) detected two CO2 releases (400-600, 700-840 C) [1,2]. The low temperature release was attributed to Fe- and/or Mg carbonates [1,2], per-chlorate interactions with carbonates [3], nanophase carbonates [4] and/or combusted organics [1]. The high temperature CO2 release was attributed to a calcium bearing carbonate [1,2]. No evidence of a high temperature CO2 release similar to the Phoenix material was detected in the Rocknest materials by SAM. The objectives of this work are to evaluate the temperature and total contribution of each Rocknest CO2 release and their possible sources. Four CO2 releases from the Rocknest material were detected by SAM. Potential sources of CO2 are adsorbed CO2, (peak 1) and Fe/Mg carbonates (peak 4). Only a fraction of peaks 2 and 3 (0.01 C wt.%) may be partially attributed to combustion of organic contamination. Meteoritic organics mixed in the Rocknest bedform could be present, but the peak 2 and 3 C concentration (approx.0.21 C wt. %) is likely too high to be attributed solely to meteoritic organic C. Other inorganic sources of C such as interactions of perchlorates and carbonates and sources yet to be identified will be evaluated to account for CO2 released from the thermal decomposition of Rocknest material.

  16. Translational regulation of HIV-1 replication by HIV-1 Rev cellular cofactors Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yingren; He, Johnny J

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear export and translation of HIV-1 RNA are two important posttranscriptional events for HIV-1 gene expression and replication. HIV-1 Rev functions to export unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV-1 RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; it requires interaction with several cellular cofactors such as Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3. Meanwhile, some studies have also implicated Rev and some of its cofactors such as Sam68 in HIV-1 RNA translation. Thus, in this study, we aimed to characterize the potential function of all these four Rev cofactors in HIV-1 RNA translation. Ectopic expression, siRNA knockdown, and trans-complementation assays confirmed that all these cofactors were very important for HIV-1 gene expression and production through Rev and, accordingly, Rev-dependent reporter gene expression. Importantly, these studies revealed for the first time that each of these cofactors also regulated Rev-independent reporter gene expression. To directly determine the roles of these cofactors in HIV-1 RNA translation, we designed and synthesized a full-length capped HIV-1 RNA in vitro, transfected it into cells to bypass the RNA nuclear export step, and determined HIV-1 Gag expression from the cytoplasmic RNA in the cells that had ectopically expressed or siRNA knocked down cofactors. Gag expression was found to closely correlate with the expression levels of all these cofactors. Furthermore, we took advantage of a HIV-1 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-based bicistronic reporter gene assay and determined the effects of these cofactors on cap-independent IRES-mediated HIV-1 translation. The results showed that DDX3, eIF5A, and hRIP enhanced HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation, whereas Sam68 did not. Taken together, these results show that HIV-1 Rev cofactors Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3 also function in the translation of HIV-1 RNA and suggest that the regulatory mechanisms of HIV-1 RNA translation are likely different among these cofactors.

  17. SAM Electronics upgrades Navigation for Star cruise ships%SAM升级丽星豪华游船导航系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳莺

    2011-01-01

    @@ 德国SAM Electmnics近期宣布,该公司旗下的LyllgsΦ Marine已承担 项目,对丽星邮轮(Star Cruises)公司3艘豪华游船上的集成导航系统进 行升级.据悉,这3艘游船分别是"双鱼星"号、"宝瓶星"号和"天秤星"号,升级项目在马来西亚进行,即将完成.

  18. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaya; Deng, Zixin; Qu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-FDA) from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride ( K m 4153 μM, k cat 0.073 min (-1)) and SAM ( K m 416 μM, k cat 0.139 min (-1)) have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold) slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity.

  19. A Bifunctional Thioether Linked Coumarin Appended Calix[4]arene Acquires Selectivity Toward Cu(2+) Sensing on Going from Solution to SAM on Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Kushal; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2016-02-10

    A bifunctional calix[4]arene molecule bearing coumarin moiety on the lower rim and thioether moiety on the upper rim (L1), has been synthesized and well characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. Suitably functionalized coumarin moieties are well suited for selective recognition of various cations and anions. Among the 10 different metal ions studied, only Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) exhibit appreciable changes in the absorption spectra owing to the availability of functional moieties present at both the lower as well as the upper rim of free L1 in acetonitrile solution. To bring better selectivity, we blocked one of these functional moieties by coating on to a surface so that only the other one is exposed to the environment for sensing. Such a study carried out in the present case using the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of L1 on Au(111) resulted in selective sensing of Cu(2+) over several other metal ions as studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The SAM of L1 on Au(111) was confirmed by different techniques, such as grazing incidence FT-IR, contact angle measurement, cyclic voltammetry and scanning tunneling microscopy. Thus, L1 is proven to be a suitable sensor for Cu(2+) when attached to gold surface.

  20. Changes in expressions of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the brain of senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) P8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, K K; Okuma, Y; Miyazaki, H; Murayama, T; Uehara, T; Hatakeyama, R; Hayashi, Y; Nomura, Y

    2000-12-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is known to be a murine model for accelerated aging. The SAMP8 strain shows age-related deterioration of learning and memory at an earlier age than control mice (SAMR1). In the present study, we investigated the changes in expressions of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brain of SAMP8. In the hippocampus of 10 months old SAMP8, the expression of IL-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in comparison with that of SAMR1. In both strains of SAMs, increases in IL-1beta protein in the brain were observed at 10 months of age compared with 2 and 5 months. The only differences found between the strain in protein levels were at 10 months and were elevations in IL-1beta in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, and in TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus in SAMP8 as compared with SAMR1. However, lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in the expression of these cytokines in brain did not differ between SAMP8 and SAMR1. Increases in expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain may be involved in the age-related neural dysfunction and/or learning deficiency in SAMP8.

  1. First results from SAM-FP: Fabry-Perot observations with ground-layer adaptive optics - the structure and kinematics of the core of 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Quint, Bruno C.; Torres-Flores, S.; Barbá, R.; Andrade, D.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first data set obtained with SOAR Adaptive Module-Fabry-Parot (SAM-FP), a Fabry-Perot instrument mounted inside the SOAR telescope Adaptive-Optics Module. This is the only existing imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer using laser-assisted ground-layer adaptive optics. SAM-FP was used to observe the ionized gas, traced by Hα, in the centre of the 30 Doradus starburst (the Tarantula Nebula) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, with high spatial (∼0.6 arcsec, or 0.15 pc) and spectral (R ≃ 11 200) resolution. Radial velocity, velocity dispersion and monochromatic maps were derived. The region displays a mix of narrow, σ ∼ 20 km s-1 profiles and multiple broader profiles with σ ∼ 70-80 km s-1, indicating the complex nature of the nebula kinematics. A comparison with previously obtained VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy demonstrates that the data agree well in the regions of overlap, but the Fabry-Perot data are superior in spatial coverage. A preliminary analysis of the observations finds a new expanding bubble south of R136, with a projected radius of r = 5.6 pc and an expansion velocity of 29 ± 4 km s-1. In addition, the first-time detailed kinematic maps derived here for several complexes and filaments of 30 Doradus allow identification of kinematically independent structures. These data exemplify the power of the combination of a high-order Fabry-Perot with a wide-field imager (3 × 3 arcmin2 GLAO-corrected field of view) for high-resolution spatial and spectral studies. In particular, SAM-FP data cubes are highly advantageous over multifibre or long-slit data sets for nebula structure studies and to search for small-scale bubbles, given their greatly improved spatial coverage. For reference, this paper also presents two appendices with detailed descriptions of the usage of Fabry-Perot devices, including formulae and explanations for understanding Fabry-Perot observations.

  2. The D/H Ratio of the Martian Water That Formed the Yellowknife Bay Mudstone Rocks Measured By the MSL-SAM Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.; Brunner, A.; McAdam, A.; Flesch, G.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Conrad, P. G.; Pavlov, A.; Malespin, C.; Atreya, S. K.; Blank, J. G.; Owen, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian atmospheric loss processes change the isotopic composition of H, C, O, N, and Ar. Escape process to space enrich heavier isotopes in the atmosphere over geological time. The SAM instrument on the Curiosity rover has measured these isotopes in H2O, CO2, N2, and Ar multiple times over the course of the mission. In addition to this present record, volatiles extracted from ancient rocks such as the clays sampled in Yellowknife Bay mudstones of Gale crater may be able to reveal the isotopic composition of light elements much earlier in martian history. Small samples of mudstone rocks acquired by the Curiosity drill were analyzed by SAM for their volatile content. The SAM Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) measured the D/H ratio in water and the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) determined the D/H ratio in hydrogen released from these samples by stepwise heating. Clay materials on Earth are known to contain water in several forms. Molecular water bound loosely in pore spaces may be removed by drying under ambient conditions. Water also may be adsorbed on the surface of clay mineral surfaces or reside in interlayer positions or within structural channels in the clays. Finally, clay minerals contain hydroxyl units bound structurally in the minerals that at elevated temperatures (>~ 450°C) produce water and hydrogen of dehydroxylation; this high-temperature component is most likely to reflect the isotopic composition of water (and atmosphere) present at the time of clay formation. We have designed and implemented a stepped extraction protocol to more precisely measure the D/H ratio in both the low and high temperature water in martian clays. The D/H in the high temperature water reflects the D/H of the water that formed these clay minerals. We will discuss the implications for water loss over the past 3+Ga and compare our findings with those of related martian meteorite studies. This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Organic carbon compounds detected by the SAM instrument suite on Curiosity: results of the first year of exploration at Gale Crater (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Miller, K.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    A search for organic matter is a high priority in the search for habitable environments on Mars as it is in the quest for clues about the nature of early life on Earth. These endeavors are technically challenging because of the inherent instability of organic matter under conditions that exist in the regolith of both planets and the antiquity of the sediments of interest. In the case of the early Earth, exposure to ionizing radiation and the heat associated with burial and tectonism are the main obstacles to organic matter preservation. On Mars, exposure to ionizing radiation and chemical oxidation are the prime threats to organic matter preservation. It has been hypothesized that UV-generated hydroxyl radicals will almost certainly oxidize or highly alter any organic carbon of martian or meteoritic origin at Mars' surface. Also, there could be diagenetic processes peculiar to Mars, for which no terrestrial analogs are presently known. Thus, the search for organics on Mars must be informed by data from the entire Curiosity payload since the results are mutually informative. Sediments from the Rocknest aeolian drift and the probable fluvio-lacustrine sediments of Yellowknife Bay in Gale Crater, when analyzed by pyrolysis with evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), afforded a number of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (1, 2). Some proportion of these compounds can be traced to instrument background from organic materials within the chromatographic columns, hydrocarbon traps and wet chemistry capability of SAM. N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide, compounds carried in SAM for chemical derivatization can react with gases released from the sediments to yield the C1 and C4 chlorohydrocarbons. However, we continue to explore the possibility that a portion of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons are derived

  4. A Lanthipeptide-like N-Terminal Leader Region Guides Peptide Epimerization by Radical SAM Epimerases: Implications for RiPP Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian W; Lackner, Gerald; Morinaka, Brandon I; Morishita, Yohei; Asai, Teigo; Riniker, Sereina; Piel, Jörn

    2016-09-26

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs) exhibit diverse structures and bioactivities and are classified into distinct biosynthetic families. A recently reported family is the proteusins, with the prototype members polytheonamides being generated by almost 50 maturation steps, including introduction of d-residues at multiple positions by an unusual radical SAM epimerase. A region in the protein-like N-terminal leader of proteusin precursors is identified that is crucial for epimerization. It resembles a precursor motif previously shown to mediate interaction in thioether bridge-formation in class I lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Beyond this region, similarities were identified between proteusin and further RiPP families, including class I lanthipeptides. The data suggest that common leader features guide distinct maturation types and that nitrile hydratase-like enzymes are ancestors of several RiPP classes.

  5. Sam Thompson, Stewart Parker, and the lineage of northern Irish dramaDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n58p179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilynn Richtarik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Irish dramatist Stewart Parker (1941-1988 wrote plays typically valued for their wit, intellectual content, and formal experimentation. Nonetheless, he was profoundly influenced as a young man by a very different sort of playwright. Sam Thompson (1916-1965, who began his working life in the Belfast shipyards, squarely confronted Northern Irish sectarianism in his plays. His sense of the political potential of drama left an enduring mark on Parker, who organized and edited Thompson's manuscripts several years after his untimely death. Although their dramatic writings bear little resemblance to each other, the two writers should be regarded as united in a common Northern Irish dramatic tradition by virtue of their shared socialist outlook, belief in the importance of individual stands against conformity, and sense of theatre's social mission.

  6. Variation in the stratospheric aerosol associated with the North Cyclonic Polar Vortex as measured by the SAM II satellite sensor. [Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. S.; Farrukh, U. O.; Trepte, C. R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Optical depth data gathered by the stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II) satellite during the 1979-80 winter season are analyzed to study mean atmospheric motions. The spacecraft photometer yielded extinction rates over the Northern Hemisphere in the 8-30 km altitude interval. Filtering was performed to remove the effects of high clouds and polar stratospheric clouds. Free horizontal mixing was prevalent below 14 km, as was a systematic difference across the polar jet stream above that altitude. The aerosol declined in altitude as the winter progressed. The polar vortex is concluded to have a base at the 14 km altitude and an outer boundary which coincides with the jet stream axis. The model accords with atmospheric tracer measurements made during the open-air nuclear testing programs in the 1950s.

  7. Mars Atmospheric Escape Recorded by H, C and O Isotope Ratios in Carbon Dioxide and Water Measured by the Sam Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Leshin, L. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G. J.; Stern, J.; Christensen, L. E.; Vasavada, A. R.; Owen, T.; Niles, P. B.; Jones, J. H.; Franz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biological activity [2]. For Mars, measurements to date have indicated enrichment in all the heavier isotopes consistent with atmospheric escape processes, but with uncertainty too high to tie the results with the more precise isotopic ratios achieved from SNC meteoritic analyses. We will present results to date of H, C and O isotope ratios in CO2 and H2O made to high precision (few per mil) using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) that is part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL s Curiosity Rover.

  8. Structure and mechanism of a nonhaem-iron SAM-dependent C-methyltransferase and its engineering to a hydratase and an O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Ning-Shian; Huang, Chuen-Jiuan; Lyu, Syue-Yi; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Yeh, Hsien-Wei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2014-06-01

    In biological systems, methylation is most commonly performed by methyltransferases (MTs) using the electrophilic methyl source S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) via the S(N)2 mechanism. (2S,3S)-β-Methylphenylalanine, a nonproteinogenic amino acid, is a building unit of the glycopeptide antibiotic mannopeptimycin. The gene product of mppJ from the mannopeptimycin-biosynthetic gene cluster is the MT that methylates the benzylic C atom of phenylpyruvate (Ppy) to give βMePpy. Although the benzylic C atom of Ppy is acidic, how its nucleophilicity is further enhanced to become an acceptor for C-methylation has not conclusively been determined. Here, a structural approach is used to address the mechanism of MppJ and to engineer it for new functions. The purified MppJ displays a turquoise colour, implying the presence of a metal ion. The crystal structures reveal MppJ to be the first ferric ion SAM-dependent MT. An additional four structures of binary and ternary complexes illustrate the molecular mechanism for the metal ion-dependent methyltransfer reaction. Overall, MppJ has a nonhaem iron centre that bind, orients and activates the α-ketoacid substrate and has developed a sandwiched bi-water device to avoid the formation of the unwanted reactive oxo-iron(IV) species during the C-methylation reaction. This discovery further prompted the conversion of the MT into a structurally/functionally unrelated new enzyme. Through stepwise mutagenesis and manipulation of coordination chemistry, MppJ was engineered to perform both Lewis acid-assisted hydration and/or O-methyltransfer reactions to give stereospecific new compounds. This process was validated by six crystal structures. The results reported in this study will facilitate the development and design of new biocatalysts for difficult-to-synthesize biochemicals.

