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Sample records for sanjiangyuan natural reserve

  1. The diversity of denitrifying bacteria in the alpine meadow soil of Sanjiangyuan natural reserve in Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haiping; ZHANG Yuguang; SUN Yanping; LI Diqiang; CHEN Xinmou; WANG Huimin; XIAO Qiming; LIU Xueduan

    2006-01-01

    This is the first time to describe the diversity of denitrifying bacteria in Sanjiangyuan natural reserve in Tibet Plateau by investigating the molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis of nirK and nosZ genes using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Four soil samples were collected from alpine meadow communities from over an altitude of 4600 m which had different physicochemical properties by principal component analysis (PCA). For the genes fragment of nirKand nosZ, the diverse PCR products were characterized by cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequenced. A total of 253 nirK clones and 283 nosZ clones were received in four samples, and 78 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of nirK and 120 OTUs of nosZ by the restriction enzymes Mspl and Rsal digested. The analysis of environmental factors showed that altitude and C/N ratio in soil may be the key factors to the denitrifying bacteria community. 36 nirK clones and 17 nosZ clones were sequenced, and their levels of nucleotide identity were from 69% to 98% and 57% to 97%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Clustal W and Mega softwares, and all the sequenced clones could be subdivided into 4 groups. Some of clone sequences were related to the nirK and nosZ genes belonging to three phylogenetic subdivisions (α-, β- and Y subclasses of the Proteobacteria), while most of the clones were closely related to the genes of the uncultured bacteria. The sequence distributions were not clear relating to the sample sites in the tree.

  2. 三江源玛可河林区植物多样性研究%Plant Diversity in Makehe Forest Region of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永明; 郑娜

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity in Makehe Forest Region of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve were studied.Result shows that there are 466 plant species,belonging to 220 genera and 67 families in Makehe Forest Region,among which 2 fami-lies,5 genera,1 6 species are gymnosperm,and 58 families,207 genera,441 species are angiosperm,7 families,8 gene-ra,9 species are fern,7 species are in danger of extinction in country protection.The vegetation resources could be divided into 9 types according to different purposes such as medical,ornamental,edible,etc..Different resource plant could be found in Makehe Forest Region;reasonable use of plant resources of Makehe Forest Region were proposed.%对三江源玛可河林区的植物多样性进行了研究。结果表明:林区内有植物67科220属466种。其中,有裸子植物2科5属16种,被子植物58科207属441种,蕨类植物7科8属9种,国家珍稀濒危保护植物7种。资源植物丰富,分为药用、观赏、食用等9大类。资源植物类型多样,提出了合理利用玛可河林区的植物资源的建议。

  3. Investigation on the space structure of plague natural foci in the Sanjiangyuan area in Qinghai Province%青海省三江源地区鼠疫自然疫源地空间结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 祁芝珍; 杨永海; 汪元忠; 赵海红; 何键; 魏荣杰; 魏有文; 罗军; 郑谊; 王虎; 王祖郧; 王丽; 魏绍振; 崔百忠; 王国钧; 陈洪舰

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨青海省三江源地区鼠疫自然疫源地空间结构,为控制人间鼠疫发生和制订鼠疫防治对策提供理论依据.方法 收集1954-2006年间三江源地区鼠疫疫源地调查和鼠疫监测资料,采用描述流行病学方法进行分析.结果 三江源地区存在有2种类型的鼠疫自然疫源地--喜马拉雅旱獭和青海田鼠鼠疫疫源地,斧形盖蚤、谢氏山蚤、细钩黄鼠蚤、直缘双蚤指名亚种为主要媒介.青海田鼠疫源地分布在称多县、珍秦乡.约9500 km2.喜马拉雅旱獭疫源地分布在13个县,约107 000 km2.截至2006年底,自6种啮齿类、6种食肉类、3种偶蹄类和9种媒介昆虫检出鼠疫菌450株.1960-2006年,发现鼠疫病人238例,死亡134例,人间鼠疫病例出现在每年的5-11月份,主要有3种病型,腺鼠疫占17.23%(41/238)、败血型鼠疫占16.81%(40/238)、肺鼠疫占61.34%(146/238),而其他型鼠疫占4.62%(11/238),但每次流行的首发病例仍以腺鼠疫为主.结论 鼠疫仍然是三江源地区面临的主要公共卫生问题.要做好鼠疫流行重点地区的防治工作,完善各项防治措施,加强鼠疫科研,建立健全鼠疫疫情报告网络,减少人类鼠疫病例的发生.%Objective To investigate the space structure of plague natural foci in the area of Lantsang, Yellow and Yangtse River in Qinghai Province to provide references for making decisions to eontrol the occurrence of human plague. Methods Data was collected from the survey on natural foci and surveillance of plague from 1954 to 2006 and descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the data. Results Marmata hirnalayana and Microtus fuscua natural foci were known in Sanjiangyuan area. Callopsylla dolabris, Oropsylla silantiewi, Citellophilus sparsilis and Amphipsylla tuta were vectors; Microtus fuscus plague natural foci was in a range of about 9500 km2, distributing in Zhenqin Town, Chengduo County. Marmata himalayana plague natural foci

  4. Bosbus; mobile nature reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matton, T.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Timmermans, W.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has discovered the global village. Over the years, hundreds of exotic plants and animals have made their way into the Netherlands. They take advantage of the existing urban infrastructure to seek out suitable niches in the city. People rarely think of these urban ecosystems in terms of

  5. Major Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010,China had 2,588 nature reserves,covering 14.9 percent of its land area.These nature reserves have effectively protected more than 90 percent of land ecosystems,85 percent of wild animals and 65 percent of higher plant species

  6. Identification of functional zones and methods of target management in Sanjiangyuan National Park

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    Mengdi Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional zones are the key link for the master planning and scientific management of national parks. We established an evaluation index system to comprehensively analyze regional ecological and environmental features in our study area, the source region of the Yellow River in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. The evaluation index system contains 13 evaluation indices, which include ecosystem services, potential habitat for key species, ecological sensitivity, and ecological pressure classes. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and experts marking methods and combining the requirements of management and control measures, the study area was divided into four primary functional zones, including a core reserve area, ecological restoration area, traditional utilization area, and residential and recreational service area. The protection gradation for each zone is reduced in turn, and the gradation of utilization and public accessibility is enhanced. This functional zones method laid a solid foundation for the effective planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park, while at the same time, our study provides new insight into the functional zones of national parks.

  7. Mordovia State Nature Reserve's 80th anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Elena V. Vargot

    2016-01-01

    Brief physical-geographical characteristics, history of creation and development of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve territory are presented. We listed aims and objectives assigned for the Mordovia Reserve in different periods. During the first years of the Mordovia Reserve the forest conservation was aimed at reforestation of the southern area of the taiga zone; the investigation of harmful insect fauna to timely response on infection foci of trees; enriching of the fauna of the Reserve. At...

  8. Scientists Call for Strengthening Nature Reserve Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has more than 10% of the total species of vascular plants and terrestrial vertebrates in the world, of which about half are endemic to this country. To protect its biodiversity, China has made remarkable achievements in nature reserve establishment.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Microphysical Responses to Catalysis During a Stratocumulus Aircraft Seeding Experiment over the Sanjiangyuan Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎俊; 银燕; 姚展予; 孙安平

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the microphysical responses to a cloud seeding operation in the Sanjiangyuan re-gion, China. The cloud seeding was performed using a zigzag flight pattern, while the detection phase was accomplished using a back-and-forth flight pattern through the top of a stratocumulus layer. Global Position System (GPS) and Particle Measuring System (PMS) data obtained during the operation are used to determine the effective cloud area before and after the operation, differentiate the phase states of cloud particles, and analyze changes in the concentrations of liquid cloud particles and ice crystals, the evolution of the cloud particle spectrum, and the content of supercooled water. The median diameter of liquid cloud particles in the area of the cloud-seeding operation was 3.5-18.5 µm, most cloud particles observed in the 21.5-45.5-µm size regime were ice crystals, while all particles of size 50 µm and above were in the ice phase. Changes in the concentration and typical diameter of cloud particles within 36 km downwind of the cloud-seeding operation did not exceed natural fluctuations in the cloud area before the operation; however, the concentration of liquid cloud particles decreased substantially in areas with high concentrations of super-cooled water (concentrations of supercooled water exceeding 0.01 g m-3). The concentration of ice crystals within the measuring range of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) increased substantially, the water content of ice-phase particles increased, and the average supercooled water content in the cloud decreased from (68.3±23.1)%before the operation to (34.2±12.4)%. The effects of cloud seeding were more pronounced in parts of the cloud where the content of supercooled water was higher. Little to no effects were observed in parts of the cloud with low concentrations of supercooled water.

  11. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  12. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  13. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  14. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  15. Development and Status of Forestry Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The primary conservation objective in China is to establish nature reserves to protect biological resources and natural heritage, protect ecosystems which are of global importance or have unique regional features, protect endangered and threatened species and their habitat, and safeguard the genetic resources. By 2000, the number of nature reserves increased to 1,276, while at the same time, the total area protected in nature reserves was up to 123 million ha. Of the total number of reserves, 908 sites ...

  16. Study on Disturbances and Its Effects on Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linying; Zhou Yongzhang; Xu Songjun

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon,disturbances are considered a discrete event occurring in a natural ecosystem within various spatial and temporal scales. The present paper discusses the types of disturbances and their influence on the ecologic system in nature reserves. It is shown that nature reserves are facing a great challenge dealing with these disturbances.A rational control for disturbances should be improved in order to promote the healthy development of nature reserves this could be done by enhancing the publicity and training of environment protection, coupling management. with communities around and other nature reserves, effective management methods, rational planning, and supporting nature servers.

  17. Standard of payments for ecosystem services in Sanjiangyuan Natural Reserve%青海省三江源自然保护区生态移民补偿标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李屹峰; 罗玉珠; 郑华; 杨绍顺; 欧阳志云; 罗跃初

    2013-01-01

    生态补偿是目前生态学研究的热点,生态补偿的关键问题是补偿标准的确定.将三江源自然保护区的生态移民作为对象,结合确定补偿标准的方法的特点,针对研究区域的实际情况以及我国生态补偿存在的主要问题,运用不同的方法提出了生态移民补偿标准的不同方案,所采用的方法分别是:牲畜机会成本法、草场机会成本法、以果洛新村和河源新村两个移民新村为例的地区发展差异法.结果表明:3种方法的侧重点各不相同,所确定的平均生态补偿标准也稍有不同,分别为1.39万元·户-1·a-1;1.03万元·户-1·a-1;1.1万元·户-1·a-1.研究为确定三江源自然保护区生态补偿的标准提供了科学依据,也为其他地区提供一定的借鉴.

  18. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  19. Simulation of Effects of Grassland Degradation on Regional Climate over Sanjiangyuan Region in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Lishu; SHU Jiong

    2009-01-01

    Regional climate model (RegCM3) was applied to explore the possible effects of land use changes (e.g., grassland degradation in this study) on local and regional climate over the Sanjiangyuan region in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Two multiyear (1991-1999) numerical simulation experiments were conducted: one was a control experiment with current land use and the other was a desertification experiment with potential grassland degradation. Preliminary analysis indicated that RegCM3 is appropriate for simulating land-climate interactions, as the patterns of the simulated surface air temperature, the summer precipitation, and the geopotential height fields are consistent with the observed values. The desertification over the Sanjiangyuan region will cause different climate effects in different regions depending on the surrounding environment and climate characteristics. The area with obvious change in surface air temperature inducing by grassland degradation over the Sanjiangyuan region is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A winter surface air temperature drop and the other seasons' surface air temperature increase will be observed over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on two numerical simulation experiments. Surface air temperature changes in spring are the largest (0.46℃), and in winter are the smallest (smaller than 0.03℃), indicating an increasing mean annual surface air temperature over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surface air temperature changes will be smaller and more complex over the surrounding region, with minor winter changes for the regions just outside the plateau and notable summer changes over the north of the Yangtze River. The reinforced summer heat source in the plateau will lead to an intensification of heat low, causing the West Pacific subtropical high to retreat eastward. This will be followed by a decrease of precipitation in summer. The plateau's climate tends to become warm and dry due to the grassland degradation over the Sanjiangyuan

  20. Mosses from Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve, Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of Bryophyte in Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve has never reported before. Recent floristic study recorded 14 species belong to 12 genus and 8 families occur in this area. Five species of them indicated as a new record for Sulawesi.

  1. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  2. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhengyu; Cai, Jingyong; Bai, Tao; Jiang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaoming

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection, based on the system investigation of plant flora, and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made. Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera, falling in 140families, of which 10 gym...

  3. Status of Nature Reserves in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are an important component of the strategy to halt biodiversity loss caused by habitat fragmentation and loss, climate change and other anthropogenic factors. In the past decades, 184 nature reserves were designed for biodiversity conservation in Inner Mongolia. However, no studies have quantified the general condition of these reserves. In this paper, we summarized the history, distribution and effects of human interference on these reserves in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that: (1 The total area of nature reserves is 138,047 km2 in Inner Mongolia. This constitutes 11.7% of its geographic area, which is lower than the national (14.9%, and the global average (13%. These reserves are mainly forest (68 and inland wetland (31 ecosystems. However, in terms of area, desert (40,948 km2, forest (26,141 km2 and inland wetland ecosystems (25,540 km2 are predominant; (2 nature reserves have increased rapidly in number and area since 1995, especially at the province, city, and county levels; (3 the evergreen coniferous (26.4%, wetland (20.2% and deciduous needle-leaf forests (19.6% were sufficiently protected according to the 2020 target of 17% set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, while the other eight natural vegetation types, i.e., evergreen broad-leaved forests (14.2%, shrubs (13.5%, meadow vegetation (12.5%, typical steppe (10.2%, open forests (8.9%, desert vegetation (6.2%, desert steppe (2.9%, and sand vegetation (1.6% were insufficiently protected; (4 the effects of human activities on these vegetation types were different. Open forest, sand vegetation, shrub, typical steppe, meadow steppe, evergreen broad-leaved, and evergreen coniferous forest were more affected than other vegetation types. Our results indicated that a more scientific approach is needed to effectively manage nature reserves in Inner Mongolia.

  4. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  5. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  6. Evaluation of Vegetation and Wildlife in Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudiyono Sudiyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the ecosystem functions through vegetation and wildlife indicators. Methods used are vegetation analysis and direct indirect method to count wildlife . Results show that the dominant type of land coverage in Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve is open secondary forest, where shrubs, rattan, and epiphytes dominated. This might lead to vulnerability of the site toward disturbance. Furthermore, it was indicated that this area still contains local wildlife species such as Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis. Eventhough land degradation has become a significant issue, the status of Gunung Ambang as nature reserve has limited restoration attempts both vegetatively and mechanically.

  7. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  8. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  9. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagona, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.

  11. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066

  12. Hengshui Lake China’s Key Wetland Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    WETLAND, an important eco-logical sys-tem, is of inestimable scientific, ecological, social and economic value. Bestowed liberally with nature’s bounty, China boasts various types of wetland, and during the past years has built over 130 wetland nature reserves, of which ten percent are at

  13. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066 radiotrac

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  17. Community participation in the management of wetland nature reserve: a case study of Nanjishan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more conflicts have emerged in the management of nature reserves, of which the main problem is that how to carry out the campaign of conservation along with the promotion of development of local economics. To resolve the actual problem in Nanjishan National Wetland Nature Reserve and explore the idiographic method of the management of the wetland reserve, some studying methods including face-to-face interviews, informal discussion with local leaders and officials, group discussion with local fishers, questionnaire, and job of the conversation station have been carried out. The results show that the education level of the local people is low; only 5% of the local people have an opportunity to the junior college; the main income of the local people is fishing, which accounts for 70%more or less; and the income is coming down year by year because of the unreasonable way of fishing. To cope with the problems, some reformative way of management and the development of the reserve are introduced, such as establishing an NOG that constitutes of local fishermen to achieve the goal of community co-management, developing Bed and Breakfiast and so on. Through practice of the management of the participation of the local people, we draw the conclusion that the local people have a great desire to improve their life level, and to make the co-management of the reserve easy,it is important for the managers to play the role of pilot including engrafting the new ideas, giving some subsidy to encourage the local people to take part in the management. In addition, making local people perceive value of the reserve and the close relation between reserve conservation and the promotion of level of their life. On this basis, they incline to take part in the management of the reserve.

  18. COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM IN NATURE RESERVE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Yan-li; FANG Yan-gang; LIU Ji-sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of community-based ecotourism (CBET) that originated in foreign countries.Then it analyzes the significance ofCBET development in nature reserve (NR).The authors think that community participation is the evitable choice of nature reserve's conservation and development.CBET,as the self-improved model of ecotourism,can promote tourism community sustainable development.Based on the stakeholder analysis of CBET in NRs,this paper addresses the reality,especially the problem of CBET development in NRs of China.In order to develop CBET in NRs of China,this paper takes some suggestions to promote the community participation:1)gradual political empowerment,2) deep level economic incentive,3) widespread educational support,4) impartial distribution of community benefits,and 5) stakeholders cooperation.

  19. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu; LEI; Jingyong; CAI; Tao; BAI; Jianguo; JIANG; Shaoming; WANG

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera,falling in 140families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1025angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrates that the region harbors 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.

  20. Bat Diversity at Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S. Davie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats represent one of the least studied mammal groups in Mongolia, and little is known about the distribution and ecology of species in the country. We surveyed bats in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, which lies at the intersection of two ecozones in Mongolia, to determine the species present and obtain preliminary data on habitat associations. We conducted mist net surveys at 9 sites, including 4 at natural springs, 2 at human-made wells, and 3 at sites without water, from June to August 2011. We captured 149 individuals representing 3 species, Myotis aurascens, Eptesicus gobiensis, and Vespertilio sp. One species, E. gobiensis , represents a new record for the reserve. We captured all three species at sites near natural springs, only one species, M. aurascens, at human-made well sites, and no bats at sites without water. We also collected basic morphometric measurements for M. aurascens and E. gobiensis . Analysis of morphometric measurements for M. aurascens indicated some sexual dimorphisms. Our results provide a baseline estimate of bats in Ikh Nart and suggest that bat diversity is greater than previously thought. Our results also validate the presence of E. gobiensis and suggest that the species we captured associate mainly with natural water sources.

  1. Herpetofauna of Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hujun Pan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR in Tibet, China, is the highest nature reserve in the world and is characterized by a wide range in altitude. The QNNR was established to protect its vegetation, unique alpine ecosystem, and overall abundant biodiversity. Amphibians and reptiles are important components of its biodiversity, but are poorly understood. Thus, we surveyed amphibians and reptiles in the QNNR on 5 occasions between October 2010 and October 2012. This survey revealed 9 amphibian species, which belong to 6 genera, 3 families, and 1 order. All of these species belong to the Oriental Realm. We also recorded 11 reptile species belonging to 10 genera, 4 families, and 1 order. Among these species, 8 belong to the Oriental Realm and 3 to the Palearctic Realm. According to our records, the herptofauna of the QNNR is characterized by both endemic amphibian and reptile species with 2 endemic species and 6 quasi-endemic species in China. The estimated species richness of amphibians and reptiles in the reserve is likely to increase with further survey, especially along the southern slope of the Himalayas. A sharp dividing line between the Palearctic region and Oriental region in the QNNR occurs between 3,600–3,800 m a.s.l. with no transition zone.

  2. The vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, 7 750 ha in extent, occupies the southern end of the Cape Peninsula. Geologically, it is composed of sandstone beds of the Table Mountain Group of the Cape Supergroup. Topographically, it comprises an interior plateau bounded partly by hills and mountains which reach 360 m on the False Bay coast. Two structural formations, fynbos and broadleaved scrub, are recognized. Within fynbos, the two floristic categories, Inland and Coast Fynbos, reflect the two major soil types present. The flora of the Reserve, with 1 060 species (35% monocots, 65% dicots comprises 40% of the flora of the Cape Peninsula. About 40 species are either endemic or rare and endangered to varying degrees. Alien woody plants that have invaded the veld over the past half-century are presenting a serious and costly management problem.

  3. A phytosociological classification of the Nylsvley Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Nylsvley Nature Reserve in the Transvaal Mixed Bushveld is classified hierarchically by the Braun-Blanquet Method of vegetation survey. The vegetation is seasonal grassland and deciduous savanna with four floristically distinct major groups of plant communities: (I grasslands and broad-leaved savannas on non calcareous sandy soils on elevated sandstone and felsite areas; (2 microphyllous thorn savannas on calcareous, clayey, bottomland alluvial soils and termitaria thickets; (3 grassland and thorn savanna on calcareous self-mulching vertic soils; and (4 secondary communities on long abandoned native settlements and recently ploughed land. Seven primary communities with 12 community variations and 4 subvariations, and three secondary communities are described on the basis of 216 releves. The survey was carried out at two levels of detail, an ecosystem study area in the broad-leaved savanna being surveyed in more detail, floristically and structurally, than the rest of the Reserve.

  4. Landscape Structure Changes in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Jianzhi; Gao Jiarong; Wang Fengyou

    2003-01-01

    This paper systematically studied the landscape dynamic changes in Liangshui Natural Reserve (LNR) in Heilongiang Province, northeast China during three periods (1950s, 1970s and 1990s), by applying landscape space modelMarkov model. The results indicated that the landscape structure in LNR changed and the types of landscape patches increased. The phenomena of increasing and reducing of landscape types happened at the same time and the matrix- natural Pinus koraiensis decreased year by year. The law of transformation of landscape types matches well with the results concluded from statistical data,survey data, and the developing process inherent succession of the forest. By analyzing landscape dynamic changes, some scientific management measures were put forward in this paper.

  5. Characteristics of Spatial Differentiation and Development Modes for Ecotourism Resources in the Sanjiangyuan Reglon%三江源地区生态旅游资源空间分异特征及开发模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承财; 钟林生; 陈田

    2009-01-01

    There are abundant ecotourism resources in the Sanjiangyuan region (the source region of the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River). Appropriately exploiting ecotourism resources over there would be an effective way to develop local communities and economy and meanwhile protect the eco-environment. Investigating the characteristics of spatial differentiation of ecotourism resources would be beneficial to establishing reasonable ecotourism development mode and achieving sustainable development of the tourism industry over the Sanjiangyuan region. In the present work, the authors examined the characteristics of spatial differentiation of tourism resources and generalized development modes over the Sanjiangyuan region in Qinghai province based on an extensive analysis on the types and quantity of its ecotourism resources. Results showed that the primary characteristics of the spatial differentiation of tourism resources are: 1) with variations in altitude, spatial differentiation of ecotourism resources exhibit a sort of regional vertical zonality; 2) with variations in latitude and longitude, both natural and human ecotourism resources show a sort of horizontal zonality; 3) a majority of ecotourism resources are primarily distributed along with main transportation routes and riparian zones; 4) constructions and facilities of human tourism resources are primarily distributed around villages and towns, showing a kind of planar clustering and scattered point distributions. In terms of the characteristics of the spatial differentiation of ecotourism resources, modes for regional ecotourism development were subsequently proposed, i.e., spatial gradient transfer development mode, independent scenic areas mode relying primarily on monopolistic ecotourism resources, route unity mode for developing ecotourism resources along with main transportation routes, and facility-reliant mode for developing ecotourism resources surrounding villages and towns. Moreover, in terms

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  7. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong

    2007-01-01

    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  8. Analysis of Human Activities in Nature Reserves Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Microblogging Data - by the Case of National Nature Reserves in Jiangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Li, X.; Xu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The study used the mainstream social media in china - Sina microblogging data combined with nighttime light remote sensing and various geographical data to reveal the pattern of human activities and light pollution of the Jiangxi Provincial National Nature Reserves. Firstly, we performed statistical analysis based on both functional areas and km-grid from the perspective of space and time, and selected the key areas for in-depth study. Secondly, the relationship between microblogging data and nighttime light remote sensing, population, GDP, road coverage, road distance and road type in nature reserves was analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient method, so the distribution pattern and influencing factors of the microblogging data were explored. Thirdly, a region where the luminance value was greater than 0.2 was defined as a light region. We evaluated the management status by analyzing the distribution of microblogging data in both light area and non-light area. Final results showed that in all nature reserves, the top three were the Lushan Nature Reserve, the Jinggangshan Nature Reserve, the Taohongling National Nature Reserve of Sikas both on the total number and density of microblogging ; microblogging had a significant correlation with nighttime light remote sensing , the GDP, population, road and other factors; the distribution of microblogging near roads in protected area followed power laws; luminous radiance of Lushan Nature Reserve was the highest, with 43 percent of region was light at night; analysis combining nighttime light remote sensing with microblogging data reflected the status of management of nature reserves.

