Sample records for sanjigen imaging system

  1. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  2. Computer graphics of numerical simulation of siltation using a three-dimensional display system. Computer graphics ni yoru siltation suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen hyoji ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruya, H.; Yoshinaga, H. (Port and Harbour Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan))


    A three-dimensional display system of siltation developed for estimating the mud sedimentation at the route and the roadstead from the multi-layer level model was reported. The system aimed at displaying rapidly and clearly the massive calculation results. The system is now working on the Sun SPARC station, displaying in color the topography, flow rate vector, particle trace, mud density, water level, and sedimentation. The siltation program can calculate the multi-layer part in detailed grids. It consists of calculation of flow field, wave field, and sedimentation. The input data of the display system are the results of calculation of siltation program. It includes the area data, grid data, layer thickness data, and water depth data. It was confirmed that the efficient calculation was possible because of easiness of displaying the calculation results in the course of calculation by preparing the display example of topography etc. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Medical imaging systems (United States)

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  5. Medical imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V [Wayland, MA


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  6. Tangible imaging systems (United States)

    Ferwerda, James A.


    We are developing tangible imaging systems1-4 that enable natural interaction with virtual objects. Tangible imaging systems are based on consumer mobile devices that incorporate electronic displays, graphics hardware, accelerometers, gyroscopes, and digital cameras, in laptop or tablet-shaped form-factors. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of threedimensional objects with complex textures and material properties are rendered to the screen, and tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. Tangible imaging systems thus allow virtual objects to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones with the added benefit that object properties can be modified under user control. In this paper we describe four tangible imaging systems we have developed: the tangiBook - our first implementation on a laptop computer; tangiView - a more refined implementation on a tablet device; tangiPaint - a tangible digital painting application; and phantoView - an application that takes the tangible imaging concept into stereoscopic 3D.

  7. Shearographic Imaging System. (United States)


    Shearography is a speckle shearing technique, developed recently I-5, which also allows a direct measurement of displacement gradient (strain) and it...D-A191 665 SNERROGRRPHIC IMROING SYSTEM () UNIVERSITY COLL OF / - NORTH URLES ORNOOR SCHOOL OF ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING SCIENCE 0 K DAS-GUPTA 91 JUN 97...CCESSION NO 11. TITLE -Khp* Swy Ootksl * , Shearographic Imaging System (unclassified) • 12. PERSON UTORS) Dr. D.K. Das-Gupta 138. TYPE OF REPORT 113b

  8. Imaging Characteristics Of Electronic Imaging Systems (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.


    Electronic imaging in the form of television has served the public for over 40 years. Television cameras have up to now used mostly photoconductive tubes to capture the live image. However, the last ten years have seen the advances in microelectronics, including VLSI technology, introduce newer, more flexible ways to record images via the solid state sensor. One version of the solid state sensor, the charge coupled device (CCD) has found its way into consumer electronic imaging, replacing the Super 8 movie system, and today, portable, commercial television cameras are starting to use CCD arrays instead of the more conventional photoconductive tubes. There are several electronic still cameras (ESC) on the market using solid state sensors, but due to the limited number of imaging sites or pixels on these imaging sensors, the quality is far below that of present photographic-based systems. This paper will consider imaging characteristics of photoconductive tubes (solid state imaging sensors) and how they compare to photographic film. Also, based on a system analysis, the requirements for a solid state sensor that will provide image quality equal to current photographic systems will be defined. The importance of digital image processing and digital image compression will also be discussed.

  9. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  10. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Fecht, B.A.


    The goal of the MEASUREMENT OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  11. Digital TV image enhancement system (United States)

    Biernson, G. A.


    Efficient, digital image-enhancement process has been developed for high-resolution slow-scan TV images. Scan converter is no longer subject to registration errors, which become more serious as resolution increases. To implement feedback image enhancement system, digital processing is used; otherwise there is excessive loss of image information, particularly in video delay lines.

  12. Acoustic imaging system (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.


    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  13. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  14. Intelligent web image retrieval system (United States)

    Hong, Sungyong; Lee, Chungwoo; Nah, Yunmook


    Recently, the web sites such as e-business sites and shopping mall sites deal with lots of image information. To find a specific image from these image sources, we usually use web search engines or image database engines which rely on keyword only retrievals or color based retrievals with limited search capabilities. This paper presents an intelligent web image retrieval system. We propose the system architecture, the texture and color based image classification and indexing techniques, and representation schemes of user usage patterns. The query can be given by providing keywords, by selecting one or more sample texture patterns, by assigning color values within positional color blocks, or by combining some or all of these factors. The system keeps track of user's preferences by generating user query logs and automatically add more search information to subsequent user queries. To show the usefulness of the proposed system, some experimental results showing recall and precision are also explained.

  15. 3-D Cataract Imaging System (United States)

    Otten, L. J.; Soliz, P.; McMakin, I.; Greenaway, A.; Blanchard, P.; Ogawa, G.

    This paper describes a new adaptive optics instrument and associated diagnostic system for volumetric, in vivo imaging of the human lens and visual acuity characterization. The system is designed to allow one to capture simultaneous, in-focus images of the human lens at multiple "image planes." Based on the adaptation of a deformable grating originally developed for atmospheric turbulence measurements, the instrument will demonstrate an improvement over current techniques for imaging cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataracts. The system will characterize the human lens optically and will automatically produce an estimate of visual function as affected by the measured abnormalities in the lens. The process that Kestrel and DERA Malvern will use to demonstrate the key techniques for simultaneously acquiring in vivo lens imagery at multiple focus planes employs a surrogate lens. Eventually the camera could be considered as a replacement for most standard slit lamp instruments allowing them to be converted into a 3-D imaging system.

  16. MLA imaging systems (United States)

    Ando, K. J.


    The development of the enabling technology and instrument/mission definition phase for the application of advanced solid state sensors for future experimental remote sensing missions is discussed. The development of focal planes, instrument concept/design, mission studies, and service requirements and an imaging spectrometer technology and a Shuttle sortie mission definition are outlined.

  17. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  18. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; hide


    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  19. Imaging Systems in TLE Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen


    documented using the right equipment in the right way. This chapter provides an introduction to the concepts of low light imagers, and how they can be successfully applied in TLE research. As examples, we describe the 2003 and 2004 Spritewatch systems, which integrate low-light cameras with a digital...... processing system, and is controllable over the internet....

  20. Compact Imagers Based on MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; Murchie, S. L.; Hawkins, S. E.; Hayes, J. R.; Boldt, J. D.; Barnouin, O. S.; Heffernan, K.; Noble, M. W.


    MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has acquired >130,000 images since launch in 2004, including the first images from Mercury orbit. MDIS, composed of two miniature cameras, has capabilities well matched to future planetary missions.

  1. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios


    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  2. Intellectual system for images restoration (United States)

    Mardare, Igor


    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  3. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H.; Mitsui, H.; Nakano, O.; Kobayashi, T. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Imaging systems for geotechnical boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Thomson; S. Adam [CoalBed Concepts Pty Ltd. (Australia)


    The objective of this project was to develop a new system for evaluating geotechnical boreholes in underground mining. This approach was predicated on the demonstration of a commercial prototype imaging system (the Slim Borehole Scanner (SBS)) which is designed to be suitable for application in all standard geotechnical boreholes and is certified Intrinsically Safe (IS) in Europe. This project was designed to test this new imaging system in Australian conditions and critically compare the outcomes from the work with currently available technologies. A key aspect of the project was the assessment of the likely impact the imaging system has on current practices and recommendations for improved methods of geotechnical assessment in underground operations. A comprehensive field-testing program of the SBS was undertaken to evaluate its suitability for application in Australian conditions. Test work was completed at BHPB Illawarra Appin Colliery and Xstrata Coal Tahmoor Colliery. The Slim Borehole Scanner (SBS) was found to be a useful tool for enhancing the capability of Australian underground mine operators to assess roof conditions. The SBS is a significant advance on existing qualitative assessment methods such as the Borescope, and is complementary to existing direct measurement methods such as Tel-tales and Gel-extensometers. It is recommended that the SBS system undergo Australian intrinsic safety approval and be adopted as a routine part of the geotechnical engineer's arsenal in assessing roof control issues in Australian mines.

  6. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  7. Optical secure image verification system based on ghost imaging (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Haobogedewude, Buyinggaridi; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian


    The ghost imaging can perform Fourier-space filtering by tailoring the configuration. We proposed a novel optical secure image verification system based on this theory with the help of phase matched filtering. In the verification process, the system key and the ID card which contain the information of the correct image and the information to be verified are put in the reference and the test paths, respectively. We demonstrate that the ghost imaging configuration can perform an incoherent correlation between the system key and the ID card. The correct verification manifests itself with a correlation peak in the ghost image. The primary image and the image to be verified are encrypted and encoded into pure phase masks beforehand for security. Multi-image secure verifications can also be implemented in the proposed system.

  8. Image and information management system (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)


    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  9. Design of low noise imaging system (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolai


    In order to meet the needs of engineering applications for low noise imaging system under the mode of global shutter, a complete imaging system is designed based on the SCMOS (Scientific CMOS) image sensor CIS2521F. The paper introduces hardware circuit and software system design. Based on the analysis of key indexes and technologies about the imaging system, the paper makes chips selection and decides SCMOS + FPGA+ DDRII+ Camera Link as processing architecture. Then it introduces the entire system workflow and power supply and distribution unit design. As for the software system, which consists of the SCMOS control module, image acquisition module, data cache control module and transmission control module, the paper designs in Verilog language and drives it to work properly based on Xilinx FPGA. The imaging experimental results show that the imaging system exhibits a 2560*2160 pixel resolution, has a maximum frame frequency of 50 fps. The imaging quality of the system satisfies the requirement of the index.

  10. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  11. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  12. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V.


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  13. Handheld microwave bomb-detecting imaging system (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo


    Proposed novel imaging technique will provide all weather high-resolution imaging and recognition capability for RF/Microwave signals with good penetration through highly scattered media: fog, snow, dust, smoke, even foliage, camouflage, walls and ground. Image resolution in proposed imaging system is not limited by diffraction and will be determined by processor and sampling frequency. Proposed imaging system can simultaneously cover wide field of view, detect multiple targets and can be multi-frequency, multi-function. Directional antennas in imaging system can be close positioned and installed in cell phone size handheld device, on small aircraft or distributed around protected border or object. Non-scanning monopulse system allows dramatically decrease in transmitting power and at the same time provides increased imaging range by integrating 2-3 orders more signals than regular scanning imaging systems.

  14. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B


    Full Text Available The purpose of the workshop was for participants to interactively discuss (with regard to optical imaging or optical imaging systems): Local end-user needs; What those needs imply for associated new & existing laboratory testing & measurement...

  15. Towards a proton imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civinini, C., E-mail: Carlo.Civinini@fi.infn.i [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D.; Pieri, S. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)


    Hadron therapy for tumor treatment is nowadays used in several medical centres. The main advantage in using protons or light ions beams is the possibility of tightly shaping the radiation dose to the target volume. Presently the spatial accuracy of the therapy is limited by the uncertainty in stopping power distribution, which is derived, for each treatment, from the photon attenuation coefficients measured by X-ray tomography. A direct measurement of the stopping powers will help in reducing this uncertainty. This can be achieved by using a proton beam and a detection system able to reconstruct a tomography image of the patient. As a first step towards such a system an apparatus able to perform a proton transmission radiography (pCR) has been designed. It consists of a silicon microstrip tracker, measuring proton trajectories, and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to determine the particle residual energy. Proton beam and laboratory tests have been performed on the system components prototypes: the main results will be shown and discussed.

  16. Fibre laser based broadband THz imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn

    State-of-the-art optical fiber technology can contribute towards complex multi-element broadband terahertz imaging systems. Classical table-top terahertz imaging systems are generally limited to a single emitter/receiver pair, which constrains their imaging capability to tedious raster scanning...... imaging techniques. This thesis exhibits that fiber technology can improve the robustness and the flexibility of terahertz imaging systems both by the use of fiber-optic light sources and the employment of optical fibers as light distribution medium. The main focus is placed on multi-element terahertz...

  17. Terahertz Imaging Systems With Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Löffler, Torsten; Dall, Jørgen


    in this paper. An active system operation allows for a wide dynamic range, which is important for image quality. The described instruments employ a multichannel high-sensitivity heterodyne architecture and aperture filling techniques, with close to real-time image acquisition time. In the case of the photonic...... imaging system, mechanical scanning is completely obsolete. We show 2-D images of simulated 3-D image data for both systems. The reconstruction algorithms are suitable for 3-D real-time operation, only limited by mechanical scanning....

  18. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia (Indonesia)


    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  19. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  20. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.


    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  1. Multi region based image retrieval system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with images. CBIR also referred as Query By Image Content (QBIC) is the application of auto- matic retrieval of images from a database based on the visual content such as colour, texture or shape. CBIR exploits techniques from computer vision, machine learning, database systems, data mining, information theory, statistics ...

  2. A multi-element THz imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Høgstedt, Lasse; Buron, Jonas Christian Due


    We report on a broadband multi-element THz imaging system based on fiber-coupled, integrated photoconductive emitters and detectors. 32 detectors and 32 emitters are arranged in a planar array. Advanced image reconstruction algorithms are employed to reconstruct an object in the imaging plane....

  3. Remote canopy hemispherical image collection system (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Liu, Bingyu; Yang, Yi; Han, Fang; Cui, Jian


    Canopies are major part of plant photosynthesis and have distinct architectural elements such as tree crowns, whorls, branches, shoots, etc. By measuring canopy structural parameters, the solar radiation interception, photosynthesis effects and the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation under the canopy can be evaluated. Among canopy structure parameters, Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the key one. Leaf area index is a crucial variable in agronomic and environmental studies, because of its importance for estimating the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy and the crop water requirements. The LAI can be achieved by hemispheric images which are obtained below the canopy with high accuracy and effectiveness. But existing hemispheric images canopy-LAI measurement technique is based on digital SLR camera with a fisheye lens. Users need to collect hemispheric image manually. The SLR camera with fisheye lens is not suit for long-term canopy-LAI outdoor measurement too. And the high cost of SLR limits its capacity. In recent years, with the development of embedded system and image processing technology, low cost remote canopy hemispheric image acquisition technology is becoming possible. In this paper, we present a remote hemispheric canopy image acquisition system with in-field/host configuration. In-field node based on imbed platform, low cost image sensor and fisheye lens is designed to achieve hemispherical image of plant canopy at distance with low cost. Solar radiation and temperature/humidity data, which are important for evaluating image data validation, are obtained for invalid hemispherical image elimination and node maintenance too. Host computer interacts with in-field node by 3G network. The hemispherical image calibration and super resolution are used to improve image quality in host computer. Results show that the remote canopy image collection system can make low cost remote canopy image acquisition for LAI effectively. It will be a potential

  4. Automated imaging system for single molecules (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel


    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  5. Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, M [TOCHIGI Nikon Corporation, 770 Midori, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Iwamoto, T [TOCHIGI Nikon Corporation, 770 Midori, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Fukasawa, R [TOCHIGI Nikon Corporation, 770 Midori, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Tani, M [Kansai Advanced Research Center, Communications Research Laboratory, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan); Watanabe, M [Kansai Advanced Research Center, Communications Research Laboratory, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan); Sakai, K [Kansai Advanced Research Center, Communications Research Laboratory, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)


    We have developed a real-time THz imaging system based on the two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic (EO) sampling technique. Employing the 2D EO-sampling technique, we can obtain THz images using a CCD camera at a video rate of up to 30 frames per second. A spatial resolution of 1.4 mm was achieved. This resolution was reasonably close to the theoretical limit determined by diffraction. We observed not only static objects but also moving ones. To acquire spectroscopic information, time-domain images were collected. By processing these images on a computer, we can obtain spectroscopic images. Spectroscopy for silicon wafers was demonstrated.

  6. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks (United States)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.


    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  7. Measuring tablet porosity using multispectral imaging system (United States)

    Nippolainen, Ervin; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Kamshilin, Alexei A.


    A multispectral imaging system with computer controlled light source of 16 light emitting diodes is applied for measuring of tablet porosity. The system is based on a subspace vector model of surface reflection. The measured spectral data are compressed on the stage of measurement and used directly for the discrimination of tablets with different porosity. The experimental results demonstrate that the multispectral imaging system is a potential method for tablet porosity measurement.

  8. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan


    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  9. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan


    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images at a s...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  10. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  11. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  12. Portable EDITOR (PEDITOR): A portable image processing system. [satellite images (United States)

    Angelici, G.; Slye, R.; Ozga, M.; Ritter, P.


    The PEDITOR image processing system was created to be readily transferable from one type of computer system to another. While nearly identical in function and operation to its predecessor, EDITOR, PEDITOR employs additional techniques which greatly enhance its portability. These cover system structure and processing. In order to confirm the portability of the software system, two different types of computer systems running greatly differing operating systems were used as target machines. A DEC-20 computer running the TOPS-20 operating system and using a Pascal Compiler was utilized for initial code development. The remaining programmers used a Motorola Corporation 68000-based Forward Technology FT-3000 supermicrocomputer running the UNIX-based XENIX operating system and using the Silicon Valley Software Pascal compiler and the XENIX C compiler for their initial code development.

  13. Multiple energy synchrotron biomedical imaging system. (United States)

    Bassey, B; Martinson, M; Samadi, N; Belev, G; Karanfil, C; Qi, P; Chapman, D


    A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The imaging system is made up of a cylindrically bent Laue single silicon (5,1,1) crystal monochromator, scanning and positioning stages for the subjects, flat panel (area) detector, and a data acquisition and control system. Depending on the crystal's bent radius, reflection type, and the horizontal beam width of the filtered synchrotron radiation (20-50 keV) used, the size and spectral energy range of the focused beam prepared varied. For example, with a bent radius of 95 cm, a (1,1,1) type reflection and a 50 mm wide beam, a 0.5 mm wide focused beam of spectral energy range 27 keV-43 keV was obtained. This spectral energy range covers the K-edges of iodine (33.17 keV), xenon (34.56 keV), cesium (35.99 keV), and barium (37.44 keV); some of these elements are used as biomedical and clinical contrast agents. Using the developed imaging system, a test subject composed of iodine, xenon, cesium, and barium along with water and bone were imaged and their projected concentrations successfully extracted. The estimated dose rate to test subjects imaged at a ring current of 200 mA is 8.7 mGy s -1 , corresponding to a cumulative dose of 1.3 Gy and a dose of 26.1 mGy per image. Potential biomedical applications of the imaging system will include projection imaging that requires any of the extracted elements as a contrast agent and multi-contrast K-edge imaging.

  14. A high throughput spectral image microscopy system (United States)

    Gesley, M.; Puri, R.


    A high throughput spectral image microscopy system is configured for rapid detection of rare cells in large populations. To overcome flow cytometry rates and use of fluorophore tags, a system architecture integrates sample mechanical handling, signal processors, and optics in a non-confocal version of light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy. Spectral images with native contrast do not require the use of exogeneous stain to render cells with submicron resolution. Structure may be characterized without restriction to cell clusters of differentiation.

  15. A fractal-based image encryption system

    KAUST Repository

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.


    This study introduces a novel image encryption system based on diffusion and confusion processes in which the image information is hidden inside the complex details of fractal images. A simplified encryption technique is, first, presented using a single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved through several parameters: feedback delay, multiplexing and independent horizontal or vertical shifts. The effect of each parameter is studied separately and, then, they are combined to illustrate their influence on the encryption quality. The encryption quality is evaluated using different analysis techniques such as correlation coefficients, differential attack measures, histogram distributions, key sensitivity analysis and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The obtained results show great potential compared to other techniques.

  16. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor. (United States)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun


    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  17. Image quality in digital radiographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Solange Maria de


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the image quality of four direct digital radiographic systems. Radiographs were made of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular left molar regions of a dry skull, and an aluminum step-wedge. The X-ray generator operated at 10 mA, 60 and 70 kVp, and images were acquired with 3, 5, 8, 12, 24 and 48 exposure pulses. Six well-trained observers classified the images by means of scores from 1 to 3. Collected data were submitted to nonparametric statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p<0.01 in image quality with the four systems. Based on the results, it was possible to conclude that: 1 all of the digital systems presented good performance in producing acceptable images for diagnosis, if the exposures of the step-wedge and the maxillary central incisor region were made at 5 pulses, as well as at 8 pulses for the mandibular left molar region, selecting 60 or 70kVp; 2 higher percentages of acceptable images were obtained with the administration of lower radiation doses in CCD-sensors (charge-coupled device; 3 the Storage Phosphor systems produced acceptable images at a large range of exposure settings, that included low, intermediate and high radiation doses.

  18. Automatic image exploitation system for small UAVs (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.


    For surveillance and reconnaissance tasks small UAVs are of growing importance. These UAVs have an endurance of several hours, but a small payload of about some kilograms. As a consequence lightweight sensors and cameras have to be used without having a mechanical stabilized high precision sensor-platform, which would exceed the payload and cost limitations. An example of such a system is the German UAV Luna with optical and IR sensors on board. For such platforms we developed image exploitation algorithms. The algorithms comprise mosaiking, stabilization, image enhancement, video based moving target indication, and stereo-image generation. Other products are large geo-coded image mosaics, stereo mosaics, and 3-D-model generation. For test and assessment of these algorithms the experimental system ABUL has been developed, in which the algorithms are integrated. The ABUL system is used for tests and assessment by military PIs.

  19. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server


    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  20. Design patterns in medical imaging information systems (United States)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Ching, Wan


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and important conceptual framework of software design for the medical imaging community using design patterns. Use cases are created to summarize operational scenarios of clinicians using the system to complete certain tasks such as image segmentation. During design the Unified Modeling Language is used to translate the use cases into modeling diagrams that describe how the system functions. Next, design patterns are applied to build models that describe how software components interoperate to deliver that functionality. The software components are implemented using the Java language, CORBA architecture, and other web technologies. The biomedical image information system is used in epilepsy neurosurgical planning and diagnosis. This article proposes the use of proven software design models for solving medical imaging informatics design problems. Design patterns provide an excellent vehicle to leverage design solutions that have worked in the past to solve the problems we face in building user-friendly, reliable, and efficient information systems. This work introduces this new technology for building increasing complex medical image information systems. The rigorous application of software design techniques is essential in building information systems that are easy to use, rich in functionality, maintainable, reliable, and updatable.

  1. Anonymization server system for DICOM images (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Amano, M.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nishitani, H.


    We have developed an anonymization system for DICOM images. It requires consent from the patient to use the DICOM images for research or education. However, providing the DICOM image to the other facilities is not safe because it contains a lot of personal data. Our system is a server that provides anonymization service of DICOM images for users in the facility. The distinctive features of the system are, input interface, flexible anonymization policy, and automatic body part identification. In the first feature, we can use the anonymization service on the existing DICOM workstations. In the second feature, we can select a best policy fitting for the Protection of personal data that is ruled by each medical facility. In the third feature, we can identify the body parts that are included in the input image set, even if the set lacks the body part tag in DICOM header. We installed the system for the first time to a hospital in December 2005. Currently, the system is working in other four facilities. In this paper we describe the system and how it works.

  2. Image-based systems biology of infection. (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Timme, Sandra; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Figge, Marc Thilo


    The successful treatment of infectious diseases requires interdisciplinary studies of all aspects of infection processes. The overarching combination of experimental research and theoretical analysis in a systems biology approach can unravel mechanisms of complex interactions between pathogens and the human immune system. Taking into account spatial information is especially important in the context of infection, since the migratory behavior and spatial interactions of cells are often decisive for the outcome of the immune response. Spatial information is provided by image and video data that are acquired in microscopy experiments and that are at the heart of an image-based systems biology approach. This review demonstrates how image-based systems biology improves our understanding of infection processes. We discuss the three main steps of this approach--imaging, quantitative characterization, and modeling--and consider the application of these steps in the context of studying infection processes. After summarizing the most relevant microscopy and image analysis approaches, we discuss ways to quantify infection processes, and address a number of modeling techniques that exploit image-derived data to simulate host-pathogen interactions in silico. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.


    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  4. Distributed-data imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmie, D.E.; Dornhoff, A.G.; DuBois, A.J.; Hodson, S.W.; Maestas, F.A.; Winkler, K.H.


    A group of eight Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha workstations is interconnected with ATM to form a cluster with supercomputer power. For output, each workstation drives a single tile on an 8-tile high- resolution frame buffer. A special purpose adapter is used to convert the workstation`s ATM format to the frame buffer`s HIPPI format. This paper discusses the rationale behind the workstation farm, and then describes the visualization output path in detail. To provide the system quickly, special emphasis was placed on making the design as simple as possible and using standard software protocols to drive and synchronize the display. The design choices are examined, and the resultant system is described.. Previously, a display could connect to a single computer; or a group of computers could drive a fragmented display, e.g., a video wall. Our system is unique in that it provides a high-quality desktop visualization display driven collectively by a group of workstations. A short video will be shown during the presentation to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  5. Expert System for ASIC Imaging (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew


    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  6. Scan image compression-encryption hardware system (United States)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Brause, R.; Alexopoulos, C.


    This paper deals with the hardware design of an image compression/encryption scheme called SCAN. The scheme is based on the principles and ideas reflected by the specification of the SCAN language. SCAN is a fractal based context-free language which accesses sequentially the data of a 2D array, by describing and generating a wide range (near (nxn)) of space filling curves (or SCAN patterns) from a short set of simple ones. The SCAN method uses the algorithmic description of each 2D image as SCAN patterns combinations for the compression and encryption of the image data. Note that each SCAN letter or word accesses the image data with a different order (or sequence), thus the application of a variety of SCAN words associated with the compression scheme will produce various compressed versions of the same image. The compressed versions are compared in memory size and the best of them with the smallest size in bits could be used for the image compression/encryption. Note that the encryption of the image data is a result of the great number of possible space filling curves which could be generated by SCAN. Since the software implementation of the SCAN compression/encryption scheme requires some time, the hardware design and implementation of the SCAN scheme is necessary in order to reduce the image compression/encryption time to the real-time one. The development of such an image compression encryption system will have a significant impact on the transmission and storage of images. It will be applicable in multimedia and transmission of images through communication lines.

  7. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems. (United States)

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S


    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Biomedical Imaging in Implantable Drug Delivery Systems. (United States)

    Zhou, Haoyan; Hernandez, Christopher; Goss, Monika; Gawlik, Anna; Exner, Agata A


    Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) provide a platform for sustained release of therapeutic agents over a period of weeks to months and sometimes years. Such strategies are typically used clinically to increase patient compliance by replacing frequent administration of drugs such as contraceptives and hormones to maintain plasma concentration within the therapeutic window. Implantable or injectable systems have also been investigated as a means of local drug administration which favors high drug concentration at a site of interest, such as a tumor, while reducing systemic drug exposure to minimize unwanted side effects. Significant advances in the field of local DDS have led to increasingly sophisticated technology with new challenges including quantification of local and systemic pharmacokinetics and implant- body interactions. Because many of these sought-after parameters are highly dependent on the tissue properties at the implantation site, and rarely represented adequately with in vitro models, new nondestructive techniques that can be used to study implants in situ are highly desirable. Versatile imaging tools can meet this need and provide quantitative data on morphological and functional aspects of implantable systems. The focus of this review article is an overview of current biomedical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and their application in evaluation of implantable DDS.

  9. A computed tomographic imaging system for experimentation (United States)

    Lu, Yanping; Wang, Jue; Liu, Fenglin; Yu, Honglin


    Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which is widely applied in medicine for diagnosis and surgical planning, and in industry for non-destructive testing (NDT) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). So, it is significant for college students to understand the fundamental of CT. In this work, A CT imaging system named CD-50BG with 50mm field-of-view has been developed for experimental teaching at colleges. With the translate-rotate scanning mode, the system makes use of a 7.4×10 8Bq (20mCi) activity 137Cs radioactive source which is held in a tungsten alloy to shield the radiation and guarantee no harm to human body, and a single plastic scintillator + photomultitude detector which is convenient for counting because of its short-time brightness and good single pulse. At same time, an image processing software with the functions of reconstruction, image processing and 3D visualization has also been developed to process the 16 bits acquired data. The reconstruction time for a 128×128 image is less than 0.1 second. High quality images with 0.8mm spatial resolution and 2% contrast sensitivity can be obtained. So far in China, more than ten institutions of higher education, including Tsinghua University and Peking University, have already applied the system for elementary teaching.

  10. An optical imaging system for window chambers in MRI system (United States)

    Lin, Yuxiang; Salek, Mir F. S.; Jennings, Nicki; Gmitro, Arthur F.


    Window chambers are support structures implanted in the dorsal skin fold of a rodent model. Optical imaging of window chambers has been used in many basic cancer and vascular biology studies. We have recently shown that this technique can be extended to MRI by using plastic rather than metal window chambers. Here we describe a system for simultaneous optical and MR imaging of the window chambers. It provides many possibilities for independent cross validation of the measurements of one modality from the other. In the system, a GRIN lens images the tissue to the distal end of a coherent imaging fiber bundle, which relays this image to a camera system located outside the magnet room. Both trans- and epi-illumination are provided to this system. Light sources are located outside the magnet room and the light is delivered through fiber optics. A group of fibers are used to deliver white light from under the window chamber for standard transmission imaging, while another single fiber delivers the laser light from the top to induce fluorescence. An appropriate bandpass emission filter is inserted between the lenses at the camera end for fluorescence imaging. Results of simultaneously optical and MR imaging of tumor and vessel are presented.

  11. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.


    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  12. Hardware implementation of machine vision systems: image and video processing (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe


    This contribution focuses on different topics covered by the special issue titled `Hardware Implementation of Machine vision Systems' including FPGAs, GPUS, embedded systems, multicore implementations for image analysis such as edge detection, segmentation, pattern recognition and object recognition/interpretation, image enhancement/restoration, image/video compression, image similarity and retrieval, satellite image processing, medical image processing, motion estimation, neuromorphic and bioinspired vision systems, video processing, image formation and physics based vision, 3D processing/coding, scene understanding, and multimedia.

  13. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems. (United States)

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke


    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  14. A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system (United States)

    Gilbert, John A.; Fair, Sara B.; Caldwell, Scott E.; Gronner, Sally J.


    A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system is described which is used for an interceptor designed to acquire, select, home, and hit-to-kill reentry vehicle targets from intercontinental ballistic missiles. The system provides a sizable field of view, over which a target may be tracked and yields a unique and distinctive optical signal when the system is 'on target'. The system has an infinite depth of focus and no moving parts are required for imaging within a hemisphere. Critical alignment of the HIT system is based on the comparison of signals captured through different points on an annular window. Assuming that the perturbations are radially symmetric, errors may be eliminated during the subtraction.

  15. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems (United States)

    Loudos, George K.


    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  16. Red-sensitive imaging systems for holography (United States)

    Whitcombe, Michael James

    The primary objective of the work described in this thesis was to devise a red-sensitive photoresist imaging process for use in the replication of diffraction optics. In the introduction the chemistry of conventional photopolymer systems and photoresists used for holographic recording and the fabrication of diffraction gratings and diffracting optical elements is reviewed. The limitations of commercially available photoresist systems, particularly for applications requiring the use of red light are discussed. A polymer system has been investigated which could be imaged by photochemically generated free radicals, followed by a simple aqueous development procedure as required by the original specification. The polymer chosen for study was a copolymer of methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. This was derivatized using methacryloyl chloride or methacrylic anhydride in order to introduce cross-linkable units to the polymer backbone. Polymers have been characterized by a number of techniques and the effect of varying composition on aqueous base solubility has been thoroughly studied. Various methods of derivatization have been employed. The ease of imaging has been found to be very sensitive to both the composition of the polymer and the extent of functionalization. High quality images have been obtained from this polymer using an organic solvent developer. Imaging experiments have been carried out on thin films of the photopolymer coated on glass using phenylazotriphenylmethane (PATM) as photoinitiator. Good images of 100 lines permillimetre (1 mm-1) have been recorded by contact printing. Interferometry has been used to demonstrate that interference patterns having 600 and 1200 1 mm-1 can be recorded using this polymer with PATM as initiator, exposed to an argon ion laser operating at 458nm. A number of two component photoredox initiator systems have been investigated, the light absorbing species of such systems being a dye such as

  17. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system. (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X


    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments (United States)

    Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

    Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already

  19. Benchmarking image fusion system design parameters (United States)

    Howell, Christopher L.


    A clear and absolute method for discriminating between image fusion algorithm performances is presented. This method can effectively be used to assist in the design and modeling of image fusion systems. Specifically, it is postulated that quantifying human task performance using image fusion should be benchmarked to whether the fusion algorithm, at a minimum, retained the performance benefit achievable by each independent spectral band being fused. The established benchmark would then clearly represent the threshold that a fusion system should surpass to be considered beneficial to a particular task. A genetic algorithm is employed to characterize the fused system parameters using a Matlab® implementation of NVThermIP as the objective function. By setting the problem up as a mixed-integer constraint optimization problem, one can effectively look backwards through the image acquisition process: optimizing fused system parameters by minimizing the difference between modeled task difficulty measure and the benchmark task difficulty measure. The results of an identification perception experiment are presented, where human observers were asked to identify a standard set of military targets, and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the benchmarking process.

  20. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong


    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  1. Advanced Image Understanding and Autonomous Systems


    Vernon, David


    The ultimate goal of most image understanding systems is to produce an unambiguous 3-D representation of the local visual environment. This representation can then be employed by robotic systems to effect some meaningful action. A great deal of research effort is concerned with the development of visual and 'manipulative' representations, and their generative processes, which allow for the effective linking of such visual perception and robotic action. Part of the motivation for t...

  2. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic. (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís


    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  3. Resolution limits in imaging ladar systems (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Lorenzo, Joseph; Kierstead, John; Pyburn, Dana; Sengupta, Sandip K.


    We introduce a new design concept of laser radar systems that combines both phase comparison and time-of-flight methods. We show from signal-to-noise ratio considerations that there is a fundamental limit to the overall resolution in three-dimensional imaging range laser radar (ladar). We introduce a new metric, volume of resolution, and we show from quantum noise considerations that there is a maximum resolution volume that can be achieved for a given set of system parameters. Consequently, there is a direct trade-off between range resolution and spatial resolution. Thus, in a ladar system, range resolution may be maximized at the expense of spatial image resolution and vice versa. We introduce resolution efficiency etar as a new figure of merit for ladar that describes system resolution under the constraints of a specific design, compared with its optimal resolution performance derived from quantum noise considerations. We analyze how the resolution efficiency could be utilized to improve the resolution performance of a ladar system. Our analysis could be extended to all ladars, regardless of whether they are imaging or scanning laser systems.

  4. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M


    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  5. System for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (United States)

    van Geest, Lambertus K.; Boddeke, Frank R.; van Dijk, Pieter W.; Kamp, Arjen F.; van der Oord, Cornelius J. R.; Stoop, Karel W. J.


    One of the promising recent developments in fluorescence microscopy is fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In this technique the fluorescence lifetime (ns range) of molecules is expressed in the image rather than the intensity of the light emitted by these molecules. This physical property is of interest as it gives information about the local environment of the molecule, such as molecular concentration of O2, Ca2+, pH, and conjugation. We develop an affordable, robust and easy-to-use FLIM workstation which is completely automated and does not need any difficult calibration procedure. The system consists of a standard fluorescence microscope, a modulated excitation light source, a camera, a modulation signal generator and acquisition/processing software. The camera contains an Intensified CCD of which the image intensifier gain is modulated. Depending on the application different light sources can be selected. The current light source contains a 12 mW modulated laser-diode emitting at 635 nm. A homodyne detection scheme with modulation frequencies of 1 to 100 MHz is applied, aiming at a resolution of 0.1 ns or better. High level image acquisition strategies are implemented in software, along with the low level image processing routines for lifetime estimation, calibration and correction. An evaluation of the system and its critical components will be presented in this paper.

  6. Permutation coding technique for image recognition systems. (United States)

    Kussul, Ernst M; Baidyk, Tatiana N; Wunsch, Donald C; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Martín, Anabel


    A feature extractor and neural classifier for image recognition systems are proposed. The proposed feature extractor is based on the concept of random local descriptors (RLDs). It is followed by the encoder that is based on the permutation coding technique that allows to take into account not only detected features but also the position of each feature on the image and to make the recognition process invariant to small displacements. The combination of RLDs and permutation coding permits us to obtain a sufficiently general description of the image to be recognized. The code generated by the encoder is used as an input data for the neural classifier. Different types of images were used to test the proposed image recognition system. It was tested in the handwritten digit recognition problem, the face recognition problem, and the microobject shape recognition problem. The results of testing are very promising. The error rate for the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) database is 0.44% and for the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) database it is 0.1%.

  7. Near real-time polarimetric imaging system. (United States)

    Buscemi, Isabella Chiara; Guyot, Steve


    A new imaging technique which enables near real-time multispectral acquisition of the so-called degree of polarization (DOP) in polarimetry using incoherent white light is described. The experimental setup allows the interactive and dynamic acquisition of DOP for all the possible elliptic polarization states. In such a way, a complete chart of light-matter interaction can be obtained and besides many structure details can be enhanced. Thus, we present the calibration and first images acquired with this system. The particular characteristics of this setup allow it to be the perfect candidate for in vivo as well as ex vivo medical applications.