  9. Electrochemistry of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol SAM on gold electrode: Interaction with SWCNT-poly(m-aminobenzene sulphonic acid), electric field-induced protonation-deprotonation, and surface pKa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available -called electric field induced protonation-deprotonation process, hitherto observed for the -COOH terminated SAMs, is also observed for the -N(H)+(CH3)2 terminated. The surface pKa of DMAET was estimated as 7.6, smaller than its solution pKa of 10.8. It is also...

  10. Efecto de la polietilenimina en la actividad catalítica de la peroxidasa de rábano (horseradish peroxidase inmovilizada en electrodos de oro modificados con monocapas autoensambladas de tioles (SAMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Matheus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the Polyethyleneimine in the Activity Catalytic of the horseradish peroxidase Immobilized on Gold Electrodes Modified with a Self-assembled Monolayer of Thiols (SAMs. Studies were conducted bycyclic voltammetry (CV to investigate the effect of the polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI in the electrochemical reversibility of the mediator thionine and thus the catalytic activity of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase of recombinant HRP-NHis (horseradish peroxidase to the has been added to a chain of six histidine in the extreme N-terminal protein. This self produced monolayers of thiols (SAMS on gold electrodes, with chemical modifications obtained through successive stages in the solid phase of the electrode. The gold electrodes were modified with monolayer SAM-TOA-[ANTA/DADOO] -Co2+ [SAM: self-assembled monolayers of thiols, TOA: dithioctic acid, ANTA: nitrilotriacetic acid, DADOO: 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxa octane]. The results showed that the presence of the polymer improves the electrochemical reversibility of the mediator to endure catalyticcurrents as high as those that are obtained with molar ratios ANTA:DADOO 10:1 in the absence of PEI, and improve the response voltammetric obtained.

  11. Study on Behavior of Docecanethiol SAMs on Pure Copper Surface%硫醇分子自组装膜在铜表面的作用行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振宇; 黄礼平; 黄玲; 李玲杰

    2012-01-01

    采用动电位扫描、电化学阻抗谱、循环伏安法,研究了十二烷基硫醇分子在纯铜电极表面的自组装行为以及形成的自组装膜对铜的缓蚀作用.电化学测试结果显示:十二烷基硫醇自组装膜通过阻碍电子穿过电极/溶液界面,以及阻挡腐蚀介质与铜基底的接触,有效地抑制了铜的腐蚀;随着组装时间的延长,自组装膜更为完整,对铜的腐蚀抑制效率更高.%The assembling behavior and corrosion inhibition of docecanethiol SAMs on pure copper surface were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltametry. The results show that dode-canethiol SAMs prevent electrons pass through electrode/solution interface and block the contact between corrosion ions and metal surface, the SAMs have obvious inhibition effect on pure copper; The SAMs are more complete, and it's inhibition efficiency increases with assembling time.

  12. A felkelés éghajlata: Sam White környezettörténeti elmélete az Oszmán Birodalom hanyatlásáról - The Climate of Rebellion: Sam White’s Environmental Theory about the Decline of the Ottoman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÁCZ, Lajos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The book of Sam White has offered a new interpretation of Ottoman history from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The American author has argued that historians have to consider the ecological conditions of the early modern Near East and the profound impacts and repercussions of the Little Ice Age in order to understand the empire’s successes, crises and transformations. White’s study presents the expansive ‘imperial ecology’ underlying the rapid expansion in the classical age which made the empire increasingly vulnerable to war and natural disasters as the population pressure set in in the late 1500s. Sam White examined the impact of Little Ice Age and climatic fluctuation from the late 16th through the early 18th centuries, demonstrating the strong links between extreme climatic events and the outbreak of the Celali Rebellion and the recurring disorders of the 1600s. Finally, the author argued that transformations in human ecology – particularly the spread of nomadic pastoralism, migration to urban areas, and a shift to new crops for commerce and exports – slowed the demographic recovery of Ottoman lands, leaving the empire relatively depopulated by the mid-19th century.

  13. Iron-Rich Carbonates as the Potential Source of Evolved CO2 Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Heil, E.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J. C.; Mertzman, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument detected at least 4 distinct CO2 release during the pyrolysis of a sample scooped from the Rocknest (RN) eolian deposit. The highest peak CO2 release temperature (478-502 C) has been attributed to either a Fe-rich carbonate or nano-phase Mg-carbonate. The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the thermal evolved gas analysis (T/EGA) characteristics of a series of terrestrial Fe-rich carbonates under analog SAM operating conditions to compare with the RN CO2 releases. Natural Fe-rich carbonates (<53 microns) with varying Fe amounts (Fe(0.66)X(0.34)- to Fe(0.99)X(0.01)-CO3, where X refers to Mg and/or Mn) were selected for T/EGA. The carbonates were heated from 25 to 715 C (35 C/min) and evolved CO2 was measured as a function of temperature. The highest Fe containing carbonates (e.g., Fe(0.99)X(0.01)-CO3) yielded CO2 peak temperatures between 466-487 C, which is consistent with the high temperature RN CO2 release. The lower Fe-bearing carbonates (e.g., Fe(0.66)X(0.34)CO3) did not have peak CO2 release temperatures that matched the RN peak CO2 temperatures; however, their entire CO2 releases did occur within RN temperature range of the high temperature CO2 release. Results from this laboratory analog analysis demonstrate that the high temperature RN CO2 release is consistent with Fe-rich carbonate (approx.0.7 to 1 wt.% FeCO3). The similar RN geochemistry with other materials in Gale Crater and elsewhere on Mars (e.g., Gusev Crater, Meridiani) suggests that up to 1 wt. % Fe-rich carbonate may occur throughout the Gale Crater region and could be widespread on Mars. The Rocknest Fe-carbonate may have formed from the interaction of reduced Fe phases (e.g., Fe2+ bearing olivine) with atmospheric CO2 and transient water. Alternatively, the Rocknest Fe-carbonate could be derived by eolian processes that have eroded distally exposed deep crustal material that possesses Fe-carbonate that may have formed through

  14. Protocol for SAMS (Support and Advice for Medication Study: A randomised controlled trial of an intervention to support patients with type 2 diabetes with adherence to medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some interventions have been shown to improve adherence to medication for diabetes, results are not consistent. We have developed a theory-based intervention which we will evaluate in a well characterised population to test efficacy and guide future intervention development and trial design. Methods and Design The SAMS (Supported Adherence to Medication Study trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial among 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and an HbA1c of 7.5% or above. It is designed to evaluate the efficacy of a two-component motivational intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and volitional action planning to support medication adherence compared with standard care. The intervention is delivered by practice nurses. Nurses were trained using a workshop approach with role play and supervised using assessment of tape-recorded consultations. The trial has a two parallel groups design with an unbalanced three-to-two individual randomisation eight weeks after recruitment with twelve week follow-up. The primary outcome is medication adherence measured using an electronic medication monitor over 12 weeks and expressed as the difference between intervention and control in mean percentage of days on which the correct number of medication doses is taken. Subgroup analyses will explore impact of number of medications taken, age, HbA1c, and self-reported adherence at baseline on outcomes. The study also measures the effect of dispensing medication to trial participants packaged in the electronic medication-monitoring device compared with conventional medication packaging. This will be achieved through one-to-one randomisation at recruitment to these conditions with assessment of the difference between groups in self-report of medication adherence and change in mean HbA1c from baseline to eight weeks. Anonymised demographic data are collected on non-respondents. Central randomisation

  15. Iron-rich Carbonates as the Potential Source of Evolved CO2 Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument in Gale Crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Heil, E.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument detected at least 4 distinct CO2 release during the pyrolysis of a sample scooped from the Rocknest (RN) eolian deposit. The highest peak CO2 release temperature (478-502°C) has been attributed to either a Fe-rich carbonate or nano-phase Mg-carbonate. The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the thermal evolved gas analysis (T/EGA) characteristics of a series of terrestrial Fe-rich carbonates under analog SAM operating conditions to compare with the RN CO2 releases. Natural Fe-rich carbonates (heated from 25 to 715°C (35°C min-1) and evolved CO2 was measured as a function of temperature. The highest Fe containing carbonates (e.g., Fe0.99X0.01-CO3) yielded CO2 peak temperatures between 466-487°C, which is consistent with the high temperature RN CO2 release. The lower Fe-bearing carbonates (e.g., Fe0.66X0.34CO3) did not have peak CO2 release temperatures that matched the RN peak CO2 temperatures; however, their entire CO2 releases did occur within RN temperature range of the high temperature CO2 release. Results from this laboratory analog analysis demonstrate that the high temperature RN CO2 release is consistent with Fe-rich carbonate (~0.7 to 1 wt.% FeCO3). The similar RN geochemistry with other materials in Gale Crater and elsewhere on Mars (e.g., Gusev Crater, Meridiani) suggests that up to 1 wt. % Fe-rich carbonate may occur throughout the Gale Crater region and could be widespread on Mars. The Rocknest Fe-carbonate may have formed from the interaction of reduced Fe phases (e.g., Fe2+ bearing olivine) with atmospheric CO2 and transient water. Alternatively, the Rocknest Fe-carbonate could be derived by eolian processes that have eroded distally exposed deep crustal material that possesses Fe-carbonate that may have formed through metamorphic and/or metasomatic processes.

  16. The Investigation of Magnesium Perchlorate/Iron Phase-mineral Mixtures as a Possible Source of Oxygen and Chlorine Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Heil, E.; Archer, P. D.; Ming, D. W.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Niles, P. B.; Stern, J. C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover detect-ed O2 and HCl gas releases from the Rocknest (RN) eolian bedform and the John Klein (JK) and Cumber-land (CB) drill hole materials in Gale Crater (Fig. 1) [1,2]. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have also been detect-ed by the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GCMS) [1,2,3,4]. These detections along with the detection of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) by the Mars Phoenix Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [5] suggesting perchlo-rate is a possible candidate for evolved O2 and chlorine species. Laboratory thermal analysis of individual per-chlorates has yet to provide an unequivocal tempera-ture match to the SAM O2 and HCl release data [1,2]. Catalytic reactions of Fe phases in the Gale Crater ma-terial with perchlorates can potentially reduce the de-composition temperatures of these otherwise pure per-chlorate/chlorate phases [e.g., 6,7]. Iron mineralogy found in the Rocknest materials when mixed with Ca-perchlorate was found to cause O2 release temperatures to be closer match to the SAM O2 release data and enhance HCl gas releases. Exact matches to the SAM data has unfortnunately not been achieved with Ca-perchlorate-Fe-phase mixtures [8]. The effects of Fe-phases on magnesium perchlorate thermal decomposi-tion release of O2 and HCl have not been evaluated and may provide improved matches to the SAM O2 and HCl release data. This work will evaluate the thermal decomposition of magnesium perchlorate mixed with fayalite/magnetite phase and a Mauna Kea palagonite (HWMK 919). The objectives are to 1) summarize O2 and HCl releases from the Gale Crater materials, and 2) evaluate the O2 and HCl releases from the Mg-perchlorate + Fe phase mixtures to determine if Mg-perchlorate mixed with Fe-phases can explain the Gale Crater O2 and HCl releases.

  17. Reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase immobilized onto TGA-SAM modified smart bio-chips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Rahman

    Full Text Available A reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase (ChOx was fabricated based on self-assembled monolayer (SAM of thioglycolic acid (TGA (covalent enzyme immobilization by dropping method using bio-chips. Cholesterol was detected with modified bio-chip (Gold/Thioglycolic-acid/Cholesterol-oxidase i.e., Au/TGA/ChOx by reliable cyclic voltammetric (CV technique at room conditions. The Au/TGA/ChOx modified bio-chip sensor demonstrates good linearity (1.0 nM to 1.0 mM; R = 0.9935, low-detection limit (∼0.42 nM, SNR∼3, and higher sensitivity (∼74.3 µA µM(-1 cm(-2, lowest-small sample volume (50.0 μL, good stability, and reproducibility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statement with a very high sensitivity, low-detection limit, and low-sample volumes are required for cholesterol biosensor using Au/TGA/ChOx-chips assembly. The result of this facile approach was investigated for the biomedical applications for real samples at room conditions with significant assembly (Au/TGA/ChOx towards the development of selected cholesterol biosensors, which can offer analytical access to a large group of enzymes for wide range of biomedical applications in health-care fields.

  18. Super-Sonograms and graphical seismic source locations: Facing the challenge of real-time data processing in an OSI SAMS installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswig, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The installation and operation of an OSI seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) is bound by strict time constraints: 30+ small arrays must be set up within days, and data screening must cope with the daily seismogram input. This is a significant challenge since any potential, single ML -2.0 aftershock from a potential nuclear test must be detected and discriminated against a variety of higher-amplitude noise bursts. No automated approach can handle this task to date; thus some 200 traces of 24/7 data must be screened manually with a time resolution sufficient to recover signals of just a few sec duration, and with tiny amplitudes just above the threshold of ambient noise. Previous tests confirmed that this task can not be performed by time-domain signal screening via established seismological processing software, e.g. PITSA, SEISAN, or GEOTOOLS. Instead, we introduced 'SonoView', a seismic diagnosis tool based on a compilation of array traces into super-sonograms. Several hours of cumulative array data can be displayed at once on a single computer screen - without sacrifying the necessary detectability of few-sec signals. Then 'TraceView' will guide the analyst to select the relevant traces with best SNR, and 'HypoLine' offers some interactive, graphical location tools for fast epicenter estimates and source signature identifications. A previous release of this software suite was successfully applied at IFE08 in Kasakhstan, and supported the seismic sub-team of OSI in its timely report compilation.

  19. Ricodificare la pittura? Uso reiterato dell'opera d'arte tra tableaux vivants e tecnologie della visione in Cindy Sherman e Sam Taylor Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Radetic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A partire da alcune indicazione teoriche sugli studi di adattamento, ci proponiamo di tracciare una relazione con intuizioni simili emerse nell'ambito della storia dell'arte. Attraverso un percorso teorico e analisi due opere d'arte contemporanea di Cindy Sherman e Sam Taylor Wood, entrambe basate su precedenti della tradizione storico artistica, cercheremo di riflettere sugli effetti di ri-produzione di immagine come ri-produzione del senso in differita. La citazione intersistemica – pittura - tableau vivant - codificazione via tecnologie fotografica e video - opera a diversi livelli creando ambiguità tra i media e le immagini coinvolti. Questa mediazione produce effetti disturbanti sullo spettatore che si trova nella posizione di riconoscere nell'opera una tradizione visiva contaminata ed elusiva, che visualizza un senso latente e (riattiva le immagini della memoria. Per comprendere queste stratificazioni è necessario considerare l'opera e il suo sottotesto in termini di una temporalità condivisa in cui interagiscono immagini, media e memorie extratestuali.