  9. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  10. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; XIE; Shizhou; LI; Jianrong; WANG; Yuanhui; CHEN; Lianchao; CHEN; Shengqiao; LEI

    2014-01-01

    In 2007,one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve.To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource,the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010- 2012.The results show that there is Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area of South China Tiger Nature Reserve at the elevation of 800- 1200 m,and the population number is estimated at 48- 80.

  11. Relationship between Tourism Development and Ecological Protection in Songshan National Nature Reserve,Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays Songshan National Nature Reserve attracts a rapidly increasing number of tourists. However, the development of a tourist economy and the further exploitation of the natural landscape threaten the ecology and management of the reserve. Therefore, defining the relationship between ecological tourism and ecological protection can provide a framework for the management and exploitation of the reserve. Based on the analysis of current situation and questions of the reserve, this paper probes into the re...

  12. Management Modes at Different Levels and Management Effectiveness of Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Classification management is one of nature reserves management system in China. But state nature reserves and local administration nature reserves under the regulations are only the approval system and embody the concept of protection. Management pattern of nature reserves can be divided into nine types. There are big differences in the nine patterns in management foundation and coordination ability of management because different management pattern occupies different resources of administration,personnel,financial and law enforcement. By analyzing management pattern,thirty-eight indexes in thirteen categories were selected to evaluate the management effectiveness of national nature reserves subordinate to the State Forestry Administration (SFA) . Results show that the management effectiveness of national nature reserves is good as a whole,and the management effectiveness is direct proportional to administration level. Provincial administration has the higher efficiency than municipal and county administration. Direct administration by governments at all levels has the higher efficiency than departments’ administration at the same level.

  13. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  14. Ecotourism in nature reserves in China: current situation,problems and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ju-chun; ZHENG Jing-ming

    2008-01-01

    Our presentation focuses on some important issues associated with ecotourism in nature reserves in mainland China. Conducting ecotourism in certain areas in nature reserves is important for its protection. However, some problems do exist because of special conditions in our society and in the current projects of nature reserves themselves, such as water and air pollution, unplanned construction of roads and facilities, damage of core zones and buffer zones, and confused ownership of nature reserves. These problems are discussed and solutions are proposed in detail, and we emphasize the participation of local communities in order to help residents fight against poverty.

  15. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve is 8.485 billion yuan, while the function of water conservation is a small fraction of ecological service function, indicating that there is great ecological value in service function of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve, that is, Gongbo Nature Reserve has vital ecological value.

  16. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana; Sjarmidi, Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction ( 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  17. Co-management: transformation of community affair model in Chinese nature reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMing-hai; WANGShuang-ling

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the application of co-management in establishing and zoning nature reserves, explains two types of participatory models, explains the main content and steps required to implement a co-management program, and suggests future direction of co-management. In China, great progress has been achieved since 1956 when the first nature reserve was established. However, conflicts between nature reserve officials and community members, and differences between conservation and utilization of natural resources suggest that the traditional community affair model is unfit to some degree. A more workable and economically sustainable model is recommended. Co-management appears to be the preferred management model. International conservation organizations have carried out projects in Chinese nature reserves in recent years, and co-management is thought to be an effective approach to resolve conflicts coming from community and to improve nature reserves management.

  18. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana, E-mail: damanikdemak@gmail.com, E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id; Sjarmidi, Achmad, E-mail: damanikdemak@gmail.com, E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id [Bioresources Management Research Group, School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  19. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere.

  20. Evaluating the Sustainability of Nature Reserves Using an Ecological Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are established to protect ecosystems and rare flora and fauna. However, with the rapid development of the social economy, many nature reserves are facing enormous pressures from human activities. The assessment of the sustainability of nature reserves is a fundamental task for the planning and management of such areas. In this study, the sustainability of China’s 319 national nature reserves (NRRs was evaluated based on an ecological footprint (EF method. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprints of all national nature reserves increased 85.86% from 2000 to 2010. Meanwhile, the per capita biocapacity (BC of all national nature reserves increased slightly, with a rate of increase of 1.79%. The ‘traffic light’ method was adopted to identify the sustainability status of those national nature reserves. It was found that currently (2010 45% of NRRs were in the condition of ecological deficit. In terms of dynamic changes in EF and BC, only 16% of NRRs were sustainable. The 124 national nature reserves that were in the red light state were mainly distributed in Anhui Province, Chongqing City, Hunan, Guizhou, Fujian, Shandong Province, and Inner Mongolia. The percentage of nature reserves at the red light state in these areas were 83.3%, 66.7%, 64.7%, 62.5%, 58.3%, 57.1%, and 56.5%, respectively. The reserves in the red light state should be included in the priority concern level and should be strictly controlled in terms of population growth and the intensity of exploitation. The results of this study will provide more effective data for reference and for decision making support in nature reserve protection.

  1. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  2. VEGETATION CHANGE IN THE MT.QOMOLANGMA NATURAL RESERVE FROM 1981 TO 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction On 18 May 1989,the Mt.Qomolangma (Everest)Natural Reserve(abbr.MQNR)in Tibet Autonomous Region formally came into existence and it was listed as World Network of Biosphere Reserves(WNBR)in May 2005.The MQNR is a comprehensive reserve,which mainly protects alpine ecosystems,plateau natural landscapes,geological remains and Tibetan historical and cultural heritages.

  3. Management Philosophy and Practices of Habitat Conservation for Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yi-ping; ZENG Yong; LI Shi-ming

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the pressure on habitat of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve brought about by traveling activity, this paper puts forward such philosophy of community co-management of conservation-based tourism development for Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve. According to this philosophy, emphasis is laid on the analysis of the mission of habitat protection, functional division, habitat maintenance, community construction, scientific study and management organization system. The study shows that the close relation and significance of rights and interests shared between nature reserve and residents in community, as well as the value of community co-management philosophy of conservation-based tourism development in sustainable management of nature reserve, have set an exemplary example for other nature reserves.

  4. Estimation on Aesthetic Value of Tourist Landscapes in a Natural Heritage Site : Kanas National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Feng, [No Value; Yang Zhaoping, [No Value; Liu Xuling, [No Value; Wu Jingrui, [No Value; Ma Zhongguo, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Most world natural heritage sites are designated partly by reason of their prominent aesthetic values in accordance with Article VII of World Natural Heritage Convention. In this paper, the aesthetic values of Kanas National Nature Reserve, which has potential for Such designation, was analyzed quan

  5. ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES AT HONGHE NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-Mao; LU Xian-Guo; ZHAO Chun-Hui; ZHAO Yan-Bo; QI Han-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A detailed assessment on water resources of HNNR is to find the changing rules in time and space scale of water resources of HNNR and its adjacent areas, and the generating and degrading factors of wetland and provide scientific base on restoring and managing the hydrologic regime for planning and designing at HNNR. Both the assessment area and its adjacent watershed of Bielahong River belong to the same region in the climate and surface features. Total of 46 years of serial data from 1956-2001 in the Bielahong Hydrology Station was employed. Typical analysis of the serial runoff was conducted by adopting the residual mass curve method. The calculation methods of hydrological parameters are valuable for analyzing the water balance of HNNR. The results showed that the inputs of 118.29 × 106 m3 of the surface runoff and 1 478km2 of the areas of natural watershed in HNNR were decreased. At the same time some measurements to control and prevent water resources decreased have been proposed.

  6. Spatial Variability and Ecological Effects of Anthropogenic Activities in a Nature Reserve: A Case Study in the Baijitan National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves play an essential role in protecting natural resources and maintaining an ecological balance. However, certain nature reserves are increasingly disturbed by human activities in the form of settlements, roads, farmland, etc. How to monitor the status of nature reserves by using remote sensing methods has been a focus of scholars for a long time. In this study, remote sensing satellite images from 2009 and 2014 were used to extract and analyze the distribution of anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, industry, residency, traffic, and other human activities. On this basis, the Nature Reserve Human Interference (NRHI and landscape indices (LI were calculated to describe the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance; in addition, the slope and aspect were analyzed to describe the regularity in the distribution of anthropogenic activities. The results showed that more than 90% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in the experimental and buffer zones. Likewise, the NRHI increased from 0.0901 in 2009 to 0.1127 in 2014. The NRHI was proportional to the patch density (PD, landscape shape index (LSI, landscape division index (DIVISION, Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI, and Shannon′s evenness index (SHEI, and it was inversely proportional to the contagion index (CONTAG. Moreover, 84.54% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in a range from 0 to 3.6 degrees, and 14.44% of the activity occurred in a range from 3.6 to 7.2 degrees. More than 60% of the anthropogenic activity occurred on sunny slopes because of the human adaptability to the environment and the possibility for humans to fulfill their physical needs (warmth and comfort. Thus, the monitoring of this nature reserve needs to be further strengthened and focused on the area with a range of 0–7.2 degrees and on the sunny slopes.

  7. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  8. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  9. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, R; Zheng, Y.; Lei, T; Cui, G.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. Th...

  10. Research of the Socio-economic Development in Dalian Chengshantou Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; MA; Qiang; SUN; Yang; ZHAO; Changqiang; MIAO

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of accommodating the relationship between the protection of nature reserve and the development of local society and economy,this paper,taking Dalian Chengshantou Nature Reserve as a study area and PRA as a main research method,investigated and analyzed the status of social and economical development and the existing problems in the study area. The result shows that: the contradictory between the protection of nature reserve and the local development of social and economical activities are still prominent,and the principle of " integration of protection and reasonable development" proposed by the general plan of nature reserve has not reached the expected result.Therefore,further efforts should be made firstly to accommodating relationship between the protection of nature reserve and the local development activities,secondly to accelerating the development of eco-tourism and the relevant service industries in accordance with the local practical situations,and finally to promoting the sustainable development of both the protection of nature reserve and the local society and economy.

  11. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  12. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. The relationship between the threatened species and the endemic species in the reserves was also analyzed. We found that both richness patterns were similar. Based on the richness study, a nature reserve classification system with corresponding

  13. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves.

  14. Tropical nature reserves are losing their buffer zones, but leakage is not to blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Gillian V; Coomes, David A

    2016-05-01

    Tropical forests provide important ecosystem services to humanity, yet are threatened by habitat loss resulting from deforestation and land-use change. Although reserves are considered the cornerstones of conservation efforts in the tropics, their efficacy remains equivocal. One question that remains unresolved is whether leakage - the unanticipated displacement of deforestation from inside reserves into the unrestricted zones just beyond a reserve's administrative boundary - is common around tropical forest reserves, or whether the zones are acting as buffers between the protected area and the outside world. To resolve this question, we used the Landsat-derived Global Forest Change dataset to estimate deforestation rates between 2000 and 2012 inside and outside of 60 nature reserves spread across the tropics. Deforestation rates inside reserves (within 5km of the administrative boundary) were generally lower than those immediately outside the reserves (i.e. in buffer zones 0-10km from the boundary), suggesting that reserves are effective at protecting forests. We hypothesised that leakage would result in greater deforestation rates in reserve buffer zones than in the broader reserve landscapes, but such a pattern was observed in only five African sites, suggesting that leakage does not often occur on the edge of established reserves. However, roughly 80% of reserves experienced deforestation rates that increased gradually from their interiors to the outer periphery of their buffer zones. Thus, while leakage may not be a pervasive phenomenon around tropical reserves worldwide, tropical reserves are often losing their buffer zones, resulting in increased isolation that could have ramifications for ecosystem services provisioning and tropical conservation strategies.

  15. Emergy Evaluation of a Village Ecosystem in Wolong Nature Reserve in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Kontoleon Andreas; Chen Guojie

    2009-01-01

    Due to historic reasons, there are several human settle-merits in nature reserves and national parks, which may constitute a threat to biodiversity.Establishment ofnature reserves may how-ever generate constraints for development of local communities residing in these reserves.The village ecosystem of Zhuanjinglou Village in Wolong Nature Reserve includes population, farming and livestock (domestic and alpine) and forest ecosystem.An emergy analysis of agro-ecosystem (including the farming and livestock ecosystem) and energy consumption in Zhuanjinglou Village indicates that livestock ecosystem plays an important role in village ecosystem, which may be the source of great pressure on the state of the local environment.The increasing ratio of electrici-ty in energy consumption may play a positive role for environmen-tal conservation.Despite some successful experiences, there are some remaining issues that need to be addressed in the ecological rehabilitation of the village ecosystem.

  16. The phytosociology of the northern section of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    L. R. Brown; G.J. Bredenkamp; N van Rooyen

    1996-01-01

    After classifications and descriptions of the southern and western sections of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were published, a study on the phytosociology of the northern part was initiated. The study is aimed at providing an ecological basis for establishing an efficient wildlife management programme for the reserve. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 15 plant communities, which can be grouped into six major plant communities, were identified. Descriptions ...

  17. Geological component in the formation of natural - reserve fund of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyuk V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The part of geological component of the natural environment in the formation of Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine, the historical aspects of the origin and development of the geological heritage, as an important part of the environment, as well as the problem of acceptance geodiversity as well as the conservation of biodiversity. It was established that during the long history in countries not only in Europe but also in the world, formed biodiversity strategy in default or unwilling recognition of the need to preserve geodiversity. Underestimating abiotic factors in the development programs of the European environmental network Natura-2000 and EECONET has led to the need to develop special programs and initiatives in the conservation of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. The basic stages of historical development problems of preservation of geological heritage in Ukraine and the world. It is determined that in Ukraine was established May 21, 1910 the first in Russia (which is then part Khortyts'ke Society for Nature Conservation. The Society, based on the initiative of of natural science teachers P.P. Вouzouk, had the goal of nature conservation within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms of nature, and it was spelled out in the Charter of of society. A significant shift towards awareness of the importance of the geological component in the formation of natural reserve fund was effective collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the Dnipropetrovsk region on creation of new protected areas. When conducting a field and office work on reserving areas for new items Natural Heritage, the first fully studied geological and geomorphological structure of these areas. Moreover, the research facility in an unprecedented short time actually bequeathed, that have approved status of natural monuments, landscape reserves and so on.

  18. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  19. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhang, Liquan; Yuan, Lin

    2008-11-01

    The Dongtan Nature Reserve, one of the largest nature reserves in East Asia, is located in the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and is an important habitat for migratory birds. The Dongtan wetlands were listed in the Chinese Protected Wetlands in 1992, and were designated as internationally important under the Ramsar Wetlands Convention in 2001 and as a national nature reserve in 2005. By their very nature and location, the estuarine and coastal habitats are dynamic and their biodiversity conservation and management relies on up-to-date spatial information. By establishing qualitative and quantitative relationships between bird populations and key habitat factors such as elevation, land cover type, tidal creek density and macrophytobenthos biomass, we developed an object-oriented image approach, in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems and the data from current field surveys, to analyze and assess the habitat suitability for the main types of birds, namely Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae, at the reserve. The results from this study showed that about 40% of the total area of the Dongtan Reserve contained suitable habitats for these four bird families. The Scirpus mariqueter zone, mudflat zone, and tidal creeks were the most important habitats for these birds. This study indicated the potential of this approach for objective and effective evaluation of the species habitat suitability in a dynamic estuarine and coastal area. The implications of the results as a tool for biodiversity conservation, wetland conservation, and ecosystem management are discussed.

  20. Flora diversity and its potential in Muara Kendawangan Nature Reserve, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Muara Kendawangan Nature Reserve is one of the biggest nature reserves in West Kalimantan. However, data and informations especially floras diversity and its potential in this area has not been investigated intensively. Two hundred and nineteen species of plant are collected from this area, and 140 species of them are reported as potential plants. Fourty eight, and fourty two species of the potential species are respectively useful as timber and medicinal plants. Six species, namely Aquilaria malaccensis, Durio oxleyanus, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Alstonia scholaris, Koompassia malaccensis and Eurycoma longifolia are threatened species, and one of them namely Aquilaria malaccensis is endangered.

  1. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  2. An annotated checklist of the amphibians, reptiles and mammals of the Nylsvley nature reserve

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobsen, NHG

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the distribution, status and general ecology of amphibians, reptiles and mammals was undertaken on the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, Transvaal from mid-1974 to mid-1977 as part of the South African Savanna Ecosystem Project. A total of 18...

  3. Vegetation and flora of the savannas in the Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve, Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.A.; Wildschut, J.T.

    1968-01-01

    The Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve includes the most characteristic part of the geomorphological Sabanpasi (or Subgreywacke) landscape (see fig. 4), formed by low, elongate, parallel, gently sloping ridges. The centre of each ridge is crowned by a narrow rib (gravel rib) (see fig. 5). The gravel ribs a

  4. Analysis of Original Causes of Reed Fires in Zhalong Nature Wetland Reserve in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingyu; SHU Lifu; TIAN Xiaorui; WANG Zhicheng

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, serious reed fires occurred in Zhalong Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province in China. From 19th to 28th of March 2005, 12 fires occurred in Zhalong Nature Reserve, and the fires spread to Qiqihaer City, Duerberte Mongolian Autonomous County, Lindian County and Daqing City. The burned area was about 18 666 ha. Meteorological factor was the leading factor of its fire environment in Zhalong Nature Reserve, which came into being for a long time. Long-term drought and shortage of rain made the reed and meadow withered and yellow and thus greatly reduced the water content of withered fallen leaves and humus. Much fuel was accumulated and became dry, thus forming the fire environment. Fires in Zhalong Nature Reserve were mainly strong surface fires accompanied by the spread of underground fire. It was extremely easy for reed to burn and spread very quickly. Once a fire broke out, it could spread rapidly to a scene of large fire area, and sometimes it could burn for a long time. Due to lack of correct understanding of the wetland fire and inconvenient wetland traffic, it was unable to find and put out wetland fire in time to save life and property early.

  5. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  6. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  7. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  8. Short-term vegetation change on rehabilitated peatland on Rietvlei Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Venter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural peatlands occur on the Rietvlei Nature Reserve. Before the Pretoria City Council acquired the land, these peatlands were mined by private land-owners. Ditches were constructed to drain the area for mining and the peatlands became desicrated. Later the area was proclaimed as a nature reserve and has since then been managed as such. Rehabilitation of the drained peatland on Rietvlei Nature Reserve first started in 2000 as a Working for Water project. The aim of the rehabilitation was to close the ditches and rewet the peatland, to enable possible revival of the peatland. A baseline vegetation survey was undertaken during the summer (March to April of 2001 to determine the nature of the pioneer communities that established on the rehabilitated area. This survey was repeated during the summer (March to April of 2002 to detect changes in the vegetation. The same sample plots were used on both occasions. The initial pioneer vegetation was mostly composed of weedy annuals.

  9. Ferns and flowering plants of Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal: an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zambatis

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of the plant taxa of the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal Lowveld, is presented. Of the 618 infrageneric taxa recorded, six are pteridophytes and the remainder angiosperms. Of these, 161 are monocotyledons and 451 dicotyledons. Five of the latter are currently listed in the Red Data List of the Transvaal, two of which are first records for the Transvaal Lowveld. The vegetation of the reserve shows strong affinities with the Savanna Biome, and to a lesser degree, with the Grassland Biome.

  10. The phytosociology of the northern section of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After classifications and descriptions of the southern and western sections of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were published, a study on the phytosociology of the northern part was initiated. The study is aimed at providing an ecological basis for establishing an efficient wildlife management programme for the reserve. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 15 plant communities, which can be grouped into six major plant communities, were identified. Descriptions of the various plant communities, include diagnostic species, prominent species and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata. A hierarchical classification, description of the plant communities and a vegetation map are presented.

  11. Ferns and flowering plants of Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal: an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zambatis

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of the plant taxa of the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal Lowveld, is presented. Of the 618 infrageneric taxa recorded, six are pteridophytes and the remainder angiosperms. Of these, 161 are monocotyledons and 451 dicotyledons. Five of the latter are currently listed in the Red Data List of the Transvaal, two of which are first records for the Transvaal Lowveld. The vegetation of the reserve shows strong affinities with the Savanna Biome, and to a lesser degree, with the Grassland Biome.

  12. The identification and description of the management units of the Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Rosch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Goegap Nature Reserve, near Springbok, is situated in the floral paradise of Namaqualand. This 15 000 ha reserve falls within the Namaqualand Broken Veld and in the transition zone between this Veld type and the False Succulent Karoo. Otherwise, it could be said that the reserve falls within the Upland Succulent Karoo and the transition zone between this vegetation type and the Bushmanland vegetation type. With the use of stratified aerial photographs of the reserve, random sample plots were placed within each homogeneous physiographic-physionomic unit and 284 releves were compiled in September 1998. With the use of the BBPC computer program, the resulting TWINSPAN split the data into two tables, one predominantly for the Plains and one for the Rocky Hills. After refining these tables, 13 plant communities were identified. These communities, together with the stratified aerial photographs, land type and habitat information were used to determine ten management units for the reserve. These units will be used in effective management and monitoring on the reserve. Table 1 and 2 will be uploaded as a supplementary file in due course.

  13. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  14. Ecotourism and nature-reserve sustainability in environmentally fragile poor areas: the case of the Ordos Relict Gull Reserve in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the applicability of the conventional wisdom that economic growth is paramount to environmental sustainability by examining ecotourism and nature-reserve sustainability in environmentally fragile poor regions. The discussion focuses on the Ordos Relict Gull Reserve in the Inner Mongolia region of China. The study evaluated reserve records of water and soil conditions and interpreted satellite images to identify lake-level and land-cover changes at the reserve. The Ordos Relict Gulls seem to have abandoned the reserve following ecotourism development and established new colonies in northern Shaanxi. We argue that ecotourism—especially ersatz ecotourism—in certain nature reserves is an unsustainable practice rooted in the conventional wisdom that economic development spurs environmental protection as suggested by the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. The article concludes that environmental protection rather than economic growth is of vital importance in nature-society interactions in environmentally fragile poor areas. We call for prohibitions on tourism in such nature reserves to enhance sustainability.

  15. Is the present Brackenridgea Nature Reserve large enough to ensure the survival of Brackenridgea zanguebarica Oliv.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milingoni P. Tshisikhawe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brackenridgea Nature Reserve is a 110 ha protected area established by the provincial Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism as a way of protecting the population of Brackenridgea zanguebarica, a species classified as critically endangered in South Africa. In the whole of South Africa, the species is found in only one small area around Thengwe–Mafukani in Venda. It is threatened with extirpation due to high demand for its medicinal bark. This study investigated the adequacy of the reserve to conserve the species using a method established in 2001 by Burgman et al. This method involves 12 steps to quantify the risk of the decline or possible extinction of the species and takes current human activities, disturbances and the viability of the population into consideration for setting a conservation target. From the results, it was clear that more area is needed for the current population to survive beyond 50 years. Assuming the status quo, it will require 410 ha to maintain the population, whereas a 50% reduction in human-related activities, such as cultivation, harvesting and livestock grazing, will lower the required potential habitat to 203 ha and a conservation option, which allows for bark harvesting, will require 179 ha. Conservation implications: The results of this study will have conservation implication on management of viable species population within a nature reserve. It will require managers to take into consideration the reserve size in relation to potential habitats for the development of species under their management.