  8. Live cell imaging and systems biology (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; McNally, James G


    Much of the experimental data used to construct mathematical models of molecular networks are derived from in vitro measurements. However, there is increasing evidence that in vitro measurements fail to capture both the complexity and the individuality found in single, living cells. These limitations can be overcome by live cell microscopy which is evolving to enable in vivo biochemistry. Here we survey the current capabilities of live cell microscopy and illustrate how a number of different imaging approaches could be applied to analyze a specific molecular network. We argue that incorporation of such quantitative live cell imaging methods is critical for the progress of systems biology. PMID:20730797

  9. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  10. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  11. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Flores

    Full Text Available In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT, it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data.

  12. High fidelity imager emulator of measured systems (United States)

    Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.


    Characterizing an imaging system through the use of linear transfer functions allows prediction of the output for an arbitrary input. Through careful measurement of the systems transfer function, imaging effects can then be applied to desired imagery in order to conduct subjective comparison, image based analysis, or evaluate algorithm performance. The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) currently utilizes a two-dimensional linear model of the systems transfer function to emulate the systems response and additive signal independent noise. In this correspondence, we describe how a two-dimensional MTF can be obtained through correct interpolation of one-dimensional measurements. We also present a model for the signal dependent noise (additive and multiplicative) and the details of its calculation from measurement. Through modeling of the experimental setup, we demonstrate how the emulated sensor replicates the observed objective performance in resolution, sampling, and noise. In support of the reproducible research effort, many of the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  13. Imaging of systemic vasculitis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Magdy [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cairo University, Department of Medical Imaging, Cairo (Egypt); Laxer, Ronald; Yeung, Rae [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Manson, David; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The term ''systemic vasculitis'' encompasses a diverse set of diseases linked by the presence of blood-vessel inflammation that are often associated with critical complications. These diseases are uncommon in childhood and are frequently subjected to a delayed diagnosis. Although the diagnosis and treatment may be similar for adult and childhood systemic vasculitides, the prevalence and classification vary according to the age group under investigation. For example, Kawasaki disease affects children while it is rarely encountered in adults. In 2006, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) proposed a classification system for childhood vasculitis adopting the system devised in the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference in 1993, which categorizes vasculitides according to the predominant size of the involved blood vessels into small, medium and large vessel diseases. Currently, medical imaging has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of vasculitis given recent developments in the imaging of blood vessels. For example, early diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysms, a serious complication of Kawasaki disease, is now possible by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) helps to assess active vascular inflammation in Takayasu arteritis. Our review offers a unique approach using the integration of the proposed classification criteria for common systemic childhood vasculitides with their most frequent imaging findings, along with differential diagnoses and an algorithm for diagnosis based on common findings. It should help radiologists and clinicians reach an early diagnosis, therefore facilitating the ultimate goal of proper management of affected children. (orig.)

  14. Molecular Imaging System for Monitoring Tumor Angiogenesis (United States)

    Aytac, Esra; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet


    In cancer, non-invasive imaging techniques that monitor molecular processes associated with the tumor angiogenesis could have a central role in the evaluation of novel antiangiogenic and proangiogenic therapies as well as early detection of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can serve as specific biological targets for imaging of angiogenesis since expression of MMPs is required for angiogenesis and has been found to be upregulated in every type of human cancer and correlates with stage, invasive, metastatic properties and poor prognosis. However, for most cancers it is still unknown when, where and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis [1]. Development of high-resolution, high sensitivity imaging techniques in parallel with the tumor models could prove invaluable for assessing the physical location and the time frame of MMP enzymatic acitivity. The goal of this study is to understand where, when and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis. We will accomplish this goal by following two objectives: to develop a high sensitivity, high resolution molecular imaging system, to develop a virtual tumor simulator that can predict the physical location and the time frame of the MMP activity. In order to achieve our objectives, we will first develop a PAM system and develop a mathematical tumor model in which the quantitative data obtained from the PAM can be integrated. So, this work will develop a virtual tumor simulator and a molecular imaging system for monitoring tumor angiogenesis. 1.Kessenbrock, K., V. Plaks, and Z. Werb, MMP:regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell, 2010. 141(1)

  15. Calibration and characterization of spectral imaging systems (United States)

    Polder, Gerrit; van der Heijden, Gerie W.


    Spectral image sensors provide images with a large umber of contiguous spectral channels per pixel. This paper describes the calibration of spectrograph based spectral imaging systems. The relation between pixel position and measured wavelength was determined using three different wavelength calibration sources. Results indicate that for spectral calibration a source with very small peaks,such as a HgAr source, is preferred to arrow band filters. A second order polynomial model gives a better fit than a linear model for the pixel to wavelength mapping. The signal to noise ratio (SNR)is determined per wavelength. In the blue part of the spectrum,the SNR was lower than in the green and red part.This is due to a decreased quantum efficiency of the CCD,a smaller transmission coefficient of the spectrograph,as well as poor performance of the illuminant. Increasing the amount of blue light,using additional Fluorescent tube with special coating increased the SNR considerably. Furthermore, the spatial and spectral resolution of the system are determined.These can be used to choose appropriate binning factors to decrease the image size without losing information.

  16. Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee


    Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

  17. Systems for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.


    Systems that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors are provided. These systems increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  18. A particle image velocimetry system for microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.G.; Beebe, D.J.; Wereley, S.T.; Meinhart, C.D. [Department of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Adrian, R.J. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    A micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) system has been developed to measure instantaneous and ensemble-averaged flow fields in micron-scale fluidic devices. The system utilizes an epifluorescent microscope, 100-300 nm diameter seed particles, and an intensified CCD camera to record high-resolution particle-image fields. Velocity vector fields can be measured with spatial resolutions down to 6.9 x 6.9 x 1.5{mu} m. The vector fields are analyzed using a double-frame cross-correlation algorithm. In this technique, the spatial resolution and the accuracy of the velocity measurements is limited by the diffraction limit of the recording optics, noise in the particle image field, and the interaction of the fluid with the finite-sized seed particles. The stochastic influence of Brownian motion plays a significant role in the accuracy of instantaneous velocity measurements. The micro-PIV technique is applied to measure velocities in a Hele-Shaw flow around a 30{mu} m (major diameter) elliptical cylinder, with a bulk velocity of approximately 50{mu} m s{sup -1}. (orig.) With 2 figs., 10 refs.

  19. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George


    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  20. A dedicated neonatal brain imaging system (United States)

    Winchman, Tobias; Padormo, Francesco; Teixeira, Rui; Wurie, Julia; Sharma, Maryanne; Fox, Matthew; Hutter, Jana; Cordero‐Grande, Lucilio; Price, Anthony N.; Allsop, Joanna; Bueno‐Conde, Jose; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A. D.; Rutherford, Mary A.; Counsell, Serena J.; Hajnal, Joseph V.


    Purpose The goal of the Developing Human Connectome Project is to acquire MRI in 1000 neonates to create a dynamic map of human brain connectivity during early development. High‐quality imaging in this cohort without sedation presents a number of technical and practical challenges. Methods We designed a neonatal brain imaging system (NBIS) consisting of a dedicated 32‐channel receive array coil and a positioning device that allows placement of the infant's head deep into the coil for maximum signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR). Disturbance to the infant was minimized by using an MRI‐compatible trolley to prepare and transport the infant and by employing a slow ramp‐up and continuation of gradient noise during scanning. Scan repeats were minimized by using a restart capability for diffusion MRI and retrospective motion correction. We measured the 1) SNR gain, 2) number of infants with a completed scan protocol, and 3) number of anatomical images with no motion artifact using NBIS compared with using an adult 32‐channel head coil. Results The NBIS has 2.4 times the SNR of the adult coil and 90% protocol completion rate. Conclusion The NBIS allows advanced neonatal brain imaging techniques to be employed in neonatal brain imaging with high protocol completion rates. Magn Reson Med 78:794–804, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:27643791

  1. A dedicated neonatal brain imaging system. (United States)

    Hughes, Emer J; Winchman, Tobias; Padormo, Francesco; Teixeira, Rui; Wurie, Julia; Sharma, Maryanne; Fox, Matthew; Hutter, Jana; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Price, Anthony N; Allsop, Joanna; Bueno-Conde, Jose; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A D; Rutherford, Mary A; Counsell, Serena J; Hajnal, Joseph V


    The goal of the Developing Human Connectome Project is to acquire MRI in 1000 neonates to create a dynamic map of human brain connectivity during early development. High-quality imaging in this cohort without sedation presents a number of technical and practical challenges. We designed a neonatal brain imaging system (NBIS) consisting of a dedicated 32-channel receive array coil and a positioning device that allows placement of the infant's head deep into the coil for maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Disturbance to the infant was minimized by using an MRI-compatible trolley to prepare and transport the infant and by employing a slow ramp-up and continuation of gradient noise during scanning. Scan repeats were minimized by using a restart capability for diffusion MRI and retrospective motion correction. We measured the 1) SNR gain, 2) number of infants with a completed scan protocol, and 3) number of anatomical images with no motion artifact using NBIS compared with using an adult 32-channel head coil. The NBIS has 2.4 times the SNR of the adult coil and 90% protocol completion rate. The NBIS allows advanced neonatal brain imaging techniques to be employed in neonatal brain imaging with high protocol completion rates. Magn Reson Med 78:794-804, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Development of IR imaging system simulator (United States)

    Xiang, Xinglang; He, Guojing; Dong, Weike; Dong, Lu


    To overcome the disadvantages of the tradition semi-physical simulation and injection simulation equipment in the performance evaluation of the infrared imaging system (IRIS), a low-cost and reconfigurable IRIS simulator, which can simulate the realistic physical process of infrared imaging, is proposed to test and evaluate the performance of the IRIS. According to the theoretical simulation framework and the theoretical models of the IRIS, the architecture of the IRIS simulator is constructed. The 3D scenes are generated and the infrared atmospheric transmission effects are simulated using OGRE technology in real-time on the computer. The physical effects of the IRIS are classified as the signal response characteristic, modulation transfer characteristic and noise characteristic, and they are simulated on the single-board signal processing platform based on the core processor FPGA in real-time using high-speed parallel computation method.

  3. Image quality assessment and human visual system (United States)

    Gao, Xinbo; Lu, Wen; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong


    This paper summaries the state-of-the-art of image quality assessment (IQA) and human visual system (HVS). IQA provides an objective index or real value to measure the quality of the specified image. Since human beings are the ultimate receivers of visual information in practical applications, the most reliable IQA is to build a computational model to mimic the HVS. According to the properties and cognitive mechanism of the HVS, the available HVS-based IQA methods can be divided into two categories, i.e., bionics methods and engineering methods. This paper briefly introduces the basic theories and development histories of the above two kinds of HVS-based IQA methods. Finally, some promising research issues are pointed out in the end of the paper.

  4. Telepathology system for microscopic images utilizing superhigh-definition imaging system over B-ISDN (United States)

    Okumura, Akira; Furukawa, Isao; Fujii, Tatsuya; Ishimaru, Katsuhiro; Sakano, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Junji; Ono, Sadayasu; Hata, Jun-ichi; Ashihara, Tsukasa


    It has been recognized early on that digitizing medical information makes diagnostic technology more advanced and efficient. In order to convert image information, which comprises the majority of all medical information, into digital data, various technologies including those for input, processing, transmission storage, and display need to develop at roughly the same pace. To data, there have been few cases where this has been done. However, recent major advances in high-resolution image input/output, image encoding, super-fast transmission, high-capacity storage, and other technologies have intensified the drive towards digitizing and networking all medical information. This paper will show that the spread of super-high-speed networks capable of transmitting large amounts of data in a short time is indispensable for accurate medical diagnosis, and that this will make it possible to realize an integrated medical information syste. A target application for the medical image diagnosis of the Super High Definition imags being developed by the authors of this paper is telepathology, which particularly demands high-quality images. In this paper, we will study, among other things, the concrete issues crucial to building and networking a digital system and the approach to resolving such issues. We will also report on the building of our experimental system that fulfills such demands as well as discuss a pathological microscopic image transmission system with image quality that will not lower diagnostic accuracy and fast response and good operability that will not make diagnosticians feel impatient. Finally, we will discuss a test in which we remotely operated a microscope over an ATM line to prove that it is possible to capture, transmit, and display a still super-high-definition digital image with a resolution of 2,048 X 2,048 pixels in about 5 seconds.

  5. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen


    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  6. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing (United States)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath


    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  7. Calibrations for a MCAO Imaging System (United States)

    Hibon, Pascale; B. Neichel; V. Garrel; R. Carrasco


    "GeMS, the Gemini Multi conjugate adaptive optics System installed at the Gemini South telescope (Cerro Pachon, Chile) started to deliver science since the beginning of 2013. GeMS is using the Multi Conjugate AdaptiveOptics (MCAO) technique allowing to dramatically increase the corrected field of view (FOV) compared to classical Single Conjugated Adaptive Optics (SCAO) systems. It is the first sodium-based multi-Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics system. It has been designed to feed two science instruments: GSAOI, a 4k×4k NIR imager covering 85"×85" with 0.02" pixel scale, and Flamingos-2, a NIR multi-object spectrograph. We present here an overview of the calibrations necessary for reducing and analysing the science datasets obtained with GeMS+GSAOI."

  8. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection (United States)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)


    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  9. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL


    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  10. Laser induced fluorescence imaging system for localization of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Xie, Shusen


    A laser induced fluorescence imaging system for localization of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is developed. In this fluorescence imaging system, the fluorescence intensity with information of detected objection is gained by an image intensifier, which makes color information of the fluorescence image eliminated and the result is a monochrome image of the fluorescence with thermally induced noise. The monochrome fluorescence image is sent to a CCD and captured by an image board, which is controlled by a computer. Image processing is carried out to improve the image quality and therefore improve the system's ability to differentiate carcinomas from normal tissue. Gaussian smoothing is implemented in order to reduce the noise. Image binarizing process is realized to obtain an optimal threshold of the image. Image pixels with grey value below this threshold are assigned as diseased and those above are normal. A pseudo color processing is then accomplished to get better visual perception and understanding of the image, greatly increasing the detail resolution of the grey image. The processed image is then displayed on the screen of the computer in real time. The real time laser induced fluorescence imaging system with the image processing methods developed is efficient for localization of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  11. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System (United States)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen


    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  12. Novel compact photoacoustic imaging system to explore the applications in the medical imaging field (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Ishihara, Miya


    PhotoAcoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging method using the pulsed-laser light source and ultrasound detector. PA image shows the features of optical contrast in biological tissue with ultrasound-like depth and resolution. In the human body, Hemoglobin of the blood is strong optical absorber, so the high-contrast blood distribution (vascular) image is obtained by PA imaging. Recently, FUJIFILM has developed the PA imaging system to explore its application in medical imaging field. In this system, the fusion of PA and conventional ultrasound image is realized, for example, ultrasound Doppler image is superposed to the PA and B-mode image. The system features and some results of clinical studies will be introduced.

  13. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer (United States)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.


    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  14. [A novel image processing and analysis system for medical images based on IDL language]. (United States)

    Tang, Min


    Medical image processing and analysis system, which is of great value in medical research and clinical diagnosis, has been a focal field in recent years. Interactive data language (IDL) has a vast library of built-in math, statistics, image analysis and information processing routines, therefore, it has become an ideal software for interactive analysis and visualization of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scientific datasets. The methodology is proposed to design a novel image processing and analysis system for medical images based on IDL. There are five functional modules in this system: Image Preprocessing, Image Segmentation, Image Reconstruction, Image Measurement and Image Management. Experimental results demonstrate that this system is effective and efficient, and it has the advantages of extensive applicability, friendly interaction, convenient extension and favorable transplantation.

  15. Millimeter-wave Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    The paper describes development of a millimetre-wave imaging system using multi-element aperture filling techniques [1]. Such imaging systems are increasingly demonstrated for security applications and in particular standoff imaging of persons and bonding flaw and defect detection [2]. The major...

  16. Image recognition and neuronal networks: intelligent systems for the improvement of imaging information. (United States)

    Karkanis, S; Magoulas, G D; Theofanous, N


    Intelligent computerised systems can provide useful assistance to the physician in the rapid identification of tissue abnormalities and accurate diagnosis in real-time. This paper reviews basic issues in medical imaging and neural network-based systems for medical image interpretation. In the framework of intelligent systems, a simple scheme that has been implemented is presented as an example of the use of intelligent systems to discriminate between normal and cancerous regions in colonoscopic images. Preliminary results indicate that this scheme is capable of high accuracy detection of abnormalities within the image. It can also be successfully applied to different types of images, to detect abnormalities that belong to different cancer types.

  17. Low Quality Image Retrieval System For Generic Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.D.N. Wijesekera


    Full Text Available Abstract Content Based Image Retrieval CBIR systems have become the trend in image retrieval technologies as the index or notation based image retrieval algorithms give less efficient results in high usage of images. These CBIR systems are mostly developed considering the availability of high or normal quality images. High availability of low quality images in databases due to usage of different quality equipment to capture images and different environmental conditions the photos are being captured has opened up a new path in image retrieval research area. The algorithms which are developed for low quality image based image retrieval are only a few and have been performed only for specific domains. Low quality image based image retrieval algorithm on a generic database with a considerable accuracy level for different industries is an area which remains unsolved. Through this study an algorithm has been developed to achieve above mentioned gaps. By using images with inappropriate brightness and compressed images as low quality images the proposed algorithm is tested on a generic database which includes many categories of data instead of using a specific domain. The new algorithm developed gives better precision and recall values when they are clustered into the most appropriate number of clusters which changes according to the level of quality of the image. As the quality of the image decreases the accuracy of the algorithm also tends to be reduced a space for further improvement.

  18. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system (United States)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald


    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  19. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, M.L.


    This project is part of the Photo Audiovisual Management System (PAMS). The project was initially identified in 1989 and has since been has been worked on under various names such as Image Retrieval and Viewing System, Photo Image Retrieval Subsystem and Image Processing and Compression System. This document builds upon the information collected and the analysis performed in the earlier phases of this project. The PAMS Photo Imaging subsystem will provide the means of capturing low resolution digital images from Photography`s negative files and associating the digital images with a record in the PAMS photo database. The digital images and key photo identification information will be accessible to HAN users to assist in locating and identifying specific photographs. After identifying desired photographs, users may request photo prints or high resolution digital images directly from Photography. The digital images captured by this project are for identification purposes only and are not intended to be of sufficient quality for subsequent use.

  20. On the Design of High Resolution Imaging Systems (United States)

    Eckardt, A.; Reulke, R.


    The design of high-resolution systems is always a consideration of many parameters. Technological parameter of the imaging system, e.g. diameter of the imaging system, mass and power, as well as storage and data transfer, have an direct impact on spacecraft size and design. The paper describes the essential design parameters for the description of high-resolution systems.

  1. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images (United States)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der


    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  2. Recent progress in multidimensional optical sensing and imaging systems (MOSIS) (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Javidi, Bahram


    We present recent progress of the previously reported Multidimensional Optical Sensing and Imaging Systems (MOSIS) 2.0 for target recognition, material inspection and integrated visualization. The degrees of freedom of MOSIS 2.0 include three-dimensional (3D) imaging, polarimetric imaging and multispectral imaging. Each of these features provides unique information about a scene. 3D computationally reconstructed images mitigate the occlusion in front of the object, which can be used for 3D object recognition. The degree of polarization (DoP) of the light reflected from object surface is measured by 3D polarimetric imaging. Multispectral imaging is able to segment targets with specific spectral properties.

  3. Photoacoustic image-guided navigation system for surgery (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Park, Sara; Jang, Jongseong; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Chulhong


    Identifying and delineating invisible anatomical and pathological details during surgery guides surgical procedures in real time. Various intraoperative imaging modalities have been increasingly employed to minimize such surgical risks as anatomical changes, damage to normal tissues, and human error. However, current methods provide only structural information, which cannot identify critical structures such as blood vessels. The logical next step is an intraoperative imaging modality that can provide functional information. Here, we have successfully developed a photoacoustic (PA) image-guided navigation system for surgery by integrating a position tracking system and a real-time clinical photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging system. PA/US images were acquired in real time and overlaid on pre-acquired cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images. In the overlaid images, PA images represent the optical absorption characteristics of the surgical field, while US and MR images represent the morphological structure of surrounding tissues. To test the feasibility of the system, we prepared a tissue mimicking phantom which contained two samples, methylene blue as a contrast agent and water as a control. We acquired real-time overlaid PA/US/MR images of the phantom, which were well-matched with the optical and morphological properties of the samples. The developed system is the first approach to a novel intraoperative imaging technology based on PA imaging, and we believe that the system can be utilized in various surgical environments in the near future, improving the efficacy of surgical guidance.

  4. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Calvin R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Reid, Chantal D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  5. Investigation of physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Health and Environmental Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We aimed to evaluate the physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems with charged coupled device (CCD), computed radiography (CR), and indirect flat panel detector (FPD). The imaging properties measured in this study were modulation transfer function (MTF) wiener spectrum (WS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) to compare the performance of each digital radiography system. The system response of CCD were in a linear relationship with exposure and that of CR and FPD were proportional to the logarithm of exposure. The MTF of both CR and FPD indicated a similar tendency but in case of CCD, it showed lower MTF than that of CR and FPD. FPD showed the lowest WS and also indicated the highest DQE among three systems. According to the results, digital radiography system with different type of image receptor had its own image characteristics. Therefore, it is important to know the physical imaging characteristics of the digital radiography system accurately to obtain proper image quality.

  6. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente


    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  7. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images (United States)

    Izquierdo Fuente, Alberto; Del Val Puente, Lara; Villacorta Calvo, Juan J.; Raboso Mateos, Mariano


    On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced. PMID:24616643

  8. A simple polarized-based diffused reflectance colour imaging system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple polarized-based diffuse reflectance imaging system has been developed. The system is designed for both in vivo and in vitro imaging of agricultural specimen in the visible region. The system uses a commercial web camera and a halogen lamp that makes it relatively simple and less expensive for diagnostic ...

  9. Uses of nanoparticles for central nervous system imaging and therapy. (United States)

    Provenzale, J M; Silva, G A


    Applications of nanotechnology to medicine are leading to novel means of imaging living systems and of delivering therapy. Much nanotechnology research is focused on methods for imaging central nervous system functions and disease states. In this review, the principles of nanoparticle design and function are discussed with specific emphasis on applications to neuroradiology. In addition to innovative forms of imaging, this review describes therapeutic uses of nanoparticles, such as drug delivery systems, neuroprotection devices, and methods for tissue regeneration.

  10. The operation technology of realtime image processing system (Datacube)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Park, Jin Seok


    In this project, a Sparc VME-based MaxSparc system, running the solaris operating environment, is selected as the dedicated image processing hardware for robot vision applications. In this report, the operation of Datacube maxSparc system, which is high performance realtime image processing hardware, is systematized. And image flow example programs for running MaxSparc system are studied and analyzed. The state-of-the-arts of Datacube system utilizations are studied and analyzed. For the next phase, advanced realtime image processing platform for robot vision application is going to be developed. (author). 19 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Integrating medical imaging analyses through a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (United States)

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E. Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A.


    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists.

  12. Building an Image-Based System to automatically Score psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G{'o}mez, D. Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    the images. The system is tested on patients with the dermatological disease psoriasis. Temporal series of images are taken for each patient and the lesions are automatically extracted. Results indicate that to the images obtained are a good source for obtaining derived variables to track the lesion....

  13. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System (United States)


    ESO Telescopes Detect a Strange-Looking Object Summary Using the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers [1] have discovered a dusty and opaque disk surrounding a young solar-type star in the outskirts of a dark cloud in the Milky Way. It was found by chance during an unrelated research programme and provides a striking portrait of what our Solar System must have looked like when it was in its early infancy. Because of its striking appearance, the astronomers have nicknamed it the "Flying Saucer" . The new object appears to be a perfect example of a very young star with a disk in which planets are forming or will soon form, and located far away from the usual perils of an active star-forming environment . Most other young stars, especially those that are born in dense regions, run a serious risk of having their natal dusty disks destroyed by the blazing radiation of their more massive and hotter siblings in these clusters. The star at the centre of the "Flying Saucer", seems destined to live a long and quiet life at the centre of a planetary system , very much like our own Sun. This contributes to making it a most interesting object for further studies with the VLT and other telescopes. The mass of the observed disk of gas and dust is at least twice that of the planet Jupiter and its radius measures about 45 billion km, or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune. PR Photo 12a/02 : The "Flying Saucer" object photographed with NTT/SOFI. PR Photo 12b/02 : VLT/ISAAC image of this object. PR Photo 12c/02 : Enlargement of VLT/ISAAC image . Circumstellar Disks and Planets Planets form in dust disks around young stars. This is a complex process of which not all stages are yet fully understood but it begins when small dust particles collide and stick to each other. For this reason, observations of such dust disks, in particular those that appear as extended structures (are "resolved"), are very important for our

  14. [A three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound imaging system]. (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Qi, Jian; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming


    A three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging system is presented in this paper. The 3D imaging system is used for diagnosing diseases of prostate. The 3D image is reconstructed by a series of two-dimensional image data which is obtained through rectum. It can be a guide to prostate needle biopsies. The system is built by two parts: hardware and software. In the hardware, the mechanical device, stepper motor, control circuit, B Mode TRUS and personal computer (PC) workshop are presented. The software includes the firmware of micro control unit and software of the PC workshop. In order to evaluate the performance of the 3D imaging system, we did experiments with water and agar phantoms, and the results demonstrated the system's ability of 3D imaging with high-precision.

  15. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban


    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  16. The neutron imaging system fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fittinghoff D.N.


    Full Text Available We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n′ reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system is presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system is presented. We also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  17. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittinghoff, D N; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Archuleta, T N; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Danly, C R; Day, R D; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Oertel, J A; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A


    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system will be presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system will be presented. We will also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  18. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.


    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  19. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems (United States)

    Cota, Stephen A.; Bell, Jabin T.; Boucher, Richard H.; Dutton, Tracy E.; Florio, Christopher J.; Franz, Geoffrey A.; Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Kalman, Linda S.; Keller, Robert A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Paulson, Diane B.; Wilkinson, Timothy S.


    The design of any modern imaging system is the end result of many trade studies, each seeking to optimize image quality within real world constraints such as cost, schedule and overall risk. Image chain analysis - the prediction of image quality from fundamental design parameters - is an important part of this design process. At The Aerospace Corporation we have been using a variety of image chain analysis tools for many years, the Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) among them. In this paper we describe our PICASSO tool, showing how, starting with a high quality input image and hypothetical design descriptions representative of the current state of the art in commercial imaging satellites, PICASSO can generate standard metrics of image quality in support of the decision processes of designers and program managers alike.

  20. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Hao


    Full Text Available An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat’s principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs. Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  1. Image Registration Algorithm For A PC-Based System (United States)

    Nutter, Brian S.; Mitra, Sunanda; Krile, Thomas F.


    Image registration algorithms are essential for subtractive analysis of sequential images. Discrepancies in lighting, image orientation, and scale must be minimized before effective subtraction of two images can occur. We have successfully implemented computationally intensive algorithms for registration, which include illuminance normalization and magnification correction, in a PC-based image processing system. A homomorphic filter in the spatial domain is used to reduce the illumination variations in the images. A modified sequential similarity detection technique is used to derive the minimum error factor associated with each combination of translation, magnification, and rotation variations. Each variation of the test image is masked with one of three masks, and the squares of the pixel intensity differences are summed for every test image. An adaptive threshold is used to decrease the time required for a misfit by aborting the test image under consideration when its summation exceeds the value of the previous best fit summation. After the best fit parameters are obtained, they are used to register the images so that the images can be subtracted. The difference image is subjected to further image enhancement operations. The execution time of the image registration algorithm has been reduced through use of a hybrid program written in C and Assembly languages. Applications of the registration algorithms in analysis of fundus images will be presented.

  2. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA


    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  3. Noise simulation system for determining imaging conditions in digital radiography (United States)

    Tanaka, R.; Ichikawa, K.; Matsubara, K.; Kawashima, H.


    Reduction of exposure dose and improvement in image quality can be expected to result from advances in the performance of imaging detectors. We propose a computerized method for determining optimized imaging conditions by use of simulated images. This study was performed to develop a prototype system for image noise and to ensure consistency between the resulting images and actual images. An RQA5 X-ray spectrum was used for determination of input-output characteristics of a flat-panel detector (FPD). The number of incident quantum to the detector per pixel (counts/pixel) was calculated according to the pixel size of the detector and the quantum number in RQA5 determined in IEC6220-1. The relationship among tube current-time product (mAs), exposure dose (C/kg) at the detector surface, the number of incident quanta (counts/pixel), and pixel values measured on the images was addressed, and a conversion function was then created. The images obtained by the FPD was converted into a map of incident quantum numbers and input into random-value generator to simulate image noise. In addition, graphic user interface was developed to observe images with changing image noise and exposure dose levels, which have trade-off relationship. Simulation images provided at different noise levels were compared with actual images obtained by the FPD system. The results indicated that image noise was simulated properly both in objective and subjective evaluation. The present system could allow us to determine necessary dose from image quality and also to estimate image quality from any exposure dose.

  4. Multi region based image retrieval system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/sadh/039/02/0333-0344 ... The paramount challenge is to translate or convert a visual query from a human and find similar images or videos in large digital collection. In this paper, a technique of region based image retrieval, a branch ...

  5. 4F-based optical phase imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to 4F-based optical phase imaging system and in particular to reconstructing quantitative phase information of an object when using such systems. The invention applies a two-dimensional, complex spatial light modulator (SLM) to impress a complex spatial synthesized modulation...... in addition to the complex spatial modulation impressed by the object. This SLM is arranged so that the synthesized modulation is superimposed with the object modulation and is thus placed at an input plane to the phase imaging system. By evaluating output images from the phase imaging system, the synthesized...... modulation is selected to optimize parameters in the output image which improves the reconstruction of qualitative and quantitative object phase information from the resulting output images....

  6. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  7. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments. (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi


    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  8. A novel augmented reality system of image projection for image-guided neurosurgery. (United States)

    Mahvash, Mehran; Besharati Tabrizi, Leila


    Augmented reality systems combine virtual images with a real environment. To design and develop an augmented reality system for image-guided surgery of brain tumors using image projection. A virtual image was created in two ways: (1) MRI-based 3D model of the head matched with the segmented lesion of a patient using MRIcro software (version 1.4, freeware, Chris Rorden) and (2) Digital photograph based model in which the tumor region was drawn using image-editing software. The real environment was simulated with a head phantom. For direct projection of the virtual image to the head phantom, a commercially available video projector (PicoPix 1020, Philips) was used. The position and size of the virtual image was adjusted manually for registration, which was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. An augmented reality system for image-guided neurosurgery using direct image projection has been designed successfully and implemented in first evaluation with promising results. The virtual image could be projected to the head phantom and was registered manually. Accurate registration (mean projection error: 0.3 mm) was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. The direct projection of a virtual image to the patients head, skull, or brain surface in real time is an augmented reality system that can be used for image-guided neurosurgery. In this paper, the first evaluation of the system is presented. The encouraging first visualization results indicate that the presented augmented reality system might be an important enhancement of image-guided neurosurgery.

  9. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system, the...

  10. [Filing and processing systems of ultrasonic images in personal computers]. (United States)

    Filatov, I A; Bakhtin, D A; Orlov, A V


    The paper covers the software pattern for the ultrasonic image filing and processing system. The system records images on a computer display in real time or still, processes them by local filtration techniques, makes different measurements and stores the findings in the graphic database. It is stressed that the database should be implemented as a network version.

  11. Basic imaging properties of a large image intensifier-TV digital chest radiographic system. (United States)

    Fujita, H; Doi, K; MacMahon, H; Kume, Y; Giger, M L; Hoffmann, K R; Katafuchi, T; Ohara, K; Chan, H P


    The basic imaging properties of a large (57 cm) image intensifier (I.I.)-TV digital imaging system were examined to determine the effects of various physical parameters on the quality of the digital chest images obtained, and also to explore the clinical usefulness of the system. The characteristic curve of the digital system, which relates the output pixel value to the input relative x-ray intensity, was measured with an aluminum stepwedge. MTFs were determined using slit images, and the veiling-glare fraction was measured with a lead-disk technique. Noise Wiener spectra were obtained from uniformly exposed images. The current limitations of the large II-TV digital chest system are its low spatial resolution, and the presence of large amounts of veiling glare and structure mottle. Advantages of this system over other digital chest imaging systems include the high speed of image data acquisition and the capability of "real-time" dynamic imaging of the chest at a radiation dose comparable to that in conventional radiography of the chest.

  12. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging (United States)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)


    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  13. Imaging the lymphatic system: possibilities and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Olivier [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75908, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Luciani, Alain [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France)


    The lymphatic system is anatomically complex and difficult to image. Lymph ducts are responsible for the drainage of part of the body's interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes account for the enrichment of lymph fluid, and can be involved in a large variety of diseases, especially cancer. For a long time, lymphatic imaging was limited to the sole use of conventional lymphography involving invasive procedures and patient discomfort. New contrast agents and techniques in ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and MR imaging are now available for imaging of both the lymphatic vessels and the lymph nodes. The objective of this review is to discuss the different imaging modalities of the lymphatic system, with a special focus on the new possibilities of lymphatic imaging including enhanced MR lymphography, sentinel node and positron emission tomography imaging, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. (orig.)

  14. Performance assessment of imaging plates for the JHR transfer Neutron Imaging System (United States)

    Simon, E.; Guimbal, P. AB(; )


    The underwater Neutron Imaging System to be installed in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR-NIS) is based on a transfer method using a neutron activated beta-emitter like Dysprosium. The information stored in the converter is to be offline transferred on a specific imaging system, still to be defined. Solutions are currently under investigation for the JHR-NIS in order to anticipate the disappearance of radiographic films commonly used in these applications. We report here the performance assessment of Computed Radiography imagers (Imaging Plates) performed at LLB/Orphée (CEA Saclay). Several imaging plate types are studied, in one hand in the configuration involving an intimate contact with an activated dysprosium foil converter: Fuji BAS-TR, Fuji UR-1 and Carestream Flex XL Blue imaging plates, and in the other hand by using a prototypal imaging plate doped with dysprosium and thus not needing any contact with a separate converter foil. The results for these imaging plates are compared with those obtained with gadolinium doped imaging plate used in direct neutron imaging (Fuji BAS-ND). The detection performances of the different imagers are compared regarding resolution and noise. The many advantages of using imaging plates over radiographic films (high sensitivity, linear response, high dynamic range) could palliate its lower intrinsic resolution.

  15. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Morgantown, VA; Umeno, Marc M [Woodinville, WA


    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  16. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  17. Laboratory demonstration of image reconstruction for coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC) (United States)

    Traub, W. A.


    The first physical demonstration of the principle of image reconstruction using a set of images from a diffraction-blurred elongated aperture is reported. This is an optical validation of previous theoretical and numerical simulations of the COSMIC telescope array (coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors). The present experiment utilizes 17 diffraction blurred exposures of a laboratory light source, as imaged by a lens covered by a narrow-slit aperture; the aperture is rotated 10 degrees between each exposure. The images are recorded in digitized form by a CCD camera, Fourier transformed, numerically filtered, and added; the sum is then filtered and inverse Fourier transformed to form the final image. The image reconstruction process is found to be stable with respect to uncertainties in values of all physical parameters such as effective wavelength, rotation angle, pointing jitter, and aperture shape. Future experiments will explore the effects of low counting rates, autoguiding on the image, various aperture configurations, and separated optics.

  18. Spectrally Adaptable Compressive Sensing Imaging System (United States)


    Compressive Sensing Imaging System” Submitted by: Gonzalo R. Arce, PI Dennis W. Prather and Javier Garcia-Frias Department of Electrical and Computer...spatio-spectral data cube. Push broom spectral imaging sensors, for instance, capture the spectral data cube by using a dispersive element as a prism...Multishot measurements can be attained by successively shifting, along the horizontal axis, the fixed coded aperture in CASSI. A novel piezo- electrical

  19. Graph Cuts based Image Segmentation using Fuzzy Rule Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khokher


    Full Text Available This work deals with the segmentation of gray scale, color and texture images using graph cuts. From input image, a graph is constructed using intensity, color and texture profiles of the image simultaneously. Based on the nature of image, a fuzzy rule based system is designed to find the weight that should be given to a specific image feature during graph development. The graph obtained from the fuzzy rule based weighted average of different image features is further used in normalized graph cuts framework. Graph is iteratively bi-partitioned through the normalized graph cuts algorithm to get optimum partitions resulting in the segmented image. Berkeley segmentation database is used to test our algorithm and the segmentation results are evaluated through probabilistic rand index, global consistency error, sensitivity, positive predictive value and Dice similarity coefficient. It is shown that the presented segmentation method provides effective results for most types of images.

  20. A digital image acquisition system for skin lesions (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias G.; Kosmopoulos, Dimitrios I.