  20. Reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase immobilized onto TGA-SAM modified smart bio-chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M

    2014-01-01

    A reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was fabricated based on self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioglycolic acid (TGA) (covalent enzyme immobilization by dropping method) using bio-chips. Cholesterol was detected with modified bio-chip (Gold/Thioglycolic-acid/Cholesterol-oxidase i.e., Au/TGA/ChOx) by reliable cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique at room conditions. The Au/TGA/ChOx modified bio-chip sensor demonstrates good linearity (1.0 nM to 1.0 mM; R = 0.9935), low-detection limit (∼0.42 nM, SNR∼3), and higher sensitivity (∼74.3 µA µM(-1) cm(-2)), lowest-small sample volume (50.0 μL), good stability, and reproducibility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statement with a very high sensitivity, low-detection limit, and low-sample volumes are required for cholesterol biosensor using Au/TGA/ChOx-chips assembly. The result of this facile approach was investigated for the biomedical applications for real samples at room conditions with significant assembly (Au/TGA/ChOx) towards the development of selected cholesterol biosensors, which can offer analytical access to a large group of enzymes for wide range of biomedical applications in health-care fields.

  1. Tobacco-free economy: A SAM-based multiplier model to quantify the impact of changes in tobacco demand in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Khondker, Bazlul Haque

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, where tobacco use is pervasive, reducing tobacco use is economically beneficial. This paper uses the latest Bangladesh social accounting matrix (SAM) multiplier model to quantify the economy-wide impact of demand-driven changes in tobacco cultivation, bidi industries, and cigarette industries. First, we compute various income multiplier values (i.e. backward linkages) for all production activities in the economy to quantify the impact of changes in demand for the corresponding products on gross output for 86 activities, demand for 86 commodities, returns to four factors of production, and income for eight household groups. Next, we rank tobacco production activities by income multiplier values relative to other sectors. Finally, we present three hypothetical 'tobacco-free economy' scenarios by diverting demand from tobacco products into other sectors of the economy and quantifying the economy-wide impact. The simulation exercises with three different tobacco-free scenarios show that, compared to the baseline values, total sectoral output increases by 0.92%, 1.3%, and 0.75%. The corresponding increases in the total factor returns (i.e. GDP) are 1.57%, 1.75%, and 1.75%. Similarly, total household income increases by 1.40%, 1.58%, and 1.55%.

  2. BciD Is a Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) Enzyme That Completes Bacteriochlorophyllide e Biosynthesis by Oxidizing a Methyl Group into a Formyl Group at C-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thweatt, Jennifer L; Ferlez, Bryan H; Golbeck, John H; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-01-27

    Green bacteria are chlorophotorophs that synthesize bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, d, or e, which assemble into supramolecular, nanotubular structures in large light-harvesting structures called chlorosomes. The biosynthetic pathways of these chlorophylls are known except for one reaction. Null mutants of bciD, which encodes a putative radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) protein, are unable to synthesize BChl e but accumulate BChl c; however, it is unknown whether BciD is sufficient to convert BChl c (or its precursor, bacteriochlorophyllide (BChlide) c) into BChl e (or BChlide e). To determine the function of BciD, we expressed the bciD gene of Chlorobaculum limnaeum strain DSMZ 1677(T) in Escherichia coli and purified the enzyme under anoxic conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of BciD indicated that it contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster. In assays containing SAM, BChlide c or d, and sodium dithionite, BciD catalyzed the conversion of SAM into 5'-deoxyadenosine and BChlide c or d into BChlide e or f, respectively. Our analyses also identified intermediates that are proposed to be 7(1)-OH-BChlide c and d Thus, BciD is a radical SAM enzyme that converts the methyl group of BChlide c or d into the formyl group of BChlide e or f This probably occurs by a mechanism involving consecutive hydroxylation reactions of the C-7 methyl group to form a geminal diol intermediate, which spontaneously dehydrates to produce the final products, BChlide e or BChlide f The demonstration that BciD is sufficient to catalyze the conversion of BChlide c into BChlide e completes the biosynthetic pathways for all "Chlorobium chlorophylls." © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Influence of Mineralogy on Recovering Organic Acids from Mars Analogue Materials Using the One-Pot Derivatization Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalport, Fabien; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids, will require a chemical extraction and a derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed a ''one-pot'' extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment instrument suite on NASA's the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The temperature and duration of the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 1C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analog materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analog materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals, and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA. The combination of pyrolysis and two different wet-chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars.

  4. Testing new approaches to carbonate system simulation at the reef scale: the ReefSam model first results, application to a question in reef morphology and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulation of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of carbonate systems (carbonate forward stratigraphic modelling - CFSM) provides significant insight into the understanding of both the physical nature of these systems and the processes which control their development. It also provides the opportunity to quantitatively test conceptual models concerning stratigraphy, sedimentology or geomorphology, and allows us to extend our knowledge either spatially (e.g. between bore holes) or temporally (forwards or backwards in time). The later is especially important in determining the likely future development of carbonate systems, particularly regarding the effects of climate change. This application, by its nature, requires successful simulation of carbonate systems on short time scales and at high spatial resolutions. Previous modelling attempts have typically focused on the scales of kilometers and kilo-years or greater (the scale of entire carbonate platforms), rather than at the scale of centuries or decades, and tens to hundreds of meters (the scale of individual reefs). Previous work has identified limitations in common approaches to simulating important reef processes. We present a new CFSM, Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model (ReefSAM), which is designed to test new approaches to simulating reef-scale processes, with the aim of being able to better simulate the past and future development of coral reefs. Four major features have been tested: 1. A simulation of wave based hydrodynamic energy with multiple simultaneous directions and intensities including wave refraction, interaction, and lateral sheltering. 2. Sediment transport simulated as sediment being moved from cell to cell in an iterative fashion until complete deposition. 3. A coral growth model including consideration of local wave energy and composition of the basement substrate (as well as depth). 4. A highly quantitative model testing approach where dozens of output parameters describing the reef

  5. Detection of reduced sulfur and other S-bearing species evolved from Rocknest sample in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, Caroline; McAdam, Amy; Archer, Doug; Buch, Arnaud; Eigenbrode, Jen; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; Ming, Doug; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Steele, Andrew; Stern, Jen; Mahaffy, Paul; SAM, The; MSL science Teams

    2013-04-01

    The SAM instrument suite onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected sulfur-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of soil fines obtained from aeolian material at Rocknest in Gale Crater. SO2 and H2S were identified by the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) both in direct evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) and after gas chromatograph separation (GC-MS) [1]. In EGA-MS, the 34 Da trace shows at least 3 peaks. The first peak is evolved at relatively low temperature (T), near 400°C, and the other peaks evolved as part of a "hump" at higher T, between ~500°C and ~800°C. The higher T releases at 34 Da occur at T close to, but not at exactly the same, as an evolution of SO2 from the samples. We hypothesize that these 34 Da releases are due to H2S. This assertion is supported by peaks in 35 and 36 Da traces at the same T. The lower T release of 34 Da species corresponds to a large O2 release from the Rocknest samples, and can be attributed for the most part to an isotopologue of O2. However, the GCMS analysis of the temperature cut involving this first evolved peak displays evidence of H2S based on a comparison of the mass spectrum to a NIST library. Therefore, we propose that H2S must be contributing to the 400°C peak. The quantification of H2S from GCMS shows an amount of this species of less than 1 nmol. It is unclear what the source of this lower T H2S is and how sulfur remains in its reduced form instead of undergoing oxidation to SO2 at the temperature where O2 is evolved; laboratory work with relevant analogs to inform these questions is ongoing. An initial hypothesis for the low temperature H2S source is the product of a reaction between an S-bearing phase and a hydrogen-bearing phase, such as the abundant water evolved at less than 500°C from the sample. Potential sources of this water are adsorbed water or mineral structural water. There is also EGA-MS evidence of reaction of reduced S with CO2 in the pyrolysis oven to form

  6. Alþingi in light of the fusion of legislative and executive power Alþingi í ljósi samþættingar löggjafarvalds og framkvæmdavalds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þorsteinn Magnússon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Grein þessi er rituð í framhaldi af grein í Tímariti lögfræðinga þar sem fjallað var um þá spurningu hvort ríkisvaldið á Íslandi sé tvískipt með þeim hætti að löggjafarvaldið og framkvæmdarvaldið hafi runnið saman í einn valdþátt er lúti forustu ríkisstjórnarinnar. Greininni er ætlað að varpa ljósi á stöðu Alþingis í ljósi samþættingar löggjafarvalds og framkvæmdarvalds, en með samþættingu er vísað til þess að sami pólitíski aðilinn, þingmeirihlutinn, fer með stjórn þessara tveggja megingreina ríkisvaldsins. Færð eru fyrir því rök að þrátt fyrir samþættinguna hafi löggjafarvald og framkvæmdarvald ekki runnið saman í einn valþátt. Rætt er jafnframt um hlutverk Alþingis í því pólitíska umhverfi sem samþættingin skapar og bent á að þrátt fyrir samþættinguna gegni þingið mikilvægu hlutverki í löggjafarferlinu og rakið hvernig þingið sinnir öðrum hlutverkum, svo sem eftirlitshlutverki og umræðuhlutverki. Þá er dregið fram að það leiðir af samþættingunni að pólitísk átakalína er ekki milli löggjafarvalds og framkvæmdarvalds heldur milli stjórnarliða og stjórnarandstöðu. Þessi staða varpi ljósi á það mikilvæga hlutverk sem stjórnarandstaða gegnir í stjórnkerfi þar sem sami aðili stýrir bæði löggjafarvaldi og framkvæmdarvaldi. Það sé þess vegna eðlilegt að endurmat fari fram á því hvað felist í því að styrkja stöðu Alþingis. Bent er á að slíkt geti ekki fyrst og fremst falist í því að skerpa skil löggjafarvalds og framkvæmdarvalds þar sem takmörk eru fyrir því hversu langt er hægt ganga í þeim efnum í íslenska stjórnkerfinu. Menn hljóti ekki síður að íhuga hver eigi að vera staða stjórnarandstöðunnar og hvernig eigi að búa að henni.

  7. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyung Sun; Nam, Seon Young [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  8. A novel human gene (SARM) at chromosome 17q11 encodes a protein with a SAM motif and structural similarity to Armadillo/beta-catenin that is conserved in mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, M; Fogelgren, B; Olszewski, K; Maroy, P; Csiszar, K

    2001-06-01

    A novel human gene, SARM, encodes the orthologue of a Drosophila protein (CG7915) and contains a unique combination of the sterile alpha (SAM) and the HEAT/Armadillo motifs. The SARM gene was identified on chromosome 17q11, between markers D17S783 and D17S841 on BAC clone AC002094, which also included a HERV repeat and keratin-18-like, MAC30, TNFAIP1, HSPC017, and vitronectin genes in addition to three unknown genes. The mouse SARM gene was located on a mouse chromosome 11 BAC clone (AC002324). The SARM gene is 1.8 kb centromeric to the vitronectin gene, and the two genes share a promoter region that directs a high level of liver-specific expression of both the SARM and the vitronectin genes. In addition to the liver, the SARM gene was highly expressed in the kidney. A 0.4-kb antisense transcript was coordinately expressed with the SARM gene in the kidney and liver, while in the brain and malignant cell lines, it appeared independent of SARM gene transcription. The SARM gene encodes a protein of 690 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence homology, we have identified a SAM motif within this derived protein. Structure modeling and protein folding recognition studies confirmed the presence of alpha-alpha right-handed superhelix-like folds consistent with the structure of the Armadillo and HEAT repeats of the beta-catenin and importin protein families. Both motifs are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions promoting the formation of diverse protein complexes. We have identified the same conserved SAM/Armadillo motif combination in the mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans SARM proteins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Spin polarisation of t anti tγγ production at NLO+PS with GoSam interfaced to MadGraph5aMC rate at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deurzen, Hans van; Luisoni, Gionata [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Frederix, Rikkert [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department T31, Garching (Germany); Hirschi, Valentin [National Accelerator Laboratory, SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia; INFN, Padova (Italy); Ossola, Giovanni [New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We present an interface between the multipurpose Monte Carlo tool MadGraph5aMC rate at NLO and the automated amplitude generatorGoSam.As a first application of this novel framework, we compute the NLO corrections to pp → t anti tH and pp → t anti tγγ matched to a parton shower. In the phenomenological analyses of these processes, we focus our attention on observables which are sensitive to the polarisation of the top quarks. (orig.)

  10. Residues of Oxytetracycline, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfamethoxazole+Trimethoprim and Enrofloxacin after withdrawal time in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei detected by Microbial Inhibition Disc Assay versus Screening Test Kit “SAM-Test”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalermchaikit, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicated feed had been given to white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei for 7 days. Shrimp samples, collected at day-1 to day-7 after withdrawal time, were tested for antimicrobial residues by microbial inhibition disk assay (MIDA and “SAM-Test”. The results from “SAM-Test” indicated much higher numbers of positive (antimicrobial detectable samples than MIDA. Percentages of positive samples from oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim and enrofloxacin treatment groups were decreased on day-3 or day-4after drug withdrawal but increased on day-5 or day-6. In one of shrimp samples from sulfamethoxazole treatment groups, residues could not be detected on day-4 to day-6 after drug withdrawal but they were detectable again on day-7. These phenomena might indicate that eating behavior of shrimp had retaken antimicrobial residues that were bound on their faeces. Therefore, it is impractical to determine the antibiotic withdrawal period in white shrimp by using withdrawal time of other aquatic animals. Further data of pharmacokinetics is critically important for determining the withdrawal time of antibiotic use in white shrimp farming.

  11. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2tz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT. Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM. The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride (Km 4153 μM, kcat 0.073 min-1 and SAM (Km 416 μM, kcat 0.139 min-1 have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity.