  16. Vegetation of the ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve and its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krechowski Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve (forest district 206b, c and d of the Sarnaki Forest Inspectorate, situated in the area of the Podlaski Przełom Bug Landscape Park, is one of the most valuable natural assets of the central Bug river valley. The 12.98 ha reserve was established in 2010 to aid protection of the stand of xerothermic vegetation and its surrounding deciduous forest. In total, eight plant associations were identified within the reserve: Geranio-Peucedanetum cervariae, Geranio-Anemonetum sylvestris, Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris, Trifolio medii-Agrimonietum, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum, Rhamno-Cornetum sanguinei, Potentillo albae-Quercetum and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli. Furthermore, 23 protected and 31 endangered species were found in the reserve including the following examples: Cephalanthera rubra, Thesium ebracteatum, Cypripedium calceolus, Gentiana cruciata, Anemone sylvestris, Cimicifuga europaea, Viola rupestris, Crepis praemorsa, Asperula tinctoria, Stachys recta, Laserpitium latifolium. Over the last few years, a regression of the species diagnostic number for thermophilous oak forests and xerothermic grasslands has been observed as a result of succession and expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos. Active protection of xerothermic vegetation such as uprooting of trees and bushes, regular grazing or mowing has been suggested in order to prevent the expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos.

  17. A synecological account of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve. I. The phytosociology of the Witwatersrand geological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Bredenkamp

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Witwatersrand System of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve is analysed and classified according to the Braun-Blanquet table method. Descriptions of the plant communities include habitat features, differentiating species groups, as well as prominent and less conspicuous species for the tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The habitat factors that are associated with differences in vegetation are mainly altitude, aspect and rockiness of the soil surface, but soil depth, soil texture and slope are also factors of considerable importance. The classification results in very natural communities which represent different ecosystems.

  18. UNIQUE FOREST COMMUNITIES OF STATE NATURE RESERVE ‘KISLUHINSKY’ (ALTAI TERRITORY)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A review of the history of the study of forest communities GPKZ regional significance "Kisluhinsky" dedicated largely to the Big Warm. A complete geobotanical characteristic of unique natural complexes: 1) spruce forests that are at the limit of its distribution in terms of the West Siberian Plain; 2) Community reference shrub-grass and herbal pine forests. 3) the reference and the unique community of the floodplain (sogra).Key words: spruce forests, pine forests, warm, Kisluhinsky Reserve, s...

  19. Features of biomorphological structure of the steppe phytocenosises of Opuk Natural Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kobechinskaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of biomorphological structure of the steppe phytocenosises of Opuksky Natural Reserve revealed regional characteristics of vegetation which were based on adaptive features of growing species. On the basis of contingency coefficients between the groups of biomorphological features were marked eco-biomorphological types of plants, which allow complete investigation on the features of individual ecobiomorphs, identification of ecological identity of steppe landscape and planning of further environmental activities.

  20. Preliminary list of bryophytes of Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-seven species of hepatics and 66 species of mosses are reported from Heishiding Nature Reserve, including eight taxa new to China and one species new to mainland China. The new taxa for China are Ectropothecium aneitense Broth., Gammiella tonkinensis (Broth. & Par.) Tan, G. touwii Tan, Hypnum fauriei Card., Papillidiopsis complanata (Dix.) Buck & Tan, Syrrhopodon prolifer Schwaegr. var. papillosum (C.Müll.) Reese, Trichosteleum pseudo-mammosum Fleisch., and Trichostomum crispulum Bruch...

  1. Yet another empty forest: considering the conservation value of a recently established tropical nature reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakonda Sreekar

    Full Text Available The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha, we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52% of the bigger birds (>20 cm were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape.

  2. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  3. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF INDIRECT USE VALUES OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY IN YAOLUOPING NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE, ANHUI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; QIAN Yi; ZHENG Lin; PENG Bu-zhuo

    2003-01-01

    Direct use values of forest ecosystem have been recognized apparently due to its easy and convenient assessment, while indirect use values are usually neglected because they are not easy to be recognized by the public.For a nature reserve with forest ecosystem, the most important economic values are the indirect use values, which pro-vide human beings and other living things with beneficial services through ecological processes and functions. In this case study, a quantifying framework to estimate the annual indirect use values of forest ecosystem has been established in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve based on alternative cost method and opportunity cost method. The ecological functions assessed in the study relate to six aspects: soil protection, water conservation, CO2 fixation, nutrient cycling,pollutant decomposition and disease and pest control. These ecological functions provide an economic value of 86.1 x 106 yuan (RMB) per year (US$ 10.37x 106 ), which is 25 times higher than the opportunity cost for regular timber production. This study can contribute to the monetary assessment of indirect use values of forest biodiversity and to thec onservation and sustainable use of nature reserves.

  5. Optimization of Functioning of the Klintsovsky State Nature Reserve of Regional Importance in the Bryansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalenko Igor Vladimirovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides information on the current status of specially protected natural territories of the Bryansk region – namely, the Klintsovsky state nature reserve of regional importance located on the territory of the Bryansk region. The authors touch upon the problems of global biodiversity and conservation of rare and endangered plant species. The species composition is specified, and the habitats of rare plant species are revealed. The purpose of the research is to develop policies and programs aimed at the conservation of biodiversity and restoration of rare and endangered species of plants growing in the region, including in the Klintsovsky reserve of the Bryansk region. The authors have developed the methods on preservation and restorations of rare and endangered plants species populations growing in the reserve. For successful implementation of a number of issues on environmental trends, the authors identified the feasibility of establishing an interregional introduction center. The task of introduction center for issues related to the identification and involvement of economically valuable species of plants, including rare and endangered species in the center. The article also deals with the organization of research on their biology and ecology, modeling optimal conditions for mass breeding and cultivation of planting material and the development of programs for the implementation of these species in natural habitats in order to restore the size and population density.

  6. Yet another empty forest: considering the conservation value of a recently established tropical nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Jianchu; Harrison, Rhett D

    2015-01-01

    The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha), we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52%) of the bigger birds (>20 cm) were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape.

  7. Anthropogenic heavy metals in the environment of Eurasian Arctic Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ivanova, Yulia; Karpov, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    The Russian Arctic Nature Reserves are situated far from the main industrial regions. In spite of this, there are anthropogenic constituents (for example, heavy metals - HM) in the environmental objects (air, water, etc.) and in food chains (plants, birds, and so on). We studied the long-range atmospheric transport of some heavy metals (such as nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, and so on) to four Nature Reserves situated near the shore of the Arctic Ocean - in the Deltas of the Pechora River (Nenets reserve), the Ob River (Gydansky reserve), the Lena River (Ust-Lensky reserve), and at Wrangel Island. The air mass trajectories to each reserve were calculated with the help of the site (www.arl.noaa.gov/ready) for each day of January, April, July, and October for the period of 2001-2010. Analyzing the spatial distributions of these trajectories we studied seasonal variations in air transport of pollution to different Russian Arctic points. Modeling the HM transport in the atmosphere was as in [1]. The main assumption is that HM are transported with submicron aerosol particles. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The main important source-regions were found for each point. Mean anthropogenic HM concentrations in air and precipitations, as well as HM fluxes onto the surface were estimated at different arctic regions. The spatial distributions of so called "potential function of pollution" were calculated and presented on the maps. These results allow to analyze the role of a real pollution source or of a planned source for each reserve. So, the influence of northern oil and gas industry may be of great importance because of its proximity to the reserves under investigation. The work was partly supported by RFBR, grant No. 14-05-00059. Authors thank the NOAA service for possibility to use their data and products. ________________ 1. Vinogradova

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND ITS CHANGES ESTIMATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF TATARSTAN REPUBLIC NATURAL RESERVED FOND OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Valeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Environment quality estimation and its probable changes in the presence of anthropogenous influence on the Tatarstan republic natural reserved fond objects with fluctuating asymmetry method on different species of organisms was carried out.Methods. Gathering of scientific material was carried out at the 2012-2013 years period at the natural reserved fond objects territory – Tatarstan republic state natural complex wildlife areas. For land ecosystems estimation the morphometric parameters of birch leafs was used, for water ecosystems characteristic – the morphometric parameters of most ordinary species of fish (small fry, golden crucian, bream and amphibians (pond and lake frog. Morphometric measurements results of indicator organisms was statistically processed, fluctuating asymmetry parameter was calculated, according received results the state of ecosystems was estimated.Results. The state of some especially protected natural areas at the Tatarstan republic was estimated. Applicability of fluctuating asymmetry parameter for complex ecosystem estimation was proved. Received results can be used as a matter for ecological risk estimation methodic developing for Tatarstan republic territory.Main conclusions. The investigated areas ecological status was estimated as “relatively normal”. The fluctuating asymmetry parameter in similar conditions for phytoindicator was higher than for zooindicators Results analysis was shown the need of using different indicators for complex characteristic of environmental quality.

  9. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  10. Defoliation of monumental trees in the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szczerba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009 an inventory and evaluation of health condition of monumental trees in the Nature Reserve „Krajkowo” were conducted. 80 of the 109 inventoried trees grew in the riparian forest site. Health condition of the old oaks was more deteriorated as compared with the results obtained in 2006. In 2009 the percentage of the monumental trees classified into degree three increased by 5% (> 60% of defoliation and by 8% in degree two (26-60% of defoliation. The share of trees in class zero (0-10% of defoliation decreased by 17% when compared with the data from 2006. The deterioration of condition might be caused by a reduction of flooding range and duration. Our observations do not allow to exclude that a progressive deterioration of the monumental trees condition has been a long-term trend in the “Krajkowo” reserve.

  11. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  12. Findings of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae in Nature Reserves in Ukraine

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    Yakovlev Ye. B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae in Nature Reserves in-Ukraine. Yakovlev, Ye. B., Kharchenko, V. A., Mráček, Z. — Five strains of Steinernema Travassos, 1927 were isolated by live baiting method with last instar larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 from the reserves of some central and southern oblasts of Ukraine and the Crimean AR. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 5 of 196 (2.6 % soil samples collected in 2010. Isolated nematodes were identified using a combination of molecular (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA gene sequencing and morphological techniques. Four of the isolated strains were recognized as S. feltiae (Filipjev, 1934, one as S. arenarium (Artyukhovsky, 1967.

  13. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

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    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil. The study showed that the indicators used in the biological condition of the soil, could be recommended for use for diagnosis, monitoring, and regulation of chemical pollution of brown soil. According to the degree of resistance to chemical contamination, the brown soils of Russia form the following series: typical brown - brown carbonate - brown leached

  14. Species composition and model of the riparian stand structure in the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo”

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    Marek Szczerba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the riparian stand composition and to compare its diameter at breast height (d.b.h. structure with the theoretical d.b.h. structure of selection stand. The riparian stand of the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo” has the traits of an uneven-aged, multi-layer, mixed forest with many dead or dying old trees. There were 14 tree species in the experimental plots. Quercus robur and Ulmus laevis dominated in the stands. The trees’ distribution in d.b.h. classes was similar to the theoretical d.b.h. structure of selection stand. The differences between the actual and theoretical number of trees in d.b.h. classes were caused by natural effects of site and biotic factors on the composition and structure of the riparian forest.

  15. Ecological and zoogeographical significance of terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain natural reserve (Romania

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    Cupsa Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Carei Plain natural reserve we identified 15 terrestrial isopod species: Haplophthalmus mengii, Haplophthalmus danicus, Hyloniscus riparius, Hyloniscus transsylvanicus, Plathyarthrus hoffmannseggii, Cylisticus convexus, Porcellionides pruinosus, Protracheoniscus politus, Trachelipus arcuatus, Trachelipus nodulosus, Trachelipus rathkii, Porcellium collicola, Porcellio scaber, Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillidium versicolor. The highest species diversity is found in wetlands, while the lowest is in plantations and forests. On the Carei Plain, there are some terrestrial isopods that are normally connected with higher altitudes. Moreover, some sylvan species are present in the open wetlands. Unlike marshes, sand dunes present anthropophilic and invasive species. The diversity of the terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain protected area is high due to the habitats’ diversity and the history of this area. Thus, the composition of the terrestrial isopod communities from the area underlines its distinct particularities, emphasizing the necessity of preserving the natural habitats.

  16. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

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    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  17. 中国自然保护区研究的现状与展望%Present conditions and prospects of the researches on nature reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝贵; 朱诚

    2004-01-01

    The construction of nature reserves in China is reviewed in this paper,mainly including the number,type,administration and distribution of nature reserves,the progress in research on biodiversity,evaluation,management,sustainable development of nature reserves in China is summarized briefly,and some development tendencies of research on nature reserves are put forward.

  18. Analysis of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej: Carska bara and principles of protection

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    Mrkša Milutin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is presentation a realistic status of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej - Carska Bara. This article is present exchanged status of elements whose after effect operated the tourism activity. Principles of protection is present, too. Specific reservation of nature is area which comprehend one or more extra value of nature. Principles of protection are necessary for route, control and following.

  19. Species diversity and conservation of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

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    Huaizhen Tian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available All known wild species of Orchidaceae are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. However, species diversity of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, China, is not well known. Based on field work, inspection of herbarium specimens, and previous records, 121 species in 49 genera of Orchidaceae are listed for the reserve. Of these, 75 species are terrestrial, 40 are epiphytic and 6 are saprophytic. Species fall mainly within genera such as Bulbophyllum (10 species, Calanthe (10 species, Goodyera (10 species, Liparis (8 species, Habenaria (7 species and Cymbidum (6 species. A few species are widespread showing great abundance in the reserve, but most are rather rare having narrow distributions. Tropical type genera tend to dominate, although temperate orchids are more common at the species level. This indicates that the orchid flora is rather complex, being amix of tropic Asian types and East Asian types, particularly of Sino-Japan kind. Thus the orchid flora of Nanling N. N. R has an obvious subtropical character, with affinities to that of Taiwan. We appeal for reasonable plan on establishing power stations and related rule of law should be found to control the illegal trade of the wild orchids in Nanling N. N. R.

  20. Species distribution modeling techniques as a tool in preliminary assessment of special nature reserve ,,Goč-Gvozdac’’

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    Čubrić, T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation actions such as defining new nature reserve require accurate estimates of the spatial distributions of the target species. Species distribution models provide habitat suitability maps for studied species. In this paper we used Maxent software to estimate the distribution and extent of potential suitable habitat of five amphibian and reptilian species (Mesotriton alpestris, Bombina variegata, Testudo hermanni, Lacerta viridis and Vipera ammodytes in the special nature reserve “Goč-Gvozdac” (Central Serbia in order to assess how much of the potential habitats is included in this reserve. Comparing produced suitable habitat maps of the species with a map of the special nature reserve “Goč – Gvozdac” we concluded that the reserve boundaries do not coincide with the proposed distribution of suitable habitats for M. alpestris, T. hermanni, L. viridis and V. ammodytes, and therefore this reserve does not contribute much to the protection of local populations of these species.

  1. Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi

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    DEWI AYU LESTARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lestari DA, Santoso W (2011 Inventory and habitat study of orchids species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 12: 28-33. Orchid is one of the ornamental plants which have been high commercial value. Therefore, orchid often has been over exploitation. Finally, some of orchid species are becoming threatened or even endangered. Purwodadi Botanical Garden as an institute of ex-situ conservation play role with it. The aim of this research is to inventory orchid’s species in Lamedai Nature Reserve, Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi by explorative method. Observation for habitat study was focused on some ecological factors supported to orchids growth like host tree, zone growth on host tree, abundance of sunlight, thickness of substrate (moss, orchid species and number of invidual species. The result showed that there were 27 orchids species, consist of, 25 species (16 genera epiphytic orchid and 2 species terrestrial orchid such as Eulophia keitii var. celebica and Goodyera rubicunda (Blume Lindl. The host preference for the epiphytic orchid are the group of Myrtaceae family like Syzygium sp., Metrosideros vera Niederen and Metrosideros sp. They mostly grow on the main stem of the tree zone 1 on thick substrate (moss and get a little abundance of sunlight (calm.

  2. The exploration of plant species in nature reserve of Mount Mutis East Nusa Tenggara Province

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    Solikin Solikin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to explore and inventory the plant diversity, especially medicinal plants in Nature Reserve of Mount Mutis. Data were collected in Fatumnasi Village, Fatumnasi District of South Central Timor Regency in Octo-ber 2011 through plant exploration and interview the local people. Plants inventory was conducted along the tracks during exploration. Herbs vegetation analysis was conducted among the tree stands of Eucalyptus urophylla. In addi-tion, orchid vegetation analysis was only conducted to orchids that have been found attaching to Eucalyptus urophylla trees. Results showed that there were about 52 family, 78 genera and 84 species of plants in the observed area. Tree species was dominated by 'ampupu' (Eucalyptus urophylla, while orchid species was dominated by Eria retusa. Herbaceous plant communities were dominated by Centella asiatica, Cyperus sp. and Cynodon dactylon. There were about eight plant species of medicinal plants and one food plant species found in the forestthat have been known by local people. Keywords: exploration, inventory, Mount Mutis, nature reserve

  3. Nest-site selection pattern of Grusjaponensis in Zhalong Nature Reserve of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-ming; ZOU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    Nest-site selection patterns of Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and the effects of environmental variables were studied during the years of 2002-2008 in Zhalong Nature Reserve, Qiqihar city,northeast China. The nest-site selection pattern of Red-crowned cranes included two orders and three choices: the choice of nest-site habitat type within the macro-habitat order, nest zone selection and nest-site micro-habitat selection within the micro-habitat order. Various habitats (such as Carex swamps and reed fire districts) can be selected as the nest sites for Red-crowned cranes, of which reed swamps (93.15%) are given a preference. Factor Analysis reveals that the micro-habitat selection are affected by four main factors: fire, security (concealment / disturbance),incubation (conditions, nest-material), and food. Further analysis reveals that Red-crowned cranes have certain adaptability to the changes of nesting habitat quality in the Zhalong wetlands. In conclusion, fire, reeds,and water were the most important variables for nest-site habitat selection of Red-crowned Cranes in Zhalong Nature Reserve.

  4. Natural regeneration dynamics of three dry deciduous forest species in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve, Nicaragua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Castro Marín; Mulualem Tigabu; Benigno González Rivas; Per Christer Odén

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the natural regeneration of three dry forest species, Lysiloma divaricatum (Jacq.), Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) and Lonchocarpus minimiflorus (Donn. Sm.) over a three-year period and to analyze heterogeneity of regeneration in relationship to topographic slope and incidence of light in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve in Nicaragua. Permanent sample plots were established in 2001, and all individuals with height as low as 10 cm and diameter as large as 10 cm were recorded for three consecutive years from 2001 to 2003. The results show that the density of naturally regenerated individuals varied significantly among species, as well as over time. L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea had higher densities compared with L. divaricatum, and the net change in population density was slightly positive for T. ochracea only. Regeneration was more abundant in the gentle and steep slopes under partial exposure of the crown to sunlight, thus resulting in aggregated pattern of distribution, especially for L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea. We concluded that natural regeneration alone is not sufficient to maintain the desired number of stocks of these species, and an immediate restoration measure should be taken to assist the natural regeneration process.

  5. Influence of nutrition on the decline of ovarian reserve and subsequent onset of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Karma; Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-09-01

    The early loss of ovarian reserve and subsequent menopause has a major impact on fertility potential and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and mortality later in life. While many studies have reported that lifestyle factors such as diet can influence the age of onset of natural menopause, their results are often contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of diet on the onset of natural menopause using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire in a cohort of 1146 pre-menopausal women followed up for an average of 12.5 years. The primary finding was that the age of natural menopause was positively correlated with dietary intake of the micronutrient β-cryptoxanthin (r(2 )=( )0.105, p menopause (parity, BMI, physical activity level, education, smoking, energy and alcohol intake). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that both β-cryptoxanthin and fruit intake was associated with a significant delay in the onset of natural menopause. While still acknowledging that further research is required, in the interim we would advocate that a diet containing ∼400 mcg of β-cryptoxanthin per day from fruits (mandarins, oranges and peaches) has significant potential to delay ovarian senescence by 1.3 years.

  6. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  7. Effectiveness of nature reserve system for conserving tropical forests: a statistical evaluation of Hainan Island, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Wei; Pechacek, Peter; Zhang, Mingxia; Xiao, Nengwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we tested the effectiveness of the reserve system on Hainan Island by conducting a three-way comparison of changes in forest area in locations within the reserves, adjacent to the reserves...

  8. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  9. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  10. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  11. Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2013-09-15

    The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked.

  12. Metal Contents in Lichens from Nature Reserves Adjacent to Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Notov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The gross and average contents of 18 metals (Al, As, Cd, Ge, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES analysis in samples of Hypogymnia physodes collected from regional nature reserves (NR) in the cities of Tver and Konakovo. The average contents of six metals (Zn, Mo, Cr, Ti, Al, Fe) and the gross contents of eight metals (Zn, Mo, Co, Cu, Cr, Ti, Al, Fe) in these cities were higher than the background levels for Tver Region. The contents of other metals did not exceed background levels. The concentrations of most metals were higher in samples from Tver than in those from Konakovo due to the specifics of their economic infrastructures. The Bobachevskaya Grove NR (Tver) had the most pronounced technological metal pollution. Areas with significant fragments of forest communities were less polluted.

  13. Total N, total P and organic matters content in floodplain soils of Xianghai Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Soil sediment samples of 10 layers with a spacing of 10 cm each were collected in different floodplain zones adjacent to Huolin River in the Xianghai Nature Reserve, and contents of total N, total P and organic matters were analyzed. The results showed that contents of total N, total P and organic matters were generally decreasing with the increase of distance from sample locations to the river channel, and contents of the three items were generally higher in the upper soil layer than that in the lower soil layer. The content variations displayed how flooding functions influenced nutrient matter content variations in floodplain soils since the flood inundation frequencies of the sample locations varied. The correlation analysis displayed that there were remarkable relativities between total N, total P and organic matters within definite spatial distance from the Huolin River channel.

  14. Appendix geoecological evaluation of the area of nature reserve "Obedska bara" (Serbia

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    Krajić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Special nature reserve "Obedska bara" and its protection area is geoecological evaluated by using the recreation potential indexing method for nautical tourism and recreation sports of rowing, and for aerobic and excursion tourism. Evaluation confirmed that the left bank of the river Sava from Grabovci to Kupinovo, for the needs of nautical tourism, falls into the category of high-value areas, and for recreation is characterized as mainly valuable landscapes. Valuation of the alluvial plain for the purpose of aerobics has shown that fall into the category of “mostly” valuable land. Land evaluation has concluded that the settlements Kupinovo and Obrez circumcised the category very valuable tourist destinations as opposed to Grabovci falling into the category of mostly hard-working but Ogar and Asanja are categorized as“relatively” valuable areas.

  15. The phytosociology of the southern section of Borakalalo Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    L.R. Brown

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for conservation areas in South Africa, the plant communities of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were investigated. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures was used for a phytosociological study. The analysis resulted in five major plant communities, one with two subcommunities and one with four subcommunities and two variants. Habitat factors associated with differences in vegetation include topography, soil form and grazing pressure. Descriptions of the plant communities include diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata. The classification provides the necessary delimitation of homogeneous areas which are considered necessary for veld management.

  16. Creating a Ruggedness Layer for Use in Habitat Suitability Modeling for Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Nanette Bragin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-explicit wildlife habitat models are increasingly used to study optimal habitat for species of conservation focus. A ruggedness layer, that summarizes aspect and slope, provides a useful tool for analyses conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS, such as developing a habitat suitability index model to measure species habitat use. Ruggedness layers prove especially useful in areas where topography represents a key habitat component. We created a ruggedness layer for the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and surrounding areas in northern Dornogobi Aimag (province, Mongolia. Using a 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM and ArcGIS 10 spatial analyst, we created 9 categories for ruggedness. When combined with other thematic layers such as vegetation, the ruggedness layer becomes a powerful tool for analyzing habitat use by individual animals. The results of such analyses may inform decision makers in protected area planning and conservation of endangered species.

  17. Tree species distribution along the environmental gradients in Pananjung Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java

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    AGUNG KURNIAWAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The research of tree species distribution along the environmental gradients in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Pananjung Pangandaran Nature Reserve had been conducted. The study aimed to elucidate the relationship between tree species distribution with ≥10 cm dbh and some measured environmental gradients, namely soil pH and moisture, soil depth, litter thickness, light intensity, altitude, slope, and the distance of plot from coastal line. A number of 125 of 10x10 m2 quadrats were established randomly in four transects. The results indicated that Rhodamnia cinerea was the species having the highest presence. Ordination technique using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA suggested that tree species were less evenly distributed along the measured environmental factors with Eigenvalue 0,387. Altitude was the most important environmental factor affected tree species distribution, soil moisture as well as light intensity.