    A major issue concerning the design and implementation of an acquisition system for digital images of skin lesions is the ability of capturing reproducible images. The reproducibility is considered essential for image analysis classification and for the comparison of sequential images during follow-up studies. This paper describes a complete image acquisition system used for the collection of reproducible images of patients having melanoma and compares them with images displaying dysplastic nevus for diagnostic purposes. The system includes a standardized illumination and capturing geometry with polarizing filters and a series of software corrections: Calibration to Black, White, Internal and External camera parameters, Shading correction and Median filtering. The validity of the calibration procedure and the ability of the implemented system to produce reproducible images were tested by capturing sample images in 3 different lighting conditions of the surrounding environment: dark, medium and intense lighting. For each case the average values of the three-color planes RGB and their standard deviations were calculated and the measured error differences ranged between 0,4 and 13,2 (in the 0-255 scale). Preliminary experiments for stereo measurements provided repeatability of about 0.3mm. The above numbers demonstrate the reproducibility of the captured images at a satisfactory level.

  1. Design of three-dimensional imaging system based on SFM (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Chen, Xin; Rao, Peng


    For the prospects of three-dimensional reconstruction technology based on structure from motion in engineering application, a high-resolution and visible band imaging system has been designed and implemented. It consists of a 5k × 5k CMOS focal plane array detector made by the ON-SEMI company, an optical system and an electronics system designed by ourselves. The electronics system takes FPGA as the control and drive processor chip and is divided into three parts: a power management module, a detector module and an image processing module, capable of finishing image compression and transmission. A sequence of images for the target of long distance away is obtained from the imaging system and the images after cropping and segmentation, aiming at reducing calculation and excluding some points irrelevant with the target during reconstruction process, are took as input of structure from motion. Seeds from the match points expand from sparse points to dense points and the initial model of reconstruction target is achieved. The experiment results show that the imaging system meet the requirement of three-dimensional reconstruction in engineering application and a new novel imaging system design of graded resolution based on bionics is proposed.

  2. The multiple parameter hemodynamic imaging system based on ARM (United States)

    Tang, Xuejun; He, Heng; Jiang, Chao; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming


    Optical imaging with high resolution is significant to reveal the functional activities of brain and the mechanism of disease, and has grown into a diverse field. The high-resolution multi-parameters optical imaging system which combines the laser speckle contrast imaging method and optical intrinsic signal imaging method can obtain more hemodynamic information in cortex simultaneously. However, most of current optical imaging systems use He-Ne laser and mercury xenon arc lamp as the light source. Meanwhile, the control unit of the system which includes a personal computer, is not portable. In this paper, we develop a multiple parameters hemodynamic imaging system based on ARM. To make the system more compact, three wavelengths light-emitting diode and laser diode as imaging illuminants were adopted. In addition, the real-time embedded operation system (μC/OS-II) and embedded Graphic User Interface (μC/GUI) were introduced. Animal experimental results also show that changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin concentration and cerebral blood flow during Cortical Spreading Depression can be simultaneously accessed using this optical imaging system based on embedded ARM.

  3. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping


    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  4. Advanced imaging of skeletal manifestations of systemic mastocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fishman, E.K.; Carrino, J.A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Horger, M.S. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    Systemic mastocytosis comprises a group of clonal disorders of the mast cell that most commonly involves the skeletal system. Imaging can be helpful in the detection and characterization of the osseous manifestations of this disease. While radiography and bone scans are frequently used for this assessment, low-dose multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be more sensitive for the detection of marrow involvement and for the demonstration of the various disease patterns. In this article, we review the pathophysiological and clinical features of systemic mastocytosis, discuss the role of imaging for staging and management, and illustrate the various cross-sectional imaging appearances. Awareness and knowledge of the imaging features of this disorder will increase the accuracy of image interpretation and can contribute important information for management decisions. (orig.)

  5. Optical Tomography System: Charge-coupled Device Linear Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idroas


    Full Text Available This paper discussed an optical tomography system based on charge-coupled device (CCD linear image sensors. The developed system consists of a lighting system, a measurement section and a data acquisition system. Four CCD linear image sensors are configured around a flow pipe with an octagonal-shaped measurement section, for a four projections system. The four CCD linear image sensors consisting of 2048 pixels with a pixel size of 14 micron by 14 micron are used to produce a high-resolution system. A simple optical model is mapped into the system’s sensitivity matrix to relate the optical attenuation due to variations of optical density within the measurement section. A reconstructed tomographic image is produced based on the model using MATLAB software. The designed instrumentation system is calibrated and tested through different particle size measurements from different projections.

  6. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems. (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A


    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  7. [Digital fluoroscopy imaging system with dual energy X-ray image decomposition]. (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Chen, Zhencheng; Deng, Zhensheng; Jiang, Dazong


    Dual-kilovolt technique was realized in dual energy X-ray imaging system with computer controlled KV adjustment, filter switching and image acquirement. The dual energy images can be obtained in 2-3 seconds to avoid moving artifact. Low energy photons in high energy X-ray beam can be attenuated effectively by a 2 mm Cu filter to separate the spectra of the high and low energy X-rays. A simplified dual energy decomposition method was used to obtain the soft tissue image. An example of chest dual energy radiographs is presented to illustrate the performance of the system.

  8. Point Spread Function Estimation for a Terahertz Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu DanC


    Full Text Available We present a method for estimating the point spread function of a terahertz imaging system designed to operate in reflection mode. The method is based on imaging phantoms with known geometry, which have patterns with sharp edges at all orientations. The point spread functions are obtained by a deconvolution technique in the Fourier domain. We validate our results by using the estimated point spread functions to deblur several images of natural scenes and by direct comparison with a point source response. The estimations turn out to be robust and produce consistent deblurring quality over the entire depth of the focal region of the imaging system.

  9. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng


    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  10. Real-Time Protein Crystallization Image Acquisition and Classification System (United States)

    Sigdel, Madhav; Pusey, Marc L.; Aygun, Ramazan S.


    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a stand-alone real-time system for protein crystallization image acquisition and classification with a goal to assist crystallographers in scoring crystallization trials. In-house assembled fluorescence microscopy system is built for image acquisition. The images are classified into three categories as non-crystals, likely leads, and crystals. Image classification consists of two main steps – image feature extraction and application of classification based on multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks. Our feature extraction involves applying multiple thresholding techniques, identifying high intensity regions (blobs), and generating intensity and blob features to obtain a 45-dimensional feature vector per image. To reduce the risk of missing crystals, we introduce a max-class ensemble classifier which applies multiple classifiers and chooses the highest score (or class). We performed our experiments on 2250 images consisting 67% non-crystal, 18% likely leads, and 15% clear crystal images and tested our results using 10-fold cross validation. Our results demonstrate that the method is very efficient (< 3 seconds to process and classify an image) and has comparatively high accuracy. Our system only misses 1.2% of the crystals (classified as non-crystals) most likely due to low illumination or out of focus image capture and has an overall accuracy of 88%. PMID:24532991

  11. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  12. Comparison of three-dimensional surface-imaging systems. (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Artner, Nicole M; Pona, Igor; Hold, Alina; Placheta, Eva; Kropatsch, Walter G; Frey, Manfred


    In recent decades, three-dimensional (3D) surface-imaging technologies have gained popularity worldwide, but because most published articles that mention them are technical, clinicians often have difficulties gaining a proper understanding of them. This article aims to provide the reader with relevant information on 3D surface-imaging systems. In it, we compare the most recent technologies to reveal their differences. We have accessed five international companies with the latest technologies in 3D surface-imaging systems: 3dMD, Axisthree, Canfield, Crisalix and Dimensional Imaging (Di3D; in alphabetical order). We evaluated their technical equipment, independent validation studies and corporate backgrounds. The fastest capturing devices are the 3dMD and Di3D systems, capable of capturing images within 1.5 and 1 ms, respectively. All companies provide software for tissue modifications. Additionally, 3dMD, Canfield and Di3D can fuse computed tomography (CT)/cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images into their 3D surface-imaging data. 3dMD and Di3D provide 4D capture systems, which allow capturing the movement of a 3D surface over time. Crisalix greatly differs from the other four systems as it is purely web based and realised via cloud computing. 3D surface-imaging systems are becoming important in today's plastic surgical set-ups, taking surgeons to a new level of communication with patients, surgical planning and outcome evaluation. Technologies used in 3D surface-imaging systems and their intended field of application vary within the companies evaluated. Potential users should define their requirements and assignment of 3D surface-imaging systems in their clinical as research environment before making the final decision for purchase. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Creating a Web-based image database for benchmarking image retrieval systems (United States)

    Joergensen, Corinne; Srihari, Rohini K.


    There is, at present, a critical need within image retrieval research for an image testbed which would enable the objective evaluation of different content-based search engines, indexing and metadata schemes, and search heuristics, as well as research and evaluation in image- based knowledge structures and system architectures, user's needs in image retrieval and the cognitive processes involved in image searching. This paper discusses a pilot project specifying and establishing a prototype testbed for the evaluation of image retrieval techniques. A feasibility study is underway focusing on the development of a large set of standardized test images accessible through a web interface, and researchers in the field are being surveyed for input. Areas being addressed in the feasibility study include technical specifications as well as content issues such as: which specific image domains to include; the useful proportion of imags belonging to specific domains to images belonging to a general 'world' domain; types of image attributes and baseline and 'advanced' levels of image description needed, and research needs to be accommodated, as well as development of a standardized set of test queries and the establishment of methods for 'truthing' the database and test queries.

  14. Optical Correlator in Industrial Image Pattern Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is design a system for recognizing industrial image pattern using optical correlator. The proposed system is used to obtain information about the accuracy of the model and the industrial form of images, in this case – pavements. Cambridge optical correlator is used in designed system as comparator. Several experiments have been done by software called “Fourier Optics Experimenter”. Results and conclusion are discussed.

  15. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  16. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  17. A panoramic imaging system based on fish-eye lens (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Hao, Chenyang


    Panoramic imaging has been closely watched as one of the major technologies of AR and VR. Mainstream panoramic imaging techniques lenses include fish-eye lenses, image splicing, and catadioptric imaging system. Meanwhile, fish-eyes are widely used in the big picture video surveillance. The advantage of fish-eye lenses is that they are easy to operate and cost less, but how to solve the image distortion of fish-eye lenses has always been a very important topic. In this paper, the image calibration algorithm of fish-eye lens is studied by comparing the method of interpolation, bilinear interpolation and double three interpolation, which are used to optimize the images.

  18. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.


    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  19. Linear description of ultrasound imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    These notes have been prepared for the international summer school on advanced ultrasound imaging sponsored by The Danish Research Academy. The notes should be read in conjunction with the notes prepared by Anderson and Trahey1. The intended audience is Ph.D. students working in medical ultrasound...

  20. ASTM E57 3D imaging systems committee: an update (United States)

    Cheok, Geraldine S.; Lytle, Alan M.; Saidi, Kamel S.


    In 2006, ASTM committee E57 was established to develop standards for the performance evaluation of 3D imaging systems. The committee's initial focus is on standards for 3D imaging systems typically used for applications including, but not limited to, construction and maintenance, surveying, mapping and terrain characterization, manufacturing (e.g., aerospace, shipbuilding), transportation, mining, mobility, historic preservation, and forensics. ASTM E57 consists of four subcommittees: Terminology, Test Methods, Best Practices, and Data Interoperability. This paper reports the accomplishments of the ASTM E57 3D Imaging Systems committee in 2007.

  1. Implementation of image transmission server system using embedded Linux (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Yeon Sung; Nam, Boo Hee


    In this paper, we performed the implementation of image transmission server system using embedded system that is for the specified object and easy to install and move. Since the embedded system has lower capability than the PC, we have to reduce the quantity of calculation of the baseline JPEG image compression and transmission. We used the Redhat Linux 9.0 OS at the host PC and the target board based on embedded Linux. The image sequences are obtained from the camera attached to the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) board with ALTERA cooperation chip. For effectiveness and avoiding some constraints from the vendor's own, we made the device driver using kernel module.

  2. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R.P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S.R.; Hillyer, T.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, 228 Walker Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A.J. [FOM-Inst. voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Association Euratom-FOM (International organizations without location); RTP team


    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 {mu}s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of T{sub e} fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Image processing techniques in 3-D foot shape measurement system (United States)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Ping; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi


    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle was designed and 3-D foot-shape measurements without blind areas and the automatic extraction of foot-parameters were achieved. The paper is focused on the study of the system structure and principle and image processing techniques. The key techniques related to the image processing for 3-D foot shape measurement system include laser stripe extraction, laser stripe coordinate transformation from CCD cameras image coordinates system to laser plane coordinates system, laser stripe assembly of eight CCD cameras and eliminating of image noise and disturbance. 3-D foot shape measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  4. [Content-based automatic retinal image recognition and retrieval system]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiumei; Du, Jianjun; Cheng, Xia; Cao, Hongliang


    This paper is aimed to fulfill a prototype system used to classify and retrieve retinal image automatically. With the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) technology, a method to represent the retinal characteristics mixing the fundus image color (gray) histogram with bright, dark region features and other local comprehensive information was proposed. The method uses kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) to further extract nonlinear features and dimensionality reduced. It also puts forward a measurement method using support vector machine (SVM) on KPCA weighted distance in similarity measure aspect. Testing 300 samples with this prototype system randomly, we obtained the total image number of wrong retrieved 32, and the retrieval rate 89.33%. It showed that the identification rate of the system for retinal image was high.

  5. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)


    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  6. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek


    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  8. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) imaging system (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Zhang, Jun; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are considered two complementary imaging techniques in the detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. OCT permits visualization of micron-scale features of atherosclerosis plaque, and IVUS offers full imaging depth of vessel wall. Under the guidance of IVUS, minimal amount of flushing agent will be needed to obtain OCT imaging of the interested area. We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an ultrasound transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single mode fiber, a gradient index (GRIN) lens for light beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40MHz PZT-5H side-viewing ultrasound transducer was fabricated to obtain the ultrasound image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and ultrasound imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  9. An on-line image data base system: Managing image collections (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Daniel P. Huebner; Peter F. Ffolliott


    Many researchers and land management personnel want photographic records of the phases of their studies or projects. Depending on the personnel and the type of project, a study can result in a few or hundreds of photographic images. A data base system allows users to query using various parameters, such as key words, dates, and project locations, and to view images...

  10. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  11. Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy - An assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaepman, M.E.; Ustin, S.L.; Plaza, A.J.; Painter, T.H.; Verrelst, J.; Liang, S.


    The science of spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries, and imaging spectroscopy for the Earth system for three decades. We first discuss the historical background of spectroscopy, followed by imaging spectroscopy, introducing a common definition for the latter. The relevance of

  12. Memory systems for signal generating photoelectric image detectors (United States)

    Dennison, E. W.


    Digital systems are discussed which have the capacity to handle the large amounts of information contained in a typical image. It was used with a high gain pulse counting television camera tube, with a silicon target image detector and an analog to digital converter between the detector and the memory.

  13. Robust algebraic image enhancement for intelligent control systems (United States)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morrelli, Michael


    Robust vision capability for intelligent control systems has been an elusive goal in image processing. The computationally intensive techniques a necessary for conventional image processing make real-time applications, such as object tracking and collision avoidance difficult. In order to endow an intelligent control system with the needed vision robustness, an adequate image enhancement subsystem capable of compensating for the wide variety of real-world degradations, must exist between the image capturing and the object recognition subsystems. This enhancement stage must be adaptive and must operate with consistency in the presence of both statistical and shape-based noise. To deal with this problem, we have developed an innovative algebraic approach which provides a sound mathematical framework for image representation and manipulation. Our image model provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis, and its incorporation into a vision system would serve as the front-end to an intelligent control system. We have developed a unique polynomial representation of gray level imagery and applied this representation to develop polynomial operators on complex gray level scenes. This approach is highly advantageous since polynomials can be manipulated very easily, and are readily understood, thus providing a very convenient environment for image processing. Our model presents a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets.

  14. MTF evaluation of in-line phase contrast imaging system (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoran; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing


    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel method that exploits the phase shift for the incident X-ray to form an image. Various XPCI methods have been proposed, among which, in-line phase contrast imaging (IL-PCI) is regarded as one of the most promising clinical methods. The contrast of the interface is enhanced due to the introduction of the boundary fringes in XPCI, thus it is generally used to evaluate the image quality of XPCI. But the contrast is a comprehensive index and it does not reflect the information of image quality in the frequency range. The modulation transfer function (MTF), which is the Fourier transform of the system point spread function, is recognized as the metric to characterize the spatial response of conventional X-ray imaging system. In this work, MTF is introduced into the image quality evaluation of the IL-PCI system. Numerous simulations based on Fresnel - Kirchhoff diffraction theory are performed with varying system settings and the corresponding MTFs were calculated for comparison. The results show that MTF can provide more comprehensive information of image quality comparing to contrast in IL-PCI.

  15. Phosphorimager and PD densitometer imaging system network. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document discusses the research projects undertaken as a result of the availability of the PhosphorImager and PD Densitometer Imaging System Network, at the University of Georgia`s Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. The benefit gained from the equipment is described for each project.

  16. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  17. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  18. System for digitalization of medical images based on DICOM standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Slobodan


    Full Text Available According to DICOM standard, which defines both medical image information and user information, a new system for digitalizing medical images is involved as a part of the main system for archiving and retrieving medical databases. The basic characteristics of this system are described in this paper. Furthermore, the analysis of some important DICOM header's tags which are used in this system, are presented, too. Having chosen the appropriate tags in order to preserve important information, the efficient system has been created. .

  19. System and method for generating motion corrected tomographic images (United States)

    Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Goddard, Jr., James S.


    A method and related system for generating motion corrected tomographic images includes the steps of illuminating a region of interest (ROI) to be imaged being part of an unrestrained live subject and having at least three spaced apart optical markers thereon. Simultaneous images are acquired from a first and a second camera of the markers from different angles. Motion data comprising 3D position and orientation of the markers relative to an initial reference position is then calculated. Motion corrected tomographic data obtained from the ROI using the motion data is then obtained, where motion corrected tomographic images obtained therefrom.

  20. Practical evaluation of image quality in computed radiographic (CR) imaging systems (United States)

    Desai, Nikunj; Singh, Abhinav; Valentino, Daniel J.


    A number of complementary metrics are available to assess the performance of digital X-ray imaging systems. However, the sensitivity of these metrics to changes in the electro-optical imaging chain is poorly understood. Some of the commonly used metrics include Contrast to Noise ratio (CNR), limiting spatial resolution, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). We evaluated the utility of these metrics in characterizing the imaging plate, imaging system optics and electronic components of computed radiography (CR) systems. We developed practical and easy to use test objects (phantoms) and implemented software to aid in calculating each metric. The results of this research will facilitate the characterization of differences in CR systems using the appropriate metrics.

  1. Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyue; Zhu, Nan; Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang


    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 μM can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm(2) at an exposure time of 10 ms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gulis


    Full Text Available Instruments for spectral filtration of images are an important element of the systems used in remote sensing, medical diagnostics, in-process measurements. The aim of this study is analysis of the functional features and characteristics of the proposed two image monochromator versions which are based on dispersive spectral filtering. The first is based on the use of a dispersive monochromator, where collimating and camera lenses form a telescopic system, the dispersive element of which is within the intermediate image plane. The second version is based on an imaging double monochromator with dispersion subtraction by back propagation. For the telescopic system version, the spectral and spatial resolutions are estimated, the latter being limited by aberrations and diffraction from the entrance slit. The device has been numerically simulated and prototyped. It is shown that for the spectral bandwidth 10 nm (visible spectral range, the aberration-limited spot size is from 10–20 μm at the image center to about 30 μm at the image periphery for the image size 23–27 mm. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction enables one to vary the spectral resolution (up to 1 nm and higher by changing the intermediate slit width. But the distinctive feature is a significant change in the selected central wavelength over the image field. The considered designs of dispersive image monochromators look very promising due to the particular advantages over the systems based on tunable filters as regards the spectral resolution, fast tuning, and the spectral contrast. The monochromator based on a telescopic system has a simple design and a rather large image field but it also has a limited light throughput due to small aperture size. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction has higher light throughput, can provide high spectral resolution when recording a full data cube in a series of measuring acts for different dispersive element positions. 

  3. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate a potentially portable Compton x-ray scatter 3D-imaging system by using specially...

  4. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA application requires a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic material when access is limited to one side of the material. The objective of this...

  5. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images (United States)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas


    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  6. An Efficient Image Enlargement Method for Image Sensors of Mobile in Embedded Systems


    Hua Hua; Xiaomin Yang; Binyu Yan; Kai Zhou; Wei Lu


    Main challenges for image enlargement methods in embedded systems come from the requirements of good performance, low computational cost, and low memory usage. This paper proposes an efficient image enlargement method which can meet these requirements in embedded system. Firstly, to improve the performance of enlargement methods, this method extracts different kind of features for different morphologies with different approaches. Then, various dictionaries based on different kind of features ...

  7. The Use of QBIC Content-Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Wu


    Full Text Available The fast increase in digital images has caught increasing attention on the development of image retrieval technologies. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR has become an important approach in retrieving image data from a large collection. This article reports our results on the use and users study of a CBIR system. Thirty-eight students majored in art and design were invited to use the IBM’s OBIC (Query by Image Content system through the Internet. Data from their information needs, behaviors, and retrieval strategies were collected through an in-depth interview, observation, and self-described think-aloud process. Important conclusions are:(1)There are four types of information needs for image data: implicit, inspirational, ever-changing, and purposive. The types of needs may change during the retrieval process. (2)CBIR is suitable for the example-type query, text retrieval is suitable for the scenario-type query, and image browsing is suitable for the symbolic query. (3)Different from text retrieval, detailed description of the query condition may lead to retrieval failure more easily. (4)CBIR is suitable for the domain-specific image collection, not for the images on the Word-Wide Web.[Article content in Chinese

  8. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis. (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan


    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  9. Photoacoustic Image Analysis for Cancer Detection and Building a Novel Ultrasound Imaging System (United States)

    Sinha, Saugata

    classifier, performance of parameters belonging to different categories in differentiating malignant tissue from nonmalignant tissue has been determined. It has been found that, among different categories, the frequency parameters performed best in differentiating malignant from nonmalignant tissue [sensitivity and specificity with testing dataset are 85% and 84%] while performance of all the categories combined was better than that [sensitivity and specificity with testing dataset are 93% and 91%]. However, PA imaging cannot be used to provide the anatomical cues required to determine the position of the detected or suspected malignant tumor region relative to familiar organ landmarks. On the other hand, although accuracy of Ultrasound (US) imaging in detecting cancer lesions is low, major anatomical cues like organ boundaries or presence of nearby major organs are visible in US images. A dual mode PA and US imaging system can potentially detect as well as localize cancer lesions with high accuracy. In this study, we have developed a novel pulse echo US imaging system which can be easily integrated with our existing ex-vivo PA imaging system to produce the dual mode imaging system. Here a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been used as US transmitter. To improve the anticipated low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received US signal due to the low electromechanical coupling coefficient of the PVDF film, we implemented pulse compression technique using chirp signals. Comparisons among the different SNR values obtained with short pulse and after pulse compression with chirp signal show a clear improvement of the SNR for the compressed pulse. The axial resolution of the imaging system improved with increasing sweep bandwidth of input chirp signals, whereas the lateral resolution remained almost constant. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a PVDF film transducer as an US transmitter and implementing pulse compression technique in an acoustic lens focusing

  10. Robustness of an artificially tailored fisheye imaging system with a curvilinear image surface (United States)

    Lee, Gil Ju; Nam, Won Il; Song, Young Min


    Curved image sensors inspired by animal and insect eyes have provided a new development direction in next-generation digital cameras. It is known that natural fish eyes afford an extremely wide field of view (FOV) imaging due to the geometrical properties of the spherical lens and hemispherical retina. However, its inherent drawbacks, such as the low off-axis illumination and the fabrication difficulty of a 'dome-like' hemispherical imager, limit the development of bio-inspired wide FOV cameras. Here, a new type of fisheye imaging system is introduced that has simple lens configurations with a curvilinear image surface, while maintaining high off-axis illumination and a wide FOV. Moreover, through comparisons with commercial conventional fisheye designs, it is determined that the volume and required number of optical elements of the proposed design is practical while capturing the fundamental optical performances. Detailed design guidelines for tailoring the proposed optic system are also discussed.

  11. pyBSM: A Python package for modeling imaging systems (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Eismann, Michael T.


    There are components that are common to all electro-optical and infrared imaging system performance models. The purpose of the Python Based Sensor Model (pyBSM) is to provide open source access to these functions for other researchers to build upon. Specifically, pyBSM implements much of the capability found in the ERIM Image Based Sensor Model (IBSM) V2.0 along with some improvements. The paper also includes two use-case examples. First, performance of an airborne imaging system is modeled using the General Image Quality Equation (GIQE). The results are then decomposed into factors affecting noise and resolution. Second, pyBSM is paired with openCV to evaluate performance of an algorithm used to detect objects in an image.

  12. Next Generation Image-Based Phenotyping of Root System Architecture (United States)

    Davis, T. W.; Shaw, N. M.; Cheng, H.; Larson, B. G.; Craft, E. J.; Shaff, J. E.; Schneider, D. J.; Piñeros, M. A.; Kochian, L. V.


    The development of the Plant Root Imaging and Data Acquisition (PRIDA) hardware/software system enables researchers to collect digital images, along with all the relevant experimental details, of a range of hydroponically grown agricultural crop roots for 2D and 3D trait analysis. Previous efforts of image-based root phenotyping focused on young cereals, such as rice; however, there is a growing need to measure both older and larger root systems, such as those of maize and sorghum, to improve our understanding of the underlying genetics that control favorable rooting traits for plant breeding programs to combat the agricultural risks presented by climate change. Therefore, a larger imaging apparatus has been prototyped for capturing 3D root architecture with an adaptive control system and innovative plant root growth media that retains three-dimensional root architectural features. New publicly available multi-platform software has been released with considerations for both high throughput (e.g., 3D imaging of a single root system in under ten minutes) and high portability (e.g., support for the Raspberry Pi computer). The software features unified data collection, management, exploration and preservation for continued trait and genetics analysis of root system architecture. The new system makes data acquisition efficient and includes features that address the needs of researchers and technicians, such as reduced imaging time, semi-automated camera calibration with uncertainty characterization, and safe storage of the critical experimental data.

  13. Variational adaptive image denoising model based on human visual system (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Liu, Chanjuan; Zou, Hailin


    A variational image adaptive denoising model based on human visual system is proposed by introducing control parameter p which can determine the diffusion intensity to Total Variation (TV) model. The model can adaptively select the value of parameter p according to human visual system noise visibility value of each pixel which makes diffusion intensity close to edges smaller than those far away from edges. For this method is more consistent with human perception, human eyes can perceive the improvement of image quality intuitively. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method can overcome staircase effect, remove the noise while preserving significant image details and better performance has been achieved.

  14. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital


    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  15. Desirable features of an infrared imaging system for aerodynamic research (United States)

    Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Daryabeigi, Kamran


    Advantage of non-intrusiveness, capability for field measurement, and increased availability of IR imaging systems have resulted in their wider use for aerodynamic research. However, certain difficulties persist while using currently available systems for such applications. A critical evaluation of the IR imaging systems is presented on the basis of the state-of-the-art of IR imaging technology and experiences in wind tunnel and flight testing at NASA's Langley Research Center. The requirements for using IR thermography as a measurement tool in aerodynamic research are examined in terms of range, sensitivity, and accuracy of temperature measurement, temporal and spatial resolution, and features of target. Deficiencies of present IR imaging systems are identified, and user precautions to avoid such problems by proper selection and operation of these units are suggested. Different aspects of imager performance such as imager optics, video capabilities, and environmental tolerance are discussed. Electronic data recording and image processing hardware and software requirements are evaluated. Slit response tests and spatial resolution are discussed with the objective of obtaining reliable, accurate, and meaningful information from IR thermography measurements for aerodynamic studies.

  16. Research on solar-blind UV optical imaging system (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Xiaoming; Ruan, Ningjuan


    Solar blind UV detecting system has many advantages such as strong environmental adaptability, low error rate, small volume and without refrigeration. To in-depth develop UV solar blind detection system research work has important significance for further improving solar blind UV detection technology. The working principle of solar blind UV detection system and the basic components were introduced firstly, and then the key technology of solar blind UV detection system was deeply analyzed. Finally, large coverage solar blind UV optical imaging system was designed according to the actual demand for greater coverage of the solar blind UV detection system. The result shows that the system has good imaging quality, simple and compact structure. This system can be used in various types of solar blind UV detection system, and is of high application value.

  17. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.


    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  18. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell


    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  19. MEMS ultrasonic probe rotary scanning imaging system for medical endoscope (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin


    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of an electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro motor, acquiring fault histology features of digestive organs. Compared with external ultrasonic detection, the system reduces the distance between the transducer and the organ, diminishing the effects on imaging of fats and body cavity gas. On the basis of ultrasonic imaging system, this paper implements a pulse echo imaging system. We describe the ultrasonic probe, emission circuit, receiving circuit and protective circuit in detail. With the demodulation circuit, we get the amplitude of echo which indicates the objects. And to achieve the rotary scan, we design a synchronous control circuit and a data transfer circuit basing on the USB2.0 interface. Finally we get a grey image with 256 grey levels after coordinate conversion.

  20. A Charge Coupled Device Imaging System For Ophthalmology (United States)

    Rowe, R. Wanda; Packer, Samuel; Rosen, James; Bizais, Yves


    A digital camera system has been constructed for obtaining reflectance images of the fundus of the eye with monochromatic light. Images at wavelengths in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum are recorded by a charge-coupled device array and transferred to a computer. A variety of image processing operations are performed to restore the pictures, correct for distortions in the image formation process, and extract new and diagnostically useful information. The steps involved in calibrating the system to permit quantitative measurement of fundus reflectance are discussed. Three clinically important applications of such a quantitative system are addressed: the characterization of changes in the optic nerve arising from glaucoma, the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma through spectral signatures, and the early detection and improved management of diabetic retinopathy by measurement of retinal tissue oxygen saturation.

  1. A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system (United States)

    LeBoulluec, Peter; Liu, Hanli; Yuan, Baohong


    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging techniques have recently attracted much attention and can be used for noninvasive imaging of biological tissues. Most PA imaging systems in research laboratories use the time domain method with expensive nanosecond pulsed lasers that are not affordable for most educational laboratories. Using an intensity modulated light source to excite PA signals is an alternative technique, known as the frequency domain method, with a much lower cost. In this paper, we describe a simple frequency domain PA system and demonstrate its imaging capability. The system provides opportunities not only to observe PA signals in tissue phantoms but also to acquire hands-on skills in PA signal detection. It also provides opportunities to explore the underlying mechanisms of the PA effect.

  2. Coma Patient Monitoring System Using Image Processing (United States)

    Sankalp, Meenu


    COMA PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM provides high quality healthcare services in the near future. To provide more convenient and comprehensive medical monitoring in big hospitals since it is tough job for medical personnel to monitor each patient for 24 hours.. The latest development in patient monitoring system can be used in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care Unit (CCU), and Emergency Rooms of hospital. During treatment, the patient monitor is continuously monitoring the coma patient to transmit the important information. Also in the emergency cases, doctor are able to monitor patient condition efficiently to reduce time consumption, thus it provides more effective healthcare system. So due to importance of patient monitoring system, the continuous monitoring of the coma patient can be simplified. This paper investigates about the effects seen in the patient using "Coma Patient Monitoring System" which is a very advanced product related to physical changes in body movement of the patient and gives Warning in form of alarm and display on the LCD in less than one second time. It also passes a sms to a person sitting at the distant place if there exists any movement in any body part of the patient. The model for the system uses Keil software for the software implementation of the developed system.

  3. Grenade-launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS) (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris


    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a video-bandwidth transmitter. Impact and launch g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general-purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program. Test results and development issues are presented.

  4. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice Smith G


    Full Text Available We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  5. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory. (United States)

    Smith, G Denice; Riding, Matt; Oswald, Kim; Bentz, Joel S


    We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  6. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program (United States)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.


    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  7. Spectral Imaging Visualization and Tracking System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Observation Mission need for innovative optical tracking systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Spectral...

  8. Pulsed holographic system for imaging through spatially extended scattering media (United States)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Judd, K. P.; Lebow, P.; Watnik, A. T.; Novak, K. M.; Lindle, J. R.


    Imaging through scattering media is a highly sought capability for military, industrial, and medical applications. Unfortunately, nearly all recent progress was achieved in microscopic light propagation and/or light propagation through thin or weak scatterers which is mostly pertinent to medical research field. Sensing at long ranges through extended scattering media, for example turbid water or dense fog, still represents significant challenge and the best results are demonstrated using conventional approaches of time- or range-gating. The imaging range of such systems is constrained by their ability to distinguish a few ballistic photons that reach the detector from the background, scattered, and ambient photons, as well as from detector noise. Holography can potentially enhance time-gating by taking advantage of extra signal filtering based on coherence properties of the ballistic photons as well as by employing coherent addition of multiple frames. In a holographic imaging scheme ballistic photons of the imaging pulse are reflected from a target and interfered with the reference pulse at the detector creating a hologram. Related approaches were demonstrated previously in one-way imaging through thin biological samples and other microscopic scale scatterers. In this work, we investigate performance of holographic imaging systems under conditions of extreme scattering (less than one signal photon per pixel signal), demonstrate advantages of coherent addition of images recovered from holograms, and discuss image quality dependence on the ratio of the signal and reference beam power.

  9. A semi-automated image analysis procedure for in situ plankton imaging systems. (United States)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Guo, Zhenhua; Benfield, Mark C; Fan, Chunlei; Ford, Michael; Shahrestani, Suzan; Sieracki, Jeffery M


    Plankton imaging systems are capable of providing fine-scale observations that enhance our understanding of key physical and biological processes. However, processing the large volumes of data collected by imaging systems remains a major obstacle for their employment, and existing approaches are designed either for images acquired under laboratory controlled conditions or within clear waters. In the present study, we developed a semi-automated approach to analyze plankton taxa from images acquired by the ZOOplankton VISualization (ZOOVIS) system within turbid estuarine waters, in Chesapeake Bay. When compared to images under laboratory controlled conditions or clear waters, images from highly turbid waters are often of relatively low quality and more variable, due to the large amount of objects and nonlinear illumination within each image. We first customized a segmentation procedure to locate objects within each image and extracted them for classification. A maximally stable extremal regions algorithm was applied to segment large gelatinous zooplankton and an adaptive threshold approach was developed to segment small organisms, such as copepods. Unlike the existing approaches for images acquired from laboratory, controlled conditions or clear waters, the target objects are often the majority class, and the classification can be treated as a multi-class classification problem. We customized a two-level hierarchical classification procedure using support vector machines to classify the target objects ( 95%). First, histograms of oriented gradients feature descriptors were constructed for the segmented objects. In the first step all non-target and target objects were classified into different groups: arrow-like, copepod-like, and gelatinous zooplankton. Each object was passed to a group-specific classifier to remove most non-target objects. After the object was classified, an expert or non-expert then manually removed the non-target objects that could not be removed

  10. The Precision Imaging System (PIMS) Concept (United States)


    170 Video Signals........................21 17 System Used to Physically Simulate PIllS Concepto .........24 18 Optical Components Used system and are to be construed as such; however, they indicate that the emerging state of the art in digital photodiode array technology is...cow.puti,[ &a ,. ! ,iad processing tasks. line PIMS concept outlined in this report ofters a major advance in thkv ,taLe ot the art in large gun aiming

  11. Development of a PET-Transrectal Ultrasound Prostate Imaging System (United States)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu.; Moses, William W.; Reutter, Bryan W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. Chow


    Multimodality imaging has an increasing role in the management of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and structural information are acquired and accurately registered. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging is currently an integral part of prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment procedures, providing high-resolution anatomical detail of the prostate region. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with 11C-choline is a sensitive functional imaging technique that can identify biochemical states associated with prostate cancer. We believe that merging these prostate imaging technologies will help identify the location and aggressiveness of prostate cancer. We envision using dual PET-TRUS prostate imaging to guide biopsy, guide treatment procedures, and detect local recurrence earlier than is currently possible. Hence, we have developed a dual PET-TRUS prostate imaging system and protocol designed to allow accurate 3-D image registration. We have evaluated this PET-TRUS system by performing dual PET-TRUS imaging of custom phantoms. We describe here our dual-modality imaging system, custom phantoms and phantom study results. We also discuss our investigation of the PET-TRUS registration accuracy. We measure an average PET-TRUS registration error for our phantom studies of 2.1 ±1.7 mm in the x direction, 1.9 ±1.6 mm in the y direction, and 0.6 ±0.2 mm in the z direction. This registration accuracy is sufficient for some clinical applications such as biopsy guidance and early detection of recurrence.