  12. Alterações histopatológicas associadas à braquiterapia intra-arterial com o samário-153

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Précoma Dalton Bertolim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A lesão da parede arterial provocada por balão de angioplastia ou implante de próteses endovasculares em modelos experimentais e humanos pode provocar a reestenose do vaso, principalmente por migração e proliferação de células musculares lisas e síntese de matriz extracelular. Vários estudos demonstraram que a braquiterapia intra-arterial atua nestes fatores e, conseqüentemente, no tratamento da reestenose coronariana. Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as alterações vasculares morfológicas e morfométricas induzidas pela braquiterapia com samário-153 (153Sm, utilizando uma dose considerada ideal e outra elevada em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Foram analisados 43 coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos e um total de 86 artérias ilíacas submetidas à lesão por balão de angioplastia, divididos em três grupos, sendo irradiados com as doses de 15Gy (n = 14 e 60Gy (n = 36 e controle (n = 36. Foram realizadas análise morfométrica (área neo-intimal, área da camada média, área do vaso e análise histológica qualitativa para avaliação tecidual. O colesterol médio foi de 1.362 ± 497mg/dl nos três grupos. O achado mais relevante foi uma significativa inibição da hiperplasia neo-intimal no grupo irradiado com a dose de 15Gy, maior do que o controle e com a dose de 60Gy. Na dose de 60 Gy, além de ineficaz para inibir a proliferação neo-intimal, teve características tissulares e estruturais sugestivas de radiolesão, como presença de células xantomatosas, tecidos hialino e amorfo, proliferação vascular. Estas células, bem como o aumento das dimensões morfométricas do vaso, foram proporcionais aos graus de lesão nas lâminas elásticas interna e externa, sendo observados principalmente com a dose de 60Gy. Os segmentos médios das artérias ilíacas, representando o local de maior contato com o balão, tiveram maiores alterações morfométricas e celulares em relação aos segmentos referenciais (proximal e distal nos

  13. City Satires in the Classical Turkish Poetry and Arpaemîni-zâde Mustafa Samî’s Qasida of Edirne Klasik Türk Şiirinde Şehir Hicivleri ve Arpaemîni-zâde Mustafa Samî’nin Edirne Kasidesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sabiha KUTLAR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the classical Turkish poetry, there are satirical examples among the poems which is subject about settlement places like cities, towns and villages. Poets, in these texts, had satirized various settlement place at imperial geography, generally because of its place name and folk features under cover of rhetoric and argo, reasons such as “disapprobation, aversion of the folk, disappointment, getting irritate from nature or geographical location, to be dispatched involuntarily”. In this study, the city satires that put down on paper by the Divan poets shortly familiarized which we have made firm, and it is focused on the Edirne satire of the XVIII. century poets Arpaemîni-zâde Mustafa Samî which put down on paper his negative feelings about the Edirne city, combining by negative features of the winter season. By the expressions in this qasida, the poet revealed intimately that he doesn’t like the Edirne and its folk. Likewise, he had indicated the contention among the two capital city of Ottoman Empire which its root reached to conquest years, continued implicitly beginnig of the XVIII. Century. Klasik Türk şiirinde şehir, kasaba, köy gibi yerleşim yerlerinin konu edildiği manzumeler arasında hiciv niteliği taşıyan örnekler de bulunmaktadır. Şairler, bu metinlerde “beğenmeme, halkından hoşlanmama, umduğunu bulamama, doğasından ya da coğrafî konumundan rahatsızlık duyma, isteği dışında gönderilme” gibi çok farklı gerekçelerle İmparatorluk coğrafyasına ait birçok yerleşim yerini, genellikle isminden ya da halkının özelliklerinden hareketle söz sanatlarından ve argo ifadelerden de yararlanarak hicvetmişlerdir. Bu çalışmada divan şairlerinin kaleme aldığı şehir hicivlerinin tespit ettiğimiz örnekleri kısaca tanıtılmış ve XVIII. yüzyıl şairlerinden Arpaemîni-zâde Mustafa Samî’nin, Edirne’ye ilişkin olumsuz duygularıyla kış mevsiminin olumsuz

  14. Siðfræði og fagmennska í heimi fáránleikans: Um siðrof og útlaga í kvikmynd Sams Peckinpahs The Wild Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þórólfur Þórlíndsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sam Peckinpah’s movie The Wild Bunch is a multilevel drama about an aging group of outlaws, trying to exist in a rapidly changing world. This paper analysis the movie from different sociological perspectives on three levels. First, it is argued that the movie provides an interesting example and an elaboration of Durkheim’s macrolevel theory of anomie. Second, at the micro level the movie describes the face to face interaction between gangmembers in terms of a symbolic interactionism in the tradition of Mead and Goffman. Third, at the individual level the gangmembers behave in many ways as existential heroes. These different levels of social science analysis come together to form a single coherent story line in Peckinpah’s complex portrayal of the Wild Bunch.

  15. The Fermentation Technology Optimization of the High SAM Producing Baker's Yeast%富含S-腺苷甲硫氨酸面包酵母的发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈原; 郭学武; 王文阳; 肖冬光

    2012-01-01

    对摇瓶发酵生产富含S-腺苷甲硫氨酸的面包酵母的培养条件和培养基成分进行了优化,单因子实验结果表明,发酵最适pH值为5.0,最适装液量为70/250mL,最佳接种量为2%。正交优化实验结果表明,最佳培养基成分为12°Brix糖蜜,另加酵母粉6.667g/L,(NH4)2SO4 2.829g/L,MgS040.2g/L,ZnSO4 0.1g/L,KH2P041g/L,在该条件下,S-腺苷甲硫氨酸产量为14.26mg/L,含量为1.64mg/g,分别提高了76.5%和84.3%。%The optimized cultural condition and cultural medium of fermentation to produce the high SAM produ- cing baker' s yeast was studied. The results of single factor experiment showed that the most favorable pH value, medi- um volumes,inoculums size is 5.0,70/250 mL,2%. The results of orthogonal design experiments showed that the most favorable cultural medium ingredients are 12°Brix molasses,6. 667g/L yeast powder, 2. 829g/L (NH4 )2SO4, 0. 2g/L MgSO4 ,0. lg/L ZnSO4 and lg/L KH2PO4. Under the optimal condition,SAM yield is 14.26 mg/L and content is 1.64 mg/g. It increased 76.5% and 84.3% , respectively.

  16. Effect of Silanization on Titanium Surfaces by SAM on Biomimetic Mineralization Properties and Osteoblast Proliferation%钛表面自组装硅烷化对仿生矿化性能和细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 谭帼馨; 宁成云; 刘绪建; 廖景文

    2012-01-01

    The pure titanium plates were modified by SAM using the organic solution with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the chief component and subsequently exposed to simulated body fluid for biomimetic mineralization. The surface morphologies and structures were characterized by attenuated total refraction-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); Human sweat gland cells (HMSCs) were planted on the surfaces of samples before and after modification, and then the adhesion and proliferation of HMSCs on the surfaces of titanium and its action before and after modification were investigated by MTT colorimetry and SEM. The results show that HCA coating is synthesized by biomimetic method and the ratio of Ca/P is 1.3. Compared with the pure titanium samples, the adhered HMSCs on the surfaces of titanium after modification by SAM are more, and the proliferation effect is obvious.%通过自组装技术以3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷为主要成分的有机溶液对纯钛进行表面改性处理,进一步将改性处理后的样品浸泡在模拟体液中仿生矿化处理,利用全反射红外光谱、扫描电镜和X射线衍射研究矿化处理前后样品的表面形貌与结构特征 ;将人骨髓间充质干细胞(HMSCs)种植于改性处理前后样品表面,利用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应比色法(MTT法)和扫描电镜观察细胞在改性前后样品表面的黏附、生长和增殖行为.结果表明,仿生矿化处理后,样品表面有类骨磷灰石生成,其钙/磷比为1.3 ;与纯钛相比,自组装硅烷化处理样品表面HMSCs的黏附率高,增殖效果明显.

  17. Transformation and Detection of SAMS Genes Transferred by Different Inbred Lines of Maize%不同玉米自交系中导入SAMS基因的转化与检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐书举; 杨晓钦; 张仁和; 薛吉全

    2012-01-01

    The SAMS gene was transferred by the shoot apical point of different inbred lines, which included Dan598, Zheng58, Chang7-2 and Ye478 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic maize were identified by PCR, and 35 positive transgenic plants were obtained, which showed that the SAMS gene has been integrated into the four different inbred lines. Besides we studied the important factors influenced the efficiency of the transformation . The results shows that the frequency of transformation were different with the various concentration of bacteria, acetosyringone (AS ) and the different time of infection. And we found that the bacteria concentration (OD6000. 5 - 0. 7), the infection time (25 min), the co-culture time (3d), and the concentration of acetosyringone (100 μmol/L) were optimal. And Chang7-2 has the highest percent conversion with the optimal condition.%以优良玉米自交系丹598、郑58、昌7-2、掖478的茎尖为受体,采用农杆菌介导法将抗旱基因SAMS转入玉米,对转化植株进行PCR检测,共获得阳性植株35株,表明SAMS基因已经整合到玉米基因组中.同时对影响茎尖转化效率的主要因素进行研究.结果表明,侵染时间、菌液浓度、共培养时间和乙酰丁香酮对转化率影响显著.菌液OD600值为0.5~0.7,侵染15 min,共培养3d,乙酰丁香酮浓度为100 μmol/L时,有利于提高玉米茎尖转化率,其中昌7-2转化率最高.

  18. 结合光谱图像技术和SAM分类法的甘蓝中杂草识别研究%Research on Identification of Cabbages and Weeds Combining Spectral Imaging Technology and SAM Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖琴; 张水发; 曹阳; 赵会义; 党长青

    2015-01-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide.Therefore,accurate,rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture.Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cab-bage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed,barnyard grass,goosegrass,crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1 000 to 2 500 nm.In ENVI,by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11,and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra,finally,using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds,the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0.1 radians.In HSI Analyzer,after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum,the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages.Furthermore,in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally,the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classi-fication image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image.The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing,0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle,the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds,non-weeds and overall samples was 80%,97. 3% and 96. 8% respectively.The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image.By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level,integrating the advantages of spectra and images

  19. High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christopher; Munoz, Bruno; Gundersen, Cynthia; Thomas, Walter, III; Stephenson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In support of the GPS for the SAM instrument suite built by NASA/GSFC, a life test facility was developed to test the suitability of 80Ni-20Cr alloy wire, 0.0142 cm diameter, for use as a heater element for the carbon dioxide scrubber. The element would be required to operate at 1000 C in order to attain the 800 C required for regeneration of the getter. The element also would need to operate in the Mars atmosphere, which consists mostly of CO2 at pressures between 4 and 12 torr. Data on the high temperature degradation mechanism of 80Ni- 20Cr in low pressure CO2, coupled with the effects of thermal cycling, were unknown. In addition, the influence of work hardening of the wire during assembly and the potential for catastrophic grain growth also were unknown. Verification of the element reliability as defined by the mission goals required the construction of a test facility that would accurately simulate the duty cycles in a simulated Mars atmosphere. The experimental set-up, along with the test protocol and results will be described.

  20. High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suit Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Cynthia; Hoffman, Christopher; Munoz, Bruno; Steohenson, Timothy; Thomas, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In support of the GPS for the SAM instrument suite built by GSFC, a life test facility was developed to test the suitability of 80Ni-20Cr wire, 0.0056 inches in diameter, for use as a heater element for the carbon dioxide scrubber. The wire would be required to operate at 1000 C in order to attain the 800 C required for regeneration of the getter. The wire also would need to operate in the Mars atmosphere, which consists mostly of CO2 at pressures between 4 and 12 torr. Data on the high temperature degradation mechanism of 80Ni-20Cr in low pressure CO2, together with the effects of thermal cycling, were unknown. In addition, the influence of work hardening of the wire during assembly and the potential for catastrophic grain growth also were unknown. Verification of the wire reliability as defined by the mission goals required the construction of a test facility that would accurately simulate the duty cycles in a simulated Mars atmosphere. The experimental set-up, along with the test protocol and results will be described.

  1. An apologia pro opera sua: Sam Shepard vs the feminine or how a "a fool for love" meets "the silent tongue(s" and finds it all to be a huge "lie of the mind"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bratic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drama is not a favourite genre among American critics and it has been so for decades. Misogyny (or what might appear similar to it has also grown out of fashion, hopefully for good. The combination of the two makes it all the more difficult for an author to “fare well” among the critics. My paper tries to highlight the fact that Sam Shepard, although often perceived as a misogynist for the treatment of his female characters both by his “men” and himself is not (as much “guilty as charged”. The point I am trying to make is that the playwright did not (always ignore his female characters and leave them voiceless because it pleased him to do so. He did it because what he understood best about the human condition was male anxiety and neurosis. A Lie of the Mind is his, albeit failed, attempt at understanding the female side and even incorporating it. What the play offers as a conclusion is that love seems to be a mission that is impossible for the strong and the healthy. It tries to persuade the reader (and this attitude can frequently be found explicit ly in his plays that love is a(n unnatural condition, an illness of a sort. Love is a survival mode for the weak. The strong do not need it . On this not very encouraging note the p lay end s, as do all Shepard's further attempts at dealing with women characters in a way different from his usual.

  2. Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the CAT scan I had had and said, "You know, I think you have a good chance to live a ... he hadn't said a "perfect chance." He said a "good chance." But I look at the statistics for melanoma and they have moved some, and I think it is thanks to Steve and the research ...

  3. Dom, kotorõi pitajet sam sebja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Hiinasse ehitatavast pilvelõhkujast "Pärlijõe torn" (Pearl River Tower). Energeetiliselt autonoomse nn. "rohelise" kõrghoone projekti autor Gordon Gill Chicago arhitektuurikompaniist Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

  4. Knowledge base development for SAM training tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, M.S.; Yoo, W.S.; Park, S. S.; Choi, H.K. [Hansung Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this report. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. 24 refs., 76 figs., 102 tabs. (Author)

  5. Dom, kotorõi pitajet sam sebja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Hiinasse ehitatavast pilvelõhkujast "Pärlijõe torn" (Pearl River Tower). Energeetiliselt autonoomse nn. "rohelise" kõrghoone projekti autor Gordon Gill Chicago arhitektuurikompaniist Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

  6. Ära pabista, Sam! / Toomas Paul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paul, Toomas, 1939-

    2003-01-01

    Inimese võimest leida lohutust täieliku lootusetuse olukorras ja võimetusest ette näha, milliste tulemusteni tema tegevus lõpuks viib. Ilm. ka: Paul, Toomas. Riskiveski krigin // Pastishsh & popurrii : ilmavaatlusi / Paul, Toomas. - [Tallinn] : Oomen, 2007. - Lk. 133-139

  7. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... the offices of Southwestern Power Administration, Williams Center Tower I, One West Third Street... restraint by court of general jurisdiction, which by exercise of due diligence and foresight such...

  8. Ära pabista, Sam! / Toomas Paul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paul, Toomas, 1939-

    2003-01-01

    Inimese võimest leida lohutust täieliku lootusetuse olukorras ja võimetusest ette näha, milliste tulemusteni tema tegevus lõpuks viib. Ilm. ka: Paul, Toomas. Riskiveski krigin // Pastishsh & popurrii : ilmavaatlusi / Paul, Toomas. - [Tallinn] : Oomen, 2007. - Lk. 133-139

  9. Exploring Islamic Culture with Uncle Sam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melody Specht

    2005-01-01

    The Iraq war has generated interest combined with apprehension in young minds as to the nature of "the other", in this case Islam and its followers. Attempts by the U.S. Government to allay negative impressions by means of information through specialized web portals are highlighted.