  18. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China

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    Huang Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China. We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100% were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski’s horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski’s horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home.

  19. A family net of giant pandas in the Tangjiahe Natural Reserve: Assessment of current individual migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Qiuhong; FANG Shengguo; LI Jianguo; ZHANG Liming; OU Weifu; XIAN Fanghai; CHEN Wanli

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, formalin-fixed feces, oligonucleotide fingerprinting and SRY-gene based sexing were used to construct a family net for giant pandas in the Tangjiahe Natural Reserve and to assess contemporary gene flow (migration) in this population. A total of 124 fecal samples were attributed to 37 individuals (22 females and 15 males) that were then analyzed for family relationships. Based on DNA fingerprints, the deduced family net revealed the following facts: (i) First-order relatives possessed similarities from 50% to 90%, and similarities between unrelated individuals or distant relatives were as high as 77%, indicating that the Tangjiahe pandas are characterized by high genetic similarity; (ii) 15 matings were identified and 5 ones occurred between close relatives, implying that there is potential for inbreeding to impact the pandas; (iii) four mating pairs and 5 offspring presented long distance migrations, demonstrating the intra-reserve habitat is continuous; (iv) four pairs of full sibs (also female-male dyads) dispersed short distance and all of them gave birth to highly inbred offspring, reflecting long distance migration is vital for inbreeding avoidance; (v) 17 adult individuals dispersed short or moderate distance and formed three clusters on the landscape, indicating that it is necessary to find out whether there is a negative factor impacting the pandas.

  20. Argali Sheep (Ovis ammon Movement Corridors Between Critical Resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    James D. Murdoch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals move through a landscape can reveal corridors or narrow paths of movement that connect discrete parts of a landscape. Identifying corridors can be important for planning conservation activities, especially for threatened species. We synthesized information on the ranging behavior and distribution of argali sheep to quantify linkages and potential pinch points of movement between critical resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We used a cost-weighted distance approach to quantify the relative cost of movement between water sources (springs, which represent critical resources. We used values to map a corridor of movement and examined movement fl ow through the corridor using a circuit theory approach. We identifi ed a corridor connecting all springs that covered 50.6 km2 . Most of the corridor overlapped the reserve (77% and reserve’s core area (62%. A least-cost path between the furthest separated springs (18 km was 26.4 km. Most movement fl ow through the corridor concentrated around springs, especially those in the southern and central portions of the corridor. The analysis also revealed several pinch points that represent a conservation concern. We recommend prioritizing activities at pinch points and extending protected area boundaries to encompass all springs to eff ectively protect the entire corridor.

  1. The spiders of the Swartberg Nature Reserve in South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Swartberg Nature Reserve is situated in the Large Swartberg mountain range, in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape Province. Spiders were collected from the reserve over a 10-year period. This is one of the inventory projects of the South African National Survey (SANSA for spiders of the Succulent Karoo Biome. A total of 45 families comprising 136 genera and 186 species were collected, all which are new records for the area. This represents about 9.4 of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the spiders collected 142 species (76.5 were wanderers and 44 (23.5 web dwellers. The plant dwellers comprised 43.3 of the total number of species and the ground dwellers 56.7 . The Gnaphosidae was the most diverse family represented by 33 species, followed by the Salticidae with 23 and Thomisidae with 15. Ten species are possibly new to science and the Filistatidae is a first record for South Africa. An annotated checklist with information on the guilds, habitat preference and web types are provided.

  2. Biotope of Corsac Fox and Red Fox in Ikh Nart Natur e Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Corsac foxes ( Vu lpes corsac and red foxes ( V. vulpes range widely across northern and central Asia, occupying a variety of arid biotopes. In Mongolia, both species live sympatrically throughout most of the country, but few details of their habitat associations exist. We examined the biotope of corsac and red foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia, which lies at the confl ue nce of steppe and semi-desert vegetation zones. We evaluated the extent to which both species occur in these two zones and the habitats within them based on locations of scats ( n = 1 ,967, opportunistic sightings ( n = 2 19, and captures ( n = 3 5 collected from August 2004 to August 2007. Corsac and red foxes occurred in both steppe and semi-desert zones and all habitat types in the reserve. However, corsacs occurred more frequently than expected in steppe zone and red foxes occurred more than expected in semi-desert zone. Corsac locations associated positively with steppe habitats, including grass, shrub, and semi-shrub plains, whereas red fox locations fell mainly in drier, more rugged semi-desert habitats, suggesting ecological separation exists between species. As corsac and red foxes appear to be declining in Mongolia, our results suggest that protection efforts in Ikh Nart should focus on steppe habitats for corsacs and semi-desert habitats for red foxes.

  3. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Tufa Degradation in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

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    Lixia Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water and tufa samples were collected from Arrow Bamboo Lake, the stream from Panda Lake to Five-Color Lake, Pearl Shoal and Shuzheng Lakes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China, between October 2013 and September 2014, to investigate tufa growth rate and water environment (water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, major ions and nutrients, and analyzed to explore the main causes of tufa degradation. The mean annual rate of tufa growth was low and varied within lakes, with the maximum deposit thickness of 332 μm/y. The calcite saturation index ranged from 0.65 to 0.83. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the tufa deposits had non-isopachous structures, and diatoms were the dominant microorganisms that participated in tufa deposition. Porous and crystalline structures of deposits were linked with a high tufa growth and small amounts of diatoms. Conversely, tufa deposits with amorphous and loose structures showed a low crystal growth rate and a high number of diatoms. A one-way analysis of variance and a least significant difference test were applied to identify site differences in water chemistry. Linear correlations indicated that nitrate, phosphate and sulfate inhibit tufa growth (p < 0.05. Increased nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations that originate mainly from atmospheric pollution and tourist activities at scenic attractions could trigger excessive diatom growth, which inhibits tufa precipitation. A series of measures should be implemented (e.g., the visitor number and vehicles should be regulated and controlled to minimize tufa degradation in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve.

  5. Research on snow leopards (Panthera uncia using camera-trapping in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

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    Zhuo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 2013 and March 2016, twenty Ltl-6210MC infrared-triggered camera-traps were installed in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, to monitor snow leopards(Panthera uncia and other wildlife. A total of 7,056 camera-days of data were collected, including approximately 120,000 photos and video clips. The effective number of snow leopard samples collected by the infrared cameras was 43, and the calculated relative abundance index (RAI for this species was 6.09. During the 28 months of continuous data collection using infrared cameras, records of snow leopards, including leopard cubs, demonstrated that Wolong National Nature Reserve is a relatively hospitable environment for this species. The analytical results indicate that the annual activity peaked in January, and the daily activity peaked between the hours of 18:00–20:00, and daily activity patterns showed seasonal variations. When considering environmental factors, the preferred habitat is the alpine scree where snow leopards appeared most in the ridge areas and the range of preferred reference temperatures for snow leopard activity was found between –10℃ and –3℃. In addition, the lunar-phase relative abundance index was originally created to assess the appearance of wildlife under different night lightness levels. It was found that the snow leopard is fairly active at night, and the lunar-phase has a significant impact on its level of nocturnal activity (P < 0.01. We provided primary sources for further protection and research of snow leopards and the other wildlife. This study could be utilized to comprehensively learn the ecological characteristics and assess snow leopard habitat.

  6. THE“MARGINAL MAN” SITUATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL SETTLERS FROM THE SANJIANGYUAN AREA%三江源生态移民的“边缘人”处境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪红; 安宇

    2015-01-01

    Based on the survey on the emphasis of development and effectiveness in different stage of the ecological protection and construction project in the Sanjiangyuan area ( source of Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancangjiang River) , this article analyzes the social condition of the ecological settlers from this area after their resettlement by applying the“marginal man” theory abroad.It points out that the main ex-pressions of the“marginal man” situation of the ecological settlers are the marginalities in terms of location , economy, status and culture.It argues that the emphasis of the second stage of the ecological protection and construction project should be placed on the issues of solving problems related to the survival and develop-ment of the ecological settlers, whereas the solving of this problem rests upon the post-resettlement indus-trial development in the areas of ecological resettlement.%基于三江源生态保护和建设工程不同阶段发展重点和成效的考察,文章运用国外“边缘人”理论分析三江源生态移民在搬迁后的“边缘人”处境,主要体现为区位上的边缘性、经济上的边缘性、身份上的边缘性和文化上的边缘性。三江源生态保护和建设二期工程的重点应放在解决生态移民的生存发展问题上,而解决这一问题则有赖于生态移民区的后续产业发展。

  7. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

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    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  8. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  9. Demographic Genetic Structure of Cryptomeria japonica var.sinensis in Tianmushan Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chen; Shu-Zhen Yang; Ming-Shui Zhao; Bi-Ye Ni; Liang Liu; Xiao-Yong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Genetic changes over space and time provide insights into the relative roles of evolutionary factors in shaping genetic patterns within plant populations.However,compared with spatial genetic structure,few studies have been conducted on genetic changes over time.In this study,we used six polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic variation of six size-classes of the population of Liushan,Cryptomeria japonica var.sinensis,in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve,whose origin was debatable.The mean number of alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity were 4.583 and 0.5999 respectively,lower than other conifers with the same life history characteristics.FST was 0.002 4- 0.003,and the pairwise test revealed no significant differentiation in any pair of size classes.Significant heterozygosity excesses were detected in five size classes except the oldest one,indicating bottleneck event(s).The above results support the hypothesis that Tianmushan population was introduced and followed by natural regeneration.

  10. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  11. ASSESMENT OF MAINTENANCE OF TREE STAND IN NATURE RESERVE "SKARPA WIŚLICKA" IN SILESIAN FOOTHILLS

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    Damian Chmura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The forest “Skarpa Wiślicka” is nature reserve that protects remnants of former primevail forest in the territory of Wiślica. It also is included in NATURA 2000 area (Cieszyńskie Źródła Tufowe code PLH240001. The aim of the present study was to valorization of treestand of this protected object. Amongst 19 observed tree species, 11 were studied in detail (232 randomly selected individuals. Dendrometry measurements, health tree were assessed. The attention was paid to presence of coarse woody debris as well. For the purpose of the latter decomposition stage was characterized. The studies demonstrated that as many as 69 individuals scored size for nature monuments (circumference and diameter at breast height. The elm Ulmus glabra prevailed (25 individuals have higher value than 220 cm of circumference and the least abundant is ash Fraxinus excelsior (2 higher than 250 cm. More than 50% of trees were characterized by damages i.e. losses of bark, dried or broken branches. Amount of coarse woody debris is not enough. Amongst logs I degree of decomposition dominated (27 logs, whereas weighted mean is 2.93 in 8-degree scale. To sum up it can be concluded that the number of trees that deserve the protection of the rank of a natural monument is very high. It reflects favorable conditions of development of forest communities in the territory of “Skarpa Wiślicka”. While relatively small amount of dead wood and low mean degree of decomposition indicates the impact of forest management i.e. frequent removal of dead wood.

  12. Wild Ungulate Distribution in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Southwest China

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    A.C. Treydte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia´s tropical forests harbour a unique diversity of wildlife but species and numbers are rapidly declining under current land use. To improve conservation strategies in these biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of animal species present and their distribution is crucial. We wanted to identify the ungulate community composition and distribution of a ‘Man and Biosphere’ reserve, the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve (NRWNNR, Yunnan, Southwest China. Using camera traps, transects, and spoor-plots we identified wild ungulate species and corresponding habitat properties. We compared two study sites of different protection status – the buffer and experimental zones – on an overall transect length of 32 km and analysed relationships between wildlife activity, forest vegetation structure, and human disturbance. We documented six ungulate species, all of which occurred in the buffer zone while only three species were found in the experimental zone. Wild boar sign density was about 10 times higher in the buffer than in the experimental zone. Overall wildlife sign density increased with distance away from human settlements and closer to the core zone. Hence, human disturbance strongly influenced wild ungulate abundance but the NRWNNR was found to host a diverse ungulate community, considering its small size and compared to other conservation areas in the region. The combination of various methods proved to be successful in identifying and locating forest wildlife. The NRWNNR, particularly the more strongly protected zones, could greatly contribute to future ecotourism activities in Yunnan if a strict preservation of buffer and core zones can be maintained.

  13. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  14. Activity budgets in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI

    2009-01-01

    We examined time allocation by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana in the montane, temperate and highly seasonal forests of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China, in order to improve our understanding of the ecological and social influences on monkey behavior. We collected data on activity budgets in relation to food availability in a group of monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February 2004), using instantaneous scan samples. The monkeys spent 36.21% of daytime moving (n=21, 269 records), 24.39% foraging, 9.33% inactive, 11.7% performing social behaviors, and 18.38% performing other behaviors. There were seasonal and annual variations in the proportions of time devoted to some activities. These variations were largely attributed to seasonal or annual fluctuations in the distribution and quality of food resources. Adult males spent more time moving, searching, and displaying other behaviors, but less time feeding and performing social behaviors than adult females. Adults performed other behaviors more often and moving less often than juveniles. These differences in activity budgets may reflect fundamental differences in reproductive biology, parental investment, and development among the different age/sex classes.

  15. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Tserendorj Munkhzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  16. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  17. WATER QUALITY AT THREE SPECIAL NATURE RESERVES IN VOJVODINA, SERBIA: PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

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    J. GRABIĆ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of water quality caused by an anthropogenic influence is a problem which is present even at some special nature reserves (SNRs in the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The aim of this paper is to present results of preliminary research on water quality on three SNRs. Whereas in the SNR Ludaško jezero (Ludaš Lake and in the SNR Obedska bara (Obedska Pond serious euthropic processes are present due to agricultural runoff and untreated wastewater, the SNR Stari Begej – Carska bara (Old Bega River - Imperial Pond is under the potential influences of fish farms and agriculture. The monitoring conducted in spring/summer period and in autumn in all SNR included water sampling on several locations within each SNR. The analyses included basic water quality parameters, water mineralization and microbiological analyses. Both, water quality and microbiological results have proven highly eutrophic status of the SNR Ludaško jezero and significant difference in salinity in the north and in the south of the lake. The results on the other two investigated SNRs are a bit better indicating moderate eutrophic conditions, except for autumn sampling at SNR Stari Begej-Carska bara when serious deterioration of water quality was determined.

  18. Ecology of the Daurian Hedgehog ( Hemiechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

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    James D. Murdoch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Daurian hedgehog ranges across northern Mongolia, southern Siberia, and northern China. However, few details of the species’ behavior, ecology, or distribution are known. We conducted a pilot study of the ranging behavior and diet of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We captured and radio-tagged eight hedgehogs (six males/two females between June and September 2006. We tracked their movements until hibernation to estimate home range sizes and daytime nest characteristics. We also analyzed scats ( N = 38 to gain a preliminary understanding of the food habits of the species. During the study, we collected 237 hedgehog locations, including 91 night, 141 day, and fi ve hibernation sites. Hedgehogs were followed a mean of 53.43 ± 4.35 SE days from capture before entering hibernation. Mean home range size for seven hedgehogs was 422.72 ± 94.07 SE ha. Daytime nest sites had one, rarely two entrances, and usually occurred in rocky outcrops or at the base of shrubs. The most frequently occurring prey groups in scats included beetles (47%, cockroaches (28%, and grasshoppers (20%. Scats also included bird (3%, reptile (1%, and rodent (1% remains. Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart were generally larger in size, occupied larger home ranges, and ate similar foods compared to Daurian hedgehogs in other regions. The presence of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart also represents a range extension for the species.

  19. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  20. [Spatial distribution of soil total nitrogen in Liangshui National Nature Reserve based on local model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Guo, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Ying-hui; Li, Feng-ri; Wei, Qing-bin

    2016-02-01

    Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK). Results showed that the prediction accuracy of GWR (77.4%) was higher than that of other three interpolation methods and the accuracy of IDW (69.4%) was higher than that of OK (63.5%) and UK (60.6%). The average of TN predicted by GWR reached 4.82 g . kg-1 in the study area and TN tended to be higher in the region with higher elevation, bigger wetness index and stronger relative stream power index than in other areas. Further, TN also varied partly with various aspects and slopes. Thus, local model using terrain attributes as independent variables was effective in predicting soil attribute distribution.

  1. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  2. Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical analysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

  3. Siberian Ibex (Capra sibirica Neonatal Kid Survival and Morphometric Measurements in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Baatargal Otgonbayar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors infl uencing survival of ungulate neonates facilitates successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and adaptive species management. However, kid survival of near threatened Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica remains poorly understood. During 2005-2013, we captured and collared 21 ibex kids in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia, to monitor their survival and cause-specifi c mortality. We found no diff erences in morphometric measurements between male and female kids, except body mass being males weighing more than females. A total of 11 mortalities were documented and predations by red foxes (n=5, Vulpes vulpes and grey wolf (n=1, Canis lupus was the leading cause of the mortalities. Known fate models indicate the monthly survival of kids best explained by body mass and fi rst month of life (April-May + weight. Monthly survival estimates ranged from 0.077 (95% CI = 0.60-0.88 in April-May to 0.97 (95% CI = 0.90-0.99 in June-March, with an annual survival rate of 0.45 (95% CI = 0.24-0.68. We found little support for the hypotheses that body mass or birth date infl uenced survival; however, our small sample size limited the power of the analyses. Overall, our results indicated that predation and other factors led to high kid mortality during the period shortly after birth

  4. Dynamics of the forest vegetation of the Umtiza Nature Reserve, East London

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    J. J. Midgley

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest community at the Umtiza Nature Reserve near East London was surveyed using 24 plots (0.04 ha in which all woody stems >0.5 m tall were enumerated. Based on a classification using numbers of stems of canopy species, it was assumed that basically only one forest community was sampled. Further multivariate analyses suggest that this forest is fine-grained. Sample plots were similarly placed in ordination space irrespective of whether woody species occurrence was used as importance value or if species occurrence per size class was used separately [seedlings (0.5-1.0 m, saplings (1-5 m or canopy individuals (> 5 m. An analysis of size-class distributions of the most common canopy species indicated that the majority of species exhibited inverse J-shaped size-class distributions. This is the expected pattern for a fine-grained forest. In these measures of dynamics, this forest is not fundamentally different to the more temperate Afromontane forests.

  5. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PAHs in the UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai, Bay of Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Arrasate, S; Usobiaga, A; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2008-08-01

    Along 10 campaigns, from June 2002 to September 2004, the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments and oysters (Crassostrea sp.) taken from four sites in the Unesco protected natural reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country, Bay of Biscay). Total PAH concentration ranged from 0.7 to 140 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of sediments, and from 300 to 1400 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of oysters. During this study, the coast of the Bay of Biscay was severely affected by the Prestige oil spill (November 2002). Presumably, as a consequence of this accident, both spatial and temporal variations of the PAHs, as well as the sources of the PAHs were affected by the oil spill, and this effect was observed in the total concentrations and, especially, in several diagnostic ratios and in multivariate data analysis. Finally, both BAF (bioaccumulation factor) and BSAF (biota-sediment accumulation factor) parameters were calculated to conclude that particulate matter seems to be the most favourable uptake pathway of PAHs in oysters from this estuary.

  6. Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica Home Ranges in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

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    Richard P. Reading

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica remain poorly understood, as little is known about their ecology . W e began studying ibex in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia to better understand the species’ ecological needs and threats. In this paper we report on home range and core range sizes. We captured 27 ibex and fi t them with radio telemetry collars using drive nets for adults and juveniles ( n = 22 and hand captures for neonatal kids ( n = 5 . W e collected 1,029 locations from September 2003 to February 2007. Throughout the study, 9 ibex with 40+ fi xe s used mean, annual home range sizes of 3,115.5 ± 504.2 ha using the Minimum Convex Polygon method. Home ranges calculated using the fi xe d kernel method were smaller: 475.9 ± 14.7 ha for 50% kernel and 1,808.0 ± 88.1 ha for 95% kernel. Ibex from different demographic groups (males vs. females and juveniles vs. adults used remarkably similar home and core ranges; we found no signifi ca nt differences among any demographic groups. Although not quantifi ed , ibex mostly restricted their activities to areas with steep cliffs and rocky outcrops and home ranges overlapped extensively.

  7. Study on Orchid Diversity in Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve, West Java

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    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve is located in West Java Province. It covers a 15.000 hectare area of highland forest, the altitude range between 800 to 1823 m asl. Orchid inventory and exploration were conducted to study orchid diversity in this conservation areas. Living plant was collected for ex situ conservation purpose in Botanic Garden. Observation on the population of terrestrial and epiphyte orchid was also done to study the dominant orchid in that area. It was recorded that there were 137 orchid species belonging to 51 genera, 95 species of which were epiphytes and 42 other species were terrestrial orchids. 134 species of which were collected in Cibodas Botanic Garden, which is suitable place for highland plant. The most dominant terrestrial orchid was Plocoglottis javanica. Other species were also abundantly found, such as Phaius pauciflorus, Liparis rheedii, Diglyphosa latifolia, Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica, Calanthe ceciliae, C. speciosa and Phaius callosus. Some epiphyte orchids were very common found, that are Agrostophyllum majus, Coelogyne speciosa, Dendrobium mutabile, Agrostophyllum bicuspidatum, Pholidota ventricosa and Eria javanica. Some attractive orchids are potential for ornamental plant, such as Vanda tricolor, Phaius callosus, Phaius tankervilleae, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum lobbii, Coelogyne speciosa, Calanthe ceciliae, Calanthe triplicata and Calanthe speciosa.

  8. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  9. Using 137Cs technique to quantify soil conservation capacities of different ecosystems in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun; OUYANG ZhiYun

    2007-01-01

    Reliable information about soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems is an important reference for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. The objective of this paper is to quantify the soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems that can represent different climatic zones. The 137Cs technique has been used to estimate soil redistribution rates in different natural ecosystems over the past 40 years in Wolong Nature Reserve. The reserve, transiting from the Chengdu plain to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, maintains rich ecosystems from subtropical to frigid.The net soil erosion rates of 5 selected ecosystems that represent a warm coniferous-broadleaf-mixed forest, a cold-resistant deciduous taiga forest, a cold-resistant shrub, an evergreen cold-resistant taiga servation capacities are reversed in order. The reference inventories for 137Cs in different ecosystems velop effective erosion and sediment strategies in areas with similar climates should consider natural ecosystem types.

  10. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 μeq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 μeq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR.

  11. Population structure and habitat use of baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus in the Blyde Canyon Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Marais

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Baboons are highly intelligent and ecologically flexible animals with attributes that allow them to exploit diverse habitats. As a result of their dietary flexibility they often exploit human habitats, causing damage to crops and forest plantations as well as to human dwellings. In the South African context this has led to baboons being regarded as problem animals and attempted extirpation is the most common approach to the damage they cause. This perception of and attitude toward baboons gives many conservationists cause for concern since all southern African cercopithecine primates are CITES listed and it has not been proven that this strategy is the best long-term solution. As part of a research programme focusing on the damage done by chacma baboons in pine plantations along the Drakensberg escarpment in Mpumalanga, a single troop in the Blyde Canyon Nature Reserve was studied to describe their patterns of habitat use. Vegetation and habitat surveys were conducted within the home range of the troop. The troop was habituated and each member’s activity, location and food items utilised were recorded over a 12 month period. The results of this study indicate that baboons utilised plant communities based on food production and availability rather than size in hectares. The results also indicate that the group size, foraging and food search strategies of this troop resembles that of the Drakensberg troops previously studied. The study troop employs two different forage modes of engagement depending on where they choose to forage while they avoid utilising an easily accessible pine plantation. Due to the troop’s long inter-birth intervals it is likely that the current forestry practice of extirpation may have a negative influence on baboon population viability in these areas.