  12. Automated live cell imaging systems reveal dynamic cell behavior. (United States)

    Chirieleison, Steven M; Bissell, Taylor A; Scelfo, Christopher C; Anderson, Jordan E; Li, Yong; Koebler, Doug J; Deasy, Bridget M


    Automated time-lapsed microscopy provides unique research opportunities to visualize cells and subcellular components in experiments with time-dependent parameters. As accessibility to these systems is increasing, we review here their use in cell science with a focus on stem cell research. Although the use of time-lapsed imaging to answer biological questions dates back nearly 150 years, only recently have the use of an environmentally controlled chamber and robotic stage controllers allowed for high-throughput continuous imaging over long periods at the cell and subcellular levels. Numerous automated imaging systems are now available from both companies that specialize in live cell imaging and from major microscope manufacturers. We discuss the key components of robots used for time-lapsed live microscopic imaging, and the unique data that can be obtained from image analysis. We show how automated features enhance experimentation by providing examples of uniquely quantified proliferation and migration live cell imaging data. In addition to providing an efficient system that drastically reduces man-hours and consumes fewer laboratory resources, this technology greatly enhances cell science by providing a unique dataset of temporal changes in cell activity. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  13. Development of a hybrid magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging system. (United States)

    Sherwood, Victoria; Civale, John; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J; Leach, Martin O; ter Haar, Gail R


    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1-4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  14. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Sherwood


    Full Text Available A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR and ultrasound (US image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  15. A new optical encryption system for image transformation (United States)

    Yao, Shuyu; Chen, Linfei; Chang, Guojun; He, Bingyu


    This paper introduces a new optical image encryption system based on Fresnel diffraction and phase iterative algorithm, which can realize the conversion between different images. The method is based on the optical system of free space transmission, and uses the iterative phase retrieval algorithm to encode an image into two phase masks and a ciphertext. Unlike the existed methods, the ciphertext is a visible image, which can be used to achieve the conversion of one image to another image. In order to enhance the security, two phase masks are combined into a wide-scale phase mask by the double image cross pixel scrambling approach. In the decryption process, the wide-scale phase mask is re-decrypted into two random phase masks using a random shift matrix. The ciphertext and the first phase mask are placed on the input plane and the second random phase mask is placed on the transformation plane. The Fresnel diffraction principle can be used to obtain the plaintext information on the output plane. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the encryption system is feasible and quite safe.

  16. Image Fusion Algorithms Using Human Visual System in Transform Domain (United States)

    Vadhi, Radhika; Swamy Kilari, Veera; Samayamantula, Srinivas Kumar


    The endeavor of digital image fusion is to combine the important visual parts from various sources to advance the visibility eminence of the image. The fused image has a more visual quality than any source images. In this paper, the Human Visual System (HVS) weights are used in the transform domain to select appropriate information from various source images and then to attain a fused image. In this process, mainly two steps are involved. First, apply the DWT to the registered source images. Later, identify qualitative sub-bands using HVS weights. Hence, qualitative sub-bands are selected from different sources to form high quality HVS based fused image. The quality of the HVS based fused image is evaluated with general fusion metrics. The results show the superiority among the state-of-the art resolution Transforms (MRT) such as Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), Contourlet Transform (CT), and Non Sub Sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) using maximum selection fusion rule.

  17. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin [Department of Radiology, Tzu-Chi University and Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsin Wu, Tung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Hui, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)


    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO{sub 2} probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153{+-}0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693{+-}0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO{sub 2} probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  18. Grenade launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS) (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Mallon, Charles E.; Vasel, Edward; Denson, Raymond; Lutjens, Steve; Wild, Norbert C.; Wondra, John


    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile flight characteristics are similar to existing 40-mm rounds, with a useful range of up to 300 m. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a transmitter that allows sensor data to be transmitted to a receiver at up to 1/4 mile range. Impact g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program, with Phase I proof-of- concept being demonstrated using a low-power CMOS camera.

  19. Lens-coupled x-ray imaging systems (United States)

    Fan, Helen Xiang

    Digital radiography systems are important diagnostic tools for modern medicine. The images are produced when x-ray sensitive materials are coupled directly onto the sensing element of the detector panels. As a result, the size of the detector panels is the same size as the x-ray image. An alternative to the modern DR system is to image the x-ray phosphor screen with a lens onto a digital camera. Potential advantages of this approach include rapid readout, flexible magnification and field of view depending on applications. We have evaluated lens-coupled DR systems for the task of signal detection by analyzing the covariance matrix of the images for three cases, using a perfect detector and lens, when images are affected by blurring due to the lens and screen, and for a signal embedded in a complex random background. We compared the performance of lens-coupled DR systems using three types of digital cameras. These include a scientific CCD, a scientific CMOS, and a prosumer DSLR camera. We found that both the prosumer DSLR and the scientific CMOS have lower noise than the scientific CCD camera by looking at their noise power spectrum. We have built two portable low-cost DR systems, which were used in the field in Nepal and Utah. We have also constructed a lens-coupled CT system, which included a calibration routine and an iterative reconstruction algorithm written in CUDA.

  20. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in quality imaging in CR mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G. [UAM-Xochimilco, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Diaz G, J.A.I. [CICATA, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11599 mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arreola, M. [Department of Radiology, Shands Hospital at UF, PO Box 100374, Gainesville, FL 32610-0374 (United States)


    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) and comparison with quality imaging in CR mammography. For measuring dose, FDA and ACR use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one CR mammography system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium fluoro halide. We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose that overcomes 3.0 mGy and it doesn't improve the image quality and dose to the breast will be excessive. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement. (Author)

  1. Preclinical and clinical validation of a novel oxygenation imaging system (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Mazhar, Amaan; Lee, Bernard T.; Cuccia, David J.; Stockdale, Alan; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Durr, Nicholas; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Frangioni, John V.


    Introduction: Two major disadvantages of currently available oxygenation probes are the need for contact with the skin and long measurement stabilization times. A novel oxygenation imaging device based on spatial frequency domain and spectral principles has been designed, validated preclinically on pigs, and validated clinically on humans. Importantly, this imaging system has been designed to operate under the rigorous conditions of an operating room. Materials and Methods: Optical properties reconstruction and wavelength selection have been optimized to allow fast and reliable oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin imaging under realistic conditions. In vivo preclinical validation against commercially available contact oxygenation probes was performed on pigs undergoing arterial and venous occlusions. Finally, the device was used clinically to image skin flap oxygenation during a pilot study on women undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Results: A novel illumination head containing a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a novel fiber-coupled high power light source were constructed. Preclinical experiments showed similar values between local probes and the oxygenation imaging system, with measurement times of the new system being 300 cm2). Conclusion: A novel optical-based oxygenation imaging system has the potential to replace contact probes during human surgery and to provide quantitative, wide-field measurements in near real-time.

  2. Imaging the ER and Endomembrane System in Cereal Endosperm. (United States)

    Ibl, Verena; Peters, Jenny; Stöger, Eva; Arcalís, Elsa


    The cereal endosperm is a complex structure comprising distinct cell types, characterized by specialized organelles for the accumulation of storage proteins. Protein trafficking in these cells is complicated by the presence of several different storage organelles including protein bodies (PBs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dynamic protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). In addition, trafficking may follow a number of different routes depending on developmental stage, showing that the endomembrane system is capable of massive reorganization. Thus, developmental sequences involve progressive changes of the endomembrane system of endosperm tissue and are characterized by a high structural plasticity and endosomal activity.Given the technical dexterity required to access endosperm tissue and study subcellular structures and (seed storage protein) SSP trafficking in cereal seeds, static images are the state of the art providing a bulk of information concerning the cellular composition of seed tissue. In view of the highly dynamic endomembrane system in cereal endosperm cells, it is reasonable to expect that live cell imaging will help to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of the system. The high resolution achieved with electron microscopy perfectly complements the live cell imaging.We therefore established an imaging platform for TEM as well as for live cell imaging. Here, we describe the preparation of different cereal seed tissues for live cell imaging concomitant with immunolocalization studies and ultrastructure.

  3. Spectro-polarimetric imager for intelligent transportation systems (United States)

    Huber, Daniel F.; Denes, Louis J.; Hebert, Martial; Gottlieb, Milton S.; Kaminsky, Boris; Metes, Peter


    We have built a portable spectro-polarimetric machine vision system that operates at video frame rates. Our system contains only electronically controllable components, including an imaging acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), a phase retarder, acceptance and imaging optics, and a standard CCD-based camera. The device operates like an ordinary camera, except that a computer controls the spectral and polarization content of light to be viewed. For example, by sweeping the wavelength over the AOTF's range, one can obtain a spectral signature for each pixel in an image. Alternately, the camera can switch between two wavelengths, allowing for high-speed discrimination of closely matched colors in a scene. In addition to digitally controlling the wavelength, our imager uses a liquid crystal retarder to filter images based on polarization signatures of objects. We have implemented a number of algorithms to take advantage of the unique capabilities of our sensor, some of which can be applied to problems specific to transportation systems. We present two image processing applications that highlight the different methods we use to analyze scenes with our system. One application uses spectral processing to locate vegetation in a scene; the second uses polarization signatures to detect glare from hazardous road conditions such as water and ice.

  4. Dosimetry and image quality assessment in a direct radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Paixao, Lucas; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Marcio Alves de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Anatomia e Imagem; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araujo [Clinica Dra. Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Objective: to evaluate the mean glandular dose with a solid state detector and the image quality in a direct radiography system, utilizing phantoms. Materials and methods: Irradiations were performed with automatic exposure control and polymethyl methacrylate slabs with different thicknesses to calculate glandular dose values. The image quality was evaluated by means of the structures visualized on the images of the phantoms. Results: considering the uncertainty of the measurements, the mean glandular dose results are in agreement with the values provided by the equipment and with internationally adopted reference levels. Results obtained from images of the phantoms were in agreement with the reference values. Conclusion: the present study contributes to verify the equipment conformity as regards dose values and image quality. (author)

  5. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R. P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S. R.; Hillyer, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. T. P. Team,


    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 mu s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low

  6. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  7. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems (United States)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank


    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique.

  8. Melanoma patient imaging in the era of effective systemic therapies. (United States)

    Stodell, M; Thompson, J F; Emmett, L; Uren, R F; Kapoor, R; Saw, R P M


    Imaging plays a critical role in the current multi-disciplinary management of patients with melanoma. It is used for primary disease staging, surgical planning, and surveillance in high-risk patients, and for monitoring the effects of systemic or loco-regional therapies. Several different imaging modalities have been utilised in the past. Contemporary imaging practises vary geographically depending on clinical guidelines, physician preferences, availability and cost. Targeted therapies and immunotherapies have revolutionised the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma over the last few years. With this have come new patterns of disease that were not observed after conventional therapies, and new criteria to assess therapeutic responses. In this article we review the role of imaging for patients with melanoma in the era of effective systemic therapies and discuss likely future developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. ROI image compression algorithm for reconnaissance satellite systems (United States)

    Tian, Xin; Wang, Chun-Ming; Tan, Yi-Hua; Tian, Jin-Wen


    The visual effect is an important fact in the coding algorithm. So the saliency of visual attention(SVA) can be used to determine the region of interest(ROI) in the ROI image coding. A novel SVA based ROI(SVA-ROI) image coding scheme is presented for the reconnaissance satellite systems. As the SVA of the original image and reconstructed image are usually the same, the same ROI can be automatically determined in the encoder and decoder with the SVA. Then the ROI side information is no need to be transmitted and the compression efficiency can be improved. Experimental results have demonstrated that SVA-ROI has better visual effect than the similar algorithms, which will be suitable for the reconnaissance satellite systems.

  10. Imaging quality evaluation method of pixel coupled electro-optical imaging system (United States)

    He, Xu; Yuan, Li; Jin, Chunqi; Zhang, Xiaohui


    With advancements in high-resolution imaging optical fiber bundle fabrication technology, traditional photoelectric imaging system have become ;flexible; with greatly reduced volume and weight. However, traditional image quality evaluation models are limited by the coupling discrete sampling effect of fiber-optic image bundles and charge-coupled device (CCD) pixels. This limitation substantially complicates the design, optimization, assembly, and evaluation image quality of the coupled discrete sampling imaging system. Based on the transfer process of grayscale cosine distribution optical signal in the fiber-optic image bundle and CCD, a mathematical model of coupled modulation transfer function (coupled-MTF) is established. This model can be used as a basis for following studies on the convergence and periodically oscillating characteristics of the function. We also propose the concept of the average coupled-MTF, which is consistent with the definition of traditional MTF. Based on this concept, the relationships among core distance, core layer radius, and average coupled-MTF are investigated.

  11. Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Brenizer, J S; Gibbs, K M; Mengers, P; Stebbings, C T; Polansky, D; Rogerson, D J


    An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30x30 cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution approaching 1.6 line pairs/mm (lp/mm). The camera had a remotely changeable second lens to limit the field-of-view to 7.6x7.6 cm for high spatial resolution (at least 4 lp/mm) thermal neutron imaging, but neutron and light scatter will limit resolution for fast neutrons to about 0.5 lp/mm. Remote focus capability enhanced camera set-up for optimum operation. The 75 dB dynamic range camera system included sup 6 Li-based screens for imaging of thermal and epithermal neutrons and ZnS(Ag)-based screens for fast neutron imaging. The fast optics was input to a Super S-25 Gen II image intensifi...

  12. Dynamic Simulation of a Multiple Beam Fourier Telescopy Imaging System (United States)

    Stapp, J.; Cuellar, E.; Spivey, B.; Chen, L.; Leon, L.; Hughes, K.; Sandler, D.

    A detailed simulation has been developed to model a high resolution active imaging LEO satellite system currently being designed under the Satellite Active Imaging National Testbed (SAINT) program. This imaging system is based upon Fourier Telescopy, which uses multiple coherent laser beams that illuminate a target with a fringe pattern that sweeps across it due to a known frequency differences between the beams. In this way the target spatial frequency components are encoded in the temporal signal that is reflected from the coherently illuminated target. The software simulation program models both the dynamic reconfiguration of the continuous-wave transmitter laser beams and the atmospheric uplink / downlink turbulence effects. In addition, accurate modeling of the changing satellite target aspect over the imaging period is included in the simulation to properly model the received time-dependent reflected intensity received from the satellite target on the ground. A novel reconstructor has been developed that compensates for atmospheric phase fluctuations affecting the large number of beams transmitted simultaneously (10 - 20 beams). A new type of global phase closure has been developed, which allows image reconstruction from the time history of measured total reflected intensity from the target. The reconstruction algorithm also solves for hundreds of image Fourier components simultaneously, permitting rapid reconstruction of the image.

  13. Iris biometric system design using multispectral imaging (United States)

    Widhianto, Benedictus Yohanes Bagus Y. B.; Nasution, Aulia M. T.


    An identity recognition system is a vital component that cannot be separated from life, iris biometric is one of the biometric that has the best accuracy reaching 99%. Usually, iris biometric systems use infrared spectrum lighting to reduce discomfort caused by radiation when the eye is given direct light, while the eumelamin that is forming the iris has the most flourescent radiation when given a spectrum of visible light. This research will be conducted by detecting iris wavelengths of 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm, where the detection algorithm will be using Daugman algorithm by using a Gabor wavelet extraction feature, and matching feature using a Hamming distance. Results generated will be analyzed to identify how much differences there are, and to improve the accuracy of the multispectral biometric system and as a detector of the authenticity of the iris. The results obtained from the analysis of wavelengths 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm respectively has an accuracy of 99,35 , 97,5 , 64,5 with a matching score of 0,26 , 0,23 , 0,37.

  14. Experimental ultrasound system for real-time synthetic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost


    Digital signal processing is being employed more and more in modern ultrasound scanners. This has made it possible to do dynamic receive focusing for each sample and implement other advanced imaging methods. The processing, however, has to be very fast and cost-effective at the same time. Dedicated......-element ultrasound transducers, and to enable real-time or near realtime processing of the acquired data. The system will be capable of performing the processing for the currently available imaging methods, and will make it possible to perform initial trials in a clinical environment with new imaging modalities...

  15. Imaging cytometry in a plastic ultra-mobile system (United States)

    Martínez Vázquez, R.; Trotta, G.; Paturzo, M.; Volpe, A.; Bernava, G.; Basile, V.; Ancona, A.; Ferraro, P.; Fassi, I.; Osellame, R.


    We present a cost-effective and highly-portable plastic prototype that can be interfaced with a cell phone to implement an optofluidic imaging cytometry platform. It is based on a PMMA microfluidic chip that fits inside an opto-mechanical platform fabricated by a 3D printer. The fluorescence excitation and imaging is performed using the LED and the CMOS from the cell phone increasing the compactness of the system. A custom developed application is used to analyze the images and provide a value of particle concentration.

  16. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system (United States)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.


    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  17. Characterization of a Hyperspectral Chromotomographic Imaging Ground System (United States)


    Optical System, Method for Focusing, and Imaging Apparatus Equipped Therewith”, 2009. 104 [41] Vision Reseach Inc. “Phantom v640 Spectral Response...the unfiltered method , the center image is from the AVIRIS hypercube, and the filtered method is on the right...focus for a narrow band of wave- lengths leaving the other wavelengths to be defocused. Achromatic lenses are a method of correcting for chromatic

  18. System and method for image registration of multiple video streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillavou, Marcus W.; Shum, Phillip Corey; Guthrie, Baron L.; Shenai, Mahesh B.; Deaton, Drew Steven; May, Matthew Benton


    Provided herein are methods and systems for image registration from multiple sources. A method for image registration includes rendering a common field of interest that reflects a presence of a plurality of elements, wherein at least one of the elements is a remote element located remotely from another of the elements and updating the common field of interest such that the presence of the at least one of the elements is registered relative to another of the elements.

  19. An automated system for whole microscopic image acquisition and analysis. (United States)

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Fernández-Carrobles, María Del Milagro; Vállez, Noelia; Salido, Jesús


    The field of anatomic pathology has experienced major changes over the last decade. Virtual microscopy (VM) systems have allowed experts in pathology and other biomedical areas to work in a safer and more collaborative way. VMs are automated systems capable of digitizing microscopic samples that were traditionally examined one by one. The possibility of having digital copies reduces the risk of damaging original samples, and also makes it easier to distribute copies among other pathologists. This article describes the development of an automated high-resolution whole slide imaging (WSI) system tailored to the needs and problems encountered in digital imaging for pathology, from hardware control to the full digitization of samples. The system has been built with an additional digital monochromatic camera together with the color camera by default and LED transmitted illumination (RGB). Monochrome cameras are the preferred method of acquisition for fluorescence microscopy. The system is able to digitize correctly and form large high resolution microscope images for both brightfield and fluorescence. The quality of the digital images has been quantified using three metrics based on sharpness, contrast and focus. It has been proved on 150 tissue samples of brain autopsies, prostate biopsies and lung cytologies, at five magnifications: 2.5×, 10×, 20×, 40×, and 63×. The article is focused on the hardware set-up and the acquisition software, although results of the implemented image processing techniques included in the software and applied to the different tissue samples are also presented. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla


    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  1. High speed image acquisition system of absolute encoder (United States)

    Liao, Jianxiang; Chen, Xin; Chen, Xindu; Zhang, Fangjian; Wang, Han


    Absolute optical encoder as a product of optical, mechanical and electronic integration has been widely used in displacement measuring fields. However, how to improve the measurement velocity and reduce the manufacturing cost of absolute optical encoder is the key problem to be solved. To improve the measurement speed, a novel absolute optical encoder image acquisition system is proposed. The proposed acquisition system includes a linear CCD sensor is applied for capturing coding pattern images, an optical magnifying system is used for enlarging the grating stripes, an analog-digital conversion(ADC) module is used for processing the CCD analogy signal, a field programmable gate array(FPGA) device and other peripherals perform driving task. An absolute position measurement experiment was set up to verify and evaluate the proposed image acquisition system. The experimental result indicates that the proposed absolute optical encoder image acquisition system has the image acquisition speed of more than 9500fp/s with well reliability and lower manufacture cost.

  2. Hybrid system calibration for multidimensional magnetic particle imaging (United States)

    von Gladiss, A.; Graeser, M.; Szwargulski, P.; Knopp, T.; Buzug, T. M.


    Magnetic particle imaging visualizes the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Because of its key features of excellent sensitivity, high temporal and spatial resolution and biocompatibility of the tracer material it can be used in multiple medical imaging applications. The common reconstruction technique for Lissajous-type trajectories uses a system matrix that has to be previously acquired in a time-consuming calibration scan, leading to long downtimes of the scanning device. In this work, the system matrix is determined by a hybrid approach. Using the hybrid system matrix for reconstruction, the calibration downtime of the scanning device can be neglected. Furthermore, the signal to noise ratio of the hybrid system matrix is much higher, since the size of the required nanoparticle sample can be chosen independently of the desired voxel size. As the signal to noise ratio influences the reconstruction process, the resulting images have better resolution and are less affected by artefacts. Additionally, a new approach is introduced to address the background signal in image reconstruction. The common technique of subtraction of the background signal is replaced by extending the system matrix with an entry that represents the background. It is shown that this approach reduces artefacts in the reconstructed images.

  3. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.


    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  4. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li


    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  5. Radiation dose reduction and new image modalities development for interventional C-arm imaging system (United States)

    Niu, Kai

    Cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading health problems and causes of death in the US. Due to the minimally invasive nature of the evolution of image guided techniques, interventional radiological procedures are becoming more common and are preferred in treating many cardiovascular diseases and strokes. In addition, with the recent advances in hardware and device technology, the speed and efficacy of interventional treatment has significantly improved. This implies that more image modalities can be developed based on the current C-arm system and patients treated in interventional suites can potentially experience better health outcomes. However, during the treatment patients are irradiated with substantial amounts of ionizing radiation with a high dose rate (digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 3muGy/frame and 3D cone beam CT image with 0.36muGy/frame for a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system) and/or a long irradiation time (a roadmapping image sequence can be as long as one hour during aneurysm embolization). As a result, the patient entrance dose is extremely high. Despite the fact that the radiation dose is already substantial, image quality is not always satisfactory. By default a temporal average is used in roadmapping images to overcome poor image quality, but this technique can result in motion blurred images. Therefore, reducing radiation dose while maintaining or even improving the image quality is an important area for continued research. This thesis is focused on improving the clinical applications of C-arm cone beam CT systems in two ways: (1) Improve the performance of current image modalities on the C-arm system. (2) Develop new image modalities based on the current system. To be more specific, the objectives are to reduce radiation dose for current modalities (e.g., DSA, fluoroscopy, roadmapping, and cone beam CT) and enable cone beam CT perfusion and time resolved cone beam CT angiography that can be used to diagnose and triage acute

  6. AMA Statistical Information Based Analysis of a Compressive Imaging System (United States)

    Hope, D.; Prasad, S.

    Recent advances in optics and instrumentation have dramatically increased the amount of data, both spatial and spectral, that can be obtained about a target scene. The volume of the acquired data can and, in fact, often does far exceed the amount of intrinsic information present in the scene. In such cases, the large volume of data alone can impede the analysis and extraction of relevant information about the scene. One approach to overcoming this impedance mismatch between the volume of data and intrinsic information in the scene the data are supposed to convey is compressive sensing. Compressive sensing exploits the fact that most signals of interest, such as image scenes, possess natural correlations in their physical structure. These correlations, which can occur spatially as well as spectrally, can suggest a more natural sparse basis for compressing and representing the scene than standard pixels or voxels. A compressive sensing system attempts to acquire and encode the scene in this sparse basis, while preserving all relevant information in the scene. One criterion for assessing the content, acquisition, and processing of information in the image scene is Shannon information. This metric describes fundamental limits on encoding and reliably transmitting information about a source, such as an image scene. In this framework, successful encoding of the image requires an optimal choice of a sparse basis, while losses of information during transmission occur due to a finite system response and measurement noise. An information source can be represented by a certain class of image scenes, .e.g. those that have a common morphology. The ability to associate the recorded image with the correct member of the class that produced the image depends on the amount of Shannon information in the acquired data. In this manner, one can analyze the performance of a compressive imaging system for a specific class or ensemble of image scenes. We present such an information

  7. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A


    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  8. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging. (United States)

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao


    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  9. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.


    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  10. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica


    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  11. A computerized tomography system for transcranial ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Tang, Sai Chun; Clement, Gregory T

    Hardware for tomographic imaging presents both challenge and opportunity for simplification when compared with traditional pulse-echo imaging systems. Specifically, point diffraction tomography does not require simultaneous powering of elements, in theory allowing just a single transmit channel and a single receive channel to be coupled with a switching or multiplexing network. In our ongoing work on transcranial imaging, we have developed a 512-channel system designed to transmit and/or receive a high voltage signal from/to arbitrary elements of an imaging array. The overall design follows a hierarchy of modules including a software interface, microcontroller, pulse generator, pulse amplifier, high-voltage power converter, switching mother board, switching daughter board, receiver amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, peak detector, memory, and USB communication. Two pulse amplifiers are included, each capable of producing up to 400Vpp via power MOSFETS. Switching is based around mechanical relays that allow passage of 200V, while still achieving switching times of under 2ms, with an operating frequency ranging from below 100kHz to 10MHz. The system is demonstrated through ex vivo human skulls using 1MHz transducers. The overall system design is applicable to planned human studies in transcranial image acquisition, and may have additional tomographic applications for other materials necessitating a high signal output.

  12. A Novel Reporting System to Improve Accuracy in Appendicitis Imaging (United States)

    Godwin, Benjamin D.; Drake, Frederick T.; Simianu, Vlad V.; Shriki, Jabi E.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Dighe, Manjiri; Bastawrous, Sarah; Cuevas, Carlos; Flum, David; Bhargava, Puneet


    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to ascertain if standardized radiologic reporting for appendicitis imaging increases diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We developed a standardized appendicitis reporting system that includes objective imaging findings common in appendicitis and a certainty score ranging from 1 (definitely not appendicitis) through 5 (definitely appendicitis). Four radiologists retrospectively reviewed the preoperative CT scans of 96 appendectomy patients using our reporting system. The presence of appendicitis-specific imaging findings and certainty scores were compared with final pathology. These comparisons were summarized using odds ratios (ORs) and the AUC. RESULTS The appendix was visualized on CT in 89 patients, of whom 71 (80%) had pathologically proven appendicitis. Imaging findings associated with appendicitis included appendiceal diameter (odds ratio [OR] = 14 [> 10 vs appendicitis. In this initially indeterminate group, using the standardized reporting system, radiologists assigned higher certainty scores (4 or 5) in 21 of the 28 patients with appendicitis (75%) and lower scores (1 or 2) in five of the seven patients without appendicitis (71%) (AUC = 0.90; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION Standardized reporting and grading of objective imaging findings correlated well with postoperative pathology and may decrease the number of CT findings reported as indeterminate for appendicitis. Prospective evaluation of this reporting system on a cohort of patients with clinically suspected appendicitis is currently under way. PMID:26001230

  13. Implementing International Standards On Still-Frame Image Compression Systems (United States)

    Acharya, Shrikant; Ahlgren, David R.


    This paper presents the results of the research that was conducted by Telephoto Communications into the effects of implementing the proposed ISO International Still-Frame Image Compression Standards. The objective of the research being to provide a commercial product which will comply with these standards. After providing a brief system description of the ALICE Type-120 and the "ISO compatible" product, the paper then reviews the modifications to the ALICE Type-120 algorithm to make it compatible with the proposed ISO standards and the performance impacts of these modifications. The primary elements of the ISO compatible system include: 1) Fast Discrete Cosine Transform (FDCT) 2) Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) of DC coefficients 3) Visual Quantization 4) Huffman encoding DPCM is a previous pel (pixel) predictor algorithm for coding DC coefficients. Visual quantization is a non-uniform quantization matrix based on the spectral position of each AC coefficient and takes advantage of the reduced sensitivity to high frequencies of the human visual system. Modifications to the ALICE Type-120 included the addition of the visual quantization and DPCM of the DC. The addition of these elements resulted in significantly improved compression ratios while maintaining a subjectively constant image quality. The research was conducted with the standard test images used in ISO evaluations and with special images used in the development of the ALICE Type-120 Image Compression System.

  14. NPU-based image compositing in a distributed visualization system. (United States)

    Pugmire, David; Monroe, Laura; Connor Davenport, Carolyn; DuBois, Andrew; DuBois, David; Poole, Stephen


    This paper describes the first use of a Network Processing Unit (NPU) to perform hardware-based image composition in a distributed rendering system. The image composition step is a notorious bottleneck in a clustered rendering system. Furthermore, image compositing algorithms do not necessarily scale as data size and number of nodes increase. Previous researchers have addressed the composition problem via software and/or custom-built hardware. We used the heterogeneous multicore computation architecture of the Intel IXP28XX NPU, a fully programmable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, to perform the image composition step. With this design, we have attained a nearly four-times performance increase over traditional software-based compositing methods, achieving sustained compositing rates of 22-28 fps on a 1,024 x 1,024 image. This system is fully scalable with a negligible penalty in frame rate, is entirely COTS, and is flexible with regard to operating system, rendering software, graphics cards, and node architecture. The NPU-based compositor has the additional advantage of being a modular compositing component that is eminently suitable for integration into existing distributed software visualization packages.

  15. A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Yang, Chaoyu; Gan, Qi; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Zeshu; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald


    In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.

  16. Development of a medical image filing system based on superhigh-definition image and its functional evaluation (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Okada, Takeo; Kuwata, Shigeki; Wada, Minoru; Hashimoto, Tsutomu


    Although many images are handled in the medical filed, image monitoring deices and filing methods vary due to differences in resolution and pixel depth. If a system enabling such images to be filed synthetically without losing its quality were to exist, and if retrieval of such images were made easily, such a system could be applied in various ways. In order to determine whether a super high definition (SHD) image system running at a series of 2048 resolution X 2048 line X 60 frame/sec was capable of such purposes, we established a filing system for medical images on this system. All images of various types produced form one case of cardiovascular disease were digitized and registered into this filing system. Images consisted of plain chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, ultrasound cardiogram, cardiac scintigram, coronary angiogram, left ventriculogram and so on. All images were animated and totaled a number of 243. We prepared a graphic user interface for image retrieval based on the medical events and modalities. Twenty one cardiac specialists evaluated quality of the SHD images to be somewhat poor compared to the original pictures but sufficient for making diagnoses, and effective as a tool for teaching and case study group purposes because of its operability of the retrieval system. The system capability of simultaneously displaying several animated images was especially deemed effective in grasping comprehension of diagnosis. efficient input methods, and creating a capacity of filing all produced images are future issue.

  17. Online hyperspectral imaging system for evaluating quality of agricultural products (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk


    The consumption of fresh-cut agricultural produce in Korea has been growing. The browning of fresh-cut vegetables that occurs during storage and foreign substances such as worms and slugs are some of the main causes of consumers' concerns with respect to safety and hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an on-line system for evaluating quality of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technology. The online evaluation system with single visible-near infrared hyperspectral camera in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm that can assess quality of both surfaces of agricultural products such as fresh-cut lettuce was designed. Algorithms to detect browning surface were developed for this system. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between browning and sound lettuce as well as between browning lettuce and the conveyor belt were investigated using the correlation analysis and the one-way analysis of variance method. The imaging algorithms to discriminate the browning lettuces were developed using the optimal wavebands. The ratio image (RI) algorithm of the 533 nm and 697 nm images (RI533/697) for abaxial surface lettuce and the ratio image algorithm (RI533/697) and subtraction image (SI) algorithm (SI538-697) for adaxial surface lettuce had the highest classification accuracies. The classification accuracy of browning and sound lettuce was 100.0% and above 96.0%, respectively, for the both surfaces. The overall results show that the online hyperspectral imaging system could potentially be used to assess quality of agricultural products.

  18. State-space based modeling for imaging system identification (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Hixson, Jonathan G.


    State-space (SS) based modeling for imaging electro-optical (EO) systems representing various states facilitates a method for system estimation. Traditionally linear shift-invariant (LSI) systems are modeled using Fourier analysis (FA). However, models based on FA may not have a clear insight too the instability reasons, whereas SS based models with system poles and zeros have a clear insight to the system stability information. In this paper, we introduce three methods to estimate system parameters for LSI EO imaging systems using SS based modeling. These methods include batch processing version of least squares (LS) estimation, recursive version of LS estimation, and sliding window LS estimation. The accuracy of the developed methods was tested using input and output signals of simulated LSI systems. First, LSI systems with various system parameters (poles and zeros) were simulated, which were then used to generate output signals for a set of random input signals, with each input signal value representing the average of an image. Then, these input and output signals were used to estimate systems employing SS and FA based modeling. Further, the estimated systems were used to generate output signals for a new set of input signals. For any given input signal, output signals generated by both systems were compared for similarities and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results show that SS based models generate output signals that have higher SNR values. In addition, developed methods were tested against the simulated data and results show promise for development of models for estimating more complicated systems (e.g., non-linear system).

  19. mm-wave EM-imaging chipless RFID system


    Zomorrodi, Mohammad


    A new mm-wave imaging chipless RFID system is proposed. The system comprises a multi-bit tiny chipless RFID tag, a double sided printed dipole array (DSPDA) as the reader antenna and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing algorithm. The multi-bit tags comprise a series of meander line and strip line polarizers on a paper substrate. A linearly polarized (LP) incident wave illuminates the tag surface at 60 GHz instrumentation scientific and medical (ISM) band. The DSPDA is a four-e...

  20. Phantom-based image quality test methods for photoacoustic imaging systems (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Jia, Congxian; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, T. Joshua


    As photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technologies advance and applications arise, there is increasing need for standardized approaches to provide objective, quantitative performance assessment at various stages of the product development and clinical translation process. We have developed a set of performance test methods for PAI systems based on breast-mimicking tissue phantoms containing embedded inclusions. Performance standards for mature imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound] were used to guide selection of critical PAI image quality characteristics and experimental methods. Specifically, the tests were designed to address axial, lateral, and elevational spatial resolution, signal uniformity, penetration depth, sensitivity, spatial measurement accuracy, and PAI-ultrasound coregistration. As an initial demonstration of the utility of these test methods, we characterized the performance of a modular, bimodal PAI-ultrasound system using four clinical ultrasound transducers with varying design specifications. Results helped to inform optimization of acquisition and data processing procedures while providing quantitative elucidation of transducer-dependent differences in image quality. Comparison of solid, tissue-mimicking polymer phantoms with those based on Intralipid indicated the superiority of the former approach in simulating real-world conditions for PAI. This work provides a critical foundation for the establishment of well-validated test methods that will facilitate the maturation of PAI as a medical imaging technology.

  1. Image reconstruction technique using projection data from neutron tomography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Abd el Bar


    Full Text Available Neutron tomography is a very powerful technique for nondestructive evaluation of heavy industrial components as well as for soft hydrogenous materials enclosed in heavy metals which are usually difficult to image using X-rays. Due to the properties of the image acquisition system, the projection images are distorted by several artifacts, and these reduce the quality of the reconstruction. In order to eliminate these harmful effects the projection images should be corrected before reconstruction. This paper gives a description of a filter back projection (FBP technique, which is used for reconstruction of projected data obtained from transmission measurements by neutron tomography system We demonstrated the use of spatial Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the 2D Inverse DFT in the formulation of the method, and outlined the theory of reconstruction of a 2D neutron image from a sequence of 1D projections taken at different angles between 0 and π in MATLAB environment. Projections are generated by applying the Radon transform to the original image at different angles.

  2. Task-Based Optimization of Computed Tomography Imaging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Adrian A


    The goal of this thesis is to provide a framework for the use of task-based metrics of image quality to aid in the design, implementation, and evaluation of CT image reconstruction algorithms and CT systems in general. We support the view that task-based metrics of image quality can be useful in guiding the algorithm design and implementation process in order to yield images of objectively superior quality and higher utility for a given task. Further, we believe that metrics such as the Hotelling observer (HO) SNR can be used as summary scalar metrics of image quality for the evaluation of images produced by novel reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we aim to construct a concise and versatile formalism for image reconstruction algorithm design, implementation, and assessment. The bulk of the work focuses on linear analytical algorithms, specifically the ubiquitous filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. However, due to the demonstrated importance of optimization-based algorithms in a wide variety of CT...

  3. Speckle reduction in THz imaging systems with multiple phase patterns (United States)

    Jaeger, Irina; Stiens, Johan; Koers, Gaetan; Poesen, Gert; Vounckx, Roger


    THz technology makes possible imaging of phenomena, inaccessible to both visible and infrared radiation, but the imaging is still in its early stages of development. This paper draws attention to the aspects of speckle reduction to improve the image quality. Because all existing THz sources are coherent - speckle is an ultimate limiting factor of the free-space imaging techniques. Speckle arises when coherent light scattered from a rough surface is detected by an intensity detector with a finite aperture, hiding the image information. This problem is of special importance for THz imaging, because surface roughness is closer to the object dimension as in optical imaging. The reduction of speckle is highly desirable and we propose here a Hadamard matrix solution. Hadamard diffuser for mm-wave frequency range have been designed, built and tested. We report 50% speckle reduction measurements using a free-space vector network analyzer over the full W-band (75-110 GHz). The advantage of the mm-wave Hadamard technology over optical: the diffuser doesn't have to be moved (vibrated) any more to accomplish the technology of speckle reduction. Temporal optical effect is substituted here by spatial quasi-optical: Hadamard coding in each scan pixel. Second method delivers realistic system parameters for the speckle reduction with polychromatic light for aviation security.

  4. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine (United States)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj


    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at

  5. A Recursive Fuzzy System for Efficient Digital Image Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakoulis


    Full Text Available A novel digital image stabilization technique is proposed in this paper. It is based on a fuzzy Kalman compensation of the global motion vector (GMV, which is estimated in the log-polar plane. The GMV is extracted using four local motion vectors (LMVs computed on respective subimages in the logpolar plane. The fuzzy Kalman system consists of a fuzzy system with the Kalman filter's discrete time-invariant definition. Due to this inherited recursiveness, the output results into smoothed image sequences. The proposed stabilization system aims to compensate any oscillations of the frame absolute positions, based on the motion estimation in the log-polar domain, filtered by the fuzzy Kalman system, and thus the advantages of both the fuzzy Kalman system and the log-polar transformation are exploited. The described technique produces optimal results in terms of the output quality and the level of compensation.