  10. Volunteers for Uncle Sam: Rethinking Military Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-04

    recrumng Hlspamcs for the rmhtary But by far the mam llmltatlon IS the high percentage of hgh school drop outs among Latmos The services’ goal 1s that a...hottest stock m the American consumer stock market They are growing very fast, while many other market segments are declmmg m size and buying power

  11. Retrospective evaluation of bone pain palliation after samarium-153-EDTMP therapy Avaliação retrospectiva do tratamento da dor óssea metastática com Samário-153-EDTMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of metastatic bone pain palliation and medullar toxicity associated with samarium-153-EDTMP treatment. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with metastatic bone pain having previously undergone therapy with samarium-153-EDTMP (1 mCi/kg were retrospectively evaluated. Routine follow-up included pain evaluation and blood counts for 2 months after treatment. Pain was evaluated using a subjective scale (from 0 to 10 before and for 8 weeks after the treatment. Blood counts were obtained before treatment and once a week for 2 months during follow-up. Dosimetry, based upon the urinary excretion of the isotope, was estimated in 41 individuals, and the resulting radiation absorbed doses were correlated with hematological data. RESULTS: Reduction in pain scores of 75% to 100% was obtained in 36 patients (49%, with a decrease of 50% to 75%, 25% to 50%, and 0% to 25% in, respectively, 20 (27%, 10 (14%, and 7 (10% patients. There was no significant relationship between the pain response and location of the primary tumor (breast or prostate cancer. Mild to moderate myelosuppression was noted in 75.3% of patients, usually with hematological recovery at 8 weeks. The mean bone marrow dose was 347 ± 65 cGy, and only a weak correlation was found between absorbed dose and myelosuppression (Pearson coefficient = .4. CONCLUSIONS: Samarium-153-EDTMP is a valuable method for metastatic bone pain palliation. A mild to moderate and transitory myelosuppression is the main toxicity observed after samarium therapy, showing a weak correlation with dosimetric measures.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito paliativo da dor e a toxicidade medular associados ao tratamento com Samário-153-EDTMP em pacientes com metástases ósseas. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de forma retrospectiva, a partir do levantamento de prontuário de 178 pacientes submetidos a tratamento com 1mCi/kg de 153Sm

  12. Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R H; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P D; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

    2007-05-10

    An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

  13. Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on H.R. 1144, H.R. 2994, H.R. 7261, H.R. 9065, H.R. 9960, H.R. 10027, H.R. 11658, and S. 1418. Bills to Provide Grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Memorial Library, and the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents hearings before the special subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress concerning the provision of grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Library, and the Hoover Institute on War,…

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Pinoresinol Diglucoside and Chlorogenic Acid in Traditional Decoction and Its Solid Decoction of Sam Soup by HPLC%RP-HPLC同时测定三圣汤及其固体汤剂中松脂醇二葡萄糖苷和绿原酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林渊; 周良良; 罗永东

    2013-01-01

    Objection To estabish a HPLC methold for determining the contents of pinoresinol diglucoside and chlorogenic acid in Sam Soup and its solid decoction. Methods Chromatographic column was Ultimate XB-C18 reversed-phase chromatography column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm). Mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.4% glacial acetic acid with gradient elutim. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength was 277 nm, and column temperature was 40 ℃. Results The pinoresinol diglucoside and showed good linear relationship in the range of 5.0-50.0 μg, r =0.999 9 (n =6), and chlorogenic acid showed linear relationship in the range of 5.4-54.0 μg, r=0.999 6 (n=6). The average recoveries of pinoresinol diglucoside and chlorogenic acid were 98.75% (RSD=1.39%) and 101.11% (RSD=2.69%), respectively. Conclusion The established method was accurate and reliable. The contents of pinoresinol diglucoside and chlorogenic acid in solid decoction are higher than traditional decoction of Sam Soup.%目的建立同时测定三圣汤固体汤剂中松脂醇二葡萄糖苷和绿原酸含量的高效液相色谱方法。方法采用 Ultimate XB-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5µm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.4%冰醋酸为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,检测波长277 nm,柱温40℃。结果样品中松脂醇二葡萄糖苷的线性范围为5.0~50.0µg,r=0.9999(n=6);绿原酸的线性范围为5.4~54.0µg,r=0.9996(n=6)。二者的平均加样回收率分别为98.75%、101.11%,RSD分别为1.39%、2.69%。结论所建立的方法准确、可靠。三圣汤固体汤剂中松脂醇二葡萄糖苷和绿原酸含量高于三圣汤汤剂。

  15. 物竞天择,适者生存——解析达尔文主义在萨姆·谢泼德家庭三部曲中的体现%Survival of the Fittest --A Study on Darwinism in Sam Shepard' s Family Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲

    2012-01-01

    Darwinism, also called Darwinian Theory, is a theory of biological evolution developed by British biologist, Charles Darwin, in the middle of the 19th century, which is considered to be the most important landmark in the history of mankind. In literary criticism, it is a new trend to unscramble literary works from the aspect of Darwinism, which is called literary Darwinism. The objective of this paper is to make a brief survey on the Darwinism manifested in Sam Shepard' s family trilogy from a particular point of view of literary Darwinism, aiming to analyze the fatality of the characters.%随着比较文学的发展壮大,跨学科研究成为文学研究的新亮点,达尔文主义也随之被赋予了强烈的人文色彩,出现了利用进化论的观点剖析文学作品的研究,达尔文文学主义也逐渐成为文学批评研究领域的新方向。本文运用文学达尔文主义理论对当代美国最富影响的剧作家萨姆.谢泼德的家庭三部曲进行解读,旨在剖析剧中人物的悲剧宿命。

  16. 基于混合SAMs包裹的纳米团簇和SPA的抗体固定方法用于糖化血红蛋白免疫场效应型传感器的制备%Antibody Immobilization Based on Nano Spheres Modified by Mixed SAMs and SPA for HbAlc Immuno-FET Sensor Fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛茜男; 边超; 佟建华; 孙楫舟; 张虹; 夏善红

    2011-01-01

    本文提出了一种新型的抗体固定方法,并利用该方法制备了免疫场效应型传感器用于糖化血红蛋白水平的检测.首先,纳米金颗粒由混合自组装膜(SAMs)包裹形成一种功能化的纳米团簇.然后这种纳米团簇以自组装的方式固定在传感器金电极表面.之后,葡萄糖球菌蛋白ACSPA)被固定在纳米团簇表面用来定向固定抗体.利用该方法,纳米团簇可在金电极表面均匀分布.由此形成的多层生物膜可定向固定抗体,与抗体具有稳定的结合力,能较好地屏蔽噪声干扰,且与场效应型传感器兼容,利用该传感器对糖化血红蛋白和血红蛋白浓度检测,灵敏度分别为152.8 μV·ng-1 ·mL和13.5 μV·ng-·mL.实验结果表明,该传感器具有较好的一致性和准确度,未来有望发展成为一种微型的用于糖尿病监控的糖化血红蛋白传感器.%An antibody immobilization method was reported to fabricate an immuno-FET sensor for measuring hemoglobin Ale( HbA1 c) level.Firstly,nanogold particles were capped with mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to form functional nano spheres.Then,the nano spheres were immobilized on the Au electrode of the immuno-FET sensor.After that,staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was immobilized on the nano spheres of electrode to further bond antibodies.In this way,nano spheres were distributed uniformly on Au electrode to form multi bionic film with the high ability to immobilize antibodies effectively and orientedly and to suppress noise interference.This biofilm was exactly suitable for the feature of FET sensor.Sensitivities of 152.8 μV·ng-1·mL for HbAlc and 13.5 μV·ng-1 ·mL for hemoglobin were exhibited by this sensor.Good consistency and accuracy were achieved.This sensor has the potential to develop into a micro HbAle sensor for the monitoring of diabetes.

  17. Tap it again, Sam: Harmonizing Personal Environments towards Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Tabuenca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of mobile vendors releasing NFC-enabled devices to the market and their prominent adoption has moved this technology from a niche product to a product with a large market-share. NFC facilitates natural interactions between digital world and physical learning environments. The scaffolding of learning ecologies is a key aspect for lifelong learners in their challenge to integrate learning activities into busy daily life. The contribution of this manuscript is twofold: first, a review of scientific literature in which NFC has been used with a direct or indirect purpose to learn is presented, and potential uses for learners are classified according to their type of interaction; based on these findings the NFC MediaPlayer is presented as an instantiation of an ecology of resources (EoR in a lifelong learning context. Finally, shortcomings and best practices are highlighted in the conclusions, and future work is discussed.

  18. Tap it again, Sam: Harmonizing personal environments towards lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of mobile vendors releas- ing NFC-enabled devices to the market and their prominent adoption has moved this technology from a niche product to a product with a large market-share. NFC facilitates natural interactions between digital world and physical learning environments. The

  19. Automated one-loop calculations with GoSam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). AS Div.

    2012-01-15

    In this talk, the program package GOSAM is presented which can be used for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The integrands are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced by d-dimensional integrand-level decomposition, or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. Through various examples we show that GOSAM can produce one-loop amplitudes for both QCD and electroweak theory; model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. (orig.)

  20. Spill Assessment Model (SAM) Procedure for Manual Field Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    PeI~sE 14-1,1 8.1 Ae..mftTOlili )MmWlh 62 fl..,sssw es 1ol. Jale 2. 9. 82 ISffa. eTwIWIp .. n.,1 l on t b n maim4 Ill w a.. 6 3 V .I 0E *IA G M 1 ie M... Presaing Poli: NI _____________________________12. HAZARD CLASSIFICATIONS n3 5Criilcallwnpocaiore: -1 3. CHEMICAL DESIGNATIONS 4. ORSERVABLE

  1. Nazvan samõi vlijatelnõi tshelovek v iskusstve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ajakirja ArtReview ekspertide poolt 2008. aastal valitud 100 kunstimaailmas mõjukaima inimese nimekirja "The Power 100" juhib inglise skulptor Damien Hirst. Teisel kohal on ameerika galerist Larry Gagosian ja kolmandal kohal kunstimuuseumi MoMA direktor Kathy Halbreich

  2. Compression of FASTQ and SAM format sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, James K; Mahoney, Matthew V

    2013-01-01

    Storage and transmission of the data produced by modern DNA sequencing instruments has become a major concern, which prompted the Pistoia Alliance to pose the SequenceSqueeze contest for compression of FASTQ files. We present several compression entries from the competition, Fastqz and Samcomp/Fqzcomp, including the winning entry. These are compared against existing algorithms for both reference based compression (CRAM, Goby) and non-reference based compression (DSRC, BAM) and other recently published competition entries (Quip, SCALCE). The tools are shown to be the new Pareto frontier for FASTQ compression, offering state of the art ratios at affordable CPU costs. All programs are freely available on SourceForge. Fastqz: https://sourceforge.net/projects/fastqz/, fqzcomp: https://sourceforge.net/projects/fqzcomp/, and samcomp: https://sourceforge.net/projects/samcomp/.

  3. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Exclusions

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains a daily snapshot of active exclusion records entered by the U.S. Federal government identifying those parties excluded from receiving Federal...

  4. Samõje dorogije kostjumõ / Nil Santelman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Santelman, Nil

    2004-01-01

    Ultramoodsatest ülikondadest ja nende hindadest. Uuritakse tuntud moeloojate YSL, Gucci, Dolce&Gabbana, Valentino, Calvin Kleini valmistooteid ja individuaaltellimuste võimalusi, samuti individuaalõmblejate William Fiovanti (New York), Caraceni (Milano), H. Huntsmani, Anderson&Sheppardi (London) jt. töid

  5. "Ja sam sebe hozjajev võbiraju..." / Irina Butjajeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Butjajeva, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri ja Moskva Noore draama festivali korraldatud parima kaasaegse näidendi konkursi võitjaks tuli P. Filimonov (ps.), kes sõidab Moskvasse Noore draama festivalile, mis toimub 25. maist kuni 5. juunini

  6. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Entity Registration

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains the information available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for those entities registered to do business with the Federal government...

  7. Play it again Sam: Brain Correlates of Emotional Music Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eAltenmüller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory.Methods: 18 non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 second length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 sec was followed by a 20 sec resting period during which participants pressed either the old or the new to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance.

  8. Klientide ees põlvitamise kunst / Sam Swaminathan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swaminathan, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Autor selgitab erinevate ettevõtete kogemuste varal kliendikeskse teeninduse põhimõtteid ning rõhutab, et kõikide klientidega tuleb käituda erinevalt. Kokkuvõte autori ettekandest turunduskonverentsil "Jalad maas" Pärnus 22.-23. mail 2003. Vt. samas: Kuidas kliendikesksuse teel esimene samm teha?

  9. Antibody binding to p-Si using LANL SAM chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    This NMSBA-sponsored project involves the attachment of antibodies to polymeric silicon (p-Si) surfaces, with the ultimate goal of attaching antibodies to nanowires for Vista Therapeutics, Inc. (Santa Fe, NM). This presentation describes the functionalization of p-Si surfaces. the activation of terminal carboxylates on these surfaces, the conjugation of antibodies, and the analyses undertaken at each step. The results of this work show that antibody conjugation is possible on p-Si coatings using the well-known EDC/NHS activation chemistry.

  10. Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the "old" or the "new" button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very fast.

  11. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere. Keywords: Postmodernist Literature; Grand Narratives; Duality; Self Reflexivity; Language Game; Binary oppositions; Simulacrum

  12. Samõi võsoki v Skandinavii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Malmösse rajatud Skandinaavia kõrgeimast hoonest "Turning Torso". Kõrgus 190 m, 54 korrust. Konstruktsioon koosneb üheksast kuubikust, mis üksteise suhtes on veidi pöördes. Projekteeris hispaania arhitekt Santiago Calatrava

  13. Integrated Krill Model WG-SAM-14/20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The integrated modeling framework for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been extended to include estimates of krill growth consistent with survey data and to...

  14. ADAPTIVE CAPACITY IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA Sam Schramski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sam schramski

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... human memory is often unreliable in accounting for changes in near or ... The following research question motivates this research: Do households and ...... function of markets and capital, this could have compounding effects ...

  15. Klientide ees põlvitamise kunst / Sam Swaminathan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swaminathan, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Autor selgitab erinevate ettevõtete kogemuste varal kliendikeskse teeninduse põhimõtteid ning rõhutab, et kõikide klientidega tuleb käituda erinevalt. Kokkuvõte autori ettekandest turunduskonverentsil "Jalad maas" Pärnus 22.-23. mail 2003. Vt. samas: Kuidas kliendikesksuse teel esimene samm teha?