  12. Vegetation of Mangroves: Spatial and Temporal Pattern of its Dominant Populations in Futian National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhenji; Zheng Wenjiao; Yang Zhiwei; Lin Yiming; Lin Peng

    2003-01-01

    The community characteristics of mangroves in the Futian Nature Reserve,Shenzhen, China are given based on surveying of 33 quadrats in 4 transects which stretch from the higher tidal zone to the lower tidal zone. The results show that there are 6 community types in this area: Kandelia cardel association, Avicennia marina association, A egiceras corniculatum association, Kardelia cardel + Aegiceras corniculatum association,Aegiceras corniculatum + Kandelia candel association and Acanthus ilicifolius association.Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina dominate the typical quadrats. Kandelia candel can be seen at almost all quadrats, Aegiceras corniculatum distributes mostly toward the estuary and the higher tidal zone, Avicennia marina distributes mostly toward the bay and the lower tidal zone, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza occasionally occurs toward the Estuary with one or several individuals, Acanthus ilicifolius was common toward the higher tidal zone, as an accompanying species, Derris trifoliata was common in many mature quadrats. Totally, 6 species of mangrove plants and 3 species of semi-mangrove plants appear in this research area. From the higher tidal zone to the lower tidal zone, the average diameter and basal area of mangrove trees increase gradually. According to the results, the Avicennia marina dominates in average diameter and basal area, and the Aegiceras corniculatum trees are on the contrary. From the transect 1 to the transect 4, the importance value of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel decreases, and Ae giceras corniculatum increases. In this area, the Kandelia candel population and Aegiceras corniculatum population are developing populations with many seedlings and saplings, but the Avicennia marina population is in a mature stage with few seedlings and not so many total individuals. According to this research, we suppose that Aegiceras corniculatum should be developed toward the estuary and the Avicennia

  13. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  14. Untangling natural seascape variation from marine reserve effects using a landscape approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Huntington

    Full Text Available Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5x and commercially important biomass (1.75x inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design.

  15. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity.

  16. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  17. Introduction to nature reserve planning and management---Longfeng nature reserve, for example%浅谈自然保护区规划与管理--以龙凤自然保护区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽锋

    2016-01-01

    In recent years as the party and the state attaches great importance to the construction of nature reserve, the planning and management of nature reserves has become a priority. Reasonable and efficient method will directly affect the nature reserves planning, management and construction, a direct impact on nature reserve on the progress of the relevant related work. Nature reserve, with its huge ecological value and the environment effect become the important research objects of both at home and abroad, in this paper, the LongFeng Nature Reserve has analyzed the domestic nature reserve planning and management, in view of the status quo at home and abroad were analyzed, and find out the shortage and the existing problems and combined with the actual situation, proposed the feasibility and high solution.%随着近年来党和国家对自然保护区的建设情况的高度重视,自然保护区的规划与管理成为了工作的重中之重。合理高效的方法将直接切实影响到自然保护区的规划、管理、建设,直接影响自然保护区相关相关工作的进展落实情况。自然保护区以它特有的巨大的生态价值和环境效应成为了国内外重点研究的对象,本文就龙凤自然保护区简析国内自然保护区的规划与管理,针对国内外现状进行分析,找出不足和存在的问题,结合实际情况,提出建议和可行性高的解决方案。

  18. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  19. Insect diversity and its influencing factors in Jiuduansha wetland national nature reserve,Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiuzhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on insect diversity on order and family levels in five dominant plant communities on four shoals and different gradient tidal creeks in Jiuduansha Nature Reserve.A total of 35444 specimens were collected,belonging to 64 families and 13 orders.According to species number,the dominant families ranked as Chloropidae (42,Eulophidae (29,Pteromalidae (24,Braconidae (22,Ichneumonidae (15,Scelionidae (12,and the dominant orders as Hymenoptera (137,Diptera (85,Coleoptera (32,Hemiptera (10.Our analyses showed:(1 The insect species richness in summer was higher than those in other three seasons;(2 In Phragmites australis community on low tidal flat in summer,the species richness of insects was the highest,that on high tidal flat ranked the second,then that on middle tidal flat.On the low tidal flat,the individual number of Blissidae,Chloropidae,Coccinellidae and Anthicidae was much higher than those on the middle and high tidal flats.The individual number of Blissidae and Delphacidae increased from Lower to High tidal flat.Compared with that on the low tidal flat,the insect composition on the middle tidal flat was closer to that on the high tidal flat.(3 The family and individual numbers of insects in Spartina alterniflora community were higher than those in Phragmite australis community on Middle shoal in summer.Psocoptera and Chloropidae were two dominant families in Spartina alterniflora community,their individuals accounting for 86.83% of the total.While in Phragmite australis community,Chloropidae,Anthicidae and Coccinellidae were three dominant families,their individuals accounting for 79% of the total.In the Scirpus mariqueter-S.triqueter community on Jiangyanansha,the dominant insect families were Phlaeothripidae,Cicadellidae,Chloropidae,Chironomidae and Braconidae,their individual accounting for 96.82% of the total,those in Zizania latifolia community only accounting for 31.52% of the total.(4 The shannon

  20. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahud

  1. Structure of spawning population of the bream Abramis brama in water bodies of the Dniprovsko-Orelsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Bondarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The population state of important food fish Abramis brama L. in the Dniprovsko-Orelsky Nature Reserve is under consideration . Basic population parameters of the species have been studied. Assessment of modern state and determination of perspectives of further existence of the roach in the Reserve’s basins have been done.

  2. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  3. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis Decne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahud

  4. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  5. A Check-List of the Spiders (Araneae) of the Bolshekhekhtsyrski Nature Reserve, Khabarovsk Province, the Russian Far East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri M. Marusik; Andrei V. Tanasevitch; Dmitri K. Kurenshchikov; Dmitri V. Logunov

    2007-01-01

    326 species of spiders belonging to 26 families are recorded from the Bolshekhekhtsyrski State Nature Reserve, of them 70 are new records for the reserve and six are new to the fauna of Russia: Asperthorox boreolis Ono et Saito, 2001; Cyclosa kumadai Tanikawa, 1992; Cyclosa okumae Tanikawa, 1992(earlier it was identified as C. argenteoalba Bbsenberg et Strand, 1906); Haplodrassus taepaikensis Paik, 1992; Hypselistes fossilobus Fei et Zhu, 1993; and Pachygnatha gaoi Zhu et al., 2003. The name Pronous minutus (S. Saito, 1939) is synonymized with Pronoides brunneus Schenkel, 1936. The male of H. taepaikensis is illustrated for the first time. Composition of the fauna is briefly discussed; 41% of the recorded species have their ranges confined to the SE Palaearctics. By its species diversity, the reserve' s fauna is the second largest local fauna eastward of the Urals. An expected spider diversity of this reserve is likely to be over 400 species.

  6. Evaluation on Tourism Ecological Security in Nature Heritage Sites——Case of Kanas Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuling; YANG Zhaoping; DI Feng; CHEN Xuegang

    2009-01-01

    The nature heritages are the precious legacy of nature with outstanding scientific and aesthetic value. They are quite different from other common ecotourism areas, because of its original and unique system, sensitive and vul-nerable landscape, and peripheral cultural features. Therefore, the tourism development in the nature heritage sites should be on the premise of ecological security. The evaluation index system of tourism ecological security in nature heritage sites was constructed in this article by AHP and Delphi methods, including nature ecological security, land-scape visual security and local culture ecological security, and the security thresholds of indices were also established. In the indices' weights of the evaluation model, the nature ecological security ranked the highest, followed by tourist landscape visual security and culture ecological security, which reflected the influence degree of the limited factor to tourism ecological security. Then, this paper carried out an empirical study of Kanas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, which has the potential to be the World Nature Heritage. On the basis of the data attained from survey and observation on the spot, as well as questionnaire answered by tourists and local communities, the ecological secu-rity status in Kanas was evaluated. The result showed that the status of Kanas tourism ecological security was better, but there had some limiting factors. Lastly, effective measures were put forward to ensure its ecological security.

  7. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingli Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents’ attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents’ support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people’s sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  8. Nature and sustainable energy production. Wind turbines in nature reserves; Natuur en duurzame energieproductie. Windturbines in natuurgebieden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistenkas, F.H. [Leerstoelgroep Bos- en Natuurbeleid, Wageningen Universiteit WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Recent case law developments and opportunities within the nature conservation law of Natura 2000 are discussed (ch 2). Next, attention is paid whether or not the literature on nature conservation and climate legislation could provide innovative mindsets for the production of renewable energy in or near a Natura 2000 area. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de nieuwste jurisprudentiele ontwikkelingen en mogelijkheden binnen het natuurbeschermingsrecht van Natura 2000 (hfst 2) en vervolgens of ook de natuurbeschermingsrechtelijke en klimaatrechtelijke rechtsliteratuur nog vernieuwende denkrichtingen zou kunnen bieden voor duurzame energieproductie in of nabij een Natura 2000-gebied.

  9. The population condition and the food availability of cuscus in the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON SILAS SINERY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinery AS, Boer C, Farida WR. 2012. The population condition and availability of feed of cuscus in the Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 86-91. The cuscus is a pouched marsupial grouped in the Phalangeridae family, which is nocturnal, arboreal, herbivore, and in most cases the tail is prehensile. The animals are legally protected due to low reproduction, limited distribution area, and high rate of illegal hunting. The illegal hunting happened not only in the production forest areas but also in the reserve areas such as Nature Reserve of Arfak Mountain, directly or indirectly, affects the life quality of the ecosystem, mainly cuscuses population. Therefore, it is necessary to do efforts to have a better management of the region to ensure the sustenance of many components in it. This research is aimed to know the population density of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve and carried out for two months. The method used was descriptive by using direct and indirect observation. The result shows that cuscuses existing in the Arfak Mountain conservation area were northern common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis, ground cuscus (Phalanger gymnotis and common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus. The biggest individual number is of P. orientalis with 39 individuals consisting of 18 males and 21 females, the second is of P. gymnotis with 10 individuals consisting of 4 males and 6 females, and the smallest is of S. maculatus with 9 individuals consisting of 4 males and 5 females. From the total of 58 cuscuses, there are 38 adult and 20 young cuscuses. There are 20 forest plant species identified as feed resources of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve. The parts of forest plant consumed by cuscus are fruits and young leaves. P. gymnotis also consumes small insects such as grasshopper. The cuscuses spread from lowland forest to highland forest (2,900 m asl.

  10. Myxomycetes of the nature reserve near Wałbrzych (SW Poland. Part I. List of taxa and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 103 Myxomycetes taxa is known of the "Przełomy pod Księżem" nature reserve. In 2002, 89 taxa were recorded in the reserve. The following families prevail: Physaraceae - 24.4 %, Arcyriaceae, Didymiaceae and Stemonitidaceae - 15.8 % each, Trichiaceae - 12.2 %. Dominant genera are: Physarum - 14 species, Arcyria - 9, Trichia - 8, Cribraria and Diderma - 7 each. Three species were recorded for the first time in Poland: Arcyria minuta, Cribraria persooni and Symphytocarpus flaccidus. The occurrence of Didymium serpula and Lepidoderma tigrinum in Lower Silesia was confirmed after 100 years.

  11. Check list of the mammals of Tussen-die-Riviere Provincial Nature Reserve, Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Watson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve falls within the Eastern Mixed Nama-Karoo Biome. The surface area is approximately 23 000 ha and it is located in a summer rainfall region. Sixty six different mammal species were recorded for the reserve over the past 13 years which constitutes 65 % of the indigenous mammals recorded for the Free State Province. The highest number of species for the rodents and insectivores were recorded in riverine habitat but the highest abundance were recorded in rocky habitat and was constituted by only one species, Aethomys namaquensis.

  12. Natural resource use and attitudes of the local population around the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Baquete, D.

    1998-01-01

    Participation by local communities in management is widely considered a means of sustaining protected areas. In parts of the world with a history of armed conflict, the chances of such an approach being successfully adopted might seem remote. One such area is the Maputo Elephant Reserve in southern

  13. A new system for understanding the biodiversity in different nature reserves:capacity,connectivity and quality of biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenji LI; Jiakuan CHEN; Yunqiu RUAN; Ying CHANG; Wen WE; Luzhen CHEN; Dongliang ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new system for understanding the biodiversity in different conservation areas.It includes three aspects:the capacity,the connectivity and the quality.The capacity refers to the numbers of biodiversity,including absolute and relative richness of the vegetation types Nv and Dv = (Nv-1)/lnA,species numbers S and richness of species dGI = (S- 1)/lnA,and germ plasm resources within a nature reserve,and also the potential biological living space offered by the natural resource.It comprises the total biological resources in a nature reserve.The connectivity refers to the flux of biodiversity,including similarity and connected status of the vegetation types SILi = 2z/(x + y) and species numbers SIc = 2z/(x + y) among different nature reserves.The quality refers to the stability of biodiversity,including relative species richness index RSLi = d/dmax,relative vegetation richness index RVLi =Dv/Dmaxv,fastness to invasion species fLi = 1-Si/St,weighted values,representativeness and vulnerability of special vegetations,special species,CITES species and rare species as the protected targets.

  14. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Kezirian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water.

  15. Natural gas. Reserves - exploration - production. Glossary. German - English - French - Russian; Erdgas. Reserven - Exploration - Produktion. Glossar. Deutsch - Englisch - Franzoesisch -Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, H.; Bandlowa, T.; Guerber, B.; Kosinowski, M.; Sedlacek, R.

    1997-12-31

    International cooperation in the natural gas sector has intensified considerably during the last several years, particularly between the east and the west. This has made it necessary for the most important terms in the fields of geology, economic geology and production technology to be used in the same sense. The various national and regional classification systems for natural gas reserves and wells also need to be correlated. For these reasons, the `Working Party on Gas` of the European Economic Commission of the United Nations in Geneva prepared a three-language Glossary of natural Gas Reserves. The glossary presented here is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1996 edition and now also includes a German language section. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die in den letzten Jahren immer intensivere internationale Kooperation auf dem Erdgassektor - besonders zwischen Ost und West - erfordert eine sinngemaess gleiche Handhabung der wichtigsten erdgasgeologischen, lagerstaettenkundlichen und produktionstechnischen Fachbegriffe sowie eine Korrelation der verschiedenen regionalen und ueberregionalen Klassifikationssysteme fuer Erdgasreserven und Erdgasbohrungen. Dieser Erfordernis hat die `Working Party on Gas` der Europaeischen Wirtschaftskommission der Vereinten Nationen in Genf mit der Erarbeitung eines dreisprachigen `Glossary of Natural Gas Reserves` Rechnung getragen. Das vorliegende Glossar ist eine gruendlich ueberarbeitete und um eine deutsche Fassung erweiterte Neuauflage dieses `Glossary` von 1996. (orig.)

  16. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  17. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  18. Home Range Characteristics and Habitat Selection by Daurian Hedgehogs ( Mesechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Zapletal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined home range characteristics and habitat selection of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. Home ranges of hedgehogs varied from 113.15 ha to 2,171.97 ha, and were larger in early summer than late summer. Hedgehogs showed relative preference for rocky outcrops and low-density shrub habitats, and relative avoidance of high- density shrub areas. Habitat selection also changed between early and late summer, shifting to greater use of low-density shrub areas and decreased use of forb-dominated short grass. Our baseline data on home ranges and habitat selection expand understanding of hedgehog ecology and provide guidance for future management decisions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and elsewhere in Mongolia.

  19. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Ta Kou Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of smooth dorsal tubercles; and 18–20 broad lamellae beneath the fourth toe. Gekko takouensis sp. nov. is the second endemic gekkonid discovered in the Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Cyrtodactylus takouensis Ngo & Bauer being the first. PMID:21547000

  20. Using 137Cs technique to quantify soil conservation capacities of different ecosystems in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Reliable information about soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems is an important reference for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. The objective of this paper is to quantify the soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems that can represent dif-ferent climatic zones. The 137Cs technique has been used to estimate soil redistribution rates in differ-ent natural ecosystems over the past 40 years in Wolong Nature Reserve. The reserve, transiting from the Chengdu plain to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, maintains rich ecosystems from subtropical to frigid. The net soil erosion rates of 5 selected ecosystems that represent a warm coniferous-broadleaf-mixed forest, a cold-resistant deciduous taiga forest, a cold-resistant shrub, an evergreen cold-resistant taiga forest, and an alpine meadow are 0.17, 0.16, 0.13, 0.11 and 0.06 kg·m-2·a-1, respectively. Their soil con-servation capacities are reversed in order. The reference inventories for 137Cs in different ecosystems range from 1658 to 3707 Bq·m-2 with the altitude. Results of this study indicate that any attempt to de-velop effective erosion and sediment strategies in areas with similar climates should consider natural ecosystem types.

  1. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  2. Using 137Cs technique to quantify soil conservation capacities of different ecosystems in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Ouyang, ZhiYun

    2007-08-01

    Reliable information about soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems is an important reference for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. The objective of this paper is to quantify the soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems that can represent different climatic zones. The (137)Cs technique has been used to estimate soil redistribution rates in different natural ecosystems over the past 40 years in Wolong Nature Reserve. The reserve, transiting from the Chengdu plain to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, maintains rich ecosystems from subtropical to frigid. The net soil erosion rates of 5 selected ecosystems that represent a warm coniferous-broadleaf-mixed forest, a cold-resistant deciduous taiga forest, a cold-resistant shrub, an evergreen cold-resistant taiga forest, and an alpine meadow are 0.17, 0.16, 0.13, 0.11 and 0.06 kg x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively. Their soil conservation capacities are reversed in order. The reference inventories for (137)Cs in different ecosystems range from 1658 to 3707 Bq x m(-2) with the altitude. Results of this study indicate that any attempt to develop effective erosion and sediment strategies in areas with similar climates should consider natural ecosystem types.

  3. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, wit...

  4. Customer service quality strategy in the tourism and leisure industry : a case study of Mkabati Nature Reserve / Francis Sekajja

    OpenAIRE

    Sekajja, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Customer defections have been linked to service encounter failure in the tourism, leisure and hospitality industry. This study embraces the idea of improving customer acquisition, retention and satisfaction through proactively promoting operational excellence and improved customer service strategies. Mkambati Nature Reserve is studied to evaluate its customer service levels and to lay the foundation for the development of strategies for customer service improvement. Located in rural Transk...

  5. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis Decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, with emphasis on phenolo...

  6. Sustainability Evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: From Local People's Responses to Ecological Effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project’s impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  7. Evaluating the Quality of Protected Areas for Species: A Case Study in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Species’ distributions refl ect the quality of landscape conditions, and represent an important component of protected area management. However, distributions are diffi cult to estimate, and consequently, often determined through a combination of limited fi eld data and expert opinion, which may lead to biases. We demonstrate the use of occupancy models to map distributions and estimate landscape quality. We used occupancy models for two species, the red fox and toad-headed agama, to map their distributions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve located in southeastern Mongolia. We then used occupancy probability as a measure of quality and tested whether differences existed in quality between three areas: 1 inside the reserve, 2 inside the reserve’s core protected area, and 3 outside the reserve, using 30 sample sites in each. Occupancy probability varied from 0.084 to 0.997 for red foxes and 0.022 to 0.949 for agamas in maps. Landscape quality was highest in the core area and lowest outside the reserve for red foxes, and highest outside the reserve and lowest in the core area for agamas. Our results provide visual depictions of distributions across the Ikh Nart landscape and a means of assessing the quality of the Ikh Nart protected area that may inform management activities.

  8. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  9. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  10. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  11. Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on thyroid function, markers of ovarian reserve, and natural fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie M; Fenton, Suzanne E; Strynar, Mark; Hines, Erin P; Pritchard, David A; Steiner, Anne Z

    2017-01-19

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited study of their effects on ovarian reserve or fecundability. 99 women, 30-44 years old, without infertility were followed until pregnancy. Initially, serum was evaluated for Antimullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and triiodothyronine (T3), and PFCs: perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones, AMH, and PFCs. Fecundability ratios (FR) were determined for each PFC using a discrete time-varying Cox model and a day-specific probability model. PFC levels were positively correlated with each other (r 0.24-0.90), but there was no correlation with TSH (r 0.02-0.15) or AMH (r -0.01 to -0.15). FR point estimates for each PFC were neither strong nor statistically significant. Although increased exposure to PFCs correlates with thyroid hormone levels, there is no significant association with fecundability or ovarian reserve.

  12. DNA barcoding a highly diverse group of parasitoid wasps (Braconidae: Doryctinae) from a Mexican nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; De Jesús-Bonilla, Vladimir Salvador; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana Cecilia; Reséndiz-Flores, Andrés; Smith, M Alex

    2010-12-01

    The preliminary results of a DNA barcoding study of the doryctine fauna of parasitoid wasps from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, a region dominated by tropical dry forest, are presented. So far, three field trips have been carried out to the reserve and 468 specimens have been collected, of which 407 cox1 sequences were obtained. The general mixed Yule-coalescent model was applied to a phylogram to investigate the number of evolutionary units that can be detected from the DNA sequence data examined. A total of 185 barcoding species assigned to 20 identified doryctine genera were discriminated using the above model, 115 of which belong to the speciose genus Heterospilus, pointing out the extraordinary species richness of this subfamily of insects in a Mexican tropical dry forest. On the basis of the DNA barcodes generated, Ptesimogastroides Braet & van Achterberg is proposed to be a junior synonym of Ptesimogaster Marsh syn. nov. Neoheterospilus was also found deeply nested within a large Heterospilus clade, suggesting the paraphyly of the latter genus.

  13. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  14. Priority substances in sediments of the "Carska Bara" special nature reserve, a natural scientific research area on the UNESCO list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grba, Nenad; Krčmar, Dejan; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Maletić, Snežana; Pešić, Vesna; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments were subject to systematic long-term monitoring (2002-2014) in the Republic of Serbia (Province of Vojvodina). Eight heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg), mineral oils (total petroleum hydrocarbons), 16 EPA PAHs, selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were monitored. As part of this research, this paper presents a sediment contamination spatial and temporal trend study of diverse pollution sources and the ecological risk status of the alluvial sediments of Carska Bara at three representative sampling sites (S1S3), in order to establish the status of contamination and recommend substances of interest for more widespread future monitoring. Multivariate statistical methods including factor analysis of principal component analysis (PCA/FA), Pearson correlation and several synthetic indicators were used to evaluate the extent and origin of contamination (anthropogenic or natural, geogenic sources) and potential ecological risks. Hg, Cd, As, mineral oils and PAHs (dominated by dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, contributing 85.7% of the total) are derived from several anthropogenic sources, whereas Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn are convincingly of geogenic origin, and exhibit dual origins. Cd and Hg significantly raise the levels of potential ecological risk for all sampling locations, demonstrating the effect of long-term bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Pb is isolated from the other parameters, implying unique sources. This research suggests four heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Cu and As) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene be added to the list of priority pollutants within the context of the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), in accordance with significant national and similar environmental data from countries in the region.

  15. Vegetation patterns and nature reserve construction in an extremely-arid desert in Anxi, NW China's Gansu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Xu, Li-Hong; Chen, Chang-Du; Cui, Hai-Ting; Xu, Xing-Ying

    2002-07-01

    Anxi County is located in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province and has the sole national level nature reserve of extremely-arid desert in China. Phytosociological methods (Braun-Blanquet, 1964) are used to classify plant community types in this area. Eleven are distinguished, including six of deserts, four of cases and one transitional type between deserts and cases. Direct gradient analysis (DCA) is employed to correlate the distribution of plant communities to physiogeographic conditions. This study makes clear that water is the most important ecological factor for the distribution of plant species and communities in this area. The effects of water have been demonstrated in different ways. A vegetation gradient from lower altitude to higher altitude in the southern part of the reserve is driven by a precipitation gradient. The effects of the depth of ground water table contribute to the differentiation of vegetation from desert to oasis in the flat area. In a finer scale, the washed gullies have obviously higher species richness and also higher vegetation cover than the surround gobi surfaces, possibly caused by the effects of floods. The vegetation patterns demonstrate that the area of Anxi County is a complete landscape unit. The range of the current nature reserve is not large enough for the purpose of conserving the unique biodiversity in this area.