  6. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF,F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)


    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  7. Digital image processing on a small computer system (United States)

    Danielson, R.


    A minicomputer-based image processing facility provides a relatively low-cost entry point for education about image analysis applications in remote sensing. While a minicomputer has sufficient processing power to produce results quite rapidly for low volumes of small images, it does not have sufficient power to perform CPU- or 1/0-bound tasks on large images. A system equipped with a display terminal is ideally suited for interactive tasks. Software procurement is a limiting factor for most end users, and software availability may well be the overriding consideration in selecting a particular hardware configuration. The hardware chosen should be selected to be compatible with the software and with concern for future expansion.

  8. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  9. Optimization of an Image-Based Talking Head System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based talking head system, which includes two parts: analysis and synthesis. The audiovisual analysis part creates a face model of a recorded human subject, which is composed of a personalized 3D mask as well as a large database of mouth images and their related information. The synthesis part generates natural looking facial animations from phonetic transcripts of text. A critical issue of the synthesis is the unit selection which selects and concatenates these appropriate mouth images from the database such that they match the spoken words of the talking head. Selection is based on lip synchronization and the similarity of consecutive images. The unit selection is refined in this paper, and Pareto optimization is used to train the unit selection. Experimental results of subjective tests show that most people cannot distinguish our facial animations from real videos.

  10. Feasibility of an image planning system for kilovoltage image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, Bishnu B.; Molloy, Janelle A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0293 (United States)


    Purpose: Image guidance has become a standard of care for many treatment scenarios in radiation therapy. This is most typically accomplished by use of kV x-ray devices mounted onto the linear accelerator (Linac) gantry that yield planar, fluoroscopic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Image acquisition parameters are chosen via preset techniques that rely on broad categorizations in patient anatomy and imaging goal. However, the optimal imaging technique results in detectability of the features of interest while exposing the patient to minimum dose. Herein, the authors present an investigation into the feasibility of developing an image planning system (IPS) for radiotherapy.Methods: In this first phase, the authors focused on developing an algorithm to predict tissue contrast produced by a common radiotherapy planar imaging chain. Input parameters include a CT dataset and simulated planar imaging technique settings that include kV and mAs. Energy-specific attenuation through each voxel of the CT dataset was calculated in the algorithm to derive a net transmitted intensity. The response of the flat panel detector was integrated into the image simulation algorithm. Verification was conducted by comparing simulated and measured images using four phantoms. Comparisons were made in both high and low contrast settings, as well as changes in the geometric appearance due to image saturation. Results: The authors studied a lung nodule test object to assess the planning system's ability to predict object contrast and detectability. Verification demonstrated that the slope of the pixel intensities is similar, the presence of the nodule is evident, and image saturation at high mAs values is evident in both images. The appearance of the lung nodule is a function of the image detector saturation. The authors assessed the dimensions of the lung nodule in measured and simulated images. Good quantitative agreement affirmed the algorithm's predictive

  11. Compact CT/SPECT Small-Animal Imaging System (United States)

    Kastis, George A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.


    We have developed a dual-modality CT/SPECT imaging system for small-animal imaging applications. The X-ray system comprises a commercially available micro-focus X-ray tube and a CCD-based X-ray camera. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections are acquired by rotating the animal about a vertical axis in front of the CCD detector. A high-resolution CT image is obtained after reconstruction using an ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm. The SPECT system utilizes a compact semiconductor camera module previously developed in our group. The module is mounted perpendicular to the X-ray tube/CCD combination. It consists of a 64×64 pixellated CdZnTe detector and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator. The field of view is 1 square inch. Planar projections for SPECT reconstruction are obtained by rotating the animal in front of the detector. Gamma-ray and X-ray images are presented of phantoms and mice. Procedures for merging the anatomical and functional images are discussed. PMID:26538684

  12. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung


    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  13. An imaging system for intraoperative functional imaging of optical intrinsic signals (United States)

    Wong, Gregory Kai

    This dissertation focuses on the research, design, and implementation of a Neurosurgical Imaging System (NIS), having the principle characteristics of modularity, mobility, multispectral imaging capabilities, and an open software architecture. The NIS will enable functional imaging of humans and animals by implementing innovative hardware and software enhancements. The NIS is tightly integrated with data acquisition hardware and software for simultaneous measurements of real-time, physiological parameters and Optical Intrinsic Signals (OIS). The NIS provides a portable, versatile imaging system. High speed ``off the shelf'' hardware has been implemented and refined to reduce overall cost and maintenance of the NIS. Implementation of new, enhanced charge coupled device technology, such as, Electron Bombardment Charge Coupled Devices (EBCCD) dramatically increases sensitivity and multi-spectral image acquisition capabilities. Utilization of efficient calibration and testing protocols provides advanced trouble shooting and standard performance metrics for the NIS. The NIS was experimentally tested and validated on LED ``phantoms'' and a variety of mammalian brain models throughout its design phases. Implementation of an innovative imaging system such as the NIS provides a powerful research and clinical diagnostic tool that will enhance our current understanding of the various physiologic underpinnings of neurovascular coupling in normal and diseased brains. The development of this type of portable imaging instrumentation controlled by a robust software architecture that provides command and control, real time data acquisition, data analysis, auto calibration, and performance metrics lay the foundations for a comprehensive neurosurgical guidance tool, as well as, a powerful experimental research tool for mapping activity-related changes in cerebral perfusion and neuronal activity.

  14. Imaging systems in the Delft Multi-Beam Scanning Electron Microscope 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.


    The goal of this Ph.D. research is to develop imaging systems for the multiple beam scanning electron microscope (MBSEM) built in Delft University of Technology. This thesis includes two imaging systems, transmission electron (TE) imaging system, and secondary electron (SE) imaging system. The major

  15. Depth imaging system for seismic reflection data. Part 1. Outline of system; Hanshaho jishin tansa data no tame no shindo imaging system. 1. System no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Structures of oil and gas fields to be recently explored have changed from simple structures represented by anticline into more complicated and more delicate structures in the deeper underground. In order to discover and develop prospective oil and gas fields among such geological structures, it is indispensable to construct a system which can treat seismic exploration date collectively before stacking and can easily perform imaging of underground structures accurately. Based on the advancement of hardware, Japan National Oil Corporation and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. have developed a depth imaging system as an interactive tool for constructing underground structures accurately through a cooperation of highly accurate imaging technology. Using this system, two-dimensional underground structure models can be easily given and modified by interactively referring to results of depth migration velocity analysis and stacking velocity analysis, well data, cross sections after depth transform, etc. 1 fig.

  16. The OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Peterfy, Charles G.; Bird, Paul


    Objective: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scoring system (RAMRIS), evaluating bone erosion, bone marrow edema/osteitis, and synovitis, was introduced in 2002, and is now the standard method of objectively quantifying...... Group, which used these data to provide updated considerations on image acquisition, RAMRIS definitions, and scoring systems for the original and new RA pathologies. Further, a research agenda was outlined. Results: Since 2002, longitudinal studies and clinical trials have documented RAMRIS variables...... with conventional radiography. Technical improvements, including higher field strengths and improved pulse sequences, allow higher image resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. These have facilitated development and validation of scoring methods of new pathologies: joint space narrowing and tenosynovitis...

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta


    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  18. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems (United States)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.


    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  19. Development of an image acquisition system for hand vein based on an embedded system (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Yunxin; Yuan, Chenhu; Deng, Shichao


    As one kind of the latest forms of biometrics, the human hand vein recognition utilizes a state-of-the-art recognition algorithm based on unique veins and capillaries found on human dorsal hand, which possesses the advantages such as well anti-falsification and high noise immunity. For the hand vein recognition, the most important premise is acquiring the high quality hand vein image. According to the special effect of human hand vein on the near infrared (NIR), when a hand is scanned by an image sensor, the vein pattern appears darker than its surroundings. Depending on this characteristic, the NIR light source was utilized to illuminate the image acquisition system for hand vein. And the optimal parameters of light source were chosen and the light source with high uniformity illuminance was manufactured to acquire the more clear hand vein image. Simultaneously, for the purpose of system miniaturization and design flexibility, the embedded image acquisition system for hand vein was designed based on the technology of system on programmable chip (SOPC). FPGA and CMOS image sensor were taken as the core components in the system, and the hardware of acquisition module is realized by configuring NiosII soft-core CPU and some corresponding interface modules on a FPGA. The software was developed by using the NiosII IDE to realize the initialization control to CMOS image sensor and collection, storage and transmission for the image data gathered from CMOS. Then the collected hand vein image was simply preprocessed, which further improved the image quality. Through experiments, the results indicated that this system could obtain the hand vein image with high performance, and it supplied the embedded development platform for hand vein recognition simultaneously. It was significant to develop the hand vein recognition system with small size and high speed.

  20. A semi-automated image analysis procedure for in situ plankton imaging systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Bi

    Full Text Available Plankton imaging systems are capable of providing fine-scale observations that enhance our understanding of key physical and biological processes. However, processing the large volumes of data collected by imaging systems remains a major obstacle for their employment, and existing approaches are designed either for images acquired under laboratory controlled conditions or within clear waters. In the present study, we developed a semi-automated approach to analyze plankton taxa from images acquired by the ZOOplankton VISualization (ZOOVIS system within turbid estuarine waters, in Chesapeake Bay. When compared to images under laboratory controlled conditions or clear waters, images from highly turbid waters are often of relatively low quality and more variable, due to the large amount of objects and nonlinear illumination within each image. We first customized a segmentation procedure to locate objects within each image and extracted them for classification. A maximally stable extremal regions algorithm was applied to segment large gelatinous zooplankton and an adaptive threshold approach was developed to segment small organisms, such as copepods. Unlike the existing approaches for images acquired from laboratory, controlled conditions or clear waters, the target objects are often the majority class, and the classification can be treated as a multi-class classification problem. We customized a two-level hierarchical classification procedure using support vector machines to classify the target objects ( 95%. First, histograms of oriented gradients feature descriptors were constructed for the segmented objects. In the first step all non-target and target objects were classified into different groups: arrow-like, copepod-like, and gelatinous zooplankton. Each object was passed to a group-specific classifier to remove most non-target objects. After the object was classified, an expert or non-expert then manually removed the non-target objects that

  1. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.


    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  2. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram


    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  3. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  4. Fundamental study of interpretation technique for 3-D magnetotelluric data using neural networks; Neural network wo mochiita sanjigen MT ho data kaishaku gijutsu no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Spichak, V.


    The research and development have been conducted to apply neural networks to interpretation technique for 3-D MT data. In this study, a data base of various data was made from the numerical modeling of 3-D fault model, and the data base management system was constructed. In addition, an unsupervised neural network for treating noise and a supervised neural network for estimating fault parameters such as dip, strike and specific resistance were made, and a basic neural network system was constructed. As a result of the application to the various data, basically sufficient performance for estimating the fault parameters was confirmed. Thus, the optimum MT data for this system were selected. In future, it is necessary to investigate the optimum model and the number of models for learning these neural networks. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Silent Revolution: "Image Theatre" as a System of Decolonisation (United States)

    Perry, J. Adam


    This article summarises the ways in which Image Theatre, a practice originally developed by Augusto Boal which continues to be developed in the hands of applied theatre practitioners and critical arts educators worldwide, can be used as a pedagogical and dramaturgical system of decolonisation at the level of communities and individuals. Through…

  6. A Realistic Approach To Evaluating Digital Imaging Systems (United States)

    Greinacher, C. F.; Bach, E.,; Muller, K.,; Patzelt, K.


    Current systems for the production of medical images and current development trends give a basis of experience for the design of a digital PACS including images and demographic data. Such a PACS must contain software and hardware concepts which permit the medical requirements, as presently understood, to be realized. As part of its research Siemens is designing and evaluating a hybrid network configuration which allows extensive flexibility and growth potential despite current limitations in available network bandwidth and storage capacity. As demand for digital data expands, additional installations can be added to the system. The modular concept permits incorporation of technological advances with minimal difficulty. The system allows different digital imaging modalities to communicate with a central data storage and processing system. Data display facilities both with and without manipulation capability are realized using high speed multi image storage devices. The human interface is designed to be ergono-metric, interactive, and user-friendly. Standardized, commercially available hardware has been included wherever possible to provide economical worldwide acceptance. Estimates of digital data per unit time under different conditions are presented and compared to the specifications of software and hardware elements both currently available and envisaged in the near future. Potential limitations of the design, as well as possible solutions incorporating expected technological developments, are discussed.

  7. A System for Drawing Synthetic Images of Forested Landscapes (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald


    A software package for drawing images of forested landscapes was developed. Programs included in the system convert topographic and stand polygon information output from a GIS into a form that can be read by a general-purpose ray-tracing renderer. Other programs generate definitions for surface features, mainly trees but ground surface textural properties as well. The...

  8. Positioning systems for high-resolution tissue imaging (United States)

    Haylock, Thomas M.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Chifman, Lev M.; Christensen, Peter B.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Hajian, Arsen R.; Hendrikse, Jan; Meade, Jeff T.


    Tissue handling systems position ex-vivo samples to a required accuracy that depends on the features to be imaged. For example, to resolve cellular structure, micron pixel spacing is needed. 3D tissue scanning at cellular resolution allows for more complete histology to be obtained and more accurate diagnosis to be made. However, accurate positioning of a light beam on the sample is a significant challenge, especially when fine spacing between scan steps is desired or large, inconsistently shaped samples need to be imaged. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an application where accurate positioning systems are required to reap the full benefit of the technology. By simultaneously manipulating the light beam position and sample location, a 3D image is reconstructed from a series of depth profiles produced. To automate image acquisition, a fully integrated and synchronised system is necessary. A tissue handling and light delivery system for free-space optical devices is described. Performance characteristics such as resolution, uncertainty, and repeatability are evaluated for novel hardware configurations of OCT. Typical scanning patterns with associated synchronisation requirements are discussed.

  9. Optic disc segmentation for glaucoma screening system using fundus images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almazroa A


    Full Text Available Ahmed Almazroa,1,2 Weiwei Sun,3 Sami Alodhayb,4 Kaamran Raahemifar,5 Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan6 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Ophthalmology and Visual Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei, China; 4Bin Rushed Ophthalmic Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Ryerson, Toronto, ON, 6School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, ON, Canada Abstract: Segmenting the optic disc (OD is an important and essential step in creating a frame of reference for diagnosing optic nerve head pathologies such as glaucoma. Therefore, a reliable OD segmentation technique is necessary for automatic screening of optic nerve head abnormalities. The main contribution of this paper is in presenting a novel OD segmentation algorithm based on applying a level set method on a localized OD image. To prevent the blood vessels from interfering with the level set process, an inpainting technique was applied. As well an important contribution was to involve the variations in opinions among the ophthalmologists in detecting the disc boundaries and diagnosing the glaucoma. Most of the previous studies were trained and tested based on only one opinion, which can be assumed to be biased for the ophthalmologist. In addition, the accuracy was calculated based on the number of images that coincided with the ophthalmologists’ agreed-upon images, and not only on the overlapping images as in previous studies. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an automated image processing system for glaucoma screening. The disc algorithm is evaluated using a new retinal fundus image dataset called RIGA (retinal images for glaucoma analysis. In the case of low-quality images, a double level set was applied, in which the first level set was considered to be localization

  10. An Imaging System for Satellite Hypervelocity Impact Debris Characterization (United States)


    Debris Program Office and the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center. 8. REFERENCES 1. Osiander, R., and Ostdiek, P., “Introduction to Space ... Debris ,” Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology, and Heritage, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009, pp. 363-379. 2. Englert, C., et al., “Optical...An Imaging System for Satellite Hypervelocity Impact Debris Characterization Matthew Moraguez, Dr. Kunal Patankar University of Florida Dr

  11. Designing a Practical System for Spectral Imaging of Skylight (United States)


    relatively inexpensive system for spectral imaging of daylight. Here we improve our simulation of the multispectral system by (1) considering the properties of optimum sensors in the presence of noise, one side effect of which is that adding more sensors may not improve the spectral...LCTF. We vary sensors’ peak sensitivities from 380 780 nm in 5 nm steps, a spectral resolution ade- quate for both colorimetry and radiometry. We

  12. An Ultra-High Speed Whole Slide Image Viewing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Yagi


    Full Text Available Background: One of the goals for a Whole Slide Imaging (WSI system is implementation in the clinical practice of pathology. One of the unresolved problems in accomplishing this goal is the speed of the entire process, i.e., from viewing the slides through making the final diagnosis. Most users are not satisfied with the correct viewing speeds of available systems. We have evaluated a new WSI viewing station and tool that focuses on speed.

  13. Report on 1981 research result on the R and D of three-dimensional circuit element; 1981 nendo sanjigen kairo soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of contributing to the efficient R and D of three-dimensional circuit element technologies (laminated high density integrated element technology, laminated high-speed multi-functional integrated element technology, and laminated large capacity multi-functional integrated element technology), conducted were the survey of domestic and overseas technological trend, investigation of progress status of R and D, and extraction and analysis of problems concerning R and D. In the technological trend survey, the technologies that could sprout in the future were investigated and examined. In addition, examined as much as possible at the present time were the appearance as a device imaginable at the time of the development of the three-dimensional circuit element technology, the point at issue, essential technologies for the development of the element, etc., with the results reported. A report was made on the technology of obtaining a silicon crystal layer on an insulating object. The status quo of a technology for forming an insulated film suitable for a silicon multi-layer structure and of a technology for forming an electrode material was explained, as was a layer forming technology for an insulating object and a metallic material concerning a compound semiconductor layer technology. With the present status summarized on an image sensor in two dimensions, the transmission electron microscope method was introduced. Last of all, investigation results were compiled on the state of progress of each research for the three-dimensional circuit element technology. (NEDO)

  14. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu


    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird, hyperspectral image (OMISII and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+.Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  15. Anima: Modular workflow system for comprehensive image data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville eRantanen


    Full Text Available Modern microscopes produce vast amounts of image data, and computational methods are needed to analyze and interpret these data. Furthermore, a single image analysis project may require tens or hundreds of analysis steps starting from data import and preprocessing to segmentation and statistical analysis; and ending with visualization and reporting. To manage such large-scale image data analysis projects, we present here a modular workflow system called Anima. Anima is designed for comprehensive and efficient image data analysis, and it contains several features that are crucial in high-throughput image data analysis: programming language independence, batch processing, easily customized data processing, interoperability with other software via application programming interfaces, and advanced multivariate statistical analysis. The utility of Anima is shown with two case studies focusing on testing different algorithms developed in different imaging platforms and an automated prediction of alive/dead C. elegans worms by integrating several analysis environmens. Anima is fully open source and available with documentation at

  16. Anima: modular workflow system for comprehensive image data analysis. (United States)

    Rantanen, Ville; Valori, Miko; Hautaniemi, Sampsa


    Modern microscopes produce vast amounts of image data, and computational methods are needed to analyze and interpret these data. Furthermore, a single image analysis project may require tens or hundreds of analysis steps starting from data import and pre-processing to segmentation and statistical analysis; and ending with visualization and reporting. To manage such large-scale image data analysis projects, we present here a modular workflow system called Anima. Anima is designed for comprehensive and efficient image data analysis development, and it contains several features that are crucial in high-throughput image data analysis: programing language independence, batch processing, easily customized data processing, interoperability with other software via application programing interfaces, and advanced multivariate statistical analysis. The utility of Anima is shown with two case studies focusing on testing different algorithms developed in different imaging platforms and an automated prediction of alive/dead C. elegans worms by integrating several analysis environments. Anima is a fully open source and available with documentation at

  17. Uncooled infrared thermal imaging systems for law enforcement (United States)

    Kyle, Robert J. S.; Van Dover, Douglas K.


    For over 18 years, Texas Instruments (TI) has been developing low cost uncooled thermal imaging technology for night vision applications. Using technology developed with support from several government agencies, TI is offering this dual-use technology in a low cost system for police cruisers and other surveillance applications. TI has teamed with Highes Aircraft to provide NIGHTSIGHTTM, now being marketed jointly. Because NIGHSIGHT is a passive thermal image, it gives law enforcement officers the ability to see in total darkness. This capability gives the uncooled system distinct advantages over image intensifiers which require some degree of visible light. It also differs from typical cryogenic or cooled IR systems because it does not contain a cryogenic cooler mechanism or a scanner which lowers the complexity, costs, size, weight, and power consumption. Police across the US have tested prototype sensors with positive results. Police officers often praise the ability to see in total darkness and report the many advantages of the system and how it changes their perspective on law enforcement. Systems have also been provided to the Drug Enforcement Agency, INS border patrol, prison security staff, Baltimore-Washington International Airport security, Texas Parks and Wildlife Service and the Los Angeles Harbor Patrol and have been used in a variety of security and surveillance situations. The paper will address the implementation of the technology; discuss barriers to use such as cost, awareness, and system understanding, and examine the impact of the technology on the effectiveness of law enforcement at night.

  18. Contrast enhanced imaging with a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system (United States)

    Puett, Connor; Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Inscoe, Christina R.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping


    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) captures some depth information and thereby improves the conspicuity of breast lesions, compared to standard mammography. Using contrast during DBT may also help distinguish malignant from benign sites. However, adequate visualization of the low iodine signal requires a subtraction step to remove background signal and increase lesion contrast. Additionally, attention to factors that limit contrast, including scatter, noise, and artifact, are important during the image acquisition and post-acquisition processing steps. Stationary DBT (sDBT) is an emerging technology that offers a higher spatial and temporal resolution than conventional DBT. This phantom-based study explored contrast-enhanced sDBT (CE sDBT) across a range of clinically-appropriate iodine concentrations, lesion sizes, and breast thicknesses. The protocol included an effective scatter correction method and an iterative reconstruction technique that is unique to the sDBT system. The study demonstrated the ability of this CE sDBT system to collect projection images adequate for both temporal subtraction (TS) and dual-energy subtraction (DES). Additionally, the reconstruction approach preserved the improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) achieved in the subtraction step. Finally, scatter correction increased the iodine signal and CNR of iodine-containing regions in projection views and reconstructed image slices during both TS and DES. These findings support the ongoing study of sDBT as a potentially useful tool for contrast-enhanced breast imaging and also highlight the significant effect that scatter has on image quality during DBT.

  19. Photo acoustic imaging: technology, systems and market trends (United States)

    Faucheux, Marc; d'Humières, Benoît; Cochard, Jacques


    Although the Photo Acoustic effect was observed by Graham Bell in 1880, the first applications (gas analysis) occurred in 1970's using the required energetic light pulses from lasers. During mid 1990's medical imaging research begun to use Photo Acoustic effect and in vivo images were obtained in mid-2000. Since 2009, the number of patent related to Photo Acoustic Imaging (PAI) has dramatically increased. PAI machines for pre-clinical and small animal imaging have been being used in a routine way for several years. Based on its very interesting features (non-ionizing radiation, noninvasive, high depth resolution ratio, scalability, moderate price) and because it is able to deliver not only anatomical, but functional and molecular information, PAI is a very promising clinical imaging modality. It penetrates deeper into tissue than OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) and provides a higher resolution than ultrasounds. The PAI is one of the most growing imaging modality and some innovative clinical systems are planned to be on market in 2017. Our study analyzes the different approaches such as photoacoustic computed tomography, 3D photoacoustic microscopy, multispectral photoacoustic tomography and endoscopy with the recent and tremendous technological progress over the past decade: advances in image reconstruction algorithms, laser technology, ultrasound detectors and miniaturization. We analyze which medical domains and applications are the most concerned and explain what should be the forthcoming medical system in the near future. We segment the market in four parts: Components and R&D, pre-clinical, analytics, clinical. We analyzed what should be, quantitatively and qualitatively, the PAI medical markets in each segment and its main trends. We point out the market accessibility (patents, regulations, clinical evaluations, clinical acceptance, funding). In conclusion, we explain the main market drivers and challenges to overcome and give a road map for medical

  20. An Efficient Image Enlargement Method for Image Sensors of Mobile in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Hua


    Full Text Available Main challenges for image enlargement methods in embedded systems come from the requirements of good performance, low computational cost, and low memory usage. This paper proposes an efficient image enlargement method which can meet these requirements in embedded system. Firstly, to improve the performance of enlargement methods, this method extracts different kind of features for different morphologies with different approaches. Then, various dictionaries based on different kind of features are learned, which represent the image in a more efficient manner. Secondly, to accelerate the enlargement speed and reduce the memory usage, this method divides the atoms of each dictionary into several clusters. For each cluster, separate projection matrix is calculated. This method reformulates the problem as a least squares regression. The high-resolution (HR images can be reconstructed based on a few projection matrixes. Numerous experiment results show that this method has advantages such as being efficient and real-time and having less memory cost. These advantages make this method easy to implement in mobile embedded system.

  1. A Development of Hybrid Drug Information System Using Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HwaMin Lee


    Full Text Available In order to prevent drug abuse or misuse cases and avoid over-prescriptions, it is necessary for medicine taker to be provided with detailed information about the medicine. In this paper, we propose a drug information system and develop an application to provide information through drug image recognition using a smartphone. We designed a contents-based drug image search algorithm using the color, shape and imprint of drug. Our convenient application can provide users with detailed information about drugs and prevent drug misuse.

  2. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank


    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (<100 nm), a sensitive detection system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique.

  3. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system. (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian


    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  4. Cockpit Lighting Compatibility With Image Intensification Night Imaging Systems: Issues And Answers (United States)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.


    Night imaging systems based on image intensification (I2) tubes are a major factor in the night operation capability of U.S. Army rotary-wing aircraft. A major problem associated with the use of these systems is the detrimental effect caused by internal cockpit lighting. Instrument lamps, caution lamps, utility lights, and other light sources inside the cockpit activate the bright source protection control circuits of the intensification tubes, thereby reducing their sensitivity to external natural and artificial illumination. In 1986, a Tri-Service specification, MIL-L-85762, "Lighting, aircraft, interior, night vision imaging system compatible," was adopted to resolve the cockpit lighting problems. MIL-L-85762 defines the measurement instrumentation and techniques required to certify lighting components as "ANVIS compatible." The specification does not address compatibility problems associated with AN/PVS-5 usage. Ongoing efforts related to MIL-L-85762 include characterization of lighting incompatibilities in current U.S. Army aircraft, implementation of programs to modify the lighting in incompatible cockpits, and certification of proposed lighting components for future aircraft systems. Additional work has been done to provide "near compatible" solutions to lighting problems associated with the use of AN/PVS-5 systems.

  5. Three phase pipe flow imaging using a capacitance tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, Oe.


    Several tomography systems for pipe flow imaging have been developed in the past decade. Many of them are based on capacitance sensors measuring the permittivity of the flowing components. So far the systems have mostly been tested on two-phase flow, and mainly for oil/gas pipe flow. Several reconstruction techniques for reconstructing the measured capacitances have been developed. The most commonly used reconstruction algorithm is the linear back projection algorithm (LBP), which is fast and fairly crude. This paper shows that in using the LBP algorithm one must be very careful in interpreting the results. Methods for using a capacitance tomography system based on the LBP algorithm for three-phase oil/water/gas pipe flow imaging are outlined and preliminary results are presented. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging system for root phenotyping (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Leitner, Raimund; Bodner, Gernot


    This paper presents the development and application of a hyper-spectral imaging system for root phenotyping. For sustainable plant production root systems optimized for growing conditions in the field are required. Therefore, the presented system is used for the research in the field of plant drought resistance. The system is used to acquire spatially resolved near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data of rhizoboxes. In contrast to using visible light (380 nm-780 nm) the NIR wavelength range (900 nm-1700 nm) allows to discriminate essential features for the root segmentation and water distribution mappings. The increased image contrast in the NIR range allows roots to be segmented from soil and additional information, e.g. basic root-architecture, to be extracted. In addition, the water absorption bands in the NIR wavelength range can be used to determine the water content and to estimate the age of the roots. In this paper the hardware setup of the hyper-spectral root imaging system, the data analysis, the soil water content estimations and the root segmentation using different methods to optimize separation between roots and soil, both constituting complex materials of variable properties, are presented.

  7. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugarte, M. F., E-mail:, E-mail:; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M. [Industrial Engineering Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain); Briz, S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30,28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); García-Cuesta, E. [Computer Science and Telecommunications Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid, C/ Tajo, s/n 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain)


    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  8. Image-based feedback and analysis system for digital microfluidics. (United States)

    Vo, Philippe Q N; Husser, Mathieu C; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Sinha, Hugo; Shih, Steve C C


    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a technology that provides a means of manipulating nL-μL volumes of liquids on an array of electrodes. By applying an electric potential to an electrode, these discrete droplets can be controlled in parallel which can be transported, mixed, reacted, and analyzed. Typically, an automation system is interfaced with a DMF device that uses a standard set of basic instructions written by the user to execute droplet operations. Here, we present the first feedback method for DMF that relies on imaging techniques that will allow online detection of droplets without the need to reactivate all destination electrodes. Our system consists of integrating open-source electronics with a CMOS camera and a zoom lens for acquisition of the images that will be used to detect droplets on the device. We also created an algorithm that uses a Hough transform to detect a variety of droplet sizes and to detect singular droplet dispensing and movement failures on the device. As a first test, we applied this feedback system to test droplet movement for a variety of liquids used in cell-based assays and to optimize different feedback actuation schemes to improve droplet movement fidelity. We also applied our system to a colorimetric enzymatic assay to show that our system is capable of biological analysis. Overall, we believe that using our approach of integrating imaging and feedback for DMF can provide a platform for automating biological assays with analysis.

  9. Imaging and characterizing root systems using electrical impedance tomography (United States)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Kelter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Zimmermann, E.; Walter, A.


    Root architecture, growth, and activity play an essential role regarding the nutrient uptake of roots in soils. While in recent years advances could be achieved concerning the modeling of root systems, measurement methods capable of imaging, characterizing, and monitoring root structure and dynamics in a non-destructive manner are still lacking, in particular at the field scale. We here propose electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the imaging of root systems. The approach takes advantage of the low-frequency capacitive electrical properties of the soil-root interface and the root tissue. These properties are based on the induced migration of ions in an externally applied electric field and give rise to characteristic impedance spectra which can be measured by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy. The latter technique was already successfully applied in the 10 Hz to 1 MHz range by Ozier-Lafontaine and Bajazet (2005) to monitor root growth of tomato. We here apply the method in the 1 mHz to 45 kHz range, requiring four-electrode measurements, and demonstrate its implementation and potential in an imaging framework. Images of real and imaginary components of complex electrical conductivity are computed using a finite-element based inversion algorithm with smoothness-constraint regularization. Results from laboratory measurements on rhizotrons with different root systems (barley, rape) show that images of imaginary conductivity delineate the spatial extent of the root system under investigation, while images of real conductivity show a less clear response. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the latter could be explained by the partly compensating electrical conduction properties of epidermis (resistive) and inner root cells (conductive), indicating the limitations of conventional electrical resistivity tomography. The captured spectral behavior exhibits two distinct relaxation processes with Cole-Cole type signatures, which we interpret as the responses

  10. A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development, multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment. (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Ljubimova, Julia; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K; Farkas, Daniel L


    Several established optical imaging approaches have been applied, usually in isolation, to preclinical studies; however, truly useful in vivo imaging may require a simultaneous combination of imaging modalities to examine dynamic characteristics of cells and tissues. We developed a new multimode optical imaging system designed to be application-versatile, yielding high sensitivity, and specificity molecular imaging. We integrated several optical imaging technologies, including fluorescence intensity, spectral, lifetime, intravital confocal, two-photon excitation, and bioluminescence, into a single system that enables functional multiscale imaging in animal models. The approach offers a comprehensive imaging platform for kinetic, quantitative, and environmental analysis of highly relevant information, with micro-to-macroscopic resolution. Applied to small animals in vivo, this provides superior monitoring of processes of interest, represented here by chemo-/nanoconstruct therapy assessment. This new system is versatile and can be optimized for various applications, of which cancer detection and targeted treatment are emphasized here.

  11. Research on Image processing in laser triangulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kai; Wang Qianqian; Wang Yang; Liu Chenrui, E-mail: [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China)


    Laser Triangulation Ranging is a kind of displacement distance measurement method which is based on the principle of optical triangulation using laser as the light source. It is superior in simple structure, high-speed, high-accuracy, anti-jamming capability and adaptability laser triangulation ranging. Therefore it is widely used in various fields such as industrial production, road test, three-dimensional face detection, and so on. In current study the features of the spot images achieved by CCD in laser triangulation system were analyzed, and the appropriate algorithms for spot images were discussed. Experimental results showed that the precision and stability of the spot location were enhanced significantly after applying these image processing algorithms.

  12. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA


    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  13. Multiparametric Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of Biomolecular and Cellular Systems. (United States)

    Alsteens, David; Müller, Daniel J; Dufrêne, Yves F


    There is a need in biochemical research for new tools that can image and manipulate biomolecular and cellular systems at the nanoscale. During the past decades, there has been tremendous progress in developing atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to analyze biosystems, down to the single-molecule level. Force-distance (FD) curve-based AFM in particular has enabled researchers to map and quantify biophysical properties and biomolecular interactions on a wide variety of specimens. Despite its great potential, this AFM method has long been limited by its low spatial and temporal resolutions. Recently, novel FD-based multiparametric imaging modalities have been developed, allowing us to simultaneously image the structure, elasticity and interactions of biological samples at high spatiotemporal resolution. By oscillating the AFM tip, spatially resolved FD curves are obtained at much higher frequency than before, and as a result, samples are mapped at a speed similar to that of conventional topographic imaging. In this Account, we discuss the general principle of multiparametric AFM imaging and we provide a snapshot of recent studies showing how this new technology has been applied to biological specimens, from soluble proteins to membranes and cells. We emphasize novel methodologies that we recently developed, in which multiparametric imaging is combined with probes functionalized with chemical groups, ligands, or even live cells, in order to image and quantify receptor interaction forces and free-energy landscapes in a way not possible before. Key breakthroughs include observing the mechanical and chemical properties of single proteins in purple membranes, measuring the electrostatic potential of transmembrane pore forming proteins, structurally localizing chemical groups of water-soluble proteins, mapping and nanomechanical analysis of single sensors on yeast cells, imaging the sites of assembly and extrusion of single filamentous bacteriophages in living bacteria

  14. Image Pre-processing in Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the first steps of the systems design that will be able to detect vertical traffic signs and to provide descriptions of the applied data processing methods. This system includes various functional blocks that are described in this paper. The basis of Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System is a pre-processing of a captured traffic scene ahead of vehicle. Main part of this paper contains a description of user friendly software interface for an image pre-processing.

  15. Skin condition measurement by using multispectral imaging system (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jung, Geunho; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Jae Gwan


    There are a number of commercially available low level light therapy (LLLT) devices in a market, and face whitening or wrinkle reduction is one of targets in LLLT. The facial improvement could be known simply by visual observation of face, but it cannot provide either quantitative data or recognize a subtle change. Clinical diagnostic instruments such as mexameter can provide a quantitative data, but it costs too high for home users. Therefore, we designed a low cost multi-spectral imaging device by adding additional LEDs (470nm, 640nm, white LED, 905nm) to a commercial USB microscope which has two LEDs (395nm, 940nm) as light sources. Among various LLLT skin treatments, we focused on getting melanin and wrinkle information. For melanin index measurements, multi-spectral images of nevus were acquired and melanin index values from color image (conventional method) and from multi-spectral images were compared. The results showed that multi-spectral analysis of melanin index can visualize nevus with a different depth and concentration. A cross section of wrinkle on skin resembles a wedge which can be a source of high frequency components when the skin image is Fourier transformed into a spatial frequency domain map. In that case, the entropy value of the spatial frequency map can represent the frequency distribution which is related with the amount and thickness of wrinkle. Entropy values from multi-spectral images can potentially separate the percentage of thin and shallow wrinkle from thick and deep wrinkle. From the results, we found that this low cost multi-spectral imaging system could be beneficial for home users of LLLT by providing the treatment efficacy in a quantitative way.

  16. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  17. Numerical Evaluation of Image Contrast for Thicker and Thinner Objects among Current Intraoral Digital Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyunbat Dashpuntsag


    Full Text Available The purpose is to evaluate the performance of current intraoral digital detectors in detail using a precise phantom and new method. Two aluminum step wedges in 0.5 mm steps were exposed by two photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP systems—one with automatic exposure compensation (AEC and the other without AEC—and a CCD sensor. Images were obtained with 3 doses at 60 kV. The effect of metallic material also was evaluated. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR for thinner steps and the low contrast value (LCV for thicker steps were obtained. The CCD system was the best under all conditions (P<0.001, although the Gray value was sensitive to the dose, and the Gray value-dose relation varied greatly. The PSP system with AEC was superior to that without AEC for the LCV (P<0.001 but was inferior to it regarding the CNR (P<0.001. CNR and LCV in the PSP system without AEC were not affected by the metallic plate. Intraoral digital imaging systems should be chosen according to their diagnostic purpose. PSP system with AEC may be the best for detecting molar proximal caries, whereas the PSP system without AEC may be better for evaluating small bone regeneration in periodontal disease. The CCD system provided the best performance.