  16. Advanced Technology for SAM Systems Analysis Synthesis and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    militoires at les distances do passage plus 6loe’dos, una tusAe do proximiti laser samblsit Is vote Ia plus prom~teuae. * ~3.4I-e CELLULS PILOTF 0 Los...uno ou plusieurs versions do base repriaentatives ati ventuelloment uno ou plusisurs options. La sdleotinn do corn versions qut ont ensuito fait

  17. CE-SAM: A Conversational Interface for ISR Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    apps – which has also determined their success – is that they typically do not require training to be used. In general they pose low cognitive overhead... DCD ) RM 107 FORT RUCKER AL 36362-5000 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED (PDF) RDRL HRM CK J REINHART 10125 KINGMAN RD BLDG 317 FORT

  18. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Sam Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Management Office. The contributions made by Ms. Sharon McClellan (FORSCOM); and Mr. Chittaranjan Ray, Mr. Richard Stanbaugh, Mr. Douglas Knowlton, and Ms...Blakesless, Inc. NRS-60 45-60 gal/h 2001 N. Janice Avenue HRS-60 45-60 gal/h Melrose Park. IL 60160 (solvents: TCE, 1.1.1-TCE, PCE) Branson Cleaning Equip...test feedwater. In addition, boiler blowdown liquid mixed with water is a hazardous waste generated periodically. Waste oil blended with virgin fuel

  19. Samõi võsoki v Skandinavii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Malmösse rajatud Skandinaavia kõrgeimast hoonest "Turning Torso". Kõrgus 190 m, 54 korrust. Konstruktsioon koosneb üheksast kuubikust, mis üksteise suhtes on veidi pöördes. Projekteeris hispaania arhitekt Santiago Calatrava

  20. Radiolesão vascular como efeito deletério da braquiterapia intra-arterial com dose elevada de Samário-153 em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Vascular radiolesion as a deleterious effect of high-dose-rate intraarterial brachytherapy with Samarium-153 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Bertolim Précoma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as alterações vasculares morfológicas e morfométricas induzidas pela braquiterapia com Samário-153 (153 Sm em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, com doses elevadas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 43 coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, brancos, da raça New Zealand, e o total de 86 artérias ilíacas submetidas a lesão por balão de angioplastia. Divididos em três grupos: dois (GI irradiados com as doses de 15Gy (n=14 e 60Gy (n=36 e um grupo controle (n=36. Foram realizadas avaliação histológica morfométrica e análise histológica qualitativa para análise tecidual. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas uma redução significativa da neoproliferação intimal (NPI no GI 15 Gy (pOBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate vascular morphological and morphometric changes induced by brachytherapy with samarium-153 (Sm-153 at high doses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Forty-three New Zealand White hypercholesterolemic rabbits were analyzed, and the total of 86 iliac arteries underwent balloon angioplasty injury. The rabbits were divided into three different groups: two irradiation groups (IG assigned to 15 Gy (n=14 and 60 Gy (n=36 irradiation doses, respectively, and a control group (n = 36. Histomorphometric and qualitative histological analyses were performed for tissue evaluation. RESULTS: Significant reductions were found in neointimal proliferation (NIP (p< 0.0001, media area (MA (p<0.0001 and percent stenosis (p<0.0001 in the 15-Gy IG, compared to the other groups. The 60-Gy IG had the higher rate of NIP, increase in media and vessel areas (VA and percent stenosis. The 60-Gy IG also showed the greatest number of xanthomatous cells (60-Gy IG: 86.11% and 15-Gy IG: 14.29%, p<0.0001 and the highest amount of hyaline amorphous tissue (60-Gy IG:58.33% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0001 and vascular proliferation (60-Gy IG:30.56% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0221. No statistically significant differences were found

  1. 建泽泻法呢基焦磷酸合酶分子克隆、分布表达及生物信息学研究%Molecular cloning of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep.and its distribution pattern and bioinformatics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷巍; 吴启南; 巢建国; 席蓓莉; 李琳; 申修源

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenes, which have large application potential in the treatment of cancer, are the main active components of genuine medicinal material Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep. Famesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is one of the important rate-limiting enzymes in the synthetic pathway of triterpenes. In this study the FPPS full length cDNA of the A. orientale. was cloned via homology-based cloning approach and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of the FPPS cDNA was 1 531 bp (accession no. HQ724508), which contained a full 1 032 bp ORF that encoded 343 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence exhibited five conserved motifs, two of which is riched of Asp (DDXXD). The result of real-time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) showed that FPPS gene was expressed in different organs of A. orientale. The expression increased from October to the first ten-day period of December, and then decreased. The FPPS gene expression was higher in leaves but lower in leafstalk, tuber and root. HPLC analysis of active components 23-acetyl-alismol B of A. orientale. during different periods indicated that its change trend should be consistent with FPPS gene expression. It can be primarily deduced that FPPS gene should be an important control point in the synthetic pathway of Alisma terpenes. Tbis study may facilitate the quality of medicinal plants through gene engineering in the future.%三萜类化合物是道地药材建泽泻中的主要药效成分,在癌症治疗方面有很大的应用潜力.法呢基焦磷酸合酶(FPPS)为三萜类化合物合成途径中的重要限速酶之一,本文运用同源克隆和快速cDNA末端扩增(PACE)技术相结合的方法,克隆了建泽泻FPPS基因的全长cDNA(accessionn no.HQ724508),FPPS cDNA全长为1 531 bp,含有1个1 032 bp的开放阅读框,编码343个氨基酸的蛋白,包含5个保守的功能域,其中两个富含天冬氨酸(DDXXD).实时荧光定量PCR(QRT-PCR)结果显示建泽泻FPPS基

  2. Motion Estimation from Image and Inertial Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    gross mistracking have been explored, corresponding to 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 pixel thresholds for the change in error. The 3.0 pixel threshold is the most rea ...Experimental comparison of techniques for lo- calization andmapping using a bearing-only sensor. In Daniela Rus and Sanjiv Singh, editors, Experimental

  3. Development and Evaluation of Positioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The University of Oxford has developed a navigation for a low speed, indoor AGV suitable suitable for industrial use. This system uses SONAR to...1996. Shi92 Shin, D.H., Sanjiv, S., and Lee, J.J., “Explicit Path Tracking by Autonomous Vehicles,” Robotica , 10, (1992), 69-87. Ste95

  4. Intraoperative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    RY, Gambhir SS (2004) Imaging tri-fusion multimodality reporter gene expression in living subjects. Cancer Res 64: 1323. 25. Yaghoubi S, Barrio JR...California; 3Stanford Photonics, Inc., Palo Alto , California; and 4Department of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford

  5. A hybrid SAM phospholipid approach to fabricating a 'free' supported lipid bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A.V.; Goldar, A.; Gerstenberg, M.C.;

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of self assembly, Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaeffer techniques, we have produced a multilayered film of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine ( DMPC) intended for use as a biomembrane mimic. Neutron reflectivity measurements have revealed that the upper two layers of phospholi...

  6. "Tap it again, Sam": Harmonizing the frontiers between digital and real worlds in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Lifelong leaners are intrinsically motivated to embed learning activities into daily life activities. Finding a suitable combination of the two is not trivial since lifelong learners have to face conflicts of time and location. Hence, lifelong learners normally build personal learning ecologies in t

  7. Sam Ting at the ISR intersection I-2 (experiment R209)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The Genova-Harvard-MIT-Pisa Collaboration, later CERN-Harvard-Frascati-MIT-Naples-Pisa Collaboration, set up an experiment to search for the electromagnetic properties of protons in the time-like region and search for the neutral boson Z0 (Muon pair production)

  8. 77 FR 19691 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, Norman, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the Fort Coffee phase are material culture-based, there is not a direct cultural affiliation that can... eastern Oklahoma. In other words, this term refers to a distinct set of material culture attributes... applicable. The origins of the Spiro culture are linked archeologically to the preceding inhabitants of the...

  9. Samõi strashnõi variant - prevratitsja v jevropeiskii tupik / Mihhail Bronshtein ; interv. Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bronštein, Mihhail, 1923-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu majandusteadlase Mihhail Bronshteiniga Eesti ja Venemaa majandussuhete teemal. Akadeemik loodab tekkinud olukorra reaalset analüüsi kahe riigi juhtivate ekspertide poolt. Vt samas: Elektrienergia nõudluse ja pakkumise prognoosid välisturul : diagrammid

  10. Mechano-Chemical Stability of Gold Nanoparticles Coated With Alkanethiolate SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    approach outlined by Rowlinson and Widom (57) and presented in equation 6. 13     2 2 1 1 23 31 8 r N i r r r dp r p p r dr dr      , (6...published data of 742 mN/m. The combination of the results from the Young-Laplace and Rowlinson- Widom equations shows that the internal pressure...Rowlinson, J. S.; Widom , B. Molecular Theory of Capillarity; Dover Publications Inc.: Mineola, NY, 1982. 58. Dieter, G. E. Mechanical Metallurgy

  11. Discovery and characterization of a marine bacterial SAM-dependent chlorinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustáquio, Alessandra S; Pojer, Florence; Noel, Joseph P; Moore, Bradley S

    2008-01-01

    Halogen atom incorporation into a scaffold of bioactive compounds often amplifies biological activity, as is the case for the anticancer agent salinosporamide A (1), a chlorinated natural product from the marine bacterium Salinispora tropica. Significant effort in understanding enzymatic chlorination shows that oxidative routes predominate to form reactive electrophilic or radical chlorine species. Here we report the genetic, biochemical and structural characterization of the chlorinase SalL, which halogenates S-adenosyl-L-methionine (2) with chloride to generate 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine (3) and L-methionine (4) in a rarely observed nucleophilic substitution strategy analogous to that of Streptomyces cattleya fluorinase. Further metabolic tailoring produces a halogenated polyketide synthase substrate specific for salinosporamide A biosynthesis. SalL also accepts bromide and iodide as substrates, but not fluoride. High-resolution crystal structures of SalL and active site mutants complexed with substrates and products support the S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution mechanism and further illuminate halide specificity in this newly discovered halogenase family.

  12. Archie to SAM: A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Bulletin, 11 July 2000; and Robert Suro , “Missile Defense is Still Just A Pie in the Sky,” Washington Post, 12 February 2001. 31. The Aegis ships already...April 2000; “Misdirected Missile Defense Plan,” Los Angeles Times, 30 April 2000; and Robert Suro and Steven Mufson, “GAO Report Finds Fault with

  13. Systematic substrate adoption methodology (SAM) for future flexible, generic pharmaceutical production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn;

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of an effective and safe pharmaceutical product is based on success in clinical trials. Often, several candidate compounds targeting the same disease area are tested in order to identify the most efficacious products. This involves the manufacture of small quantities of compounds...

  14. Sam Harris La promoción del humanismo exige el fin de la fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monserrat Monserrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El tipo de ateísmo de San Harris es distinto del de otros autores porque se funda exclusivamente en la ponderación de la fe religiosa irracional como fuente de la violencia, del terror, del enfrentamiento social —interior a las naciones e internacional— que acaba por hacer imposible toda forma de cohesión social. Es evidente que Harris da por descontado que las creencias religiosas son irracionales y esto por dos razones. Primero porque la razón, en la ciencia y en la filosófica, no puede aducir argumento alguno para pensar que Dios o los dioses sean reales y existentes. Segundo porque las afirmaciones mismas de las religiones presentan un contenido que, por las buenas, no se puede creer, repugna inmediatamente a la razón, como puedan ser, por ejemplo, hablar de una «encarnación» de Dios o de que Mahoma ascendió al Cielo a lomos de un caballo alado, y otras afirmaciones de similar irracionalidad.

  15. Tebas y el escenario de Menipo o Necromancia de Luciano de Samósata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Maksimczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En Menipo o Necromancia, el encuentro entre el filósofos cínico Menipo de Gádara y su interlocutor sirve como marco para que este relate su peripecia infernal. En la obra no se especifica dónde tiene lugar dicho encuentro; no obstante, pensamos que el samosatense incluye un sutil juego literario mediante el cual el auditorio podría identificar el escenario de dicho encuentro con la polis beocia de Tebas. Palabras clave: Luciano de Samosata - Necromancia - Menipo de Gádara-citación en la segunda sofística.

  16. Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kumar, Vinay; Simon, Anu; Thomas, Aype; Bhardwaj, Amit; Das, Sweta; Senroy, Soma; Roy Bhowmik, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    A major rain storm in Uttarakhand (India) caused heavy rains and major loss of life from floods and land slide during 16-18 June, 2013. The observed daily maximum rainfall rates (3-hourly) during the 16th and 17th June were 220 and 340 mm respectively. This event is addressed via sensitivity studies using a cloud resolving non-hydrostatic model with detailed microphysics. The streaming of moist air from the east-south-east and warmer air from the south-west contributed to the sustained large population and amplitude of buoyancy and the associated CAPE contributed to the longer period of heavy rains. This study addresses the concept of Buoyancy as a means for large vertical accelerations, stronger vertical motions, extreme rain rates and the mechanisms that relate to the time rates of change. A post-processing algorithm provides an analysis of time rate of change for the buoyancy. Moist air streams and warm/moist air intrusions into heavily raining clouds are part of this buoyancy enhancement framework. Improvements in modeling of the extreme rain event came from adaptive observational strategy that showed lack of moisture data sets in these vital regions. We show that a moist boundary layer near the Bay of Bengal leads to moist rivers of moisture where the horizontal convergence confines a large population of buoyancy elements with large magnitudes of buoyancy that streams towards the region of extreme orographic rains. The areas covered in this study include: (i) Use of high resolution cloud modeling (1-km), (ii) Now casting of rains using physical initialization with a Newtonian relaxation, (iii) Use of an adaptive observational strategy, (iii) Sensitivity of the evolution of fields and population of buoyancy elements to boundary layer moisture, (iv) Role of orography and details of buoyancy budget.

  17. SAM: The "Search and Match" Computer Program of the Escherichia coli Genetic Stock Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B. J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes a computer program used at a genetic stock center to locate particular strains of bacteria. The program can match up to 30 strain descriptions requested by a researcher with the records on file. Uses of this particular program can be made in many fields. (PS)

  18. Drakon-terminal sdelajet aeroport Pekina samõm bolshim na Zemlje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Pekingisse rajatavast lennujaama terminalist. Kavandas briti arhitektuuribüroo Foster and Partners. Projekti tutvustab arhitekt Norman Foster. Projektiga töötasid ka hollandi planeerijad NACO B.U ja ameerika inseneribüroo ARUP

  19. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  20. Catalysis by desolvation: the catalytic prowess of SAM-dependent halide-alkylating enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Danielle C; Edwards, David R; Wolfenden, Richard

    2013-10-02

    In the biological fixation of halide ions, several enzymes have been found to catalyze alkyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to halide ions. It proves possible to measure the rates of reaction of the trimethylsulfonium ion with I(-), Br(-), Cl(-), F(-), HO(-), and H2O in water at elevated temperatures. Comparison of the resulting second-order rate constants, extrapolated to 25 °C, with the values of k(cat)/K(m) reported for fluorinase and chlorinase indicates that these enzymes enhance the rates of alkyl halide formation by factors of 2 × 10(15)- and 1 × 10(17)-fold, respectively. These rate enhancements, achieved without the assistance of cofactors, metal ions, or general acid-base catalysis, are the largest that have been reported for an enzyme that acts on two substrates.

  1. Samõje elegantnõje i obajatelnõje / Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unanova, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    14. jaanuaril anti Inglise Rahvusballeti solistidele Age Oksale ja Toomas Edurile üle inglise Balletikriitikute Liidu auhind (The Critics Circle National Dance Award) kui parimale paarile ja T. Edur tunnistati Inglismaa "parimaks balletitantsijaks 2002"

  2. Tsentr dosuga Tallink City budet samõm bolshim v Severnoi Jevrope / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Lasnamäele Tondiraba kvartalisse kavandatavast kaubandus- ja kultuurikeskusest. Keskuse kontseptsiooni töötasid välja soome arhitektid Vesa Jäntti ja Tom Cederquist arhitektuuribüroost Cej

  3. A new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2016-08-22

    Background: CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions.

  4. A naphthoquinone/SAM-mediated biosensor for olive oil polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Asma; Kuliček, Jaroslav; Raouafi, Noureddine

    2016-10-15

    We report on the design of an amperometric tyrosinase-based biosensor using a self-assembled monolayer of ω-mercaptopropyl naphthoquinone on gold electrode as an electron mediator. Under optimal conditions (i.e. pH=7.4 and E=-0.35V vs. KCl), the chronoamperometric response of the naphthoquinone-modified bioelectrode to successive additions of phenol was evaluated. The biosensor exhibits sensitive bioelectrocatalytic response at a working potential of -0.35V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat.KCl), reaching the steady-state current within 40s after each addition of phenol solution with a range of 0-135μM and a limit of detection and quantification which are 0.019μM and 0.0633μM, respectively. The bioelectrode was used to determine the content in polyphenol in a local virgin olive oil.