  16. Vegetation patterns and nature reserve construction in an extremely-arid desert in Anxi,NW China's Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Anxi County is located in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province and has the sole national level nature reserve of extremely-arid desert in China.Phytosociological methods (Braun-Blanquet,1964) are used to classify plant community types in this area.Eleven are distinguished,including six of deserts,four of oases and one transitional type between deserts and oases.Direct gradient analysis ( DCA ) is employed to correlate the distribution of plant communities to physiogeographic conditions.This study makes clear that water is the most important ecological factor for the distribution of plant species and communities in this area.The effects of water have been demonstrated in different ways.A vegetation gradient from lower altitude to higher altitude in the southern part of the reserve is driven by a precipitation gradient.The effects of the depth of ground water table contribute to the differentiation of vegetation from desert to oasis in the flat area.In a finer scale,the washed gullies have obviously higher species richness and also higher vegetation cover than the surround gobi surfaces,possibly caused by the effects of floods.The vegetation patterns demonstrate that the area of Anxi County is a complete landscape unit.The range of the current nature reserve is not large enough for the purpose of conserving the unique biodiversity in this area.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat.

  18. The Diversity of Ecology and Nature Reserves as an Ecotourism Attraction in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Harami Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore ranges of mountains in Jordan which contain various types of tourist attractions exemplified by high green mountains in the Central Region, Ajloun, which are covered by many different trees. Alongside these mountains there is a large animal reservation and a tourist lodging built by using wood. This article will examine the effects of eco-tourism on the local community economically and socially. A completely different range of desert mountains in the South Region, in Wadi Rum, which is an eco-tourism attraction, will be tackled in this paper to discuss various components of tourist attractions such as mountain climbing, hiking and desert exploration. The article shows the influence of such tourism in improving life standards of local community and the sustainability of tourism in both geographical areas and their proximity to archaeological sites which can be included in tourist programs.The methodology of this article is descriptive and supported by field trips and meetings with members of local communities.

  19. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering.

  20. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTAL PATHS AS A MEANS OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL RESERVES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Korbut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovate conception of virtual ecological paths as a foremost edition for ecotourism and attendance’s preparation in specially protected natural sites. It’s has a vital importance for remote and sensible ecosystems. The virtual ecological paths will be able to important stage of environmentalization of awareness on the base of modern technologies of elicitation, data processing and storage of information. The need to move Russia on the way of sustainable development, including in the tourism and recreation sector, has identified ecotourism as the most promising direction of tourism development. The problems of development ecotourism in Russia, the role of local and regional governments in the empowerment of ecotourism and its information support are considered.

  1. Optimal networks of nature reserves can be found through eigenvalue perturbation theory of the connectivity matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Martin Nilsson; Jonsson, Per R

    2011-07-01

    Conservation and management of natural resources and biodiversity need improved criteria to select functional networks of protected areas. The connectivity within networks due to dispersal is rarely considered, partly because it is unclear how connectivity information can be included in the selection of protected areas. We present a novel and general method that applies eigenvalue perturbation theory (EPT) to select optimum networks of protected areas based on connectivity. At low population densities, characteristic of threatened populations, this procedure selects networks that maximize the growth rate of the overall network. This method offers an improved link between connectivity and metapopulation dynamics. Our framework is applied to connectivities estimated for marine larvae and demonstrates that, for open populations, the best strategy is to protect areas acting as both strong donors and recipients of recruits. It should be possible to implement an EPT framework for connectivity analysis into existing holistic tools for design of protected areas.

  2. Feed Plants Selection and Nesting Site of Cuscus (Phalanger sp. in Nature Reserve of Gunung Mutis, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on feed plants selection and nesting site of cuscus (Phalanger sp. was conducted in Nature Reserve of Gunung Mutis, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara. The study was done in the montane rain forest with the altitude of 1530-2010 m a.s.l. The results showed seven species of plants was selected by cuscus as their nesting site and 41 species of plants as their feed resources. Parts of the plants being consumed were young leaves, flower, and fruit. Their habitat was damaged caused by exploitation of the forest. Meanwhile, hunting pressure by local people to provide their meat supply threatens the existence of cuscuses.

  3. Zero-tolerance biosecurity protects high-conservation-value island nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John K; McKirdy, Simon J; van der Merwe, Johann; Green, Roy; Burbidge, Andrew A; Pickles, Greg; Hardie, Darryl C; Morris, Keith; Kendrick, Peter G; Thomas, Melissa L; Horton, Kristin L; O'Connor, Simon M; Downs, Justin; Stoklosa, Richard; Lagdon, Russell; Marks, Barbara; Nairn, Malcolm; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-04-10

    Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity. From 2009 to 2015 more than 0.5 million passengers and 12.2 million tonnes of freight were transported to the island under the biosecurity system, requiring 1.5 million hrs of inspections. No establishments of NIS were detected. We made four observations that will assist development of biosecurity systems. Firstly, the frequency of detections of organisms corresponded best to a mixture log-normal distribution including the high number of zero inspections and extreme values involving rare incursions. Secondly, comprehensive knowledge of the island's biota allowed estimation of false positive detections (62% native species). Thirdly, detections at the border did not predict incursions on the island. Fourthly, the workforce detected more than half post-border incursions (59%). Similar approaches can and should be implemented for all areas of significant conservation value.

  4. Open space or natural place? : The politics, perceptions and practices of place-making inthe co-management of an urban nature reserve, Macassar Dunes, Cape Town.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    This study uses sense of place and adaptive co-management theories to present acomparative analysis of co-management arrangements at Macassar Dunes Nature Reserve, CapeTown, and to broadly investigate the role of ‘place’ in ‘co-management’. Methods involved in-depthinterviews with members of the main co-management body, the Macassar Dunes Co-managementAuthority, to determine their perceptions of ‘bridges’ and ‘barriers’ to co-management, and ‘placemeanings’. Open-coding of these perceptions w...

  5. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

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    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  6. Spatial variations in daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface of Xianghai National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-hong; OUYANG Hua; WANG Qing-gai; ZHOU Cai-ping; XU Xiao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical variations of daily average CO2 concentration above the wetland surface were studied in Xianghai National Nature Reserve of China in August, 2000. The primary purpose was to study spatial distribution characteristics of CO2 concentration on the four levels of height(0. 1 m, 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2 m) and compare the differences of CO2 concentration under different land covers. Results showed that daily average CO2 concentration above wetland surface in Xianghai National Natural Reserve was lower than that above other wetlands in northeast China as well as the worldwide average, suggesting that Xianghai wetland absorbed CO2 in August and acted as"sink" of CO2. The horizontal variations on the four levels of height along the latitude were distinct, and had the changing tendency of"decreasing after increasing" with the increase of height. The areas with obvious variations were consistent on different levels of height,and those with the highest variations appeared above surface of shore, sloping field, Typha wetland and Phragmites wetland; the vertical variations were greatly different, with the higher variations in Phragmites wetland and Typha wetland, and the lands near the shore and the sloping field with the lower variations. Spatial variations of daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface were affected by surface qualities and land covers.

  7. SOIL AND WATER MICROORGANISM DIVERSITY OF MANGROVE FOREST OF TELUK KELUMPANG, SELAT LAUT AND SELAT SEBUKU NATURAL RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Halwany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is a unique ecosystem that has complex biotic and abiotic components. Soil and water microorganisms have function as decomposer in mangrove forest ecosystem. This paper studies the soil and water microorganisms' diversity, their potential, function in ecosystem and their role as environmental parameters in mangrove area of Teluk Kelumpang, Selat Laut and Selat Sebuku Natural Reserve (Kelautku Natural Reserve. Data of soil and water microorganisms were recorded from soil and water samplings then analyzed in the laboratory. Results show that benthos in Selat Sebuku figure the highest diversity index. Anadara granosa is one of the common benthos found in Selat Sebuku. In contrary the phytoplankton in Selat Sebuku is the lowest value compared to the other two locations, due to the settlements in the locations and it was suspected that Selat Sebuku has a relatively larger wave exposure than the two other locations. In addition, input of organic matters from the settlements in Teluk Kelumpang and Selat Laut is also effected by the growth of phytoplankton. Cyanophyta found in Teluk Kelumpang and Selat Laut was genera of Oscillatoria that showed high tolerance genera to the environment conditions.

  8. New locality of Hymenochaete cruenta in the Olbina nature reserve and revisiting of distribution of this fungus in Poland

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    Marta Brygida Kujawska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenochaete cruenta is a saprotrophic fungus, grown mainly on the bark of dead branches and trunks of Abies trees and thus the distribution of this fungus in Poland and other European countries is closely connected with natural range of silver fir. Despite its wide range, H. cruenta is considered as rare in the whole area of its occurrence. In this paper, we present a new locality of H. cruenta, discovered in May and September 2016 in the Olbina nature reserve (southern Wielkopolska Lowland, Kalisz Forest District. Ecological notes and macro- and microscopic feature of basidiocarps of this fungus are presented. Additionally, the current distribution of H. cruenta in Poland comprising 78 localities is provided. The rank of H. cruenta among threatened species categories in different European countries is discussed. It seems that the species is rare and threatened in Poland, and it should be still classified as “vulnerable” on the red list of macrofungi. The significance of H. cruenta for diversity of mycobiota and the necessity of further research on the dynamic of occurrence of H. cruenta inside and outside of the natural range of A. alba is underlined.

  9. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with identifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  10. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  11. The phytogeographic note on the orchids flora of Vietnam: a case study from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Central Vietnam

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    Vuong Ba Truong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The survey of the Orchid flora at Hon Ba Nature Reserve, where was a part of the famous Annamite Range in Vietnam, had been achieved from March to December 2014. A total of 106 species in 4 life forms were accounted i.e. epiphyte (67 species, terrestrial (20 species, lithophyte (13 species and mycoheterotrophic (6 species. Among those, there were two newly recorded species to the Annamite Range i.e. Lecanorchis nigricans Honda and Bulbophyllum dasystachys J.J.Verm., P. Thavipoke & J. Phelps. The most diverse genera were Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, Liparis and Paphiopedilum respectively. The result area revealed that the Annamite Range performed as a “cross road” of 4 floristic regions in Asia, i.e. the Himalayan Range, the Indo-China Mainland and Myanmar, the Sino-Japanese and the Malesian Region.

  12. Species composition and minimum sampling area of a riparian mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fang-zhou; XU Dong; DENG Hong-bing

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas are unique although often small component of the overall watershed landscape. The structure of riparian forests along Erdaobai River on the north slope of Changhai Mountain were investi- gated by using field data collected from eight sampling transects perpen- dicular to the Erdaobai River channel. Two kinds of species-area satura- tion curves were used to examine the relationship between species num- ber and minimum sampling area. The results showed that riparian gym- nosperms accounted for a high proportion of all gymnosperms in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve while riparian ferns and angiosperms accounted for a relatively low proportion. The average minimum sam- pling areas of riparian forest that included 60%, 80%, and 90% of the community species pool were about 85, 185, and 328 m, respectively; while those for nonriparian forest were about 275, 390, and 514 m, correspondingly.

  13. Coccidiosis of wild and captive European mouflons (Ovis aries) living in a natural reserve of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, M; Fichi, G; Ambrogi, C; Ragagli, C; Stancampiano, L; Poglayen, G; Perrucci, S

    2010-12-01

    Between December 2005 and November 2006, a survey on coccidiosis of wild and captive mouflons living in the Orecchiella Natural Reserve (Tuscany, Italy) was performed on faecal samples collected approximately every two months. A total of 96 samples were collected, 55 of which from wild mouflons and 41 from captive mouflons. On these faecal samples qualitative and quantitative parasitological analyses were performed; moreover, faecal cultures were made in order to identify the involved Eimeria species. Significantly higher prevalence (%) and mean intensity (mean OPG +/- SD) of coccidian infection resulted for captive mouflons (73.17% and 814.6 +/- 1297.2 OPG) comparing to wild mouflons (36.73% and 112.7 +/- 268.7 OPG). Eimeria parva, E ovinoidalis, E. bakuensis, E. ahasata, E. intricata, E. crandallis, E. granulosa, E. faurei and an Eimeria species very similar to the descriptions previously reported for E. arloingi and E. yakimoffmatschoulsky, were isolated.

  14. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  15. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  16. Nest site selection of white-naped crane (Grus vipio) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ming WU; Hong-fei ZOU; Jian-zhang MA

    2014-01-01

    White-naped crane (Grus vipio) is a globally threatened spe-cies. It is very important to analyze its nest site selection in circum-stances where there are multiple disturbances, and also helpful to accu-mulate valuable information about this threatened species and supply scientific suggestions for conservation and management. We studied nest site selection and the effects of environmental variables on nesting habits of white-naped crane at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang, China, during March-May of 2002-2008. White-naped crane responded and adapted to changes in the quality of the spatial environments of landscape and microhabitat under multiple environ-mental disturbances. Nest site selection included two scales and two choices, namely the choice of nest site habitat type within the macro-habitat scale and nest site micro-habitat selection within the mi-cro-habitat scale. Nest sites were recorded only in reed marshes. The choice of nest site micro-habitat included three basic elements and six factors, namely incubation element (nest parameters factor, incubation temperature factor and incubation humidity factor), safety element (pro-tection factor and concealment factor), and food element (water factor). Water, remnant reed clusters, and fire were major resource management challenges during the breeding period for the white-naped crane in this Reserve.

  17. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  18. Distribution of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) across a forest-clearcut ecotone in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-DONG YU; TIAN-HONG LUO; JIAN YANG; HONG-ZHANG ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The influence of edge effect on ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) across a forest-clearcut ecotone was studied in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China. During the field research, a total of 30 739 beetles were collected with pitfall traps along transects, which extending 100 m from the edge into the forest interior and 100 m into the clearcut. Of the collection, Carabidae comprised 92%, Staphylinidae 3%, Curculionidae 2%, and Tenebrionidae 2%, and these four families can be considered as abundant groups. Family richness, Shannon diversity and equitability display a significant decrease from forest interior, edge to clearcut. Based on the family composition and abundance, ground-dwelling beetles of the forest interior can be separated from those in the clearcut by Principal coordinate analysis ordination, and beetle assemblages in the forest edge were more similar to forest assemblages than to those found in the clearcut by cluster analysis. Seasonal dynamics of family richness showed a monotone peak in the middle season, with a highest value in the forest interior and a lowest value in the clearcut. Family abundance showed two peaks in the middle season, always with more individuals in the clearcut than in the forest interior or in the edge. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the cover of shrub and fitter were the two most important factors in determining family richness, Shannon diversity, equitability and abundance. Our results show that the forest edge and clearcut have obviously different composition and diversity of ground-dwelling beetles from forest interior at the family level. However, more edges have been formed due to increasing forest fragmentation (clearcutting or logging), so it is necessary to preserve large and intact forest to protect the diversity of ground-dwelling beetles in Wolong Natural Reserve.

  19. Application of self-organizing neural networks to classification of plant communities in Pangquangou Nature Reserve, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintun ZHANG; Hongxiao YANG

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation classification is an important topic in plant ecology and many quantitative techniques for classification have been developed in the field. The arti-ficial neural network is a comparatively new tool for data analysis. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is powerful tool for clustering analysis. SOFM has been applied to many research fields and it was applied to the classification of plant communities in the Pangquangou Nature Reserve in the present work. Pangquangou Nature Reserve, located at 37°20'-38°20' N, 110°18'-111°18' E, is a part of the Luliang Mountain range. Eighty-nine samples (quadrats) of 10 m x 10 m for for-est, 4 m × 4 m for shrubland and 1m x 1m for grass-land along an elevation gradient, were set up and species data was recorded in each sample. After discussion of the mathematical algorism, clustering technique and the pro-cedure of SOFM, the classification was carried out by using NNTool box in MATLAB (6.5). As a result, the 89 samples were clustered into 13 groups representing 13 types of plant communities. The characteristics of each community were described. The result of SOFM clas-sification was identical to the result of fuzzy c-mean clus-tering and consistent with the distribution patterns of vegetation in the study area and shows significant eco-logical meanings. This suggests that SOFM may clearly describe the ecological relationships between plant com-munities and it is a very effective quantitative technique in plant ecology research.

  20. Assessment of spruce (Picea obovata) abundance by spectral unmixing algorithm for sustainable forest management in highland Natural Reserve (case study of Zigalga Range, South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Moiseev, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    In mountain territories climate change affects forest productivity and growth, which results in the tree line advancing and increasing of the forest density. These changes pose new challenges for forest managers whose responsibilities include forest resources inventory, monitoring and protection of ecosystems, and assessment of forest vulnerability. These activities require a range of sources of information, including exact squares of forested areas, forest densities and species abundances. Picea obovata, dominant tree species in South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia has regenerated, propagated and increased its relative cover during the recent 70 years. A remarkable shift of the upper limit of Picea obovata up to 60-80 m upslope was registered by repeating photography, especially on gentle slopes. The stands of Picea obovata are monitored by Reserve inspectors on the test plots to ensure that forests maintain or improve their productivity, these studies also include projective cover measurements. However, it is impossible to cover the entire territory of the Reserve by detailed field observations. Remote sensing data from Terra ASTER imagery provides valuable information for large territories (scene covers an area of 60 x 60 km) and can be used for quantitative mapping of forest and non-forest vegetation at regional scale (spatial resolution is 15-30 m for visible and infrared bands). A case study of estimating Picea obovata abundance was conducted for forest and forest-tundra sites of Zigalga Range, using 9-band ASTER multispectral imagery of 23.08.2007, field data and spectral unmixing algorithm. This type of algorithms intends to derive object and its abundance from a mixed pixel of multispectral imagery which can be further converted to object's projective cover. Atmospheric correction was applied to the imagery prior to spectral unmixing, and then pure spectra of Picea obovata were extracted from the image in 10 points and averaged. These points located in

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  2. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time.

  3. Spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants in relation to environmental gradient in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; LUAN Zhaoqing; GUO Xiaoyu; LOU Yanjing

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying correlation between the spatial patterns of natural wetland plants and environmental gradient gives better understanding of wetland habitats,which is the fundamental for the strategy making on the protection and restoration of natural wetlands.In this study,the spatial patterns of wetland plants and the environmental gradient of wetland habitats were assessed in the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) in Northeast China,a wetland of international importance on the Ramsar list.Biophysical parameters' values of wetland plants were obtained by field sampling methods,and wetland mapping at the community scale was completed using remote sensing techniques.Digital delineation of the surface water system,hydrological zoning and wetness index were produced by spatial analysis methods in Geographic Information System.An ecological ordination method and two clustering methods were used to quantify the relationship between the spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants and the corresponding environmental gradients.Such quantitative analyses also present the specific diversity of different types of wetland plants based on the environmental attributes of their habitats.With the support from modern geo-information techniques,the experimental results indicate how four ecotypes of wetland plants spatially transit from forest swamp,shrub wetland and meadow into marsh wetland with increasing wetness index and water table.And they also show how wetland spatial distribution patterns are controlled by an environmental gradient of wetness.Another key finding of this research work is that our results present the exact fundamental differences between marsh and non-marsh plants of 11 wetland plant communities within the core study area.Hence,this case study gives a good sample for better understanding of the complex correlation between the spatial patterns of wetland plants and their environmental attributes using advanced digital analysis methods.It is also useful to

  4. Spatial Patterns of Fire Recurrence Using Remote Sensing and GIS in the Brazilian Savanna: Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Antunes Daldegan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil after the Amazon and is the savanna with the highest biodiversity in the world. Serra Tombador Natural Reserve (STNR is the largest private reserve located in Goiás State, and the fourth largest in the Cerrado biome. The present study aimed to map the burnt areas and to describe the spatial patterns of fire recurrence and its interactions with the classes of land-cover that occurred in STNR and its surroundings in the period between 2001 and 2010. Several Landsat TM images acquired around the months of July, August and September, coinciding with the region’s dry season when fire events intensify, were employed to monitor burnt areas. Fire scars were mapped using the supervised Mahalanobis-distance classifier and further refined using expert visual interpretation. Burnt area patterns were described by spatial landscape metrics. The effects of fire on landscape structure were obtained by comparing results among different land-cover classes, and results summarized in terms of fire history and frequencies. During the years covered by the study, 69% of the areas analyzed had fire events. The year with the largest burnt area was 2004, followed by 2001, 2007 and 2010. Thus, the largest fire events occurred in a 3-year cycle, which is compatible with other areas of the Brazilian savanna. The regions with higher annual probabilities of fire recurrence occur in the buffer zone around the park. The year 2004 also had the highest number of burnt area patches (831. In contrast, the burnt area in 2007 showed the most extensive fires with low number of patches (82. The physiognomies that suffered most fires were the native savanna formations. The study also identified areas where fires are frequently recurrent, highlighting priority areas requiring special attention. Thus, the methodology adopted in this study assists in monitoring and recovery of areas affected by fire over time.

  5. Biodiversity inventories in high gear: DNA barcoding facilitates a rapid biotic survey of a temperate nature reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica R; Quinn, Jenna; Perez, Kate; Sobel, Crystal N; Sones, Jayme E; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Derbyshire, Rachael; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Thevanayagam, Abinah; Boskovic, Adrian; Borisenko, Alex V; Cadel, Alex; Brown, Allison; Pages, Anais; Castillo, Anibal H; Nicolai, Annegret; Glenn Mockford, Barb Mockford; Bukowski, Belén; Wilson, Bill; Trojahn, Brock; Lacroix, Carole Ann; Brimblecombe, Chris; Hay, Christoper; Ho, Christmas; Steinke, Claudia; Warne, Connor P; Garrido Cortes, Cristina; Engelking, Daniel; Wright, Danielle; Lijtmaer, Dario A; Gascoigne, David; Hernandez Martich, David; Morningstar, Derek; Neumann, Dirk; Steinke, Dirk; Marco DeBruin, Donna DeBruin; Dobias, Dylan; Sears, Elizabeth; Richard, Ellen; Damstra, Emily; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Laberge, Frederic; Collins, Gemma E; Blagoev, Gergin A; Grainge, Gerrie; Ansell, Graham; Meredith, Greg; Hogg, Ian; McKeown, Jaclyn; Topan, Janet; Bracey, Jason; Guenther, Jerry; Sills-Gilligan, Jesse; Addesi, Joseph; Persi, Joshua; Layton, Kara K S; D'Souza, Kareina; Dorji, Kencho; Grundy, Kevin; Nghidinwa, Kirsti; Ronnenberg, Kylee; Lee, Kyung Min; Xie, Linxi; Lu, Liuqiong; Penev, Lyubomir; Gonzalez, Mailyn; Rosati, Margaret E; Kekkonen, Mari; Kuzmina, Maria; Iskandar, Marianne; Mutanen, Marko; Fatahi, Maryam; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Bauman, Miriam; Nikolova, Nadya; Ivanova, Natalia V; Jones, Nathaniel; Weerasuriya, Nimalka; Monkhouse, Norman; Lavinia, Pablo D; Jannetta, Paul; Hanisch, Priscila E; McMullin, R. Troy; Ojeda Flores, Rafael; Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Vender, Reid; Labbee, Renee N; Forsyth, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Dickson, Ross; Kroft, Ruth; Miller, Scott E; MacDonald, Shannon; Panthi, Sishir; Pedersen, Stephanie; Sobek-Swant, Stephanie; Naik, Suresh; Lipinskaya, Tatsiana; Eagalle, Thanushi; Decaëns, Thibaud; Kosuth, Thibault; Braukmann, Thomas; Woodcock, Tom; Roslin, Tomas; Zammit, Tony; Campbell, Victoria; Dinca, Vlad; Peneva, Vlada; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Comprehensive biotic surveys, or ‘all taxon biodiversity inventories’ (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and witnessed acceleration in their surveys and subsequent increase in project scope and scale. The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario partnered with the rare Charitable Research Reserve and delegates of the 6th International Barcode of Life Conference to complete its own rapid, barcode-assisted ATBI of an established land trust in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. New information The existing species inventory for the rare Charitable Research Reserve was rapidly expanded by integrating a DNA barcoding workflow with two surveying strategies – a comprehensive sampling scheme over four months, followed by a one-day bioblitz involving international taxonomic experts. The two surveys resulted in 25,287 and 3,502 specimens barcoded, respectively, as well as 127 human observations. This barcoded material, all vouchered at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario collection, covers 14 phyla, 29 classes, 117 orders, and 531 families of animals, plants, fungi, and lichens. Overall, the ATBI documented 1,102 new species records for the nature reserve, expanding the existing long-term inventory by 49%. In addition, 2,793 distinct Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were assigned to genus or higher level taxonomy, and represent additional species that will be added once their taxonomy is resolved. For the 3,502 specimens, the collection, sequence analysis, taxonomic assignment, data release and manuscript submission by 100+ co-authors all occurred in less than one week. This demonstrates the speed at which barcode-assisted inventories can be completed and the utility that barcoding provides in minimizing and guiding valuable taxonomic

  6. The State of Health of Nature Reserves: A Case Study using the Fusion of Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filski, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary dangers to nature reserves are from human activities such as oil spills, farming and urbanization. The relevance of fusion between high resolution hyperspectral reflectance data and Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data to determine the state of health of nature reserves is illustrated. The study area covers 0.384 square kilometers within the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge in the Big Bend region of the State of Florida's Gulf Coast in the United States of America. Hyperspectral processing and analysis is conducted using the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) 4.7 Service Pack 2. The materials with the top eight fractional abundances are investigated. Together, these bands represent over 95% of the full scene. Hyperspectral data ranging from 395 nm to 2,450 nm classifies geomorphologic features, primary vegetation types, and vegetation stress. The lidar data assists with feature identification and gauging vegetation roughness. Today's remote sensing sensors acquire ephemeris data concurrently with their image data to permit accurate georeferencing to map coordinates. Successful fusion between the hyperspectral and lidar data is achieved with the georeferencing capabilities of the ENVI software. The analysis of the fused data set reveals the main components shaping the study area's ecosystem as limestone, sea water intrusion and sunshine. The study area has three environments: a southernmost low-lying area closest to the Gulf of Mexico and therefore, frequently inundated by sea water where cordgrasses thrive; a middle transition zone that is more sea water-deprived and therefore more vulnerable to the damaging rays of the sun. It is here that the more resourceful but stressed black needlerush dominates; finally a northernmost area with higher elevations of exposed limestone that protects a robust deciduous forest. Deciduous trees also appear in the lower zones but only where there is sufficient limestone to form islands or hammocks to

  7. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  8. The role of feral mammals on wildlife infectious disease prevalence in two nature reserves within Mexico City limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzán, Gerardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2005-09-01

    Wild and feral medium-sized mammals were live trapped at two natural protected areas within the Mexico City limits to determine antibody prevalence for the most common infectious diseases (rabies, toxoplasmosis, and canine parvovirus) in dogs and cats. Mammals were trapped during the dry (March-April) and rainy seasons (July-August) of 1996 and 1997. A total of 68 individuals were captured, representing 8 species: opossums (Didelphis virginiana), ringtails (Bassariscus astutus), spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), weasels (Mustela frenata), rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus), Mexican gray squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster), feral cats (Felis catus), and feral dogs (Canis familiaris). There was marked seroprevalence for parvovirus (86.6%) and lower seroprevalences for both toxoplasma (23.9%) and rabies (17.9%). There were no significant prevalence differences among mammals in both protected areas, which were of contrasting size and isolation (i.e., small and isolated versus large and nonisolated). We suggest that high seroprevalence of these three infectious agents in wild mammals is a result of the high densities of feral dogs and cats in the two areas sampled. Feral dogs are able to maintain the infectious agents in these localities regardless of the protected area size and isolation. However, the native mammals of the small and isolated reserve are more vulnerable to infectious diseases because of small population size and genetic bottlenecks. Our results indicate that natural areas in and around Mexico City are a refugium for latent infectious agents, several of which are zoonotic. These findings suggest that conservation measures, such as eradication of feral mammals and vaccination programs, in the protected areas and surrounding areas could be beneficial.