  18. Intraoperative OCT Imaging of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. (United States)

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex; Marino, Meghan J; Reese, Jamie; Ehlers, Justis P


    Optimal placement of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) is critical. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for intrasurgical visualization and confirmation of array placement. In this study, two different OCT systems were evaluated to assess the feasibility and utility of this technology during Argus II surgery. Intraoperative OCT was performed on five patients undergoing Argus II implantation at Cole Eye Institute from June 2015 to July 2016. The EnVisu portable OCT (Bioptigen, Morrisville, NC) and microscope-integrated RESCAN 700 (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) intraoperative OCT systems were utilized. The EnVisu was used in three patients and the RESCAN 700 in three of the five patients. Following array tacking, intraoperative OCT was performed over the entire array including the edges and tack. Intraoperative OCT allowed for visualization of the array/retina interface. Microscope integration of the OCT system facilitated ease of focusing, real-time feedback, surgeon-directed OCT scanning to the areas of interest, and enhanced image quality at points of interest. Intraoperative imaging of the Argus II electrode array is feasible and provides information about electrode array-retina interface and distance to help guide a surgeon. Microscope integration of OCT appears to provide an optimal and efficient approach to intraoperative OCT during Argus II array placement. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:999-1003.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system. (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Rose, Alec; Yurduseven, Okan; Gowda, Vinay R; Imani, Mohammadreza F; Odabasi, Hayrettin; Trofatter, Parker; Gollub, Jonah; Smith, David R


    Recently, a frequency-diverse, metamaterial-based aperture has been introduced in the context of microwave and millimeter wave imaging. The generic form of the aperture is that of a parallel plate waveguide, in which complementary metamaterial elements patterned into the upper plate couple energy from the waveguide mode to the scene. To reliably predict the imaging performance of such an aperture prior to fabrication and experiments, it is necessary to have an accurate forward model that predicts radiation from the aperture, a model for scattering from an arbitrary target in the scene, and a set of image reconstruction approaches that allow scene estimation from an arbitrary set of measurements. Here, we introduce a forward model in which the metamaterial elements are approximated as polarizable magnetic dipoles, excited by the fields propagating within the waveguide. The dipoles used in the model can have arbitrarily assigned polarizability characteristics. Alternatively, fields measured from actual metamaterial samples can be decomposed into a set of effective dipole radiators, allowing the performance of actual samples to be quantitatively modeled and compared with simulated apertures. To confirm the validity of our model, we simulate measurements and scene reconstructions with a virtual multiaperture imaging system operating in the K-band spectrum (18-26.5 GHz) and compare its performance with an experimental system.

  20. Detecting field cancerization using a hyperspectral imaging system. (United States)

    Neittaanmäki-Perttu, Noora; Grönroos, Mari; Tani, Taneli; Pölönen, Ilkka; Ranki, Annamari; Saksela, Olli; Snellman, Erna


    Field cancerization denotes subclinical abnormalities in a tissue chronically exposed to UV radiation. These abnormalities can be found surrounding the clinically visible actinic keratoses. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a hyperspectral imaging system in the detection of multiple clinical and subclinical AKs for early treatment of the affected areas. Altogether 52 clinical AKs in 12 patients were included in this study. In six patients digital photos were taken of the naive AKs, and again after methylaminolevulinate(MAL)-fluorescence diagnosis which was used to teach HIS to find subclinical lesions. After 2-3 days when the MAL had vanished, the hyperspectral images were taken. Biopsies were taken from clinical AKs, healthy-looking skin and several suspected subclinical AKs. In the other six patients digital and hyperspectral images were taken of the naive AKs followed by one biopsy per patient. HIS detected all clinically visible 52 AKs and numerous subclinical lesions. The histopathology of the 33 biopsied lesions were concordant with the HIS results showing either AK (n = 28) or photodamage (n = 5). Of the 28 histopathologically confirmed AKs, 16 were subclinical. A specific diffuse reflectance spectrum of an AK and healthy skin was defined. The hyperspectral imaging system offers a new, non-invasive method for early detection of field cancerization. Lasers Surg. Med. 45:410-417, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dual camera system for acquisition of high resolution images (United States)

    Papon, Jeremie A.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.


    Video surveillance is ubiquitous in modern society, but surveillance cameras are severely limited in utility by their low resolution. With this in mind, we have developed a system that can autonomously take high resolution still frame images of moving objects. In order to do this, we combine a low resolution video camera and a high resolution still frame camera mounted on a pan/tilt mount. In order to determine what should be photographed (objects of interest), we employ a hierarchical method which first separates foreground from background using a temporal-based median filtering technique. We then use a feed-forward neural network classifier on the foreground regions to determine whether the regions contain the objects of interest. This is done over several frames, and a motion vector is deduced for the object. The pan/tilt mount then focuses the high resolution camera on the next predicted location of the object, and an image is acquired. All components are controlled through a single MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI). The final system we present will be able to detect multiple moving objects simultaneously, track them, and acquire high resolution images of them. Results will demonstrate performance tracking and imaging varying numbers of objects moving at different speeds.

  2. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV (United States)

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem


    Nowadays, civil engineering structures are periodically surveyed by qualified technicians (i.e. alpinist) operating visual inspection using heavy mechanical pods. This method is far to be safe, not only for civil engineering structures monitoring staff, but also for users. Due to the unceasing traffic increase, making diversions or closing lanes on bridge becomes more and more difficult. New inspection methods have to be found. One of the most promising technique is to develop inspection method using images acquired by a dedicated monitoring system operating around the civil engineering structures, without disturbing the traffic. In that context, the use of images acquired with an UAV, which fly around the structures is of particular interest. The UAV can be equipped with different vision system (digital camera, infrared sensor, video, etc.). Nonetheless, detection of small distresses on images (like cracks of 1 mm or less) depends on image quality, which is sensitive to internal parameters of the UAV (vibration modes, video exposure times, etc.) and to external parameters (turbulence, bad illumination of the scene, etc.). Though progresses were made at UAV level and at sensor level (i.e. optics), image deterioration is still an open problem. These deteriorations are mainly represented by motion blur that can be coupled with out-of-focus blur and observation noise on acquired images. In practice, deteriorations are unknown if no a priori information is available or dedicated additional instrumentation is set-up at UAV level. Image restoration processing is therefore required. This is a difficult problem [1-3] which has been intensively studied over last decades [4-12]. Image restoration can be addressed by following a blind approach or a myopic one. In both cases, it includes two processing steps that can be implemented in sequential or alternate mode. The first step carries out the identification of the blur impulse response and the second one makes use of this

  3. Stand-off CWA imaging system: second sight MS (United States)

    Bernascolle, Philippe F.; Elichabe, Audrey; Fervel, Franck; Haumonté, Jean-Baptiste


    In recent years, several manufactures of IR imaging devices have launched commercial models applicable to a wide range of chemical species. These cameras are rugged and sufficiently sensitive to detect low concentrations of toxic and combustible gases. Bertin Technologies, specialized in the design and supply of innovating systems for industry, defense and health, has developed a stand-off gas imaging system using a multi-spectral infrared imaging technology. With this system, the gas cloud size, localization and evolution can be displayed in real time. This technology was developed several years ago in partnership with the CEB, a French MoD CBRN organization. The goal was to meet the need for early warning caused by a chemical threat. With a night & day efficiency of up to 5 km, this process is able to detect Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA), critical Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) and also flammable gases. The system has been adapted to detect industrial spillage, using off-the-shelf uncooled infrared cameras, allowing 24/7 surveillance without costly frequent maintenance. The changes brought to the system are in compliance with Military Specifications (MS) and primarily focus on the signal processing improving the classification of the detected products and on the simplification of the Human Machine Interface (HMI). Second Sight MS is the only mass produced, passive stand-off CWA imaging system with a wide angle (up to 60°) already used by several regular armies around the world. This paper examines this IR gas imager performance when exposed to several CWA, TIC and simulant compounds. First, we will describe the Second Sight MS system. The theory of gas detection, visualization and classification functions has already been described elsewhere, so we will just summarize it here. We will then present the main topic of this paper which is the results of the tests done in laboratory on live agents and in open field on simulant. The sensitivity threshold of the

  4. A new photoconductor imaging system for digital radiography. (United States)

    de Monts, H; Beaumont, F


    Amorphous selenium is a material often used in the x-ray imaging system. The main application is in xeroradiography where the structure of the sensor is a layer of selenium on a conductive substrate. The signal is a charge density on the surface which is revealed by a toner or by electrostatic probe for digitalization. In the system described here, the sensor structure is different for the sensor is covered by an electrode, a thin layer of metal, which gives another interface. The reading system needs the scanning of a light beam and the resolution power depends on the size of the beam. It is easier to scan a light beam than electrostatic probes so a more compact system can be realized. In the process, there are two phases: the storage and the reading. The time spent between the two phases reduces the quality of the image, and an in situ reading system, integrated to the radiographic machine will be, for this reason, more efficient. Also, the sensor needs good memory effect. One has investigated different sensors based on a structure of a thin photoconductive layer between two electrodes to find a memory effect. We have already seen this phenomena in the Bi12 SiO20 (B. Richard, "Contribution à l'étude d'un procédé d'imagerie radiologique utilisant le photoconducteur BO12 SiO20," Ph.D. thesis, Paris, 1987). In amorphous selenium with some dopants and some type of metallic contact, the memory effect is important enough to realize a system. With 2 X 2 cm samples, a complete x-ray digital imaging system has been built.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Aplanatic imaging systems for the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Heiko, E-mail: [Corrected Electron Optical Systems GmbH, Englerstr. 28, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Massmann, Ingo; Uhlemann, Stephan; Hartel, Peter; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Maximilian [Corrected Electron Optical Systems GmbH, Englerstr. 28, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany)


    During the last decade aberration correctors have become a well-accepted tool in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The available correctors compensate for the spherical aberration C{sub s} of the imaging system. Recently, for instruments with considerably improved information limit also the off-axial aberrations have attracted more attention since these aberrations limit the high-resolution field of view. We have proposed a novel hexapole-type C{sub s}/B{sub 3}-corrector which corrects for the spherical aberration and the off-axial coma of the imaging system. We discuss the assessment and correction of off-axial aberrations and report about the optical performance of the first prototype instrument.

  6. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.


    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

  7. Ultrawideband photonic crystal fiber coupler for multiband optical imaging system. (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Choi, Hae Young; Choi, Eun Seo; Tomov, Ivan; Chen, Zhongping; Lee, Byeong Ha


    We report a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coupler having an ultrawide spectral bandwidth keeping single mode operation. The use of the PCF coupler in a fiber-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system enables us to handle the wide spectral bands of various light sources, including superluminescent diodes (SLDs) at 1300 nm and 820 nm, Ti:sapphire lasers, and white-light sources. The multiband imaging performances of the PCF-based OCT system are demonstrated by obtaining dental images at 1300 nm and 820 nm with the same setup. In addition, we show that the PCF coupler could cover the spectrum over a one octave span and guide both the fundamental wave (1030 nm) and the second harmonic wave (515 nm) simultaneously.

  8. Functional MR imaging on an open 1T MR imaging system: exploiting the advantages of an open MR imaging system for functional MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Giessen, E.; Groot, P. F. C.; Booij, J.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D. J.; Nederveen, A. J.


    Open MR imaging scanners are designed for imaging of specific patient groups that cannot be routinely scanned with conventional MR imaging scanners (eg, patients with obesity and claustrophobia). This study aims to determine whether BOLD sensitivity on an open 1T scanner is adequate for fMRI for

  9. Implementation of Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging on a Commercial Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Madsen, Signe Sloth


    This paper presents an imaging technique for synthetic aperture (SAI) tissue harmonic imaging (THI) on a commercial ultrasound system. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is combined with a pulse inversion (PI) technique on a commercial BK 2202 UltraView system. An interleaved scan...... sequence that performs dynamic receive focused (DRF) imaging and SASB, both using PI, is implemented. From each acquisition four images can be created: DRF image, SASB image, tissue harmonic DRF image (DRF-THI), and tissue harmonic SASB image (SASB-THI). For SASB imaging, a fixed transmit and receive focus...

  10. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection (United States)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.


    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  11. Illumination Criteria in Imaging System Design for Security Applications, (United States)


    conjunction with pole spacing and distance from the critical area to be illuminated . Streetlights or roadway luminaires are characterized by their light...found best suited for perimeter illumination , when CCTV is employed, are the floodlights and the -o 4, , streetlights (roadway luminaires). The...A882 521 MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA FIB 13/1 ILLUMINATION CRITERIA IN IMAGING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SECURITY APP--ETC(U) DEC 79 A J GRAFF, P NESGBEDA, T

  12. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin R. Osborne


    Full Text Available Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefit the scanned subject by minimizing time under anesthetic. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and procedure for modifying a commercially available preclinical SPECT-CT platform to enable simultaneous SPECT-CT acquisition. We also evaluate the performance of simultaneous SPECT-CT tomographic imaging with this modified system. Performance was accessed using a 57Co source and image quality was evaluated with Tc99m phantoms in a series of simultaneous SPECT-CT scans.

  13. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers. (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho


    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

  14. Spherical warm shield design for infrared imaging systems (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng


    The F-number matching is the primary means to suppress stray radiation for infrared imaging systems. However, it is difficult to achieve exact F-number matching, owing to the restriction from detectors, or multiple F-number design. Hence, an additional shield is required to block the certain thermal radiation. Typical shield is called flat warm shield, which is flat and operates at room temperature. For flat warm shield, it cannot suppress stray radiation while achieving F-number matching. To overcome the restriction, a spherical reflective warm shield is required. First of all, the detailed theory of spherical warm shield design is developed on basis of the principle that stray radiation cannot directly reach the infrared focal plane array. According to the theory developed above, a polished spherical warm shield, whose radius is 18 mm, is designed to match an F/2 infrared detector with an F/4 infrared imaging system. Then, the performance and alignment errors of the designed spherical warm shield are analyzed by simulation. Finally, a contrast experiment between the designed spherical warm shield and two differently processed flat warm shields is performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the designed spherical warm shield cannot only achieve F-number matching but suppress stray radiation sufficiently. Besides, it is demonstrated that the theory of spherical warm shield design developed in this paper is valid and can be employed by arbitrary infrared imaging systems.

  15. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets


    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  16. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao


    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  17. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity (United States)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri


    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  18. A new image navigation system for MR-guided cryosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogami, Takuji; Dohi, Michiko; Harada, Junta [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Interactive Scan Control (ISC), a new MR image navigation system, during percutaneous puncture in cryosurgery. With the ISC system in place, percutaneous MR-guided cryosurgery was performed in 26 cases, with the ISC system being used in 11 cases (five renal tumors, three uterine fibroids and three metastatic liver tumors). The ISC system comprised infrared cameras and an MR-compatible optical tracking tool that was directly connected to a cryoprobe. Tumor sizes ranged from 1.2 cm (metastatic liver tumor) to 9.0 cm (uterine fibroid), for a mean size of 3.9 cm. With ISC, one to three cryoprobes with a diameter of 2 mm or 3 mm were advanced into the tumors with the guidance of an MR fluoroscopic image. Two freeze-thaw cycles were used for cryosurgery. During the cryosurgery, the formation of iceballs was monitored on MR images. Follow-up dynamic CT or MRI as well as physical examinations were conducted after two weeks and six weeks. Placement of probes was successfully performed under the control of the ISC system. During cryosurgery, engulfment of the tumors by iceballs was carefully monitored by MRI. Necrosis of the cryoablated area was confirmed in all renal tumors by follow-up dynamic CT. The size regression of the uterine fibroids was observed through follow-up MRI. Two of the three cases of metastatic liver tumor were ablated completely. Additional therapy for a residual tumor was performed on one patient with a metastatic liver tumor. A small amount of pneumothorax was the only complication found in a patient with a metastatic liver tumor. MR-guided cryosurgery with this new navigation system was feasible with low morbidity and allowed for safe and accurate puncture with a cryoprobe. (author)

  19. [Development of image quality assurance support system using image recognition technology in radiography in lacked images of chest and abdomen]. (United States)

    Shibuya, Toru; Kato, Kyouichi; Eshima, Hidekazu; Sumi, Shinichirou; Kubo, Tadashi; Ishida, Hideki; Nakazawa, Yasuo


    In order to provide a precise radiography for diagnosis, it is required that we avoid radiography with defects by having enough evaluation. Conventionally, evaluation was performed only by observation of a radiological technologist (RT). The evaluation support system was developed for providing a high quality assurance without depending on RT observation only. The evaluation support system, called as the Image Quality Assurance Support System (IQASS), is characterized in that "image recognition technology" for the purpose of diagnostic radiography of chest and abdomen areas. The technique of the system used in this study. Of the 259 samples of posterior-anterior (AP) chest, lateral chest, and upright abdominal x-rays, the sensitivity and specificity was 93.1% and 91.8% in the chest AP, 93.3% and 93.6% in the chest lateral, and 95.0% and 93.8% in the upright abdominal x-rays. In the light of these results, it is suggested that AIQAS could be applied to practical usage for the RT.

  20. Data acquisition system for a proton imaging apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Sipala, V; Bruzzi, M; Bucciolini, M; Candiano, G; Capineri, L; Cirrone, G A P; Civinini, C; Cuttone, G; Lo Presti, D; Marrazzo, L; Mazzaglia, E; Menichelli, D; Randazzo, N; Talamonti, C; Tesi, M; Valentini, S


    New developments in the proton-therapy field for cancer treatments, leaded Italian physics researchers to realize a proton imaging apparatus consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker to reconstruct the proton trajectories and a calorimeter to measure their residual energy. For clinical requirements, the detectors used and the data acquisition system should be able to sustain about 1 MHz proton rate. The tracker read-out, using an ASICs developed by the collaboration, acquires the signals detector and sends data in parallel to an FPGA. The YAG:Ce calorimeter generates also the global trigger. The data acquisition system and the results obtained in the calibration phase are presented and discussed.

  1. Imaging the glutamatergic system in vivo - relevance to schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, R.A.; Pilowsky, L.S. [Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, University College of London Medical School (United Kingdom)


    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness. Its pathophysiology is not fully clarified. Animal data, in vitro and indirect in vivo imaging support glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in the disorder. A lack of suitable ligands has obstructed direct evaluation of the NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. Many research groups are working towards developing appropriate single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography ligands for the NMDA receptor. This paper briefly presents evidence for links between glutamatergic system dysfunction and schizophrenia. It reviews the radioligands to evaluate glutamatergic receptors in vivo and discusses issues in developing novel ligands for the glutamatergic system. (orig.)

  2. Compression of mixed video and graphics images for TV systems (United States)

    van der Schaar-Mitrea, Mihaela; de With, Peter H. N.


    The diversity in TV images has augmented with the increased application of computer graphics. In this paper we study z coding system that supports both the lossless coding of such graphics data and regular lossy video compression. The lossless coding techniques are based on runlength and arithmetical coding. For video compression, we introduce a simple block predictive coding technique featuring individual pixel access, so that it enables a gradual shift from lossless coding of graphics to the lossy coding of video. An overall bit rate control completes the system. Computer simulations show a very high quality with a compression factor between 2-3.

  3. A novel fusion imaging system for endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruionu, Lucian Gheorghe; Saftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Gabriel


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Navigation of a flexible endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) probe inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is problematic due to the small window size and complex anatomy. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of a novel fusion imaging (FI) system which uses...... time was 24.6 ± 6.6 min, while the time to reach the clinical target was 8.7 ± 4.2 min. CONCLUSIONS: The FI system is feasible for clinical use, and can reduce the learning curve for EUS procedures and improve navigation and targeting in difficult anatomic locations....

  4. Airborne network system for the transmission of reconnaissance image data (United States)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Fries, Jochen; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried; Kleindienst, Siegfried


    Airborne network systems to transmit reconnaissance data from UAVs have been investigated. An airborne experimental system has been developed as test bed to investigate different concepts of the communication between UAV sensor platform, relay platform and ground station. It is based on an Eurocopter BO 105 helicopter and a Dornier DO 228 aircraft. The helicopter is utilized as sensor platform and is equipped with an IR video sensor. It has been demonstrated that video reconnaissance images can be transmitted through a distance of 500 km using the relay platform.

  5. Autonomous facial recognition system inspired by human visual system based logarithmical image visualization technique (United States)

    Wan, Qianwen; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos


    Autonomous facial recognition system is widely used in real-life applications, such as homeland border security, law enforcement identification and authentication, and video-based surveillance analysis. Issues like low image quality, non-uniform illumination as well as variations in poses and facial expressions can impair the performance of recognition systems. To address the non-uniform illumination challenge, we present a novel robust autonomous facial recognition system inspired by the human visual system based, so called, logarithmical image visualization technique. In this paper, the proposed method, for the first time, utilizes the logarithmical image visualization technique coupled with the local binary pattern to perform discriminative feature extraction for facial recognition system. The Yale database, the Yale-B database and the ATT database are used for computer simulation accuracy and efficiency testing. The extensive computer simulation demonstrates the method's efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of illumination invariance for facial recognition.

  6. Scanning array radar system for bridge subsurface imaging (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Ping; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Yu, Tzu Yang


    Early damage detection of bridge has been an important issue for modern civil engineering technique. Existing bridge inspection techniques used by State Department of Transportation (DOT) and County DOT include visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, and ultrasonics; other NDE techniques include ground penetrating radar (GPR), radiography, and some experimental types of sensors. Radar technology like GPR has been widely used for the bridge structure detection with a good penetration depth using microwave energy. The system to be presented in this paper is a different type of microwave sensing technology. It is focus on the subsurface detection and trying to find out detail information at subsurface (10 cm) with high resolution radar imaging from a flexible standoff distance. Our radar operating frequency is from 8-12 GHz, which is different from most of the current GPR systems. Scanning array antenna system is designed for adjustable beamwidth, preferable scanning area, and low sidelobe level. From the theoretical analysis and experimental results, it is found that the proposed technique can successfully capture the presence of the near-surface anomaly. This system is part of our Multi- Modal Remote Sensing System (MRSS) and provides good imaging correlations with other MRSS sensors.

  7. Drug Delivery Systems for Imaging and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Gunay, Mine Silindir; Ozer, A. Yekta; Chalon, Sylvie


    Background: Although a variety of therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, challenges limit effective therapy. Among these challenges are delivery of drugs through the blood brain barier to the target brain tissue and the side effects observed during long term administration of antiparkinsonian drugs. The use of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, microspheres, microcapsules, nanobubbles, microbubbles and dendrimers is being investigated for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: This review focuses on formulation, development and advantages of nanosized drug delivery systems which can penetrate the central nervous system for the therapy and/or diagnosis of PD, and highlights future nanotechnological approaches. Results: It is esential to deliver a sufficient amount of either therapeutic or radiocontrast agents to the brain in order to provide the best possible efficacy or imaging without undesired degradation of the agent. Current treatments focus on motor symptoms, but these treatments generally do not deal with modifying the course of Parkinson’s disease. Beyond pharmacological therapy, the identification of abnormal proteins such as α-synuclein, parkin or leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 could represent promising alternative targets for molecular imaging and therapy of Parkinson's disease. Conclusion: Nanotechnology and nanosized drug delivery systems are being investigated intensely and could have potential effect for Parkinson’s disease. The improvement of drug delivery systems could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of Parkinson’s Disease therapy and reduce its side effects. PMID:26714584

  8. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.


    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  9. Standard practice for determining relative image quality response of industrial radiographic imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E 1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a ¾-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response com...

  10. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Feng Lee


    Full Text Available A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time.

  11. Extremely sensitive dual imaging system in solid phantoms (United States)

    Barnoy, Eran A.; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela; Nayhoz, Tsviya; Ray, Krishanu


    Herein we describe promising results from the combination of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and diffusion reflection (DR) medical imaging techniques. Three different geometries of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared: spheres of 20nm diameter, rods (GNRs) of aspect ratio (AR) 2.5, and GNRs of AR 3.3. Each GNP geometry was then conjugated using PEG linkers estimated to be 10nm in length to each of 3 different fluorescent dyes: Fluorescein, Rhodamine B, and Sulforhodamine B. DR provided deep-volume measurements (up to 1cm) from within solid, tissue-imitating phantoms, indicating GNR presence corresponding to the light used by recording light scattered from the GNPs with increasing distance to a photodetector. FLIM imaged solutions as well as phantom surfaces, recording both the fluorescence lifetimes as well as the fluorescence intensities. Fluorescence quenching was observed for Fluorescein, while metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) was observed in Rhodamine B and Sulforhodamine B - the dyes with an absorption peak at a slightly longer wavelength than the GNP plasmon resonance peak. Our system is highly sensitive due to the increased intensity provided by MEF, and also because of the inherent sensitivity of both FLIM and DR. Together, these two modalities and MEF can provide a lot of meaningful information for molecular and functional imaging of biological samples.

  12. Mammographic system performance using an image reading qualification method. (United States)

    Pires, Silvio R; Medeiros, Regina B


    Our goal was to evaluate mammography systems based on microcalcifications and fiber detection using a statistical phantom (ALVIM, model TRM 18-209, Nuclear Associates) image readings. ALVIM phantom images were acquired under diverse exposure conditions with various equipments, and 5 radiologists with similar expertise reported their findings. The reading performance in the detection of microcalcifications and fibers of different sizes was measured by simulation of equivalent breast tissue with 4.5 and 6.5 cm thicknesses. We determined kappa values, ROC curves, and kappa probability density and detection rates with dedicated software developed locally. The statistical results generated three kappa (K) ranges that allowed quantification of the detection performance at three quality levels: unacceptable (K ≤ 0.64), achievable (K ≥ 0.70) and acceptable (0.64 images with low contrast generated with mammography equipment which was not properly calibrated, showing that the method is able to detect the performance changes associated with the loss of image quality.

  13. Diversification in an image retrieval system based on text and image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iftene


    Full Text Available In this paper we present an image retrieval system created within the research project MUCKE (Multimedia and User Credibility Knowledge Extraction, a CHIST-ERA research project where UAIC{\\footnote{"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi}} is one of the partners{\\footnote{Together with Technical University from Wienna, Austria, CEA-LIST Institute from Paris, France and BILKENT University from Ankara, Turkey}}. Our discussion in this work will focus mainly on components that are part of our image retrieval system proposed in MUCKE, and we present the work done by the UAIC group. MUCKE incorporates modules for processing multimedia content in different modes and languages (like English, French, German and Romanian and UAIC is responsible with text processing tasks (for Romanian and English. One of the problems addressed by our work is related to search results diversification. In order to solve this problem, we first process the user queries in both languages and secondly, we create clusters of similar images.

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system. (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K


    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  15. Visible to IR transducer-based infrared image projection systems (United States)

    Berisset, Philippe; Maurel, Frederic


    DGA/DCE/LRBA (Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et Aerodynamiques), the French MoD missiles and navigation evaluation center has developed several HWIL facilities in order to test the IR-autoguidance-loops of tactical missiles. This IR autoguidance laboratory is composed of several IR image projection systems based on a visible to IR transduction principle. A previous paper has presented the 1999 achievements of LRBA in this field of research. This new paper first describes the latest evolutions achieved by LRBA in this domain, and then details the image projection layouts based on these improvements. It consists in two main facilities: a ground target scene projection layout and a much more complex animated air target scene projection system. This second testbed features the simultaneous use of a low temperature scene projection layout and three high temperature channels designed to modelize the hot parts of an aircraft and its environment. This allows the delivery of continuous images (100% fill factor) for anti-aircraft missile evaluation, at a relatively low cost. The optimization of this facility and especially the channels synchronization and spatial superposition is also discussed. As a conclusion, future HWIL facilities are presented.

  16. Pipe Phantoms With Applications in Molecular Imaging and System Characterization. (United States)

    Wang, Shiying; Herbst, Elizabeth B; Pye, Stephen D; Moran, Carmel M; Hossack, John A


    Pipe (vessel) phantoms mimicking human tissue and blood flow are widely used for cardiovascular related research in medical ultrasound. Pipe phantom studies require the development of materials and liquids that match the acoustic properties of soft tissue, blood vessel wall, and blood. Over recent years, pipe phantoms have been developed to mimic the molecular properties of the simulated blood vessels. In this paper, the design, construction, and functionalization of pipe phantoms are introduced and validated for applications in molecular imaging and ultrasound imaging system characterization. There are three major types of pipe phantoms introduced: 1) a gelatin-based pipe phantom; 2) a polydimethylsiloxane-based pipe phantom; and 3) the "Edinburgh pipe phantom." These phantoms may be used in the validation and assessment of the dynamics of microbubble-based contrast agents and, in the case of a small diameter tube phantom, for assessing imaging system spatial resolution/contrast performance. The materials and procedures required to address each of the phantoms are described.

  17. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian


    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  18. Handbook of Optical Systems, Volume 2, Physical Image Formation (United States)

    Singer, Wolfgang; Totzeck, Michael; Gross, Herbert


    Herbert Gross, born in 1955, joined Carl Zeiss in 1982 after finishing his physics degree as specialist for optical design. Since 1995 he has been working as head of the department of optical design, while also teaching as a lecturer in Aalen and Lausanne. The new handbook is an intuitive, didactically elegant approach to the subject of optical systems and is not competed by any other work on the market. The selected board of authors, all reputed industrial experts, guarantee the timeliness of the well coordinated, coherent chapters. The second volume presents a more rigorous physical description of the image formation in optical systems on the basis of first principles. Starting with wave equation and the theory of diffraction, readers are introduced in detail to the Fourier theory of optics, since this is a necessary assumption for an understanding of the finite resolution of optical systems, the basic optical quality criteria, the imaging in three dimensions, the influence of the illumination and the coherence and polarization properties of the light source. In particular, the connection between the geometrical and the wave optical models are explained and readers are able to understand the well-known simulation algorithms used in the calculation of the exact properties of modern optical systems.

  19. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition (United States)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.


    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  20. Integrated computational imaging system for enhanced polarimetric measurements (United States)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander


    Polarimetry is a common technique used in chemistry for solution characterization and analysis, giving insight into the molecular structure of a solution measured through the rotation of linearly polarized light. This rotation is characterized by the Boits law. Without large optical path lengths, or high concentrations of solution, these optical rotations are typically very small, requiring elaborate and costly apparatuses. To ensure that the rotation measurements are accurate, these devices usually perform complex optical procedures or time-averaged point measurements to ensure that any intensity variation seen is a product of optical rotation and not from inherent noise sources in the system, such as sensor or shot noise. Time averaging is a lengthy process and rarely utilizes all of the information available on the sensor. To this end, we have developed a novel integrated, miniature, computational imaging system that enhances polarimetric measurements by taking advantage of the full spot size observed on an array detector. This computational imaging system is capable of using a single acquisition at unity gain to enhance the polarimetric measurements using a probabilistic framework, which accounts for inherent noise and optical characteristics in the acquisition process, to take advantage of spatial intensity relations. This approach is faster than time-averaging methods and can better account for any measurement uncertainties. In preliminary experiments, this system has produced comparably consistent measurements across multiple trials with the same chemical solution than time averaging techniques.

  1. An application of projection imaging systems for museum exhibitions (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi


    Museums hold a wide variety of cultural properties and they organize exhibitions for the public. In history museums, a number of interpretive materials are necessary to present a specific historical theme. However, due to limitation of space, the number of displayed materials is severely restricted. There are various types of guidance systems in museums, however, most systems have not yet responded to visitors' needs. Therefore, a useful guidance system is necessary to satisfy their needs and also to enhance their understandings of the exhibitions. In order to create such guidance system, applications of imaging technology can become a solution to overcome these restrictions and meet the requirements. In this research, a visual guidance system using a data projector was examined in the National Museum of Japanese History. In the kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) section, the projector was used to simulate color changes of the materials under different illuminants. The projector also highlighted areas where annotations were featured in the kimono. The validity of using the projector system was confirmed by results from an interview survey. To further develop this visual guidance system, an augmented reality system consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital camera was also examined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Viswanathan


    Full Text Available Large amount of medical information of patients to be maintained in online, hence more uploading is needed, which may reflects the problem in amount of time and privacy of information. This can be solved by watermarking which provide privacy and cryptography provides security. The proposed algorithm provides a single system of cryptographic watermarking method. Initially the patient information is encrypted using the symmetric key and then while hiding, the key will be extracted to retain the quality of the medical image after copyright extraction. During authentication the embedded information is extracted and decrypted. Further, the decrypted information is compared with the patient information. Finally, the extracted key is used to recover the medical image.The algorithm gives high payload capacity, less computational complexity, privacy of the patient and good reversible quality.

  3. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio


    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  4. Methods and systems for producing compounded ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Disclosed is a method for producing compounded ultrasound images by beamforming a first and a second low-resolution image using data from a first ultrasound emission, beamforming a third and a fourth low-resolution image using data from a second ultrasound emission, summing said first and said...... third low-resolution image creating a first high-resolution image and said second and said fourth low-resolution image creating a second high-resolution image, wherein the method further comprises computing a first envelope image for said first high-resolution image and a second envelope image for said...

  5. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.


    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  6. a Three-Dimensional Acoustical Imaging System for Zooplankton Observations (United States)

    McGehee, Duncan Ewell

    This dissertation describes the design, testing, and use of a three-dimensional acoustical imaging system, called Fish TV, or FTV, for tracking zooplankton swimming in situ. There is an increasing recognition that three -dimensional tracks of individual plankters are needed for some studies in behavioral ecology including, for example, the role of individual behavior in patch formation and maintenance. Fish TV was developed in part to provide a means of examining zooplankton swimming behavior in a non-invasive way. The system works by forming a set of 64 acoustic beams in an 8 by 8 pattern, each beam 2 ^circ by 2^circ , for a total coverage of 16^circ by 16^circ. The 8 by 8 beams form two dimensions of the image; range provides the third dimension. The system described in the thesis produces three-dimensional images at the rate of approximately one per second. A set of laboratory and field experiments is described that demonstrates the capabilities of the system. The final field experiment was the in situ observation of zooplankton swimming behavior at a site in the San Diego Trough, 15 nautical miles southwest of San Diego. 314 plankters were tracked for one minute. It was observed that there was no connection between the acoustic size of the animals and their repertoire of swimming behaviors. Other contributions of the dissertation include the development of two novel methods for generating acoustic beams with low side lobes. The first is the method of dense random arrays. The second is the optimum mean square quantized aperture method. Both methods were developed originally as ways to "build a better beam pattern" for Fish TV, but also have general significance with respect to aperture theory.

  7. A methodology for image quality evaluation of advanced CT systems. (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua M; Christianson, Olav I; Richard, Samuel; Samei, Ehsan


    This work involved the development of a phantom-based method to quantify the performance of tube current modulation and iterative reconstruction in modern computed tomography (CT) systems. The quantification included resolution, HU accuracy, noise, and noise texture accounting for the impact of contrast, prescribed dose, reconstruction algorithm, and body size. A 42-cm-long, 22.5-kg polyethylene phantom was designed to model four body sizes. Each size was represented by a uniform section, for the measurement of the noise-power spectrum (NPS), and a feature section containing various rods, for the measurement of HU and the task-based modulation transfer function (TTF). The phantom was scanned on a clinical CT system (GE, 750HD) using a range of tube current modulation settings (NI levels) and reconstruction methods (FBP and ASIR30). An image quality analysis program was developed to process the phantom data to calculate the targeted image quality metrics as a function of contrast, prescribed dose, and body size. The phantom fabrication closely followed the design specifications. In terms of tube current modulation, the tube current and resulting image noise varied as a function of phantom size as expected based on the manufacturer specification: From the 16- to 37-cm section, the HU contrast for each rod was inversely related to phantom size, and noise was relatively constant (quality analysis software were created for assessing CT image quality over a range of contrasts, doses, and body sizes. The testing platform enabled robust NPS, TTF, HU, and pixel noise measurements as a function of body size capable of characterizing the performance of reconstruction algorithms and tube current modulation techniques.

  8. Deepwater Horizon MC252 - Oil Spill: Ocean Imaging Corp.'s Aerial Multispectral Oil Mapping System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Imaging Corp.'s Aerial Multispectral Oil Mapping System employs a customizable 4-spectral channel system and IR imager integrated to allow simultaneous data...

  9. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation of certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated... having graphics processing units (``GPUs'') supplied by NVIDIA Corporation (``NVIDIA'') infringe any...

  10. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Siemens Oncology Care Systems, Siemens Medical Solutions, Inc., Concord, California 94520 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)


    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  11. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system. (United States)

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K; Maltz, Jonathan S; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M; Bhatia, Sudershan K; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S; Flynn, Ryan T


    To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd(2)O(2)S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision(TM) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10(- 8)), 1.64 (p < 10(- 13)), 2.66 (p < 10(- 9)), respectively. For all

  12. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M


    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  13. Infrared laser transillumination CT imaging system using parallel fiber arrays and optical switches for finger joint imaging (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Emori, Ryota; Inage, Hiroki; Goto, Masaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Devaraj, Balasigamani; Akatsuka, Takao


    The heterodyne detection technique, on which the coherent detection imaging (CDI) method founds, can discriminate and select very weak, highly directional forward scattered, and coherence retaining photons that emerge from scattering media in spite of their complex and highly scattering nature. That property enables us to reconstruct tomographic images using the same reconstruction technique as that of X-Ray CT, i.e., the filtered backprojection method. Our group had so far developed a transillumination laser CT imaging method based on the CDI method in the visible and near-infrared regions and reconstruction from projections, and reported a variety of tomographic images both in vitro and in vivo of biological objects to demonstrate the effectiveness to biomedical use. Since the previous system was not optimized, it took several hours to obtain a single image. For a practical use, we developed a prototype CDI-based imaging system using parallel fiber array and optical switches to reduce the measurement time significantly. Here, we describe a prototype transillumination laser CT imaging system using fiber-optic based on optical heterodyne detection for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by demonstrating the tomographic imaging of acrylic phantom as well as the fundamental imaging properties. We expect that further refinements of the fiber-optic-based laser CT imaging system could lead to a novel and practical diagnostic tool for rheumatoid arthritis and other joint- and bone-related diseases in human finger.