  5. FT. Sam 91 Whiskey Combat Medic Medical Simulation Training Quantitative Integration Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    the number of predefined clinical steps performed and the completion times recorded for each of the procedural skills examined in this study. The...emergency medical care to patrons of large events such as concerts, NBA basketball games, Conventions and many other events in San Antonio. (Contact...SEMESTER HOURS RECORDED Military 71.00 Civilian 28.00 Exam 6.00 All Sources 105.00 REFERENCES Ian Coon USAF MSgt Phone Number: (210)262-9422

  6. Sulfatases and radical SAM enzymes: emerging themes in glycosaminoglycan metabolism and the human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Berteau, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in a permanent association with bacterial populations collectively called the microbiota. In the last 10 years, major advances in our knowledge of the microbiota have shed light on its critical roles in human physiology. The microbiota has also been shown to be a major factor in numerous pathologies including obesity or inflammatory disorders. Despite tremendous progresses, our understanding of the key functions of the human microbiota and the molecular basis of its interactions with the host remain still poorly understood. Among the factors involved in host colonization, two enzymes families, sulfatases and radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzymes, have recently emerged as key enzymes.

  7. Uncle Sam Says, "I Want You!" - The Politics of the Draft and National Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    national service programs, although limited in scope. During the Great Depression , President Roosevelt persuaded Congress to establish a Civilian...Call To Civic Service: National Service for Country and Community (New York: The Free Press, 1988); E.J. Dionne, Jr., Kayla Meltzer Drogosz, and Robert...Meets the Citizen-Soldier,” and Harris Wofford, “The Politics of Service,”in ed. E.J. Dionne, Jr., Kayla Meltzer Drogosz, and Robert E. Litan

  8. Generation and Characterization of SAM Immobilized Enzyme Films in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-03

    from distal side acid/base catalysis and/or stabilization of developing negative charge on the heme iron -bound H2O2. The principal “push” effect ...push effect concept for peroxidase activity. The first successful installation of a peroxide-like aspartate-histidine- iron triad into a globin...structural work showed that a substrate analog, 4-iodophenol (4-IP) will bind in the distal pocket of DHP A close to the heme iron , a finding that

  9. 2nd International workshop on socially-aware multimedia (SAM'13)

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Garcia, Pablo Santiago; Copper, M.; Shamma, David; Williams, D

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractMultimedia social communication is becoming commonplace. Television is becoming smart and social; media sharing applications are transforming the way we converse and recall events and videoconferencing is a common application on our computers, phones, tablets and even televisions. The confluence of computer-mediated interaction, social networking, and multimedia content are radically reshaping social communications, bringing new challenges and opportunities. This workshop, in its ...

  10. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eSpampinato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP.The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules.Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  11. SAM: Secure Access of Media Independent Information Service with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangsong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seamless handover across different access technologies is very important in the future wireless networks. To optimize vertical handover in heterogeneous networks, IEEE 802.21 standard defines Media Independent Handover (MIH services. The MIH services can be a new target to attackers, which will be the main concern for equipment vendors and service providers. In this paper, we focus specifically on security of Media Independent Information Service (MIIS and present a new access authentication scheme with user anonymity for MIIS. The protocol can be used to establish a secure channel between the mobile node and the information server. Security and performance of the protocol are also analyzed in this paper.

  12. Preliminary Interpretations of Atmospheric Stable Isotopes and Argon from Mars Science Laboratory (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Niles, P. B.; Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Christensen, L. E.; Leshin, L. A.; Franz, H.; Wong, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Manning, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Owen, T.; Pepin, B.; Stern, J. C.; Trainer, M.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Given the broad agreement between C, H, and O isotopic ratios in the modern atmosphere and the ALH 84001 meteorite, it is possible that these reservoirs were established after early atmospheric loss prior to 4 Ga. The preservation of these signals over this long period of history can be explained in several slightly different ways: 1) C, O, and H have remained static in the atmosphere and have not exchanged with the surface over the past 4 Ga; 2) C, O, and H in the atmosphere have potentially varied widely over history but have been continually buffered by larger reservoirs in the crust which have remained unchanged over the past 4 Ga. This second possibility allows for potentially large variations in atmospheric pressure to occur as CO2 is recycled back into the atmosphere from crustal reservoirs or degassed from the mantle.

  13. Samõje elegantnõje i obajatelnõje / Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unanova, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    14. jaanuaril anti Inglise Rahvusballeti solistidele Age Oksale ja Toomas Edurile üle inglise Balletikriitikute Liidu auhind (The Critics Circle National Dance Award) kui parimale paarile ja T. Edur tunnistati Inglismaa "parimaks balletitantsijaks 2002"

  14. The story of Sam: continuities and discontinuities in development, transforming into and out of a perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesker, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to suggest new ways of understanding development that offer new therapeutic possibilities. I use observational and interview data showing the development of one research subject over forty years to highlight that the concepts of continuity and discontinuity need to be considered together to grasp the full complexity of psychological development. In the subject an unanticipated transformation occurs at age 14, the emergence of a perversion, whichfades by age 28. I will show that the observations can be best understood by co-ordinating the influence of antecedents that exert a pull backward with the transformative potential arising from the pull forward into new structures, compromises, and organizations.

  15. Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness: A Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  16. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  17. Sarm1-Mediated Axon Degeneration Requires Both SAM and TIR Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Josiah; Summers, Daniel W; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Axon degeneration is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that eliminates damaged or unneeded axons. Manipulation of this poorly understood pathway may allow treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. In an RNAi-based screen performed in cultured mouse DRG neurons, we observed strong suppression of injury-induced axon degeneration upon knockdown of Sarm1 [SARM (sterile α-motif-containing and armadillo-motif containing protein)]. We find that a SARM-dependent degeneration program is e...

  18. Training the People’s Liberation Army Air Force Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bao MR Military Region MRAF Beijing Military Region Air Force MUCD Military Unit Cover Designator NASIC National Air and Space Intelligence Center...为荣], ed., 2006, p. 253. 49 Air Force Engineering University [空军工程大学], undated. 50 An Hongqiang [安红强] and Yang Tao [杨涛], “Quenching the Blade Before...115 These are designated as third-generation aircraft in Chinese. 116 Yuan Hai [袁海] and Zhou Tengjiao [周腾蛟], 2013, p. 3. 117 One air force

  19. Special Plans and Operations: Assessment of DOD Wounded Warrior Matters - Fort Sam Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    history of high-risk behavior, experienced a broken relationship, suffered from chronic pain, and/or are pending punitive actions. 11...team, and others who had experience in case management and disease management. Most stated that they possessed at least a Bachelor of Science in Nursing...Warrior’s death) for Warrior placement in squads to prevent staff burnout . The Commanding General concluded that the implementation of this

  20. The Dragon and Uncle Sam: Shaping the World for Prosperity or Destruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    culturally superior because of it. The most important influence on China is Confucianism .7 The basic Confucian teachings are summarized as:  Observe...Chinese ethical behavior is guided by these unequal relationships and there is inherent responsibility to protect and show kindness to those who are...be partially tolerated by the Chinese populace because of the Confucian , unequal relationship, and members-of-a-group paradigm. The Chinese

  1. Early Adverse Events and Attrition in SSRI Treatment: A Suicide Assessment Methodology Study (SAMS) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Diane; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Kurian, Benji; Zisook, Sidney; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, John

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment are frequent and may lead to premature treatment discontinuation. If attrition is associated with early worsening of side effects or the frequency, intensity, or burden of side effects, interventions to maximize retention could be focused on patients with these events. Outpatient participants (n=265) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder entered an 8-week trial with an SSRI. At baseline and week 2, specific side effects were evaluated with the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events – Systematic Inquiry, and at week 2 the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating globally assessed side effects. Attrition was defined by those participants who left treatment after week 2 but before week 8. No specific week 2 side effect, either treatment emergent or with worsening intensity, was independently associated with attrition. Global ratings of side effect frequency, intensity, or burden at week 2 were also not associated with subsequent attrition. Neither global ratings nor specific side effects at week 2 were related to patient attrition during SSRI treatment. Other factors appear to contribute to patient decisions about continuing with treatment. PMID:20473060

  2. Samõi strashnõi variant - prevratitsja v jevropeiskii tupik / Mihhail Bronshtein ; interv. Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bronštein, Mihhail, 1923-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu majandusteadlase Mihhail Bronshteiniga Eesti ja Venemaa majandussuhete teemal. Akadeemik loodab tekkinud olukorra reaalset analüüsi kahe riigi juhtivate ekspertide poolt. Vt samas: Elektrienergia nõudluse ja pakkumise prognoosid välisturul : diagrammid

  3. The Search for Ammonia in Martian Soils with Curiosity's SAM Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, James J.; Archer, P. D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Webster, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second or third most abundant constituent of the Martian atmosphere [1,2]. It is a bioessential element, a component of all amino acids and nucleic acids that make up proteins, DNA and RNA, so assessing its availability is a key part of Curiosity's mission to characterize Martian habitability. In oxidizing desert environments it is found in nitrate salts that co-occur with perchlorates [e.g., 3], inferred to be widespread in Mars soils [4-6]. A Mars nitrogen cycle has been proposed [7], yet prior missions have not constrained the state of surface N. Here we explore Curiosity's ability to detect N compounds using data from the rover's first solid sample. Companion abstracts describe evidence for nitrates [8] and for nitriles (C(triple bond)N) [9]; we focus here on nonnitrile, reduced-N compounds as inferred from bonded N-H. The simplest such compound is ammonia (NH3), found in many carbonaceous chondrite meteorites in NH4(+) salts and organic compounds [e.g., 10].

  4. Drakon-terminal sdelajet aeroport Pekina samõm bolshim na Zemlje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Pekingisse rajatavast lennujaama terminalist. Kavandas briti arhitektuuribüroo Foster and Partners. Projekti tutvustab arhitekt Norman Foster. Projektiga töötasid ka hollandi planeerijad NACO B.U ja ameerika inseneribüroo ARUP

  5. Array-Based Discovery of Aptamer Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    18460−18465. (25) Liu, Y.; Adams, J. D.; Turner, K.; Cochran, F. V.; Gambhir, S. S.; Soh, H. T. Lab Chip 2009, 9, 1033−1036. (26) Katilius, E.; Flores, C...discovery of aptamer pairs. We use microfluidic selection and high-throughput sequencing to obtain an enriched pool of aptamer sequences. Next, we...overcomes this problem to achieve efficient discovery of aptamer pairs. We use microfluidic selection and high- throughput sequencing to obtain an

  6. Hydrometeor Data and Analytical-Theoretical Investigations Pertaining to the SAMS Rain Erosion Program of the 1972-73 Season at Wallops Island, Virginia - AFGL/SAMS Report Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-05

    boundarlea of the k iaolinea of the two cited diagrama of Figure ET. The regression linea muat alao be entirely contained within the limiting iaolinea of k...va Z , see the bottom diagrama of Figures E9, E10, Ell, and El2, for example, from knowledge that the regression line will pass through the

  7. Analysis of early ageing of PEM fuel cell stacks in a SAM light electric vehicle; Analyse der vorzeitigen Alterung des PEM-Stacks im LEV SAM - Jahresbericht/Schlussbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Ruge, M.

    2006-12-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of investigations concerning a PEM fuel cell stack made at the University of Applied Sciences in Bienne, Switzerland. The six-kilowatt stack showed considerable loss of power over a two-year period. The reasons behind these losses are discussed, including those caused by insufficient sealing and long periods of standstill. The measurements made on the fuel cell stack are presented and discussed. The causes of the loss of power are discussed and resulting modifications made to the stack are described. Recommendations concerning the regular use of the fuel cell stack are made in order to ensure correct operation in the future.

  8. Rural-Urban Multiplier and Policy Effects in Finish Rural Regions: an Inter-Regional Sam Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyytiä Nina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelissa tutkitaan maaseutupolitiikkojen vaikutuksia ja niiden hyötyjen jakautumista maaseutu- ja kaupunkialueiden kesken kahdessa Suomen maakunnassa. Tutkimusmenetelminä ovat sosiaalisen tilinpidon matriisit ja SAMkerroinanalyysit. Maatalous ja elintarviketeollisuus olivat edelleen tärkeitä näille maakunnille. Kaupunkialueilla palvelut ja rakentaminen kuitenkin loivat eniten taloudellista toimeliaisuutta kytkentöjensä kautta. Vaikka maaseudun ja kaupunkien toimialat olivat alueellisen aktiivisuuden luojina lähes tasaväkisiä, kaupunkien toimialat levittivät enemmän hyötyjä myös maaseutualueille ja tukivat siten koko maakuntien kehitystä. Erilaisista talouden rakenteista johtuen Etelä-Pohjanmaa reagoi voimakkaammin maatalouspolitiikkoihin, kun taas infrastruktuuri- ja turismipolitiikat olivat suhteellisesti tärkeämpiä Pohjois-Karjalalle

  9. The global middle-atmosphere aerosol model MAECHAM5-SAM2: comparison with satellite and in-situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hommel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate results from a three-dimensional middle-atmosphere aerosol-climate model which has been developed to study the evolution of stratospheric aerosols. Here we focus on the stratospheric background period and evaluate several key quantities of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols and their precursors with observations and other model studies. It is shown that the model fairly well reproduces in situ observations of the aerosol size and number concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Compared to measurements from the limb-sounding SAGE II satellite instrument, modelled integrated aerosol quantities are more biased the lower the moment of the aerosol population is. Both findings are consistent with earlier work analysing the quality of SAGE II retrieved e.g. aerosol surface area densities in the volcanically unperturbed stratosphere (SPARC/ASAP, 2006; Thomason et al., 2008; Wurl et al., 2010.

    The model suggests that new particles are formed over large areas of the LS, albeit nucleation rates in the upper troposphere are at least one order of magnitude larger than those in the stratosphere. Hence, we suggest that both, tropospheric sulphate aerosols and particles formed in situ in the LS are maintaining the stability of the stratospheric aerosol layer in the absence of direct stratospheric emissions from volcanoes. Particle size distributions are clearly bimodal, except in the upper branches of the stratospheric aerosol layer where aerosols evaporate. Modelled concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN are smaller than measured in regions of the aerosol layer where aerosol mixing ratios are largest. This points to an overestimated particle growth by coagulation.

    Transport regimes of tropical stratospheric aerosol have been identified from modelled aerosol mixing ratios and correspond to those deduced from satellite extinction measurements. We found that convective updraft in the Asian Monsoon region significantly contributes to both stratospheric aerosol load and size. The timing of formation and descend of layers of fine mode particles in the winter and spring polar stratosphere (CN layer are well reproduced by the model. Where temperatures in the stratosphere increase with altitude, nucleation is unlikely to occur. Nevertheless, in these regions we find a significant concentration of fine mode aerosols. The place of origin of these particles is in the polar stratosphere. They are mixed into the mid-latitudes by planetary waves. There enhanced condensation rates of sulphuric acid vapour counteract evaporation and extend aerosol lifetime in the upper branches of the stratospheric aerosol layer.