  9. Diversidad de mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, México Diversity of mammals in the Natural Reserve Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN, por su extensión, es la segunda área natural protegida del Estado de México; sin embargo, se desconoce gran parte de su biodiversidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar su diversidad mastofaunística. Se utilizó el trampeo directo para la colecta de mamíferos pequeños y trampas-cámara para el estudio de los mamíferos medianos y grandes. Se calculó la diversidad a partir del índice de Margalef, y se evaluaron la dominancia y la equidad mediante los índices de Simpson y Shannon-Wiener, respectivamente. Se registraron 53 especies de mamíferos; 3 de ellas son el primer registro estatal, 10 son endémicas de México y 4 las considera en alguna categoría de vulnerabilidad el gobierno mexicano. En la zona habitan 5 de las 6 especies de felinos de México. La composición mastofaunística de la RNSN fue comparada con la de la sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, con la que comparte el 38% de las especies. De acuerdo con el índice de Jaccard, la similitud entre ambas es baja. Considerando los resultados, la importancia de la RNSN con respecto a su diversidad mastofaunística es evidente, así como la necesidad de delinear estrategias para su conservación.The Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR is the second largest natural protected area in the State of Mexico, however its biodiversity is largely unknown. The aim of this research was to estimate its mammalian diversity. Direct trapping was used to capture small mammals and camera-trapping for the study of medium and large mammals. Diversity was calculated from Margalef's index, dominance and equity were evaluated through Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indexes, respectively. Fifty three species were registered, 3 of them are the first record for the State of Mexico, 10 are endemic to Mexico and 4 are considered in some category of vulnerability by the Mexican government. The area is inhabited by 5 of the 6 Mexican felid species. The

  10. STUDIES ON THE SOIL COVER FROM THE NEGRAŞI „NARCISSUS GLADE” NATURAL RESERVE, ARGEŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Creanga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southmost wild narcissus (Narcissus stellaris reservation in Romania is found on the territory of Negraşi township in Argeş County, on the lower terrace of Dâmbovnic river. The glade has a surface of 4.1 ha and has been declared protected area since 1966. The blooming takes place during April-May, the rest of the year the glade being used as pasture. The only intervention in the area has been digging a perimetric ditch which maintains relatively constant the underground water level and placing an aspen tree strip. During the blossoming period, a series of folkloric events take place here. The river terrace is characterized by typical (haplic and litic Gleysols, with underground water level close to 1 meter. Soil texture is medium and coarse, with some rock fragments at the base of the profile. The reaction is moderate-strongly acid, native fertility being generally low. Although it does not directly influence the glade, Dâmbovnic river has been for decades polluted with oil residues, at the present moment its waters being clean and the specific flora and fauna thrive again. The latest analysis performed by specialized laboratories didn’t reveal any pollution with heavy metals or organic - chloride insecticides. Without harmfulness climate changes and if people continue to respect nature, is the future of glade for long ensured.

  11. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  12. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    Full Text Available A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macromorphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy, assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis, determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences. Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  13. Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengfei; Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Yunbing; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    How a nonhuman primate mother responds to her dead infant is an indication of maternal behavior and perspectives on death. Here we describe three cases of a mother's response toward her dead infant in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. The mother, whose infant died at 1 month of age, showed strong maternal affection to the corpse and carried it for 4 days. A mother with a stillborn infant showed similar maternal behavior to her dead offspring, but only held it for 1 day. The mother of an aborted infant abandoned the carcass without carrying it or displaying other forms of maternal behavior. Our results suggest that the mother-infant bond in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is strongly influenced by the infants' age. Postdeath infant-carrying behavior could be affected by the combined action of reproductive hormones and the emotional response of the mother. This manuscript represents the first detailed report of a mother carrying her dead infant in this endangered monkey species.

  14. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  15. Thirty years of change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. J. Privett

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used permanently marked 50 m: sites, surveyed at a 30 year interval, to provide a descriptive account of the temporal change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. South Africa. Management records were used to examine the role of post-fire age. fire frequency and intensity, as well as biotic interactions (competition from overstorey proteoids and alien plants in influencing vegetation composition over this time period. The mean similarity in species composition of sites between surveys was 62%, indicating an average of nearly 40% turnover in species over the 30 year period. The main causes of this change included differences resulting from different stages in the post-fire succession as well as the impact of differential fire regimes (especially frequency effects. Competition from serotinous Proteaceae. which proved highly mobile after fire, as well as invasive Australian acacias also impacted on the composition of the vegetation over time. The study demonstrated that fynbos communities are temporally dynamic and that the changes over time in species composition are caused by a variety of processes. The study also provided evidence for the role of temporal diversity in contributing to the high species diversity in fynbos systems.

  16. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  17. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  18. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 ...... materials serve as excellent source materials for new products. Moreover, current production lines exploit more than 30 natural and 20-30 synthetic source materials that circumvent regional depletion and contribute to the recycling of other industrial materials.......Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 wt...... exploration. Globally, anorthositic provinces comprise smaller volumes than do limestone or basalt, but still occur in sufficient amounts to supply for the production of insulation materials indefinitely. An evaluation of the modern consumption rates and reserves shows that the crustal inventories...

  19. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV.

  20. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  1. Investigating Modes for Poverty Elimination through Developing Tourism Resources at County Levels in the Sanjiangyuan Region%基于县域要素的三江源地区旅游扶贫模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 成升魁; 马金刚; 钟林生

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, Poverty is one of the biggest challenges worldwide. As a developing country, China is committing itself to alleviating poverty over vast western regions and remote mountainous areas. Specific functions and potential of developing tourism industries on alleviating poverty has been increasingly recognized. However, developing tourism resources without considering corresponding socio-economic factors does not necessarily lead to successfully alleviating poverty. Only through appropriately adjusting the development mode for tourism industries and suiting existing measures to specific conditions on endowments, development stages, locations and other socio-economic factors involved for a specific area can poverty alleviation be really achieved in a rational and effective way. In this paper, the authors performed a study on the mode for poverty alleviation through developing tourism resources over the Sanjiangyuan region (the source regions of the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River) in Qinghai province, a typical ethnic poverty area located in the south of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This area administratively consists of 16 counties and 1 town, covering an area of 36.3 km2 and having a population of 650,000, including 540,400 minorities. In year 2007, mean annual net income per capita of the rural residents in this region was 2, 267 RMB, which was only equal to a half of the national average. An evaluation index system about the degree of poverty and an evaluation model about the endowment of tourism resources for each county in the Sanjiangyuan region were developed in succession. The evaluation index system about the degree of poverty consists of 21 indices which primarily encompasses four major aspects, i.e., economy, resources, society and population. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was adopted to identify primary influencing factors for the evaluation system. Also, a weighting summation involved in the evaluation model was used to

  2. Chlorophyll a and turbidity patterns over coral reefs systems of La Parguera Natural Reserve,Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Otero

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton biomass and turbidity provide essential information on coral reef ecosystem function and health.Fluctuation of phytoplankton biomass responds to several factors including nutrient inputs,both anthropogenic and natural,while turbidity is mostly affected by sediment resuspension or transport from terrestrial systems.These parameters can be used as sentinels of significant environmental factors "modifying "coral reef systems.A chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a and turbidity (Turbin situ logger was installed at 10 stations from June 4 to July 7,2003 in La Parguera Natural Reserve (Southwestern Puerto Ricoto assess short-term temporal and geographic variation in patterns of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity at pre-selected sites as part of an interdisciplinary long-term study.Average station Chl a variation was 0.17-1.12 µg l -1 and 0.2-23.4 NTU for Turb.Results indicate that the western near-coastal stations had higher levels of Turb and Chl a .The easternmost mid shelf station,Romero reef,was similar to coastal stations probably due to nutrient and suspended sediment inputs from a source external to our study area to the east,Guánica Bay.Comparisons between different sampling days indicate significant differences between days for most stations suggesting that one-time discrete sampling may not be representative of average water column conditions and illustrate the dynamic nature of coral reef systems.Further work is warranted to assess seasonal changes that integrate short-term (dailyvariability in both Turb and Chl a .Los estudios sobre cambios temporales y espaciales de biomasa fitoplanctónica y de urbidad, proveen información esencial sobre la función y salud de los sistemas arrecifales.Fluctuaciones de la biomasa de fitoplancton responden a factores como entradas de nutrientes de fuentes antropogénicas y/o naturales,mientras que la turbidez responde mayormente a la resuspensi

  3. Theoretical and Practical Approach of Connecting the Ecotourist Offer of the Special Nature Reserve of Zasavica (Serbia with the Tourist Offer of the Surrounding Village Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Dolinaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pannonian basin was once covered by vast alluvial plains with patches of marsh, swamp, pan and prairie. With Holocene changes in climate, marshes have withdrawn and in the last couple hundreds of years they were pushed out by developing agricultural areas. The Nature Reserve Zasavica keeps the remains of former marshes and swamps on the territory of Vojvodina. One of the ways for providing necessary financial support for the reserve protection is development of ecotourist activities in the Zasavica region. Its biodiversity and numerous endangered species (Umbra krameri, Nymphaca alba, Numphar luteum, Stratiotes aloides, Acorus calamus, Buteo butes, Haliateetus albicilla, Lutra lutra, Castor fiber... could be the basis for tourist valorization of the Reserve. It is also necessary to conduct analyses of the impact of tourism on endangered species and confirm sustainability of those activities. The lack of accommodation capacities could be supplemented by the development of the tourist offer of the nearby countryside. This way the village tourism would enrich its offer with visits to the nature reserve. Such tourism activities would contribute towards the development of local communities and the improvement of the standard of living. Since the villages and the reserve are already territorially intertwined, their further tourist cooperation would lead to knowledge transfer and local people would have a better understanding of the protection of the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica.

  4. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  5. Habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming LI; Shiping GAO; Yuefeng WU; Lihan SUN; Shubin GUO; Jili LI

    2009-01-01

    From April to July of 2003-2005,we investigated habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province.Our results show that brown eared-pheasants preferred deciduousconiferous mixed or deciduous forests with altitudes ranging from 1600 to 2200 m,steep gradients of slopes and medium or high positions on slopes.Moreover,they preferred habitats with more tree species,larger diameters at the breast height,more density and cover of trees and habitats with more types of grasses,high density and cover of grasses,but with fewer types of shrubs and lower density and cover of shrubs.They had larger territories in the early breeding stage than in the late breeding stage.There were significant differences in diameters at the breast height of trees,average height of trees,cover of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs,aspect,distance to path,distance to water,distance to forest edge (P < 0.01,respectively),density of trees,type of shrubs,height of shrubs,type of grasses,density of grasses and proportion of bareness (P < 0.05,respectively).The result of the principal component analysis suggested that the principal components among the 23 habitat factors were the average height of trees,density of trees,diameters at the breast height of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs and density of grasses.The differences in habitat selection of brown eared-pheasants between early breeding and late breeding stages may correlate with the dynamics of ambient environmental conditions,the reproductive behavior and energy requirements in their sub-stages of breeding.

  6. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  7. Temperature Signals in Tree-Ring Width Chronologies of Alpine Treeline Conifers from the Baishui River Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous dendro-climatic reconstructions have been developed for China, but there are still regions with limited data of this type. One region is the Qinling Mountains which is characterized by complex interactions between the mountains and climate. Presently, the subalpine region of the Qinling Mountains is covered by widespread forests and has great potential for dendroclimatological studies. Here we developed tree-ring width chronologies from two fir (Abies faxoniana and one spruce (Picea brachytyla sites in the Baishui River Nature Reserve, the western region of the Qinling Mountains, China. Climate response analysis reveals that radial growth of the fir site (TLD is mainly controlled by temperature variations. The TLD chronology accounts for 32.7% of February - June temperature variance during the period 1959 - 2006. Using a linear regression approach, we reconstructed the February - June temperature of Wen County for the past 252 years. The cool periods are identified for AD 1795 - 1800, 1812 - 1827, 1881 - 1888, 1895 - 1902, 1916 - 1929, 1967 - 1972 and 1978 - 1995. Warm conditions prevailed during AD 1783 - 1794, 1801 - 1811, 1828 - 1856, 1867 - 1880, 1889 - 1894, 1903 - 1915 and 1930 - 1966. Wavelet analysis reveals the existence of some cycles (2.0 - 3.4, 5.7, 10.0 and 19.3 years. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the temperature reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over Central and Southwest China. The moving t-test indicated an abrupt warming change of our reconstruction occurred during the past 20 years. Overall, our study indicates the feasibility of combining tree-rings and the temperature to reconstruct large-scale temperature patterns over this area.

  8. Měkkýši Národní přírodní rezervace Soos Molluscs (Mollusca of the Soos National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soos National Nature Reserve nearby Františkovy Lázně Town (Western Bohemia, Czech Republic is a spectacular peatbog site with the occurrence of fens on numerous mineral spring effluents, emanations of pure carbon dioxide in mofettes (i.e. false mud volcanoes, parts with saltwater wetlands, and diatomite mantel in its central part. These natural conditions affect general character of all habitats, vegetation and malacocoenoses in the reserve. Altogether, 31 mollusc species were found there, but only two of them are considered as near threatened (Pisidium obtusale and Vertigo substriata. The majority of recorded assemblage was composed of common and generalist mollusc species.

  9. The Effectiveness of Conservation Reserves: Land Tenure Impacts upon Biodiversity across Extensive Natural Landscapes in the Tropical Savannahs of the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C.Z. Woinarski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether there is a biodiversity benefit (“dividend” associated with the existence and management of conservation reserves in the extensive and largely natural landscape of northern Australia. Species richness and abundance of vertebrate fauna and the intensity of a range of disturbance factors were compared across a set of 967 sampled quadrats, located either in pastoral lands, Indigenous lands or conservation reserves, with all sampled quadrats within a single vegetation type (open forests and savannah woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus miniata and/or E. tetrodonta. The relationships with land tenure varied between major taxonomic groups, but generally (and particularly for threatened species values were highest for conservation reserves. This “biodiversity dividend” associated with conservation reserves is considered to be due to the effects of management rather than because conservation reserves were established on lands supporting atypically high conservation values. The impact of weeds and (unsurprisingly livestock was greatest on pastoral lands, and pig impact was greatest in conservation reserves. Although pastoral and Indigenous lands supported lower biodiversity tallies than reserved lands, the conservation values of reserved lands in this region are probably substantially supported by the maintenance of relatively intact ecological systems across all lands.

  10. Spatial variation of seed rain and seed banks in gaps of karst forest in the Maolan Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiling LONG; Shixiao YU

    2008-01-01

    Based on an investigation on gaps and non-gap stands of the Maolan National Karst Forest Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, quantitative characteristics and dynamic changes of seed rain and seed banks in gaps were analyzed. The results show that the total amount of seed rain was 117.4 ± 32.6 seeds/m2 during the period of observation. The number of immature seeds was 56.3 ± 10.3 seeds/m2, that of mature damaged seeds was 15.7 ± 4.7 seeds/m2, and the number of mature germinated seeds was 45.4 ± 8.2 seeds/m2 It is suggested that the seed number is rich for gap regeneration. Seed rain in gaps has spatial and temporal heterogeneities which deeply affect regeneration patterns of gap plants. Along a gradient from the gap center to a non-gap stand, seed density in the litter layer, the number of species, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index were gradually reduced, but these indices increased in the soil. The seed density in the gap center was 2415 ± 639 seeds/m2, near the gap center was 2218 ± 421 seeds/m2 and at the gap border area 1815 ± 311 seeds/m2. This shows that plants in gaps have good latent regenera-tion potential. In both gaps and non-gap stands, the Jaccard similarity index of seed in litter layer was the lar-gest, second largest at 5-10 cm soil depth, and the least at the 0-5 cm soil layer the index. The Jaccard index between the soil seed bank and the present plant community was large in the litter layer, but decreased with soil depth both in gaps and non-gap stands. The results show that soil seed banks are the main source of gap regeneration in the karst forests of Maolan and contribute significantly to gap regeneration.

  11. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Céline

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. Results From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%. For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%, followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%, and E. hirae (6.3%. VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring

  12. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  13. Analysis on the Development of the Nature Reserve System in Henan Province%河南省自然保护区体系建设分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继平; 王华庚

    2016-01-01

    以河南省自然保护区的相关资料为基础数据,从各类型自然保护区数量、面积结构,区域分布及整体建设强度三方面对河南省自然保护区体系建设进行了分析评价,运用GAP分析方法,利用地理系统软件ArcGIS,对森林、内陆湿地二大生态系统类型自然保护区的保护现状进行了空缺分析,对河南省自然保护区的建设优化提出建议,为其自然保护区体系的合理建设与布局提供科学依据。%The current constructive situation of the nature reserve system was analyzed and evaluated from quan-tity,the area structure,the regional distribution and the construction intensity based on the information related to the nature reserves in Henan province.The gaps in the protection of the two major ecosystems:forests and wetlands in nature reserves were analyzed by using GAP method and software ArcGIS.Suggestions were pro-posed for the optimal development of the nature reserves in Henan province.scientific basis were provided for the reasonable construction and layout of the natural reserve system in Henan province.

  14. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts.

  15. Influence of Nature Reserve on Residents and Countermeasures%自然保护区对居民的影响和对策研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙耀; 李雪岩

    2014-01-01

    At present,a lot of farmers still live within the range of nature reserves.Those farmers gen-erally live in poverty,with development limited.The main reason is that the nature reserve construc-tion restricts the development of the residents.Therefore,we need to make more exploration in adop-ting division of nature reserves,practicing classification management,searching new roads of levy,pur-chase,lease,exchange,ecological migration,ecological benefit compensation,industry development pattern and management system in nature reserves and so on,so as to help the development of resi-dents living in nature reserves.%目前我国还有很多农民居住在自然保护区范围内,这些居民普遍生活贫困,发展受到了很大限制。其中主要的原因是自然保护区的建设制约了自然保护区内居民的发展,使自然保护区内居民陷入发展困局。要解决这个困局,我们需要在自然保护区的分类管理与区划调整,自然保护区内集体林地的征收、置换、赎买、租赁,生态移民,生态效益补偿,自然保护区内产业发展模式及自然保护区管理体制等方面,做出新的探索,帮助自然保护区内居民发展生产与经济。

  16. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Cui, B.; Qiu, X.; Ding, C.; Batool, I.

    2016-07-01

    Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts. (Author)

  17. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  18. 新疆野苹果自然保护区现状评价%Evaluation on the Current Situation of Wild Apple Nature Reserve in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小平

    2016-01-01

    通过对额敏县野苹果自然保护区自然生态质量、管理水平、保护区经济价值、保护价值进行评价,分析了保护区存在的生态系统脆弱,建设资金短缺,放牧活动频繁等问题,提出了保护区发展建议。%Through the evaluation of the natural ecological quality, management level, the economic value of the protected area, the value of protection of Emin county wild apple nature reserve. It analyzes the problems of the ecosystem vulnerability of the protected area, the shortage of funds, the frequent grazing activities and so on, then puts forward the suggestion on the development of nature reserve.

  19. The Eco-industy Development Strategy and Demonstration-region Construction in Sanjiangyuan%三江源区生态型产业的发展与示范区建设思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方创琳; 刘海燕

    2006-01-01

    基础、宗教民俗风俗、发展潜力和前景等,有选择、有重点地规划若干个生态经济示范区、生态重建示范区、生态旅游示范区和生态型小城镇建设示范区,对这些示范区提出详细规划设计方案,指明示范区内容、示范方向、示范重点和示范技术,提出各示范区的建设规模和建设模式.立足当地优势,提出要重点建设生态林牧业(种植、养殖、水利等)、生态工业(清洁生产)、生态旅游、生态城镇和生态科研产业示范区5种类型.为保障三江源地区从保护和建设的双重角度推进三江源地区生态型产业体系建设步伐,还从政策保障、基础设施建设、项目保障、空间管制、经费支持保障、动态滚动评估与滚动监测预警等方面提出了对策建议.%Sanjiangyuan, which is the most important, influence-able, ecologic-adjusting area, but also the most fragility in China, Plays an un-substituted, pivotal role in China water-resource safety, Eco-safety, nationality solidarity and country safety. However, it is also the lowest in China economic development. The paper analyzes Sanjiangyuan strategic infection on Western area, The Qing-Zang Plateau and Qinghai based on the double aims of protection and construction. The authors think that the fragility, cold-low-efficiency, extensive laggard economy, the single Agriculture-pasturage economy, the typical in-put and overfull-out industry-structure, the overloading of population and livestock and close headstream economy are the basic characters of Sabjiangyuan economic and social development. In succession, the authors bring forward idea and the keystone of Eco-industry development, such as Eco-Forest-pasturage, Eco-industry, Eco-tourism, Eco-city in Sanjiangyuan area, and put forward the collective conceive of five kinds of Eco-industry demonstration region. At last, put forward the ensuring-measures of the Ecoindustry of Sanjiangyuan, including policy

  20. Rare species of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy S. Zheltukhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on 23 rare species of the Central Forest Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The state of their populations (groups of populations is assessed. The characteristics of landscape and coenotic confinement are given. Their biological and ecological features are briefly described, and the limiting factors determining the reduction in the number of some species are indicated. Over 85 years, many species have remained their biological positions in the Reserve, and their quantity has remained stable. At the same time, species of sedentary birds (Bubo bubo, Lagopus lagopus rossicus and birds nesting in the Protected Area (representatives of the Accipitridae family are now few in number due to the changes in the main habitats and deterioration of the forage resources. It is noted that the Central Forest Reserve is the largest Protected Area in Central Russia for the rare lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Menegazzia terebrata.