  14. Dual-path handheld system for cornea and retina imaging using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun


    A dual-path handheld system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The handheld sample arm is designed to acquire two images simultaneously. Both eyes of a person can be imaged at the same time to obtain the images of the cornea of one eye and the retina of the other eye. Cornea, retina, and optic disc images are acquired with the proposed sample arm. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of this system for imaging of different eye segments. This system reduces the time required for imaging of the two eyes and is cost effective.

  15. Developing an ANSI standard for image quality tools for the testing of active millimeter wave imaging systems (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Greca, Joseph; Yam, Kevin; Weatherall, James C.; Smith, Peter R.; Smith, Barry T.


    In 2016, the millimeter wave (MMW) imaging community initiated the formation of a standard for millimeter wave image quality metrics. This new standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.59, will apply to active MMW systems for security screening of humans. The Electromagnetic Signatures of Explosives Laboratory at the Transportation Security Laboratory is supporting the ANSI standards process via the creation of initial prototypes for round-robin testing with MMW imaging system manufacturers and experts. Results obtained for these prototypes will be used to inform the community and lead to consensus objective standards amongst stakeholders. Images collected with laboratory systems are presented along with results of preliminary image analysis. Future directions for object design, data collection and image processing are discussed.

  16. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan


    Full Text Available Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC, specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, which consist of highly localized intensities, know as correlation peaks. The intensity of spots provides a measure of similarity and position of spots, how images (traffic signs are relatively aligned in the input scene. Several experiments have been done with proposed system and results and conclusion are discussed.

  17. Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halbertal, Dorri; Shalom, Moshe Ben; Embon, Lior; Shadmi, Nitzan; Anahory, Yonathan; Naren, HR; Sarkar, Jayanta; Uri, Aviram; Ronen, Yuval; Myasoedov, Yury; Levitov, Leonid; Joselevich, Ernesto; Geim, Andre Konstantin; Zeldov, Eli


    Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics distinguishing quantum and classical phenomena. In condensed matter physics, in particular, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information, or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Despite its vital importance the microscopic behavior of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because the latter is not a readily measureable quantity on the microscale. Although nanoscale thermometry is gaining much recent interest, the existing thermal imaging methods lack the necessary sensitivity and are unsuitable for low temperature operation required for study of quantum systems. Here we report a superconducting quantum interference nano-thermometer device with sub 50 nm diameter that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette and provides scanning cryogenic thermal se...

  18. Eye movement analysis system using computerized image recognition. (United States)

    Yamanobe, S; Taira, S; Morizono, T; Yagi, T; Kamio, T


    A new technique for an eye movement analysis system utilizing infrared video recording and a computerized image recognition method is presented. The system consists of an infrared lighting apparatus, a very small infrared video charge-coupled device camera, a video tape recorder, an analogue-digital converter, and microcomputers. This system makes it possible to simultaneously analyze the slow-phase velocity quantitatively not only of the horizontal and vertical but also of the rotatory components of the energy-induced nystagmus. The maximum slow-phase velocity of the rotatory component of energy-induced nystagmus was found to be 4.1 degrees per second on an average in this study.

  19. System calibration and image reconstruction for a new small-animal SPECT system (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun

    A novel small-animal SPECT imager, FastSPECT II, was recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging. FastSPECT II consists of two rings of eight modular scintillation cameras and list-mode data-acquisition electronics that enable stationary and dynamic imaging studies. The instrument is equipped with exchangeable aperture assemblies and adjustable camera positions for selections of magnifications, pinhole sizes, and fields of view (FOVs). The purpose of SPECT imaging is to recover the radiotracer distribution in the object from the measured image data. Accurate knowledge of the imaging system matrix (referred to as H) is essential for image reconstruction. To assure that all of the system physics is contained in the matrix, experimental calibration methods for the individual cameras and the whole imaging system were developed and carefully performed. The average spatial resolution over the FOV of FastSPECT II in its low-magnification (2.4X) configuration is around 2.4 mm, computed from the Fourier crosstalk matrix. The system sensitivity measured with a 99mTc point source at the center of the FOV is about 267 cps/MBq. The system detectability was evaluated by computing the ideal-observer performance on SKE/BKE (signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly) detection tasks. To reduce the system-calibration time and achieve finer reconstruction grids, two schemes for interpolating H were implemented and compared: these are centroid interpolation with Gaussian fitting and Fourier interpolation. Reconstructed phantom and mouse-cardiac images demonstrated the effectiveness of the H-matrix interpolation. Tomographic reconstruction can be formulated as a linear inverse problem and solved using statistical-estimation techniques. Several iterative reconstruction algorithms were introduced, including maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) and its ordered-subsets (OS) version, and some least-squares (LS) and weighted-least-squares (WLS) algorithms such

  20. Electronic intraoral dental x-ray imaging system employing a direct sensing CCD array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.D.; Langford, D.S.; Williams, D.W. [General Imaging Corp., Gainesville, FL (United States)


    A commercial prototype intraoral radiography system has been developed that can provide digital x-ray images for diagnosis. The system consists of an intraoral detector head, an intermediate drive electronics package, a main drive electronics package and a PC-based digital image management system. The system has the potential to replace the use of dental film in intraoral radiographic examinations. High-resolution images are acquired, then displayed on a CRT within seconds of image acquisition.

  1. Electronic intraoral dental x-ray imaging system employing a direct-sensing CCD array (United States)

    Cox, John D.; Langford, D. S.; Williams, Donald W.


    A commercial prototype intraoral radiography system has been developed that can provide digital x-ray images for diagnosis. The system consists of an intraoral detector head, an intermediate drive electronics package, a main drive electronics package, and a PC-based digital image management system. The system has the potential to replace the use of dental film in intraoral radiographic examinations. High-resolution images are acquired, then displayed on a CRT within seconds of image acquisition.

  2. Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Shiba, Kensuke; Sotsuka, Koji; Matsushita, Kenji


    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

  3. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof


    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  4. First Images from the Cript Muon Tomography System (United States)

    Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Robichaud, A.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Gazit, R.; Hydomako, R.; Liu, Z.; Anghel, V.; Golovko, V. V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.


    The CRIPT Cosmic Ray Imaging and Passive Tomography system began data taking in September 2012. CRIPT is a “proof of principle” muon tomography system originally proposed to inspect cargo in shipping containers and to determine the presence of special nuclear materials. CRIPT uses 4 layers of 2 m x 2 m scintillation counter trackers, each layer measuring two coordinates. Two layers are used to track the incoming muon and two for the outgoing muon allowing the trajectories of the muon to be determined. The target volume is divided into voxels, and a Point of Closest Approach algorithm is used to determine the number of scattering events in each voxel, producing a 3D image. The system has been tested with various targets of depleted uranium, lead bricks, and tungsten rods. Data on the positional resolution has been taken and the intrinsic resolution is unfolded with the help of a simulation using GEANT4. The next steps include incorporation of data from the spectrometer section, which will assist in determining the muon's momentum and improve the determination of the density of the target.

  5. High-frequency ex vivo ultrasound imaging of the auditory system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; Torbatian, Z.; Adamson, R.B.; Wijhe, R. Van; Pennings, R.J.E.; Lockwood, G.R.; Bance, M.L.


    A 50MHz array-based imaging system was used to obtain high-resolution images of the ear and auditory system. This previously described custom built imaging system (Brown et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown and Lockwood 2005) is capable of 50 microm axial resolution, and lateral resolution varying from 80

  6. Designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hosseini


    Full Text Available Abstract – in this study, designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system in order to research and spectroscopy applications are investigated. The device has the ability to be used as a Telescope, spectroscope, spectrophotometer and spectrohelioscope. The results obtained from this device are used in the various field of research such as absorption spectra of the surface of the sun, transit of planets in front of the sun, Doppler effects, evaluation of the Fraunhofer lines, plot of intensity versus wavelength and studying of Solar Flares. In this research, design and manufacture of the device, along with some of the results, are reported.

  7. Sports and the Growing Musculoskeletal System: Sports Imaging Series. (United States)

    Nguyen, Jie C; Sheehan, Scott E; Davis, Kirkland W; Gill, Kara G


    Increased youth participation in sports has resulted in increased injury tolls due to shifts toward participation in competitive sports at earlier ages, increased training intensity and competition schedules, as well as specialization into one sport. The physiology of the growing musculoskeletal system makes the growing athlete particularly vulnerable to specific types of injuries. Radiologists must understand the differences between pediatric and adult athletes to recognize the particular injuries to which these young athletes are prone. Imaging and pertinent clinical details of major representative acute and overuse injuries characteristic to pediatric athletes will be discussed. © RSNA, 2017.

  8. Development of a High-Throughput Microwave Imaging System for Concealed Weapons Detection (United States)


    fidelity 3D images, and that the presented image reconstruction technique can form an image of a human -sized domain in ≤ 0.1s with low cost 3D microwave imaging. Further, it is shown that the fast imaging technique can reconstruct a human -sized image domain in ≤ 0.1s on relatively... foot traffic environments. Realization of such a system presents two major technical challenges: 1) implemen- tation of an electrically large antenna

  9. A study on assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent image by digital imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duck; Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluated the method for quantitative assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite by using digital imaging system consisted of Power Macintosh 7200/120, 15-inch color monitor, and GT-9000 scanner with transparency unit. After aluminum-equivalent image made from correlation between aluminum thickness and grey scale, the accuracy of conversion to mass from aluminum-equivalent value was evaluated. Measured bone mass was compared with converted bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite block by correlation formula between aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxy apatite block and hydroxyapatite mass. The results of this study were as follows : 1. Correlation between aluminum thickness and grey level for obtaining aluminum-equivalent image was high positively associated (r2=0.99). Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value were very similar to measured masses. There was, statistically, no significant difference (P<0.05) between them. 2. Correlation between hydroxyapatite aluminum-equivalent and hydroxyapatite mass was shown to linear relation (r2 =0.95). 3. Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value of 3 dry mandible segments were similar to measured masses. The difference between the exposure directions was not significantly different (P<0.05).

  10. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 for magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Lee, Karen A


    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 signifies a probably benign finding and should be reserved for those findings that have a less than 2% risk of malignancy. There are limited data defining the use of this category in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the imaging features of probably benign lesions are not well defined. Most recent studies have shown that the frequency of use of BI-RADS 3 is comparable with that reported in mammography and ultrasound and that the rate of malignancy is within the targeted range. Several findings, once assessed as BI-RADS 3, are now known to represent benign entities, such as variations of background parenchymal enhancement and intramammary lymph nodes. A subset of masses, foci, and nonmass enhancement can appropriately be assigned BI-RADS 3 on baseline MRI. The BI-RADS 3 is most appropriately used for round, dot-like foci, which are unique and separate from background parenchymal enhancement and for oval masses with circumscribed margins and homogeneous enhancement, such as those typically seen in incidental fibroadenomas. The BI-RADS 3 may also be appropriate for a focal or regional distribution of nonmass enhancement without suspicious features.

  11. Characteristics of a New X-Ray Imaging System for Interventional Procedures: Improved Image Quality and Reduced Radiation Dose. (United States)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger E; Haroun, Reham R; Nguyen, Sonny; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Sahu, Sonia; Chapiro, Julius; Zhao, Yan; Radaelli, Alessandro; van der Bom, Imramsjah M; Mauti, Maria; Hong, Kelvin; Geschwind, Jean-François H; Lin, MingDe


    To compare image quality and radiation exposure between a new angiographic imaging system and the preceding generation system during uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this retrospective, IRB-approved two-arm study, 54 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with UAE on two different angiographic imaging systems. The new system includes optimized acquisition parameters and real-time image processing algorithms. Air kerma (AK), dose area product (DAP) and acquisition time for digital fluoroscopy (DF) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were recorded. Body mass index was noted as well. DF image quality was assessed objectively by image noise measurements. DSA image quality was rated by two blinded, independent readers on a four-rank scale. Statistical differences were assessed with unpaired t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. There was no significant difference between the patients treated on the new (n = 36) and the old system (n = 18) regarding age (p = 0.10), BMI (p = 0.18), DF time (p = 0.35) and DSA time (p = 0.17). The new system significantly reduced the cumulative AK and DAP by 64 and 72%, respectively (median 0.58 Gy and 145.9 Gy*cm2 vs. 1.62 Gy and 526.8 Gy*cm2, p image noise (p image quality (p imaging system significantly improved image quality and reduced radiation exposure during UAE procedures.

  12. Influences of multiple memory systems on auditory mental image acuity. (United States)

    Navarro Cebrian, Ana; Janata, Petr


    The influence of different memory systems and associated attentional processes on the acuity of auditory images, formed for the purpose of making intonation judgments, was examined across three experiments using three different task types (cued-attention, imagery, and two-tone discrimination). In experiment 1 the influence of implicit long-term memory for musical scale structure was manipulated by varying the scale degree (leading tone versus tonic) of the probe note about which a judgment had to be made. In experiments 2 and 3 the ability of short-term absolute pitch knowledge to develop was manipulated by presenting blocks of trials in the same key or in seven different keys. The acuity of auditory images depended on all of these manipulations. Within individual listeners, thresholds in the two-tone discrimination and cued-attention conditions were closely related. In many listeners, cued-attention thresholds were similar to thresholds in the imagery condition, and depended on the amount of training individual listeners had in playing a musical instrument. The results indicate that mental images formed at a sensory/cognitive interface for the purpose of making perceptual decisions are highly malleable.

  13. Electrical impedance tomography imaging of the cardiopulmonary system. (United States)

    Frerichs, Inéz; Becher, Tobias; Weiler, Norbert


    This review article summarizes the recent advances in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) related to cardiopulmonary imaging and monitoring on the background of the 30-year development of this technology. EIT is expected to become a bedside tool for monitoring and guiding ventilator therapy. In this context, several studies applied EIT to determine spatial ventilation distribution during different ventilation modes and settings. EIT was increasingly combined with other signals, such as airway pressure, enabling the assessment of regional respiratory system mechanics. EIT was for the first time used prospectively to define ventilator settings in an experimental and a clinical study. Increased neonatal and paediatric use of EIT was noted. Only few studies focused on cardiac function and lung perfusion. Advanced radiological imaging techniques were applied to assess EIT performance in detecting regional lung ventilation. New approaches to improve the quality of thoracic EIT images were proposed. EIT is not routinely used in a clinical setting, but the interest in EIT is evident. The major task for EIT research is to provide the clinicians with guidelines how to conduct, analyse and interpret EIT examinations and combine them with other medical techniques so as to meaningfully impact the clinical decision-making.

  14. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 7. Noise Wiener spectra of II-TV digital imaging systems. (United States)

    Giger, M L; Doi, K; Fujita, H


    We used Wiener spectral analysis in order to investigate the different noise sources and the effects of various parameters such as pixel size, image intensifier (II) field size, and exposure level on the noise in an II-TV digital system. The digital Wiener spectra in terms of relative x-ray intensity were determined directly from the digital noise data in terms of pixel values, by use of the characteristic curve of the imaging system. From averaged, subtracted, and/or combination images, the amount of structure mottle relative to the amount of quantum mottle was estimated. We found that a substantial amount of structure mottle was included in our II-TV digital subtraction angiography system, whereas the electronic noise of the TV system was quite small relative to the quantum and structure mottle. The effects of time jitter on the noise in single-frame images (consisting of multiple video frames) and in subtracted and averaged images were also investigated.

  15. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System program listings. [Nuclear medicine imaging with rectilinear scanner and gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P. R.; Dougherty, J. M.


    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a general purpose access, storage, processing and display system for nuclear medicine imaging with rectilinear scanner and gamma camera. This volume contains listings of the PDP-8/E version of ORIS Version 2. The system is designed to run under the Digital Equipment Corporation's OS/8 monitor in 16K or more words of core. System and image file mass storage is on RK8E disk; longer-time image file storage is provided on DECtape. Another version of this program exists for use with the RF08 disk, and a more limited version is for DECtape only. This latter version is intended for non-medical imaging.

  16. Super-resolution image reconstruction applied to an active millimeter wave imaging system based on compressive sensing (United States)

    Alkuş, Ümit; Şengün Ermeydan, Esra; Şahin, Asaf Behzat; ćankaya, Ä.°lyas; Altan, Hakan


    The development of passive and active millimeter wave imaging systems is progressing rapidly fueled by the need for many applications in the area of security and defense. Imaging schemes that may either utilize array detectors or single detectors in scan architectures offer suffer from poor resolution due to the longer wavelengths used and the limits of the optical system in terms of lens and mirror dimensions. In order to overcome this limit, super-resolution techniques can be employed to enhance the resolution of the imaging system. Here, a form of this technique based on oversampling is applied to reconstruct the image of a target which is acquired using compressive sensing based on scanning the image plane using randomly patterned masks with fixed pixel sizes. The mm-wave stand-off imaging system uses a 93 GHz center frequency source and heterodyne sub-harmonic receiver place in a bi-static configuration to image a target in reflection mode. The image of the target is projected onto a mechanically scanned spatial light modulator (SLM), which is a patterned two-dimensional mask that is translated along one axis. In order to improve the resolution of the image, the masks are shifted by half the pixel size (2.5mm). To enhance the resolution of the image, the patterns are shifted by smaller steps, thereby each pixel is oversampled and the resulting new pattern and detected intensity is fed into the CS algorithm to reconstruct the image of the target. After the image reconstruction process, sharper edges are observed for a circular object of 12mm diameter compared to the image acquired by whole pixel step scanning.

  17. Numerical GPR Imaging through Directional Antenna Systems in Complex Scenarios (United States)

    Comite, Davide; Murgia, Federica; Barbara, Martina; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Galli, Alessandro


    The capability of imaging hidden targets and interfaces in non-accessible and complex scenarios is a topic of increasing interest for several practical applications, such as civil engineering, geophysics, and planetary explorations [1]. In this frame, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proven as an efficient and reliable technique, also thanks to the development of effective imaging procedures based on linear modeling of the scattering phenomenon, which is usually considered as activated by ideal sources [1],[2]. Actually, such modeling simplifications are rarely verified in typical operative scenarios, when a number of heterogeneous targets can interact each other and with the surrounding environment, producing undesired contributions such as clutter and ghosts targets. From a physical viewpoint, these phenomena are mainly due to multipath contributions at the receiving antenna system, and different solutions have been proposed to mitigate these effects on the final image reconstruction (see, e.g., [2] and references therein). In this work we investigate on the possible improvements achievable when the directional features of the transmitting antenna system are taken into account in the imaging algorithm. Following and extending the recent investigations illustrated in [2] and [3], we consider in particular arrays of antennas, made by arbitrary types of elements, as activating the scattering phenomenon: hence, the effects of neglecting or accounting for the inherent directional radiation of the considered array are investigated as regards the accuracy of the final reconstruction of targets. Taking into account the resolution losses linked to the relevant synthetic aperture, we analyze the possibility of improving the quality of imaging, mitigating the presence of spurious contributions. By implementing a 'synthetic setup' that analyzes the scenarios under test through different electromagnetic CAD tools (mainly CST Microwave Studio and gprMax), it has been

  18. A pretargeting system for tumor PET imaging and radioimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eKraeber-Bodéré


    Full Text Available Labeled antibodies, as well as their fragments and antibody-derived recombinant constructs, have long been proposed as general vectors to target radionuclides to tumor lesions for imaging and therapy. They have indeed shown promise in both imaging and therapeutic applications, but they have not fulfilled the original expectations of achieving sufficient image contrast for tumor detection or sufficient radiation dose delivered to tumors for therapy. Pretargeting was originally developed for tumor immunoscintigraphy. It was assumed that directly-radiolabled antibodies could be replaced by an unlabeled immunoconjugate capable of binding both a tumor-specific antigen and a small molecular weight molecule. The small molecular weight molecule would carry the radioactive payload and would be injected after the bispecific immunoconjugate. It has been demonstrated that this approach does allow for both antibody-specific recognition and fast clearance of the radioactive molecule, thus resulting in improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios. It was subsequently shown that pretargeting also held promise for tumor therapy, translating improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios into more specific delivery of absorbed radiation doses. Many technical approaches have been proposed to implement pretargeting, and two have been extensively documented. One is based on the avidin-biotin system, and the other on bispecific antibodies binding a tumor-specific antigen and a hapten. Both have been studied in preclinical models, as well as in several clinical studies, and have shown improved targeting efficiency. This article reviews the historical and recent preclinical and clinical advances in the use of bispecific-antibody-based pretargeting for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of cancer. The results of recent evaluation of pretargeting in PET imaging also are discussed.

  19. ADRC system of FSM for image motion compensation (United States)

    Wang, Kaidi; Su, Xiuqin; Li, Zhe; Wu, Shaobo


    In order to increase the speed controlling accuracy of fast steering mirror (FSM) for image motion compensation and thus to increase the definition of picture taken by moving camera, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is designed. First, mathematical model of FSM driven by voice coil motor (VCM) is established. Next, ADRC algorithm and its simplified form in actual application are clarified. Finally, simulation research for controlled object is made. The result is compared to control effect of PID. Simulation curves demonstrate that the settling time of ADRC is 6 ms and the bandwidth of system attains 102.2 Hz, which are nearly the same as those of PID. When the error is very small, it can converge to zero at a faster rate if ADRC is used. When the same range disturbance is given to system, the relative error of ADRC reaches 0.050%, which is about 42% of that of PID.

  20. Calibration of a Microwave Imaging System Using a Known Scatterer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    that the low-amplitude RF signals, available at the terminals of the antennas, only need to travel a very short distance to get to the low-noise amplifier, while the RF as well as the IF signals running to and from the transceiver modules all have significant amplitudes. However, some leakage between...... the effect of noise. At the Technical University of Denmark, a 32-channel microwave imaging system for breast cancer screening has been under development for some time. In this system, each antenna is equipped with its own transceiver module, containing amplifiers, switches, and a mixer. This design ensures...... presented here is that the time needed for doing the calibration is very low compared to a more rigorous and classic type of calibration in which measurements should be made for all combinations of transmitters and receivers with and without the antennas connected to the transceiver modules to allow...

  1. A 3D medical image database management system. (United States)

    Arya, M; Cody, W; Faloutsos, C; Richardson, J; Toga, A


    We describe the design and implementation of QBISM (Query By Interactive, Spatial Multimedia), a prototype for querying and visualizing 3D spatial data. Our medical image application is focused on the brain mapping requirements for multimodality relationships across multiple subjects. It incorporates data describing both structure and function. It includes data structures that describe anatomy, physiology, coordinates using rendered imagery and statistical output. The system is built on top of the Starburst DBMS extended to handle spatial data types, specially, scalar fields and arbitrary regions or space within such fields. In this paper we list the requirements of the application, discuss the logical and physical database design issues, and present timing results from our prototype. We observed that the DBMS' early spatial filtering results in significant performance savings because the system response time is dominated by the amount of data retrieved, transmitted, and rendered.

  2. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging System for in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Hassan


    Full Text Available In this article, a fluorescence lifetime imaging system for small animals is presented. Data were collected by scanning a region of interest with a measurement head, a linear fiber array with fixed separations between a single source fiber and several detection fibers. The goal was to localize tumors and monitor their progression using specific fluorescent markers. We chose a near-infrared contrast agent, Alexa Fluor 750 (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA. Preliminary results show that the fluorescence lifetime for this dye was sensitive to the immediate environment of the fluorophore (in particular, pH, making it a promising candidate for reporting physiologic changes around a fluorophore. To quantify the intrinsic lifetime of deeply embedded fluorophores, we performed phantom experiments to investigate the contribution of photon migration effects on observed lifetime by calculating the fluorescence intensity decay time. A previously proposed theoretical model of migration, based on random walk theory, is also substantiated by new experimental data. The developed experimental system has been used for in vivo mouse imaging with Alexa Fluor 750 contrast agent conjugated to tumor-specific antibodies (trastuzumab [Herceptin]. Three-dimensional mapping of the fluorescence lifetime indicates lower lifetime values in superficial breast cancer tumors in mice.

  3. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaneh, Feras, E-mail: [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Hamasha, Safeia [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)


    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He{sup 2+}–Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O{sup +}–He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron–electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  4. Image detection monitoring system (IDMS) for landslide monitoring (United States)

    Lollino, Giorgio; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco; Giordan, Daniele


    In the field of topographic displacement monitoring systems, the CNR IRPI of Turin has developed and patented a new instrumentation, named Image Detection For Monitoring System (IDMS). The IDMS is constituted by a digital reflex camera that, according to different needs, can be combined to a long range reflectorless laser distantiometer . The resulting assembly is automatically moved by an high accuracy sophisticated positioning mechanism managed by a low-consumption pc. The principle of operation is based on the analysis of a time series of pictures of an area that, processed using particular algorithms, allow to obtain topographic displacements. If necessary, with the long range laser integration it is also possible to get the displacement values in three-dimensions. The system, initially experimented with the use of a cam, has been improved using a reflex camera, developing a special software that allowed to improve performances and to set algorithms to seek the monitored areas. These implementations, in addition to the freedom from the needs of reflecting targets, increase the system flexibility that can operate in dynamic contexts where the phenomenon morphology can quickly change. With this characteristics , the IDMS can preserve the topographic total station accuracy, but it hasn't the necessity to use expensive reflecting targets, often characterized by the difficulty of their installation and maintenance. These characteristics make the system most flexible allowing to modify the investigated areas without particular logistic difficulties and without further costs.

  5. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of nude mice vasculature using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Shahzad, Khalid; Wang, Yao; Burcher, Michael; Scholle, Frank-Detlef; Hauff, Peter; Mofina, Sabine; Skobe, Mihaela


    In-vivo photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging of nude mice was investigated using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner HDI-5000. Raw per-channel data was captured and beamformed to generate each individual photoacoustic image with a single laser shot. An ultra-broadband CL15-7 linear array with a center frequency of 8 MHz, combined with a Schott Glass fiber bundle, was used as a compact high resolution imaging probe, with lateral and axial PA resolutions of about 300µm and 200µm, respectively. The imaging system worked in a dual PA-US mode, with the ultrasound outlining the tissue structure and the photoacoustic image showing the blood vessels. PA signals were generated by exposing mice to ultra-short optical pulses from a Nd:YAG-pumped OPO laser operating in a wavelength range of 700-950nm. The corresponding ultrasound images were generated in the regular B-mode with standard delay-and-sum beamforming algorithm. The system resolution was sufficiently high to identify and clearly distinguish the dorsal artery and the two lateral veins in the mouse tail. Both the saphena artery and the ischiatic vein on the cross-section of the mouse leg were clearly outlined in the PA images and correctly overlaid on the ultrasound image of the tissue structure. Similarly, cross-section PA images of the mouse abdomen revealed mesenteric vasculatures located below the abdominal wall. Finally, a successful PA imaging of the mouse thoracic cavity unveiled the ascending and descending aorta. These initial results demonstrate a great potential for a dual photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging modality implemented on a commercial ultrasound imaging scanner.

  6. Wavelength and alignment tests for confocal spectral imaging systems. (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Lerner, Jeremy M


    Confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems now on the market delineate multiple fluorescent proteins, labels, or dyes within biological specimens by performing spectral characterizations. However, we find that some CSI present inconsistent spectral profiles of reference spectra within a particular system as well as between related and unrelated instruments. We also find evidence of instability that, if not diagnosed, could lead to inconsistent data. This variability confirms the need for diagnostic tools to provide a standardized, objective means of characterizing instability, evidence of misalignment, as well as performing calibration and validation functions. Our protocol uses an inexpensive multi-ion discharge lamp (MIDL) that contains Hg+, Ar+, and inorganic fluorophores that emit distinct, stable spectral features, in place of a sample. An MIDL characterization verifies the accuracy and consistency of a CSI system and validates acquisitions of biological samples. We examined a total of 10 CSI systems, all of which displayed spectral inconsistencies, enabling us to identify malfunctioning subsystems. Only one of the 10 instruments met its optimal performance expectations. We have found that using a primary light source that emits an absolute standard "reference spectrum" enabled us to diagnose instrument errors and measure accuracy and reproducibility under normalized conditions. Using this information, a CSI operator can determine whether a CSI system is working optimally and make objective comparisons with the performance of other CSI systems. It is evident that if CSI systems of a similar make and model were standardized to reveal the same spectral profile from a standard light source, then researchers could be confident that real-life experimental findings would be repeatable on any similar system. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas


    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  8. Near-infrared Compressive Line Sensing Imaging System using Individually Addressable Laser Diode Array (United States)


    Salmon, K. G. Cooper, "Development and testing of a synchronous-scanning underwater imaging system capable of rapid two-dimensional frame imaging,", Appl...Opt. Jul 1;32(19):3520-30, 1993. [12] B. C. Redman, A. J. Griffis, and E. B. Schibley, “Streak Tube Imaging Lidar ( STIL ) for 3-D Imaging of

  9. ECAT: A New Computerized Tomographic Imaging System for Position-Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals (United States)

    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Huang, S. C.; Kuhl, D. E.


    The ECAT was designed and developed as a complete computerized positron radionuclide imaging system capable of providing high contrast, high resolution, quantitative images in 2 dimensional and tomographic formats. Flexibility, in its various image mode options, allows it to be used for a wide variety of imaging problems.

  10. An Efficient 3D Imaging using Structured Light Systems (United States)

    Lee, Deokwoo

    Structured light 3D surface imaging has been crucial in the fields of image processing and computer vision, particularly in reconstruction, recognition and others. In this dissertation, we propose the approaches to development of an efficient 3D surface imaging system using structured light patterns including reconstruction, recognition and sampling criterion. To achieve an efficient reconstruction system, we address the problem in its many dimensions. In the first, we extract geometric 3D coordinates of an object which is illuminated by a set of concentric circular patterns and reflected to a 2D image plane. The relationship between the original and the deformed shape of the light patterns due to a surface shape provides sufficient 3D coordinates information. In the second, we consider system efficiency. The efficiency, which can be quantified by the size of data, is improved by reducing the number of circular patterns to be projected onto an object of interest. Akin to the Shannon-Nyquist Sampling Theorem, we derive the minimum number of circular patterns which sufficiently represents the target object with no considerable information loss. Specific geometric information (e.g. the highest curvature) of an object is key to deriving the minimum sampling density. In the third, the object, represented using the minimum number of patterns, has incomplete color information (i.e. color information is given a priori along with the curves). An interpolation is carried out to complete the photometric reconstruction. The results can be approximately reconstructed because the minimum number of the patterns may not exactly reconstruct the original object. But the result does not show considerable information loss, and the performance of an approximate reconstruction is evaluated by performing recognition or classification. In an object recognition, we use facial curves which are deformed circular curves (patterns) on a target object. We simply carry out comparison between the

  11. Images (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  12. Image-quality performance of an a-Si H-based X-ray imaging system for digital mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Darambara, D G; Speller, R D


    We have been investigating the potential of large area active matrix flat-panel a-Si : H imaging arrays for full-field digital X-ray mammography. To optimise the overall performance of such an imaging system under mammographic conditions, four different Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb phosphor screens (i.e. Lanex Fast-Back, Regular, Fine and MinR-2000) were employed and our full-field detector was integrated with the Feinfocus DIMA (Direct Magnification) PLUS MII mammographic unit. The spatial resolution and the image noise of the digital detector were measured and the X-ray imaging performance of the whole system was also evaluated with two mammographic phantoms. It was deduced from the results of this study that Regular screen offers the best compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution and exhibits better overall image-quality performance than that of a conventional mammography system.

  13. Image-quality performance of an a-Si : H-based X-ray imaging system for digital mammography (United States)

    Darambara, D. G.; Taibi, A.; Speller, R. D.


    We have been investigating the potential of large area active matrix flat-panel a-Si : H imaging arrays for full-field digital X-ray mammography. To optimise the overall performance of such an imaging system under mammographic conditions, four different Gd 2O 2S : Tb phosphor screens (i.e. Lanex Fast-Back, Regular, Fine and MinR-2000) were employed and our full-field detector was integrated with the Feinfocus DIMA (Direct Magnification) PLUS MII mammographic unit. The spatial resolution and the image noise of the digital detector were measured and the X-ray imaging performance of the whole system was also evaluated with two mammographic phantoms. It was deduced from the results of this study that Regular screen offers the best compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution and exhibits better overall image-quality performance than that of a conventional mammography system.

  14. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar cross-section (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, through-barrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  15. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems (United States)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A.; Catana, Ciprian


    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method’s performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm-1 was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly less

  16. Hemophilic arthropathy. A scoring system for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, R.; Rodriguez, E.; Marini, M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Fernandez, F. [Department of Hematology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, Coruna (Spain)


    The aim of this study was to define a system for scoring hemophilic arthropathy (HA) based on MR findings, providing for objective evaluation of the degree of joint involvement and evolution after on-demand administration of FVIII substitutional therapy or prophylactic treatment. A total of 133 MR examinations (89 basal and 44 during follow-up) were performed in 25 patients. Patients were divided in two groups depending on the therapy received and the length of time that the disease had been evolving at the start of the study. Group I was composed of 10 patients with secondary prophylaxis and group II was composed by 15 treated on demand. T1-weighted and T2*-weighted images performed on a 0.5-T unit were prospectively evaluated. The joint involvement was established on a scale of 0 (no abnormalities), I (minimal amount of hemosiderin), II (large amount of hemosiderin and isolated cartilaginous erosion), III (cartilage destruction, bone erosions, and subchondral cysts) to IV (large internal joint derangement, secondary osteoarthritis and/or ankylosis). At basal MR examination, patients of group I showed no abnormalities (n=28, 75.6%), grade I (n=3), and grade II (n=6) of HA. Patients of group II corresponded to MR grades III (n=21) and IV (n=11) of HA. The MR follow-up showed improvement in three joints of group I and worsening in 5 joints in group I and 2 joints in group II. Early signs of HA were detected in 10 joints with MR imaging but were underestimated on plain radiographs. Advanced degrees of HA were classified as severe under both imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance is the preferred imaging technique to assess HA. The earliest signs of joint damage, detected by MR, are overlooked by plain radiography. The MR scoring system can be used for evaluating HA. Follow-up MR should be performed to evaluate regression or worsening of the abnormalities, primarily in the case of patients with prophylaxis who usually suffer normal or early joint involvement not

  17. Commissioning an image-guided localization system for radiotherapy. (United States)

    Phillips, M H; Singer, K; Miller, E; Stelzer, K


    To describe the design and commissioning of a system for the treatment of classes of tumors that require highly accurate target localization during a course of fractionated external-beam therapy. This system uses image-guided localization techniques in the linac vault to position patients being treated for cranial tumors using stereotactic radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. Design constraints included flexibility in the use of treatment-planning software, accuracy and precision of repeat localization, limits on the time and human resources needed to use the system, and ease of use. A commercially marketed, stereotactic radiotherapy system, based on a system designed at the University of Florida, Gainesville, was adapted for use at the University of Washington Medical Center. A stereo pair of cameras in the linac vault were used to detect the position and orientation of an array of fiducial markers that are attached to a patient's biteblock. The system was modified to allow the use of either a treatment-planning system designed for stereotactic treatments, or a general, three-dimensional radiation therapy planning program. Measurements of the precision and accuracy of the target localization, dose delivery, and patient positioning were made using a number of different jigs and devices. Procedures were developed for the safe and accurate clinical use of the system. The accuracy of the target localization is comparable to that of other treatment-planning systems. Gantry sag, which cannot be improved, was measured to be 1.7 mm, which had the effect of broadening the dose distribution, as confirmed by a comparison of measurement and calculation. The accuracy of positioning a target point in the radiation field was 1.0 +/- 0.2 mm. The calibration procedure using the room-based lasers had an accuracy of 0.76 mm, and using a floor-based radiosurgery system it was 0.73 mm. Target localization error in a phantom was 0

  18. Development of a Reference Image Collection Library for Histopathology Image Processing, Analysis and Decision Support Systems Research. (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Asvestas, Pantelis; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Cavouras, Dionisis; Glotsos, Dimitris


    Histopathology image processing, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis have been shown as effective assisting tools towards reliable and intra-/inter-observer invariant decisions in traditional pathology. Especially for cancer patients, decisions need to be as accurate as possible in order to increase the probability of optimal treatment planning. In this study, we propose a new image collection library (HICL-Histology Image Collection Library) comprising 3831 histological images of three different diseases, for fostering research in histopathology image processing, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis. Raw data comprised 93, 116 and 55 cases of brain, breast and laryngeal cancer respectively collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. The 3831 images were generated from the most representative regions of the pathology, specified by an experienced histopathologist. The HICL Image Collection is free for access under an academic license at . Potential exploitations of the proposed library may span over a board spectrum, such as in image processing to improve visualization, in segmentation for nuclei detection, in decision support systems for second opinion consultations, in statistical analysis for investigation of potential correlations between clinical annotations and imaging findings and, generally, in fostering research on histopathology image processing and analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the HICL constitutes the first attempt towards creation of a reference image collection library in the field of traditional histopathology, publicly and freely available to the scientific community.