    Measured aerosol precursors concentrations, SO2 and sulphuric acid vapour, are fairly well reproduced by the model throughout the stratosphere.

  10. HABITAT MANAGEMENT PLAN, INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PLAN, AND VISITOR SERVICES PLAN FOR SAM D. HAMILTON NOXUBEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains 3 major plans including the Habitat Management Plan, the Integrated Pest Management Plan and the Visitor Services Plan. These plans provide...

  11. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuru J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST] and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A.Results: A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05 was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST.Conclusion: These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. Keywords: stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cortisol, saliva

  12. A Study of the Effects of Sensor Noise and Guidance Laws on SAM Effectiveness Against Cruise Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    k guidance acceleration command vector xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cruise missile (CM) technology is...Germany, Netherlands, UK, Denmark Turkey, Romania, Poland, and Spain ) contributed to the Maritime Theatre Missile Defence Forum to obtain an impressive

  13. DE ATLAS A TIO SAM: IMAGENS (E VOZES QUE SE REPETEM  SEM SE REPETIR 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Chequi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at investigating what other “voices” also speak in the discourse transmitted through the presence of an iconic image of American culture and a headline on the cover of a traditional American magazine. In the light of the French school of discourse analysis, also based on Bakhtin’s notion of “dialogism”, this is an attempt to demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of every text, may it be verbal or non-verbal.

  14. Formation of patches on 3D SAMs driven by thiols with immiscible chains observed by ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Cristina; Franchi, Paola; Mileo, Elisabetta; Polizzi, Stefano; Lucarini, Marco; Pasquato, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Beyond stripes: The extreme lipophobicity of perfluorinated chains attached to amphiphilic thiolates triggers the formation of "stars" (or patches) surrounded by amphiphilic alkylthiolates in three-dimensional self-assembled monolayers. This strategy led to the first example of a water-soluble multicompartment monolayer wrapped around a gold core.

  15. Bookreview: Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford & Joshua Green: Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The book is like a treasure chest full of ideas for scholars, practitioners, and university teachers. It contains a wealth of case descriptions and analyses from a wide range of communication fields, yet it does not truly provide the reader with theoretical models, final answers, or quantitative ...

  16. Substrates adoption methodology (SAM) to achieve “Fast, Flexible, Future (F3)” pharmaceutical production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanchez, Raquel; Wrate, Tim;

    within the template. In this way the substrates adoption methodology helps to achieve “fast, flexible, future (F3)” pharmaceutical production processes by adapting a recently designed generic modular process-plant. The supporting tools for the substrate adoption are: (1) an ontological knowledge...

  17. A satellite digital controller or 'play that PID tune again, Sam'. [Position, Integral, Derivative feedback control algorithm for design strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.

  18. Numerical and analytical models to investigate the AC high-frequency response of nanoelectrode/SAM/electrolyte capacitive sensing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittino, Federico; Selmi, Luca; Widdershoven, Frans

    2013-10-01

    We develop theoretical models and numerical simulators to accurately describe the AC signal response of nanoelectrodes to the presence of biomolecules, in order to aid the design of capacitive biosensors. In particular, we first develop an analytical model for the electrolyte response to AC signal stimulation, showing that it is possible to define an AC screening length as in the standard Debye-Hückel theory. We then develop a full-custom numerical simulator for a simple nanoelectrode system, where the AC part is solved in the small-signal approximation, coupled to the DC solution. We validate the solver using the analytical model, and then use it to understand the effect of a dielectric biomolecule on the biosensor admittance.

  19. First Case Report of SAM (registered trademark) Junctional Tourniquet Use in Afghanistan to Control Inguinal Hemorrhage on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    American medics to take some time to manage the ANA medics who were hovering at their elbows (Figure 5). There was also a brief delay in com- munication...time from the moment the SJT was brought into the ANA trauma room un- til it was secured. The small space between the trauma beds required the...of Corpo- ral “Jamie” Smith except that with the passage of 20 years, dedicated junctional hemorrhage control research has moved the trauma field

  20. Mathematical Development of the Spill Assessment Model (SAM) for Hydrazine and Similar Acting Materials in Water Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    et m xmama/ 1 0 0. 1. . . .2 Modififie Sourcee / m6 / Pont ourcw0. This expression is almost identical to that for a virtual source, and the same...2 IZ 22Yf y 2 e dx and e-p Y dyf eX dx, Mapleton House, Brooklyn , New York, 1948. 22. Ng, E.W., and M. Geller, "A Table of Integrals of the Error

  1. Preventive Dentistry Conference - Public Health Aspects of Preventive Dentistry, 3-4 March 1983, Fort Sam Houston, Texas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    pockets in excess of 4-5 mm. e. Prosthetics: 1. Soldiers that require complete dentures or remo- vable partial dentures to properly masticate food. 2...Shulman ARMY COMMUNITY DENTISTRY - PROGRAM PLANNING .. ............... 7-1 Lieutenant Colonel John E. King HISTORY OF PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY IN THE ARMY... History of Preventive COL Barnes Dentistry in the Army 0900 ACO - Program Evaluation LTC King 1000 BREAK 1015 Dental Readiness Program Ms. Bowen at

  2. "The epic love story of Sam and Dean": "Supernatural," queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tosenberger

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines incestuous slash fan fiction produced for the CW television series Supernatural. I argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as perverse, oppositional resistance to a heterosexual, nonincestuous show, but an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself. I examine the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness invoked by the series, paying special attention to Romanticism, the Gothic, and horror as underliers to those discourses, and how those genres inform both the series and the fan fiction. I discuss a number of Wincest stories in detail, focusing upon how these stories build upon thematic elements within the series. In conclusion, I argue that the most resistive aspect of Wincest fan fiction is that it gives the main characters a lasting happiness that the series eternally defers.

  3. System for Award Management (SAM) -- Creating Efficiencies in Federal Government Contracting through the Use of Streamlining and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    beginning of the mandated use of e- commerce in federal business ( Graw & Wyatt III, 2002). Based on FASA, DoD formed the Joint Electronic Commerce...Contract Management, 34–41. Graw , L. H., & Wyatt III, J. B. (2002, September). Getting on the e-procurement bandwagon. Contract Management, 40–43

  4. Depletion of SAM50 Specifically Targets BCR-ABL-Expressing Leukemic Stem and Progenitor Cells by Interfering with Mitochondrial Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capala, Marta E; Pruis, Maurien; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    A high proliferation rate of malignant cells requires an increased energy production, both by anaerobic glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, increased levels of mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote survival of transformed cells and contribute to the

  5. Depletion of SAM50 Specifically Targets BCR-ABL-Expressing Leukemic Stem and Progenitor Cells by Interfering with Mitochondrial Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capala, Marta E; Pruis, Maurien; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    A high proliferation rate of malignant cells requires an increased energy production, both by anaerobic glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, increased levels of mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote survival of transformed cells and contribute to the dise

  6. The Student Admission to Medicine (SAM) Program: First Steps toward the Paperless Processing of Medical School Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The University of Calgary (Canada) medical school admissions process has been streamlined with the Student Admission to Medicine computer program, largely paperless, that creates a database from student applications. The database then converts grades to the university's standards and assists with administrative details, statistical analyses, and…

  7. A Japanese-American Sam Spade: The Metaphysical Detective in Death in Little Tokyo, by Dale Furutani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portilho Carla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to discuss the legacy of the roman noir in contemporary detective fiction produced outside the hegemonic center of power, here represented by the novel Death in Little Tokyo (1996, written by Japanese-American author Dale Furutani. Starting from the concept of the metaphysical detective (Haycraft 76; Holquist 153-156, characterized by deep questioning about narrative, interpretation, subjectivity, the nature of reality and the limits of knowledge, this article proposes a discussion about how these literary works, which at first sight represent a traditionally Anglo-American genre, constitute narratives that aim to rescue the memory, history and culture of marginalized communities. Typical of late modernity detective fiction, the metaphysical detective has none of the positivistic detective’s certainties, as he does not share in his Cartesian notion of totality, being presented instead as a successor of the hardboiled detective of the roman noir. In this article I intend to analyze the paths chosen by the author and discuss how his re-reading of the roman noir dialogues with the texts of hegemonic noire detective fiction, inscribing them in literary tradition and subverting them at the same time.

  8. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Improving discrimination of savanna tree species through a multiple endmember spectral-angle-mapper (SAM) approach: canopy level analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [3, 4] and is therefore more appropriate for species-level monitoring at the regional scale compared to the Euclidean distance similarity measure. SMA, on the other hand, is a sub-pixel classifier that determines the relative abundance of materials... assigned to the class of its nearest neighbour. However, in the k-nearest neighbours classifier, often applied using the Euclidean distance measure [15], [8],16], a larger portion of the data is used for training and the remainder for validation...

  10. Real-time monitoring of calcium carbonate and cationic peptide deposition on carboxylate-SAM using a microfluidic SAW biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pohl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic biosensor with surface acoustic wave technology was used in this study to monitor the interaction of calcium carbonate with standard carboxylate self-assembled monolayer sensor chips. Different fluids, with and without biomolecular components, were investigated. The pH-dependent surface interactions of two bio-inspired cationic peptides, AS8 and ES9, which are similar to an extracellular domain of the chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation, were also investigated in a biological buffer system. A range of experimental conditions are described that are suitable to study non-covalent molecular interactions in the presence of ionic substances, such as, mineral precursors below the solubility equilibrium. The peptide ES9, equal to the mollusc chitin synthase epitope, is less sensitive to changes in pH than its counterpart AS8 with a penta-lysine core, which lacks the flanking acidic residues. This study demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microfluidic surface acoustic wave biosensors to significantly expand our experimental capabilities for studying the principles underlying biomineralization in vitro.

  11. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  12. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    TrilogyTM medical linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto , CA) is used in this work to acquire CBCT images. The kV OBI system is...Gambhir, S. S.; Srinivasan, A.; Banerjee, P. K.; Hoh, C. K.; Cherry, S. R.; Sharfstein, S.; Barrio , J. R.; Herschman, H. R.; Phelps, M. E., PET in...nuclear medicine 1997, 38(8), 1305-10. 40. Seltzer, M. A.; Jahan, S. A.; Sparks, R.; Stout, D. B.; Satyamurthy, N.; Dahlbom, M.; Phelps, M. E.; Barrio

  13. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Vyas

    2016-09-01

    Annual surplus water of about 1437 MCM in the river Chambal is going waste and ultimately reaches to sea after creating flood situations in various places in India including Rajasthan, while on the other hand 1077 MCM water is a requirement in the four other basins in Rajasthan i.e. Banas, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati at 75% dependability. Interlinking and water transfer from Chambal to these four river basins is the prime solution for which 372 km link channel including 9 km tunnel of design capacity of 300 cumec with 64 m lift is required.

  14. Observed Rates of Lower Extremity Stress Fractures After Implementation of the Army Physical Readiness Training Program at JBSA Fort Sam Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupa, Robyn L; Aberle, Curtis; Johnson, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    Millions of dollars are lost each year to the US military in medical discharges from injuries sustained in the initial training of recruits. Most medical discharges in recruits are related to musculoskeletal overuse injuries, including stress fractures. Any strategies that can reduce injury rates are also likely to reduce rates of medical discharge. This study evaluated the Army Physical Readiness Training (PRT) program which was established to provide a method of physical fitness training that would reduce the number of preventable injuries. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the number of lower extremity stress fractures that were diagnosed in the 6 months prior to and 6 months following the implementation of the PRT program. Electronic medical records were queried for specific diagnoses of stress fractures to the pelvis, femoral neck, femoral shaft, tibia, fibula, tarsals and metatarsals. The observed number of diagnoses in each time period were compared using the χ² method. Decrease was shown not only in the overall occurrence of stress fractures, but specifically in the occurrence of stress fractures of the femoral neck, femoral shaft, and tarsals. Our study was able to show a correlation between the PRT program and a decrease in the observed occurrence of lower extremity stress fractures.

  15. Naval Shipboard Non-Tactical ADP Program (SNAP) Automated Medical System (SAMS) Computer Assisted Medical Diagnosis (CAMD) Module System/Subsystem Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Intermittent Site of Pain 1 = Substernal, 2 = Across, 3 = Left Side, 4 = Right Side, 5 = Epigastric , 6 = Other Radiation of Pain 1 = Left Arm, 2...ULCER DISEASE" GOAL "MESENTERIC ADENITIS" GOAL "DIVERTICULITIS" GOAL "INGUINAL HERNIA " GOAL "ACUTE PANCREATITIS" GOAL "MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION" GOAL...34 == "CHEST" 11 "SITE OF PAIN" == "ACROSS" 12 "SITE OF PAIN" == "L SIDE" 13 "SITE OF PAIN" == "R SIDE" 14 "SITE OF PAIN" == " EPIGASTRIC " 15 "SITE OF

  16. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  18. Protocol for the saMS trial (supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to supportive listening for adjustment to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which can have a profound impact including disrupting activities of daily living, employment, income, relationships, social and leisure activities, and life goals. Adjusting to the illness is therefore particularly challenging. This trial tests the effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioural intervention compared to Supportive Listening to assist adjustment in the early stages of MS. Methods/Design This is a two arm randomized multi-centre parallel group controlled trial. 122 consenting participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Supportive Listening. Eight one hour sessions of therapy (delivered over a period of 10 weeks will be delivered by general nurses trained in both treatments. Self-report questionnaire data will be collected at baseline (0 weeks, mid-therapy (week 5 of therapy, post-therapy (15 weeks and at six months (26 weeks and twelve months (52 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes are distress and MS-related social and role impairment at twelve month follow-up. Analysis will also consider predictors and mechanisms of change during therapy. In-depth interviews to examine participants' experiences of the interventions will be conducted with a purposively sampled sub-set of the trial participants. An economic analysis will also take place. Discussion This trial is distinctive in its aims in that it aids adjustment to MS in a broad sense. It is not a treatment specifically for depression. Use of nurses as therapists makes the interventions potentially viable in terms of being rolled out in the NHS. The trial benefits from incorporating patient input in the development and evaluation stages. The trial will provide important information about the efficacy, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of the interventions as well as mechanisms of psychosocial adjustment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN91377356

  19. DNA-modified electrodes (Ⅶ)——Preparation and characterization of DNA-bonded and DNA-adsorbed SAM/Au electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琪; 庞代文; 胡深; 程介克; 蔡雄伟; 施财辉; 毛秉伟; 戴鸿平

    1999-01-01

    Two kinds of DNA-modified electrodes were prepared by covalent and adsorptive immobilization of DNA onto self-assembled monolayers of 2, 2’-dithiodiethanol on gold electrodes and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The results suggest that the methods are satisfactory for the immobilization of DNA on electrodes.

  20. What about Sam--The Kid in the Corner Whose Voice Doesn't Come Out?--Tensions between Open Discussions and Inclusive Educational Opportunities for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourd, Karen Miller

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies a tension between a teacher's intention and an English learner's interpretation of his experiences in a US high school English class for native users of English and English learners. The tension highlights two issues. First, democratic classroom practices, frequently advocated by second language acquisition theorists, may…