  19. Automated alignment system for optical wireless communication systems using image recognition. (United States)

    Brandl, Paul; Weiss, Alexander; Zimmermann, Horst


    In this Letter, we describe the realization of a tracked line-of-sight optical wireless communication system for indoor data distribution. We built a laser-based transmitter with adaptive focus and ray steering by a microelectromechanical systems mirror. To execute the alignment procedure, we used a CMOS image sensor at the transmitter side and developed an algorithm for image recognition to localize the receiver's position. The receiver is based on a self-developed optoelectronic integrated chip with low requirements on the receiver optics to make the system economically attractive. With this system, we were able to set up the communication link automatically without any back channel and to perform error-free (bit error rate <10⁻⁹) data transmission over a distance of 3.5 m with a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

  20. The CaSSIS imaging system: optical performance overview (United States)

    Gambicorti, L.; Piazza, D.; Pommerol, A.; Roloff, V.; Gerber, M.; Ziethe, R.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Weigel, T.; Johnson, M.; Vernani, D.; Pelo, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Cremonese, G.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Thomas, N.


    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is the high-resolution scientific imager on board the European Space Agency's (ESA) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) which was launched on 14th March 2016 to Mars. CaSSIS will observe the Martian surface from an altitude of 400 km with an optical system based on a modified TMA telescope (Three Mirrors Anastigmatic configuration) with a 4th powered folding mirror. The camera EPD (Entrance Pupil Diameter) is 135 mm, and the expected focal length is 880 mm, giving an F# 6.5 in the wavelength range of 400- 1100 nm with a distortion designed to be less than 2%. CaSSIS will operate in a "push-frame" mode with a monolithic Filter Strip Assembly (FSA) produced by Optics Balzers Jena GmbH selecting 4 colour bands and integrated on the focal plane by Leonardo-Finmeccanica SpA (under TAS-I responsibility). The detector is a spare of the Simbio-Sys detector of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), developed by Raytheon Vision Systems. It is a 2kx2k hybrid Si-PIN array with a 10 μm pixel pitch. A scale of 4.6 m/px from the nominal orbit is foreseen to produce frames of 9.4 km × 47 km on the Martian surface. The University of Bern was in charge of the full instrument integration as well as the characterization of the focal plane and calibration of the entire instrument. The paper will present an overview of the CaSSIS telescope and FPA optical performance. The preliminary results of on-ground calibration and the first commissioning campaign (April 2016) will be described.

  1. Multisensor Network System for Wildfire Detection Using Infrared Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bosch


    Full Text Available This paper presents the next step in the evolution of multi-sensor wireless network systems in the early automatic detection of forest fires. This network allows remote monitoring of each of the locations as well as communication between each of the sensors and with the control stations. The result is an increased coverage area, with quicker and safer responses. To determine the presence of a forest wildfire, the system employs decision fusion in thermal imaging, which can exploit various expected characteristics of a real fire, including short-term persistence and long-term increases over time. Results from testing in the laboratory and in a real environment are presented to authenticate and verify the accuracy of the operation of the proposed system. The system performance is gauged by the number of alarms and the time to the first alarm (corresponding to a real fire, for different probability of false alarm (PFA. The necessity of including decision fusion is thereby demonstrated.

  2. Imaging hydraulic fractures by microseismic migration for downhole monitoring system (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Zhang, Haijiang


    It has been a challenge to accurately characterize fracture zones created by hydraulic fracturing from microseismic event locations. This is because generally detected events are not complete due to the associated low signal to noise ratio and some fracturing stages may not produce microseismic events even if fractures are well developed. As a result, spatial distribution of microseismic events may not well represent fractured zones by hydraulic fracturing. Here, we propose a new way to characterize the fractured zones by reverse time migration (RTM) of microseismic waveforms from some events. This is based on the fact that fractures filled with proppants and other fluids can act as strong scatterers for seismic waves. Therefore, for multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, recorded waveforms from microseismic events induced in a more recent stage may be scattered by fractured zones from previous stages. Through RTM of microseismic waveforms in the current stage, we can determine fractured zones created in previous stages by imaging area of strong scattering. We test the feasibility of this method using synthetic models with different configurations of microseismic event locations and borehole sensor positions for a 2D downhole microseismic monitoring system. Synthetic tests show that with a few events fractured zones can be directly imaged and thus the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) can be estimated. Compared to the conventional location-based SRV estimation method, the proposed new method does not depend on the completeness of detected events and only a limited number of detected and located events are necessary for characterizing fracture distribution. For simplicity, the 2D model is used for illustrating the concept of microseismic RTM for imaging the fracture zone but the method can be adapted to real cases in the future.

  3. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.


    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  4. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image...

  5. Imaging in viral infections of the central nervous system: can images speak for an acutely ill brain? (United States)

    Maller, Vijetha Vinod; Bathla, Girish; Moritani, Toshio; Helton, Kathleen J


    Viral infections involving the central nervous system (CNS) may result from a wide variety of agents and have clinically overlapping manifestations. The diagnosis is often made based on a combination of the clinical exam, local epidemiology, imaging, and biochemical findings. Despite the advances in medicine and imaging, the diagnosis often remains elusive. Imaging, however, still plays a vital role in suggesting the diagnosis in typical cases, excluding potential mimics, and in evaluating changes with therapy. Herein, the authors present a review of various common and rare viral encephalitides with emphasis on the imaging literature.

  6. A unified framework for capturing facial images in video surveillance systems using cooperative camera system (United States)

    Chan, Fai; Moon, Yiu-Sang; Chen, Jiansheng; Ma, Yiu-Kwan; Tsang, Wai-Hung; Fu, Kah-Kuen


    Low resolution and un-sharp facial images are always captured from surveillance videos because of long human-camera distance and human movements. Previous works addressed this problem by using an active camera to capture close-up facial images without considering human movements and mechanical delays of the active camera. In this paper, we proposed a unified framework to capture facial images in video surveillance systems by using one static and active camera in a cooperative manner. Human faces are first located by a skin-color based real-time face detection algorithm. A stereo camera model is also employed to approximate human face location and his/her velocity with respect to the active camera. Given the mechanical delays of the active camera, the position of a target face with a given delay can be estimated using a Human-Camera Synchronization Model. By controlling the active camera with corresponding amount of pan, tilt, and zoom, a clear close-up facial image of a moving human can be captured then. We built the proposed system in an 8.4-meter indoor corridor. Results show that the proposed stereo camera configuration can locate faces with average error of 3%. In addition, it is capable of capturing facial images of a walking human clearly in first instance in 90% of the test cases.

  7. A Methodology of Image Segmentation for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Based on Visual System and Markov Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Miaozhong


    Full Text Available In consideration of the visual system's tremendous ability to perceive and identify the information, a new image segmentation method is presented which simulates the mechanism of visual system for the high resolution remote sensing image segmentation with Markov random field model. Firstly, the characteristics of the visual system have been summarized as: hierarchy, learning ability, feature detection capability and sparse coding property. Secondly, the working mechanism of visual system is simulated by wavelet transform, unsupervised clustering algorithm, feature analysis and Laplace distribution. Then, the segmentation is achieved by the visual mechanism and the Markov random field. Different satellites remote sensing images are adopted as the experimental data, and the segmentation results demonstrate the proposed method have good performance in high resolution remote sensing images.

  8. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system. (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J


    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  9. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.


    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  10. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  11. Positron Emission Tomography imaging with the SmartPET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P.; Mather, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)


    The Small Animal Reconstruction Tomograph for Positron Emission Tomography (SmartPET) project is the development of a small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) demonstrator based on the use of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and state of the art digital electronics. The experimental results presented demonstrate the current performance of this unique system. By performing high precision measurements of one of the SmartPET HPGe detectors with a range of finely collimated gamma-ray beams the response of the detector as a function of gamma-ray interaction position has been quantified, facilitating the development of parametric Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in detector performance. These algorithms have then been applied to data from PET imaging measurements using two such detectors in conjunction with a specially designed rotating gantry. In this paper we show how the use of parametric PSA approaches allows over 60% of coincident events to be processed and how the nature and complexity of an event has direct implications for the quality of the resulting image.

  12. Imaging Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Croca


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem, autoimmune disease known to be one of the strongest risk factors for atherosclerosis. Patients with SLE have an excess cardiovascular risk compared with the general population, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the precise explanation for this is yet to be established, it seems to be associated with the presence of an accelerated atherosclerotic process, arising from the combination of traditional and lupus-specific risk factors. Moreover, cardiovascular-disease associated mortality in patients with SLE has not improved over time. One of the main reasons for this is the poor performance of standard risk stratification tools on assessing the cardiovascular risk of patients with SLE. Therefore, establishing alternative ways to identify patients at increased risk efficiently is essential. With recent developments in several imaging techniques, the ultimate goal of cardiovascular assessment will shift from assessing symptomatic patients to diagnosing early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic patients which will hopefully help us to prevent its progression. This review will focus on the current status of the imaging tools available to assess cardiac and vascular function in patients with SLE.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia


    HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

  14. Hydrogen Flame Imaging System Soars to New, Different Heights (United States)


    When Judy and Dave Duncan of Auburn, Calif.-based Duncan Technologies Inc. (DTI) developed their color hydrogen flame imaging system in the early 1990's, their market prospects were limited. 'We talked about commercializing the technology in the hydrogen community, but we also looked at commercialization on a much broader aspect. While there were some hydrogen applications, the market was not large enough to suppport an entire company; also, safety issues were a concern,' said Judy Duncan, owner and CEO of Duncan Technologies. Using the basic technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR); DTI conducted market research, identified other applications, formulated a plan for next generation development, and implemented a far-reaching marketing strategy. 'We took that technology; reinvested our own funds and energy into a second-generation design on the overall camera electronics and deployed that basic technology intially in a series of what we call multi-spectral cameras; cameras that could image in both the visible range and the infrared,' explains Duncan. 'The SBIR program allowed us to develop the technology to do a 3CCD camera, which very few compaines in the world do, particularly not small companies. The fact that we designed our own prism and specked the coding as we had for the hydrogen application, we were able to create a custom spectral configuration which could support varying types of research and applications.' As a result, Duncan Technologies Inc. of Auburn, Ca., has achieved a milestone $ 1 million in sales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova


    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marketing techniques manager: object-communicative categorical component, subject-activity categorical component of image, personality-oriented categorical component, value-acmeological categorical component of image.The aim is to identify and justify the image categorical components as a component of image culture of the marketing techniques manager.Method and methodology of work – a general scientific research approach reflecting scientific apparatus of research.Results. Categorical components of the image, as an image culture component of manager of marketing techniques were defined.Practical implication of the results. The theoretical part of «Imageology» course, special course «Image culture of manager of marketing techniques», the theoretical and methodological study and the formation of image culture.

  16. Moving-Article X-Ray Imaging System and Method for 3-D Image Generation (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R. (Inventor)


    An x-ray imaging system and method for a moving article are provided for an article moved along a linear direction of travel while the article is exposed to non-overlapping x-ray beams. A plurality of parallel linear sensor arrays are disposed in the x-ray beams after they pass through the article. More specifically, a first half of the plurality are disposed in a first of the x-ray beams while a second half of the plurality are disposed in a second of the x-ray beams. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays is oriented perpendicular to the linear direction of travel. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the first half is matched to a corresponding one of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the second half in terms of an angular position in the first of the x-ray beams and the second of the x-ray beams, respectively.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection (United States)

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah


    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  18. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle


    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  19. [Design and realization of an algorithm for capsule endoscope image recognition system]. (United States)

    Li, Kaixuan; Liu, Zhexing; Liu, Side; He, Lijun; Luo, Zhichong; Wang, Huafeng


    Discrimination of abnormal images from the numerous wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) video sequence images is laborious and time-consuming, so that a computer-based automatic image recognition system is desired for this task. We propose an algorithm to allow feature extraction from each image channel and decision fusion using multiple BP neural networks. The algorithm was tested and the results demonstrated its high efficiency and accuracy in identification of abnormalities in the WCE images.

  20. Half-time Tc-99m sestamibi imaging with a direct conversion molecular breast imaging system. (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Weinmann, Amanda L; Lingineni, Ravi K; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K


    In an effort to reduce necessary acquisition time to perform molecular breast imaging (MBI), we compared diagnostic performance of MBI performed with standard 10-min-per-view acquisitions and half-time 5-min-per-view acquisitions, with and without wide beam reconstruction (WBR) processing. Eighty-two bilateral, two-view MBI studies were reviewed. Studies were performed with 300 MBq Tc-99 m sestamibi and a direct conversion molecular breast imaging (DC-MBI) system. Acquisitions were 10 min-per-view; the first half of each was extracted to create 5-min-per-view datasets, and WBR processing was applied.The 10-min-, 5-min-, and 5-min-per-view WBR studies were independently interpreted in a randomized, blinded fashion by two radiologists. Assessments of 1 to 5 were assigned; 4 and 5 were considered test positive. Background parenchymal uptake, lesion type, distribution of non-mass lesions, lesion intensity, and image quality were described. Considering detection of all malignant and benign lesions, 5 min-per-view MBI had lower sensitivity (mean of 70% vs. 85% (p ≤ 0.04) for two readers) and lower area under curve (AUC) (mean of 92.7 vs. 99.6, p ≤ 0.01) but had similar specificity (p = 1.0). WBR processing did not alter sensitivity, specificity, or AUC obtained at 5 min-per-view.Overall agreement in final assessment between 5-min-per-view and 10-min-per-view acquisition types was near perfect (κ = 0.82 to 0.89); however, fair to moderate agreement was observed for assessment category 3 (probably benign) (κ = 0.24 to 0.48). Of 33 malignant lesions, 6 (18%) were changed from assessment of 4 or 5 with 10-min-per-view MBI to assessment of 3 with 5-min-per-view MBI. Image quality of 5-min-per-view studies was reduced compared to 10-min-per-view studies for both readers (3.24 vs. 3.98, p < 0.0001 and 3.60 vs. 3.91, p < 0.0001). WBR processing improved image quality for one reader (3.85 vs. 3.24, p < 0.0001). Although similar

  1. In-Flight Imaging Systems for Hypervelocity and Re-Entry Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to create a rugged, reliable, compact, standardized imaging system for hypervelocity and re-entry vehicles using sapphire windows, small imagers, and...

  2. Evaluation of the AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John G; Middlebrook, Christopher T


    The AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System "TISS" was developed to provide surface ships with a day/night imaging capability to detect low radar reflective, small cross-sectional area targets such as floating mines...

  3. A pupil tracking system for adaptive optics retinal imaging (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Harms, Fabrice; Lamory, Barbara; Vabre, Laurent


    High-resolution imaging of the retina is a challenge due to the optical aberrations introduced by the eye, a living system in constant change and motion. Adaptive Optics (AO) is particularly suited to the continuous, dynamic correction of aberrations as they change over time. In particular, eye pupil displacements induce fast-changing wave front errors which lead to a need for faster wave front sensors. We propose a new approach for ocular adaptive optics by adding a Pupil Tracking System (PTS) into the AO loop. This system is different from the existing eye tracking devices by its speed, high precision in a short range and therefore its suitability for integration in an AO loop. Performance tests done using an artificial eye with a pupil diameter of 7 mm have shown promising results. These tests have demonstrated that the device achieves an accuracy of <15 μm in a +/-2 mm range of eye movements with a standard deviation <10 μm, and requires less than 12 ms for each detection.

  4. A mobile medical QR-code authentication system and its automatic FICE image evaluation application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive imaging technique run on a mobile service system for endoscopic image enhancement by using color transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM for a single input endoscopy image. The method is simply deal with the color image channels combination which chose the maximum scalar values of red, green and blue channel images, respectively. The GLCM subsequently applied for selecting the highest contrast and entropy images of the expanding image series. The enhanced endoscopy image is generated by fusing of the color, contrast and entropy images. We also proposed a service system with medical image retrieval application via quick response code authentication based on the Android operating system, which helps clinicians convenient in using mobile phone and reviewing images of the patient with cost efficiency. For the mobile technologies are growing rapidly, the mobile service system is installed to connect a Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS system in hospital and applied for automatic evaluation of colon images screening. The experimental results show the proposed system is efficient for observing gastrointestinal tract polyp. The performance is evaluated and compared with Fujinon intelligent chromo endoscopy enhanced method.

  5. Development of New Gradient Index Glasses for Optical Imaging Systems. (United States)

    Kindred, Douglas Scott


    Previous research has shown that many imaging systems can benefit from the use of gradient index (GRIN) materials. The required number of lens elements can often be reduced or the system performance can be improved. The use of gradient index lenses has not become widespread, however, largely due to three major problems. The first is that there is a lack of available gradient index materials. Lens designers require glasses with a wide range of refractive index and dispersions in both homogeneous and gradient index systems. Very few GRIN glasses have been developed and only small diameter (1-3 mm) gradient index rods are commercially available, leaving virtually nothing for the lens designer. The second problem is that adequate control of the index of refraction profile must be achieved. This is necessary in order to control the aberrations of the systems in question. The last problem is that the mathematical representation of the index of refraction profile is not currently linked to the fabrication parameters, thus making it difficult to manufacture a lens once it has been designed. This work concentrates largely on the first of these problems. Several new glasses have been developed which are suitable for fabricating both axial and radial gradients by Ag^{+}-Na ^{+} and Li^ {+}-Na^{+} ion exchange. New crown glasses, flint glasses and high index crowns with both positive and negative index changes are presented. A variety of refractive index profiles with different index changes (Deltan), and dispersive properties are also shown. The ion exchange properties of the glasses were investigated using conventional Fickian diffusion models and the refractive index profiles were modeled using Fantone's adaption of the Gladstone -Dale equation. The usefulness of these glasses in optical systems is assessed and a procedure for designing lenses with manufacturable index profiles is also demonstrated.

  6. Microchip systems for imaging liquid and high temperature processes in TEM & SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Canepa, Silvia; Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad


    measurementson high temperature fuel cell systems. For imaging processes in liquids, our SEM system enables imaging on-chip microelectrodes andusing standard built-in reference electrodes [2]. To get higher resolution in TEM, we have createda monolithic chip system with suspended microfabricated channels [3......]. Both systems will allowhigh resolution imaging of heterogeneous electrochemical processes such as those in batteries.Based on the suspended microfluidic channels, we are also developing microchips that enableultrafast freezing of processes in liquids....

  7. An ultrasound image navigation robotic prostate brachytherapy system based on US to MRI deformable image registration method. (United States)

    Zhang, Shihui; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Ranlu; Yang, Yunpeng; Liang, Honghua


    This paper describes an ultrasound image navigation robotic prostate brachytherapy system. It uses a 2D ultrasound (US) probe rigidly fixed to a robotic needle insertion mechanism. Combined with the US probe registration and image registration, this system will help to navigate the prostate brachytherapy to increase the inserting accuracy. The novelty of the system is that after the US probe registration using an improved iterative closest point (ICP) registration method, the initial registration for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US image can be completely automatically. Moreover, a deformable registration method based on statistical measurement was proposed to register US to MRI images intra-operatively. The 6-degree of freedom (6-DOF) of robot and ultrasound probe are calibrated together with an accuracy of 0.9mm, allowing the needles to be precisely inserted to the seed targets after the image registration. Experiments were conducted by using US/MRI images, capturing from patients. Results showed that the accuracies of probe registration and US-MRI registration were: 0.44±0.12mm and 2.30±0.41mm, respectively. With the help of this robotic system, the accuracy and the costing of time for prostate brachytherapy will greatly improve.

  8. Creation of Three-Dimensional Liver Tissue Models from Experimental Images for Systems Medicine. (United States)

    Hoehme, Stefan; Friebel, Adrian; Hammad, Seddik; Drasdo, Dirk; Hengstler, Jan G


    In this chapter, we illustrate how three-dimensional liver tissue models can be created from experimental image modalities by utilizing a well-established processing chain of experiments, microscopic imaging, image processing, image analysis and model construction. We describe how key features of liver tissue architecture are quantified and translated into model parameterizations, and show how a systematic iteration of experiments and model simulations often leads to a better understanding of biological phenomena in systems biology and systems medicine.

  9. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ben Daya

    Full Text Available 3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system's potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  10. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damet, J., E-mail:; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1007 (Switzerland); Ceroni, D. [Department of Paediatrics, Division of paediatric orthopaedic, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland); Zand, T. [Department of Radiology, Division of paediatric radiology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland)


    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems.

  11. Image detection and compression for memory efficient system analysis (United States)

    Bayraktar, Mustafa


    The advances in digital signal processing have been progressing towards efficient use of memory and processing. Both of these factors can be utilized efficiently by using feasible techniques of image storage by computing the minimum information of image which will enhance computation in later processes. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) can be utilized to estimate and retrieve of an image. In computer vision, SIFT can be implemented to recognize the image by comparing its key features from SIFT saved key point descriptors. The main advantage of SIFT is that it doesn't only remove the redundant information from an image but also reduces the key points by matching their orientation and adding them together in different windows of image [1]. Another key property of this approach is that it works on highly contrasted images more efficiently because it`s design is based on collecting key points from the contrast shades of image.

  12. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.


    The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming, an...

  13. Dual-camera system for high-speed imaging in particle image velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K; Hara, T; Onogi, S; Mouri, H


    Particle image velocimetry is an important technique in experimental fluid mechanics, for which it has been essential to use a specialized high-speed camera. However, the high speed is at the expense of other performances of the camera, i.e., sensitivity and image resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the high-speed imaging is also possible with a pair of still cameras.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  15. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 11. Multiple slit-beam imaging technique with image intensifier-TV digital system. (United States)

    Kume, Y; Doi, K


    We are developing a digital x-ray imaging system using a multiple slit assembly (MSA) and an image intensifier (II)-TV digital system. The advantage of this approach is that the scatter from an object and the veiling glare in the II-TV system can be reduced significantly while the x-ray utilization is maintained much better than that with a single slit-beam technique. The quality of reconstructed images is related to many parameters such as the slit width, the lead spacer, the number of image frames, and the reconstruction algorithm. In this study, reduction of scatter and veiling glare was measured quantitatively, and image artifacts were analyzed. It was found that the fraction of scatter and veiling glare can be reduced to approximately 0.01-0.1 by use of the MSA imaging technique, and that the magnitude of the fractions is strongly dependent upon the slit width and the lead spacer of the MSA used. The artifacts are caused by inaccuracies in the slit width, lead spacer, and scan motion, and by undersampling of image data. The overlap scanning technique was effective in reducing the magnitude of these artifacts in the reconstructed image.

  16. Design and implementation of range-gated underwater laser imaging system (United States)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui


    A range-gated underwater laser imaging system is designed and implemented in this article, which is made up of laser illumination subsystem, photoelectric imaging subsystem and control subsystem. The experiment of underwater target drone detection has been done, the target of distance 40m far from the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can be imaged in the pool which water attenuation coefficient is 0.159m-1. Experimental results show that the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can detect underwater objects effectively.

  17. ICEPOD: A Multidisciplinary Imaging System for Application in Polar Regions (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Frearson, N.


    The ICEPOD program is in it's third year of a five-year effort to develop a modular airborne ice imaging system mounted on New York Air National Guard (NYANG) LC-130 aircraft to map the surface and sub-surface topography of ice sheets, ice streams, outlet glaciers, ice-shelves and sea-ice for the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program. The project is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental goal of the ICEPOD program is to develop an instrumentation package that can capture the dynamics of the changing polar regions, focusing on ice, ice margins and ocean systems. To achieve this the instruments include a Scanning Lidar for precise measurements of the ice surface, Stereo photogrammetry from both a high sensitivity Infra-Red camera and a high resolution Visible Imaging camera to document the ice surface and temperature, sea-ice thickness imaging radar and a deep ice radar used to study interior and basal processes of glaciers, ice streams and ice-sheets. All instrument data sets will be time-tagged and geo-referenced by recording precision GPS satellite data. Aircraft orientation will be corrected using inertial measurement technology integrated into the pod. The vision is that this instrumentation will be operated both on routine flights of the NYANG in the polar regions, such as on missions between McMurdo and South Pole Station and on missions throughout Greenland, and on targeted science missions, from mapping sea ice in marginal ice zones and outlet glaciers such as those surrounding Ross Island or Greenland to quantifying large sub-glacial drainage systems in East Antarctica. Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Particularly striking are changes within the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, and especially in the seas north of the Alaskan coast. These areas have experienced record warming, reduced sea ice extent, and loss of ice in areas that had been ice-covered throughout human memory. Even the oldest and

  18. Dark field imaging system for size characterization of magnetic micromarkers (United States)

    Malec, A.; Haiden, C.; Kokkinis, G.; Keplinger, F.; Giouroudi, I.


    In this paper we demonstrate a dark field video imaging system for the detection and size characterization of individual magnetic micromarkers suspended in liquid and the detection of pathogens utilizing magnetically labelled E.coli. The system follows dynamic processes and interactions of moving micro/nano objects close to or below the optical resolution limit, and is especially suitable for small sample volumes ( 10 μl). The developed detection method can be used to obtain clinical information about liquid contents when an additional biological protocol is provided, i.e., binding of microorganisms (e.g. E.coli) to specific magnetic markers. Some of the major advantages of our method are the increased sizing precision in the micro- and nano-range as well as the setup's simplicity making it a perfect candidate for miniaturized devices. Measurements can thus be carried out in a quick, inexpensive, and compact manner. A minor limitation is that the concentration range of micromarkers in a liquid sample needs to be adjusted in such a manner that the number of individual particles in the microscope's field of view is sufficient.

  19. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)


    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm{sup 2} were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  20. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam


    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  1. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system (United States)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard


    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  2. Functional imaging in the zebrafish retinotectal system using RGECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison S Walker


    Full Text Available Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs allow repeated, non-invasive measurements of neural activity in defined populations of neurons, but until recently GECIs based on single fluorescent proteins have been limited to the green region of the colour spectrum. Recent efforts in protein engineering have expanded the colour palette of GECIs. One of these new GECIs, the red RGECO, is spectrally separate from the traditional GFP-based sensors such as GCaMP, and therefore opens the way for simultaneous, multicolour imaging of neural activity. While RGECO has been shown to report spontaneous calcium fluctuations in neurons, the precise relationship of RGECO signal to evoked-neural activity is not known. Measurements of neural activity using RGECO in vivo have also not been reported. Using dissociated hippocampal neurons we performed a systematic analysis of two forms of RGECO- a cytosolic form and a presynaptically localised form generated by fusion of RGECO to the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin (SyRGECO. We find that RGECO and GCaMP3 are comparable in terms of dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratios and kinetics but that RGECO is a more reliable reporter of single action potentials. In terms of performance SyGCaMP3 and SyRGECO are comparable, and both are more sensitive reporters of activity than the cytosolic form of each probe. Using the zebrafish retinotectal system we show that SyRGECO and RGECO are can report neural activity in vivo and that RGECO expression permits detailed structural analysis of neuronal arbours. We have exploited these attributes to provide a morphological and functional description of tectal cells selective for motion along the vertical axis. These results open up the possibility of using zebrafish to functionally image genetically defined pre- and postsynaptic circuit components, separable by colour, which will be a powerful approach to studying neural interactions in the brain.

  3. a Geographic Data Gathering System for Image Geolocalization Refining (United States)

    Semaan, B.; Servières, M.; Moreau, G.; Chebaro, B.


    Image geolocalization has become an important research field during the last decade. This field is divided into two main sections. The first is image geolocalization that is used to find out which country, region or city the image belongs to. The second one is refining image localization for uses that require more accuracy such as augmented reality and three dimensional environment reconstruction using images. In this paper we present a processing chain that gathers geographic data from several sources in order to deliver a better geolocalization than the GPS one of an image and precise camera pose parameters. In order to do so, we use multiple types of data. Among this information some are visible in the image and are extracted using image processing, other types of data can be extracted from image file headers or online image sharing platforms related information. Extracted information elements will not be expressive enough if they remain disconnected. We show that grouping these information elements helps finding the best geolocalization of the image.

  4. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  5. Hospital-wide PACS with a digital image intensifier TV system. (United States)

    Okaniwa, H; Tsuneyoshi, H; Kabata, S; Satoh, K; Yokouchi, H; Okabe, T


    Tokyo Hitachi Hospital, Hitachi Ltd., has used a hospital-wide PACS for over 1 year. The system runs a 100 Mb/s optical fiber network over the whole hospital including wards and outpatient clinic rooms, with 11 image workstations. The network links digital imaging modalities such as X-CT, MRI, computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) with a 2048 x 2048 (2k x 2k) matrix image intensifier television (I.I.-TV) system. These modalities generate about 200 images/day. The system has managed over 300,000 images of about 8000 patients so far. Although being still under improvement, the system has really been used for routine work. The hospital-wide PACS of a small hospital has been proved to be very useful for both image diagnosis and image management.

  6. An electron beam imaging system for quality assurance in IORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, F.; Rossi, M.; Morigi, M.P. E-mail:; Brancaccio, R.; Paltrinieri, E.; Bettuzzi, M.; Romani, D.; Ciocca, M.; Tosi, G.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, M


    Intraoperative radiation therapy is a special radiotherapy technique, which enables a high dose of radiation to be given in a single fraction during oncological surgery. The major stumbling block to the large-scale application of the technique is the transfer of the patient, with an open wound, from the operating room to the radiation therapy bunker, with the consequent organisational problems and the increased risk of infection. To overcome these limitations, in the last few years a new kind of linear accelerator, the Novac 7, conceived for direct use in the surgical room, has become available. Novac 7 can deliver electron beams of different energies (3, 5, 7 and 9 MeV), with a high dose rate (up to 20 Gy/min). The aim of this work, funded by ENEA in the framework of a research contract, is the development of an innovative system for on-line measurements of 2D dose distributions and electron beam characterisation, before radiotherapy treatment with Novac 7. The system is made up of the following components: (a) an electron-light converter; (b) a 14 bit cooled CCD camera; (c) a personal computer with an ad hoc written software for image acquisition and processing. The performances of the prototype have been characterised experimentally with different electron-light converters. Several tests have concerned the assessment of the detector response as a function of impulse number and electron beam energy. Finally, the experimental results concerning beam profiles have been compared with data acquired with other dosimetric techniques. The achieved results make it possible to say that the developed system is suitable for fast quality assurance measurements and verification of 2D dose distributions.

  7. Performance quantification of a flat-panel imager in industrial mega-voltage X-ray imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritt, Carina, E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Center for X-ray Analytics, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Plamondon, Mathieu; Hofmann, Jürgen; Flisch, Alexander [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Center for X-ray Analytics, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sennhauser, Urs [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)


    Active matrix flat-panel detectors have gained popularity amongst X-ray imaging systems due to their speed, resolution and high dynamic range. With appropriate shielding modern flat-panel imagers can even be used in high energy Computed Tomography (CT) systems of energies up to several mega-electronvolt (MeV). However, the performance of a digital detector is not independent of the rest of the radiographic system but depends on all other components of the system. Signal and noise transfer properties highly depend on all parameters of an imaging chain. This work focuses on quantifying the resolution capabilities and the noise in the signals of a MeV X-ray imaging system. The performance quantification is done by computing the modulation transfer function (MTF) using the standard edge method as well as the noise power spectrum (NPS) of the imaging system. We performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in order to understand the influence of scattered radiation on the measurements. A comparison of the horizontal and vertical MTF showed that the imaging behaviour of the detector is isotropic. Moreover, an additional investigation of the noise performance of the system showed that there is no measurable noise correlation present in the system. It was shown that the thickness of the edge device does not have a significant influence on the resulting system MTF. A rapid drop in the visibility could be observed resulting in a value of 1.2 line pairs per mm at 50% MTF. The visibility limit of line pair patterns was found to be at 2.3 line pairs per mm given by the 10% MTF value.

  8. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiography systems. Part 2: system performance metric. (United States)

    Lee, Kam L; Bernardo, Michael; Ireland, Timothy A


    This is part two of a two-part study in benchmarking system performance of fixed digital radiographic systems. The study compares the system performance of seven fixed digital radiography systems based on quantitative metrics like modulation transfer function (sMTF), normalised noise power spectrum (sNNPS), detective quantum efficiency (sDQE) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). It was found that the most efficient image receptors (greatest sDQE) were not necessarily operating at the lowest ESAK. In part one of this study, sMTF is shown to depend on system configuration while sNNPS is shown to be relatively consistent across systems. Systems are ranked on their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (sDQE) and their ESAK. Systems using the same equipment configuration do not necessarily have the same system performance. This implies radiographic practice at the site will have an impact on the overall system performance. In general, systems are more dose efficient at low dose settings.

  9. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles.

  10. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.


    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  11. System-Platforms-Based SystemC TLM Design of Image Processing Chains for Embedded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacassagne Lionel


    Full Text Available Intelligent vehicle design is a complex task which requires multidomains modeling and abstraction. Transaction-level modeling (TLM and component-based software development approaches accelerate the process of an embedded system design and simulation and hence improve the overall productivity. On the other hand, system-level design languages facilitate the fast hardware synthesis at behavioral level of abstraction. In this paper, we introduce an approach for hardware/software codesign of image processing applications targeted towards intelligent vehicle that uses platform-based SystemC TLM and component-based software design approaches along with HW synthesis using SystemC to accelerate system design and verification process. Our experiments show the effectiveness of our methodology.

  12. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature (United States)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin


    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  13. Development of an Image Processing System for Automatic Melanoma Diagnosis from Dermoscopic Images: Preliminary Sudy - Original Article

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    M. Emin Yüksel


    Full Text Available Objective: Design and implementation of a medical image processing system that will provide decision support to the clinician in the diagnosis of melanoma type skin cancers by performing the analysis of dermoscopic images.Methods: Visual features of pigmented lesions are converted into measurable numerical quantities by employing digital image processing methods and a classification regarding melanoma diagnosis is performed based on these quantitative data.Results: We achieved numerical results showing asymmetry, border and color features of the pigmentary lesions by using segmentation, image histogram, thresholding, convex hull, color clustering, color quantization and distribution methods. Conclusion: The system under development speeds up the decision process of the clinician. In addition, it allows the diagnosis to be based on more objective data.

  14. Image processing system and method for recognizing and removing shadows from the image of a monitored scene (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C.


    The shadow contrast sensitivity of the human vision system is simulated by configuring information obtained from an image sensor so that the information may be evaluated with multiple pixel widths in order to produce a machine vision system able to distinguish between shadow edges and abrupt object edges. A second difference of the image intensity for each line of the image is developed and this second difference is used to screen out high frequency noise contributions from the final edge detection signals. These edge detection signals are constructed from first differences of the image intensity where the screening conditions are satisfied. The positional coincidence of oppositely signed maxima in the first difference signal taken from the right and the second difference signal taken from the left is used to detect the presence of an object edge. Alternatively, the effective number of responding operators (ENRO) may be utilized to determine the presence of object edges.

  15. A PC-based imaging system for the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system.


    Engel, Raymond Charles


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A system to display images from data generated by the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system (modified AN/SAR-8 ADM) was developed using an Intel 80386 CPU based desktop computer as the base platform. This computer was enhanced with a Metrabyte PDMA-16 Input/output board to facilitate data transfers and a Data Translation DT2861 framegrabber board for image processing. Images are displayed...

  16. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  17. Optimization and applications of an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Klomkaew, Phiwat; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.


    Currently, the majority of microscopic and endoscopic technologies utilize white light illumination. For a number of applications, hyper-spectral imaging can be shown to have significant improvements over standard white-light imaging techniques. This is true for both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have suffered from slow application times. Often, minutes are required to gather a full imaging stack. Here we will describe the system and evaluate optimizations and applications of a novel excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. We have developed and are optimizing a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides an order of magnitude increased signal strength. Optimization of the light path, optical components and illumination sources have allowed us to achieve high speed image acquisition. This high speed allows for potential live video acquisition. This excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging technology has potential to impact a range of applications. The current system allows triggering of up to 16 wavelengths at less than 1 millisecond per image using digital strobing. Analog intensity control is also provided for a fully customizable excitation profile. A significant advantage of excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging is can identify multiple targets simultaneously in real time. We are optimizing the system to compare sensitivity and specificity of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging with pathology techniques. Finally, we are exploring utilizing this technology to measure cAMP distribution in three dimensions within a cell.

  18. Accurate molecular imaging of small animals taking into account animal models, handling, anaesthesia, quality control and imaging system performance. (United States)

    Vanhove, Christian; Bankstahl, Jens P; Krämer, Stefanie D; Visser, Eric; Belcari, Nicola; Vandenberghe, Stefaan


    Small-animal imaging has become an important technique for the development of new radiotracers, drugs and therapies. Many laboratories have now a combination of different small-animal imaging systems, which are being used by biologists, pharmacists, medical doctors and physicists. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the important factors in the design of a small animal, nuclear medicine and imaging experiment. Different experts summarize one specific aspect important for a good design of a small-animal experiment.

  19. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between an image-intensifier system and a newer-generation flat-panel detector system - technical phantom measurements and evaluation of clinical imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Meike; Hagelstein, Claudia; Diehm, Theo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Neff, K.W. [University Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)


    Many image-intensifier fluoroscopy systems have been replaced by flat-panel detectors in recent years. To compare the level of contrast, image resolution and radiation dose between an image-intensifier and a newer-generation flat-panel detector system in a pediatric radiology u