  1. Changing Perceptions of Forest Value and Attitudes toward Management of a Recently Established Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the main sources of conflict and understanding the relationships between protected areas and local communities are critical to conflict resolution related to protected area management. We surveyed and assessed the perceptions of local people related to forest values of the Bulong Nature Reserve (BNR, Yunnan, China, and their attitudes toward forest management of the recently-established nature reserve. Factors influencing the differences in perceptions and attitudes were investigated. Our results indicated local residents preferred the economic value of forests, and they perceived more forest values after reserve establishment than before, especially for ecological services. Interviewees believed the value of the forests have increased, and predicted that the forest will have increased importance to their livelihoods and health in the future. Nonetheless, the majority of interviewees were dissatisfied with current reserve management. Variation in these perceptions and attitudes were related to several social variables: age, gender, education, and distance from the reserve. Embedding the findings of the present study, specifically the perceptions and attitudes of local people, into management guidelines for mitigation of potential conflicts is proposed and should help managers to achieve biodiversity-related goals. This study offers new insights related to the identification of the underlying sources of conflict in forest management and provides a better understanding of the relationship between local people and protected areas. The study also contributes to the literature on forest values of indigenous populations by examining those of remote, rural populations in China.

  2. Changes in the myxomycete biota of the „Łężczok” nature reserve (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes that occured in the myxomycete flora of the nalure reserve Łężczok during the last 30 years. The ecological analysis of slime moulds is also given. During thc first periode of investigations (1967-1968 only 34 myxomycete species were found. During the second one, i.e. in the years 1996-2001 (except for 2000 - 47 species. In total, the myxomycete flora of the reserve includes 59 taxa. Among them 22, mostly cosmopolitic species were stated during both sampling periods. Twelve species were stated during earlier investigations only, while during recent studies 25 new species were found.

  3. Changes in vegetative coverage of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve: a decade-long assessment using MODIS medium-resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Hu, Chuanmin

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems on Earth. However, global wetland coverage is being reduced due to both anthropogenic and natural effects. Thus, assessment of temporal changes in vegetative coverage, as a measure of the wetland health, is critical to help implement effective management plans and provide inputs for climate-related research. In this work, 596 moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m resolution images of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve from 2000 to 2009 were used to study the vegetative coverage (above the water surface) of the reserve. Three vegetation indices [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced VI (EVI), and floating algae index (FAI)] were compared to evaluate their effectiveness in assessing relative changes. FAI was less sensitive than NDVI and EVI to aerosol effects and showed less statistical error than NDVI and EVI. Long-term FAI data revealed clear seasonal cycles in vegetative coverage in the 113-km2 core area of the reserve, with annual maximal coverage relatively stable after 2004. This suggests that the national wetland nature reserve was well protected through the study period. However, vegetative coverage decreased due to the flooding event in 2003. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that annual sunshine duration collectively played a significant role in affecting the wetland vegetative coverage.

  4. Natural resource use, crop damage and attitudes of rural people in the vicinity of the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, WF; Baquete, DS

    Participation by local communities in management is widely considered a means of sustaining protected areas. In parts of the world with a history of armed conflict, the chances of such an approach being successfully adopted might seem remote. One such area is the Maputo Elephant Reserve in southern

  5. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    lithosphere or subducted with oceanic crust and recycled through the mantle by plate tectonics. Insulation products have a chemical composition similar to average crustal rocks and participate in the natural rock cycle. However, these products need not accumulate in nature, inasmuch as old insulation...

  6. Epyxilic briocommunities of the nature-reserved territories of the south forest-steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gapon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The epyxilic briocommunities of the regional landscape park «Nyzhnyovorsklyansky» (Poltava region and landscape reserve «Chornolissky» (Kirovograd region were characterized. The floristic and cenoses characteristic of associations of Brachythecio salebrosi-Amblystegietum juratzkanii (Sjög. ex Marst. 1987 Marst. 1989, their briocommunities and its syntaxonomic position are presented. The role of moss cover formation is shown.

  7. Community characteristics of tropical montane evergreen forest and tropical montane dwarf forest in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxing Long; Runguo Zang; Yi Ding

    2011-01-01

    Both tropical montane evergreen forest (TMEF) and tropical montane dwarf forest (TMDF) are typical tropical cloud forests on Hainan Island. To compare community structure and species diversity be-tween these two forest types, we established eight and ten plots (each with 2,500 m2 in area) in TMEF and TMDF, respectively, in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China. We investigated each individual plant with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm including trees, shrubs a...

  8. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Foord, Stefan H.; Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Rudy Jocqué; Charles R. Haddad; Robin Lyle; Peter Webb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR) in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both ...

  9. 四川省自然保护区区域评价%Area Evaluation of Nature Reserves in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 董川蓉; 高红

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluated the nature reserves in 21 districts of Sichuan province by using available number,available area,ratio of total region area,index of stress,index of state,index of protective requirement established by Rong ke,Ma jian zhang,et al.The results showed that the geographical differeces had serious influences on nature reserves in Sichuan.the nature reserves in Chengdu,Zigong,Neijiang et al were faced with relatively big pressure caused by the economic and people activities,while the state of nature reserves in Ganzi,Aba,Liangshan were better.%本文应用戎可、马建章等创建的自然保护区区域评价模型,主要包括区域内保护区有效数量(NE)、有效面积(AE)、有效保护区占国土面积比例(PS)、胁迫指数(IP)、状态指数(IS)、保护需求指数(CI)6个指数构成指标体系,对四川省21个市州内已建的自然保护区进行了区域评价。结果表明,保护区受地域差异影响较大,人口较多、经济繁荣的成都市、自贡市、内江市等地区保护区面临的压力较大,人口较少、经济发展较慢的甘孜州、阿坝州、凉山州保护区状态较好。

  10. Technological innovations to development remote gas reserves: gas-to-liquids; Inovacoes tecnologicas no desenvolvimento de reservas remotas de gas natural: gas-to-liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Berenice D. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Falabella, Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The GTL - gas to liquids technology was born in Germany, after the 20's with the goal to product liquid fuel from coal to supply the bellicose and domestic demand. The grow of the petroleum industry lead the world to the forgiveness of the GTL technology, except in South Africa. In the last two decades the number of news natural gas reserves and the perspectives of the increase demand from natural gas for the next 20 years change this scenario. Nearly 60% of this reserves are calling stranded or remote, meaning reserves which can't produce with conventional technologies (logistics and economics barriers). So, the oil and gas industry restart to analyze the economics and applicability of the GTL technology. The competitively and applicability of this technology were evaluated and compared to the traditional way of natural gas transport, as well as the solidification of the new environmental rules and the creation of niche to this kind of fuel - the cleans ones - seams the cause of this changes in the oil and gas industries. Which began to adjust to all this news rules and conditions, as show in the sum of investments in R and D area. So, is in this new scenario that the reappear of GTL technology is consider has a technological innovation. (author)

  11. A vegetation survey of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. I. The use of association-analysis and Braun-Blanquet methods*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey aimed to establish broad vegetation units that could be mapped on an extensive scale in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve at the southern tip of the Cape Peninsula. This paper compares the performance of two methods, association-analysis and the Braun-Blanquet method as developed by the Zurich-Montpellier School of Phytosociology. One hundred 50 m2  sample plots, covering the whole Reserve, were placed systematically at grid intersections on the 1:18 000 topographical map. at 1 000-yard (914 m intervals. Species lists, recording merely presence of all species with permanently recognizable aerial parts, were made for each plot. The association-analysis resulted in a classification of 23 final groups of sample plots, of which only five groups showed high floristic and ecological homogeneity. Of the remainder, eight groups contained some anomalous, misplaced plots, and ten represented small, isolated fragments of natural units. The original data were then analysed using Braun-Blanquet methods to provide an independent classification for comparison with the former. The Braun-Blanquet communities were found to be more homogeneous in terms of previously defined habitat groupings and showed floristic relationships consistent with these groupings. It is concluded that, with the type of sampling used, the synthetic phytosociological Braun-Blanquet method provides a more natural classification of plant communities of the Reserve than does the monothetic divisive association-analysis method.

  12. Determining coal reserves in a mine field, accounting for the random nature of the change in the seam thickness. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirenskii, M.M.; Rozhkova, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the balanced coal reserves (shales) based on the probability distribution of values corresponding to the seam thickness. The approval tests for the method, which were performed in accordance with the conditions at the ''Osinnikovsk'' mine of the ''Yuzhkuzbassgol'' Production Union demonstrated that it is no less accurate than traditional methods, while the labor expended and volume of calculations are, on the average, cut in half. Additionally, the proposed method makes it possible to numerically evaluate the reliability of the calculations performed.

  13. Gathering "tea"--from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2012-08-13

    Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man's relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people's knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve's natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association's informal guidelines for gathering reflect people's attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people's appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people's regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable conservation and use of the Biosphere Reserve

  14. 自然保护区体系构建方法研究进展%Construction methods of nature reserve system: Research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭子良; 李霄宇; 崔国发

    2013-01-01

    To establish a scientific nature reserve system is a hot topic in the research field of nature reserve protection under the issues of more and more serious wildlife habitat loss and habitat fragmentation.This paper summarized the research progress in the construction of nature reserve system,and introduced the related construction methods,including conservation gap analysis,conservation prioritization analysis,and eco-region conservation planning analysis,as well as the methods of habitat corridor design.The advantages and disadvantages and the suitable application conditions of these methods were analyzed,and the future research directions were put forward to provide some references for the study and practice in the construction of nature reserve system and to promote the development of nature reserve.%面对越来越严重的野生生物的生境丧失和生境破碎化威胁,如何构建科学的自然保护区体系成为自然保护区学领域研究的热点问题.本文在对国内外自然保护区体系构建文献分类整理的情况下,具体介绍了保护空缺分析、保护优先区分析和生态区保护规划分析等自然保护区合理布局方法,以及生境廊道规划设计方法.对各种方法的优缺点和适用条件进行了分析,提出了目前自然保护区体系构建方法研究中存在的问题,并探讨了未来的研究方向,以期对自然保护区体系构建的研究和实践提供一定的参考,促进自然保护区事业的发展.

  15. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data.

  16. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that natural human embryo mortality during pregnancy is high – losses of 70% and higher from fertilisation to birth are frequently claimed. The first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period. Establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging, and hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are cited to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data suggests that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, it is clear that some published estimates of natural embryo mortality are exaggerated. Although available data do not provide a precise estimate, natural human embryo mortality is lower than is often claimed.

  17. Fire history of dark needle coniferous forests in Pechora-Ilych nature reserve since second half of XIX century to present time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the vegetation cover current state in any area should start from detailed investigation of its land-use history. Historic factors are of particular importance for forest ecosystems of protected nature areas as usually they are regarded as models and their history is neglected. The article describes fire history of the piedmont area of Pechora-Ilych biosphere nature reserve based on high resolution remote sensing data analysis and historical records. Such method allows reconstruction of forest fires back to 150 years ago. Field research of the tree stands age structure is needed to reveal older fires. 89 burns of 78 893 ha total area were detected, which is 11 % of the piedmont area of the reserve. The burns are distributed unevenly across the area: 76 % are in the Ilych river basin and the rest are in the Pechora river basin. All burns are classified into 4 types according to the periods during which they happened. Burned areas in both river basins changed during these periods: major part of the forest cover in the Ilych basin was damaged before the reserve was established, in the Pechora river basin -in the first decade after its foundation. Only 20 burns are precisely dated out of 73 burns happened in the XX century. Causes are also not determined for all fires. Probably both natural (lightning and anthropogenic factors caused fires. Known anthropogenic fires are allocated to settlements and floating rivers and cover huge areas (thousands and tens of thousands hectares. Natural fires are at distant watershed areas and are significantly smaller (tens and hundreds hectares.

  18. Ecological assessment of Momoge National Nature Reserve%莫莫格国家级自然保护区生态评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔洋阳; 韩海荣; 康峰峰; 王清春

    2013-01-01

    自然保护区作为保护具有代表性的生态系统及珍稀濒危物种而划定的特殊区域,目前正受到当地社会经济活动的严重影响.为衡量社会经济活动对自然保护区的影响程度,以吉林省莫莫格国家级自然保护区为例,运用层次分析法,结合实地调查及文献资料分析,从保护区内社会经济活动程度、湿地环境状况、保护对象状况3个方面的12个评价指标进行了综合评价.该保护区保护对象水鸟的状况良好,湿地状况受气候影响较大,并受到石油开采影响程度正逐渐减小,而畜牧业及种植业对其影响逐渐显现.自然保护区生态评价最终结果等级为较好.%As a special area to protect the representative ecosystem and the rare and endangered species, nature reserves are seriously affected by the socio-economic activities now. To measure the socio-economic activities impact on nature reserves, this research studied Jilin Momoge Nature Reserve. Based on the survey data and statistical yearbooks etc, this study combined the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with the expert scoring method as the research method, comprehensively assessed 12 factors of the three important side of this nature reserve: socio-economic activities impacts, factors wetland environment and the object of protection status. The protection object of the reserve is in a good condition, the status of the wetland is great affected by the climate, the influence of mining is decrease, but the influence by the animal husbandry and planting is gradually revealed. Finally the result of this assessment is better.

  19. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  20. Plans to Develop a Gas Field in the Kansu on the Border of the Usturt State Nature Reserve is a Real Threat for the Ecosystem of the Reserve and Largest Population of the Saker Falcon in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pestov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plans of JSC “KazMunayGaz” National Company” on developing the Kansu gas field, which is situated right next to current southern borders of Usturt natural reserve on Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone (Mangystau Province of the Republic of Kazakhstan are a direct danger for the largest population of the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug korelovi in Kazakhstan and for Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone’s ecosystem as a whole. On the contrary, the realization of plans to expand the Usturt State Reserve within the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan/GEF/UNDP project “Rising of stability of systems in conservation territories in desert ecosystems through promoting life sustaining sources compatible with biodiversity in and around conservation areas” and international expert group’s initiative of Mangystau Protected Area System to be nominated for UNESCO World Heritage status could create favorable environment for Usturt population of the Saker Falcon. It’s evident that all possible outcomes should be taken into account in the long-term planning of future development of Mangystau region, and options of development with less negative effect on environment should be chosen. In their letter to President of Kazakhstan the experts described their opinion on the necessity of imposing a moratorium on exploration and development of the Kansu gas field and concentrating on alternative fields.

  1. Trace metals in oysters, Crassotrea sps., from UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai: space-time observations and source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, J C; Bartolomé, L; Cortazar, E; Arana, G; Zabaljauregui, M; de Diego, A; Zuloaga, O; Madariaga, J M; Etxebarria, N

    2009-08-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations of oyster tissues (Crassostea sps.) was studied. The samples were collected between 2002 and 2004 along the Urdaibai estuary (Murueta, Kanala and Arteaga). The seasonal influence on some metal concentrations (higher values in spring-summer season than in autumn-winter season) is more pronounced than the local site-specific influence. Furthermore, within each location a significant time-specific dependence on the trace metal concentration variations can be detected. Substantially higher concentrations of Zn (445.5-2,403.3 mg kg(-1)) and Mn (29.4-169.6 mg kg(-1)) were recorded in oysters inhabiting estuarine locations, possibly indicating a markedly higher natural bioavailability at these locations. Principal component analysis demonstrated that oysters could be separated depending on the inhabiting areas: Sn for Murueta, essential metals for Kanala, and Co and Cd for Arteaga sampling points, respectively.

  2. Parasitism of Odonata by Arrenurus (Acari: Hydrachnidia) larvae in the Lake Świdwie, nature reserve (NW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawal, Andrzej; Buczyński, Paweł

    2013-12-01

    Larvae of a vast majority of water mite species are parasites of aquatic insects. Owing to this, they migrate to new localities, and are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions. This also concerns species from subgenus Arrenurus s. str., parasites of dragonflies. The detailed analysis of this phenomenon, however, has only been possible in the last several years, since the key to the identification of larvae from genus Arrenurus Dug. was published. In 2010, the parasitism of Arrenurus s. str. larvae on dragonflies in the Lake Świdwie reserve (NW Poland) was analysed. Larvae of 9 species of water mites were recorded on 107 imagines of dragonflies from 8 species. The following were identified as hosts of water mites for the first time: Anax imperator, Libellula quadrimaculata, and Leucorrhinia caudalis. The highest prevalence occurred in the case of: Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas (100%), Coenagrion pulchellum (96.5%), and C. puella (80.0%). Coenagrion pulchellum was infested by 9 species of parasites, C. puella by 6, and Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas by three species. The highest number of host species occurred in the case of Arrenurus maculator (5); followed by A. cuspidator, A. batillifer cf., A. bicuspidator, and A. tetracyphus (3 each); A. papillator, A. tricuspidator, and A. bruzelii (2 each), and A. claviger (1). Differentiation of preferences of particular parasites towards various parts of the host body was observed, probably related to the coevolution of parasites and hosts, and competition between the host species. The body sizes of the parasites suggest that approximately 50% of body size growth of water mites from subgenus Arrenurus s. str. occurs at the stage of parasitic larva.

  3. Management Status and Countermeasures of Nature Reserve Areas in Xinjiang%新疆自然保护区管理现状及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2011-01-01

    Based on the management status and problems of nature reserve areas and combined the contradiction within the resource development in Xinjiang,the author puts forward many suggestions about reserve areas construction in the future,these advices include(1)The big scope construction of reserve area should be carefulness;(2)The nature protection should harmonize with the economic development which means the core area should protect effectively and the forbid development area should not be too large at the same time according to the integrity principle of ecological system function and structure;(3)The evaluation system of reserve construction should be perfect and strengthen;(4)The scientific investigation and exploration on the reserve areas should be increased;(5)The distribution of mineral resource and biodiversity in the areas should be cleared;(6)The Plan of reserve areas should be adjust rationally for solving the problems within the resource explore and biodiversity protection.%文章针对新疆自然保护区的现状及管理中存在的问题,结合目前新疆在资源开发中遇到的矛盾,提出了今后新疆在保护区建设中应慎重再建设大面积自然保护区,按照生态系统功能和结构的完整性原则,既要把确实应该保护的地方保护好,又不能划出很多很大的禁止开发区,要使自然保护和经济开发相协调;加强和完善自然保护区建设的评审制度;加大保护区的调查科考和勘探力度,摸清保护区内矿产资源和生物多样性分布情况,合理调整保护区规划,以解决资源开发与生物多样性保护的思路及今后做好自然保护区工作的意见。

  4. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  5. Vegetation classification as the basis for baboon management in the Bourke’s Luck Section of the Blyde Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Blyde Canyon Nature Reserve (BCNR was identified as an important conservation area due to of its extraordinary diversity of plant species. Plant communities represent ecosystems and form the basis of any management plan for natural areas. If these ecosystems and their different potentials are unknown, they cannot be managed successfully. Baboons exploit diverse habitats including human environments where they often cause damage to crops and forest plantations. Baboons are regarded as particularly problematic residents of protected areas as conventional fences do not readily enclose them, their eclectic diets allow them to benefit from a range of agricultural endeavours, and they are behaviourally opportunistic. Thus as a first step to implementing a conservation policy to manage chacma baboons in the BCNR, it was necessary to have some understanding of their exploitation of natural habitats adjacent to areas where they do cause problems. Although a broad vegetation map of the BCNR exists, no detailed vegetation studies have been conducted on the largest part of the reserve. It was therefore decided to ndertake a detailed vegetation study of the home range of a single baboon troop within the Bourke’s Luck section of the BCNR. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 13 plant communities, which can be grouped into seven major groups, were identified. A classification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. Data collected as part of this study also revealed that the baboons show preference to certain communities whilst avoiding others. These have important consequences in terms of the management strategies followed on the reserve.

  6. Comparison of Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods for Estimating Daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)——A Case Study of the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guofeng; Jan de Leeuw; Andrew K. Skidmore; LIU Yaolin; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which are indispensable for simulating plant growth and productivity, are generally very scarce. This study aimed to compare two extrapolation and one interpolation methods for estimating daily PAR reaching the earth surface within the Poyang Lake national nature reserve, China. The daily global solar radiation records at Nanchang meteorological station and daily sunshine duration measurements at nine meteorological stations around Poyang Lake were obtained to achieve the objective. Two extrapolation methods of PARs using recorded and estimated global solar radiation at Nanchang station and three stations (Yongxiu, Xingzi and Duchang) near the nature reserve were carried out, respectively, and a spatial interpolation method combining triangulated irregular network (TIN) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) was implemented to estimate daily PAR. The performance evaluation of the three methods using the PARs measured at Dahuchi Conservation Station (day number of measurement = 105 days) revealed that: (1) the spatial interpolation method achieved the best PAR estimation (R2 = 0.89, s.e. = 0.99, F = 830.02, P < 0.001=; (2) the extrapolation method from Nanchang station obtained an unbiased result (R2 = 0.88, s.e. = 0.99, F = 745.29, P < 0.001=; however, (3) the extrapolation methods from Yongxiu, Xingzi and Duchang stations were not suitable for this specific site for their biased estimations. Considering the assumptions and principles supporting the extrapolation and interpolation methods, the authors conclude that the spatial interpolation method produces more reliable results than the extrapolation methods and holds the greatest potential in all tested methods, and more PAR measurements should be recorded to evaluate the seasonal, yearly and spatial stabilities of these models for their application to the whole nature reserve of Poyang Lake.

  7. Natural vegetal regeneration as a basis for the development of strategies for ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo José García Vettorazzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural ecosystems of the Maya Biosphere Reserve contain high levels of biodiversity providing environmental goods and services to society, so their conservation is strategic for local and regional development. However, there is a increasing tendency to disturb these ecosystems as a result of human activities, so is necessary to develop strategies that minimize the negative impacts and allow the recovery of degraded natural ecosystems. Existing information on the functioning of essential ecological processes of local ecosystems is sparse and is scattered, limiting the development of strategies. It was proposed to study the dynamics of natural regeneration of vegetation as a basis for defining strategies of ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in Peten and adjacent areas, by characterizing the structure and composition of vegetation in six categories of natural regeneration and forest without recent disturbance. Two modified Whitaker 0.1 ha plots were plotted by category and seed bank samples were collected. With this information a conceptual framework of natural regeneration was developed for application in restoration strategies at local and landscape scales.

  8. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  9. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of

  10. Micromorphology of the springbok louse Damalinia (Tricholipeurus antidorcus found at the Rietvlei Nature Reserve near Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Turner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides additional information on the morphology of Damalinia (Tricholipeurus antidorcus, previously described only by light microscopy. Live lice were collected and prepared for viewing by SEM. Micromorphological features investigated included aspects of the forehead, mandibles and spiracles. The average length of the males was 2.0 mm and females 2.04 mm. The anterior hyalin region of the head was notably emarginated. Awell-developed medial groove on the ventral surface of the head between the mandibles was noted. The surface of the epipharynx was smooth. The labrum with its typical scale-like appearance gradually changed into the pulvinal area of the clypeus. Both genders had notched left mandibles. The mandibles were highly serrated on the oral surfaces. Situated ventrally below and caudal to the mandibles were a pair of labial palpi. The immediate area between, and surrounding the labial palpi was littered with numerous spiked setae and two well developed larger setae raised at their bases. The tips of the palpi bore three larger and longer sensory setae. Palpi of this nature are described here for the first time in D. antidorcus.

  11. The Analysis on Ecological Risk of Natural Disturbances of Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve%东寨港红树林自然保护区生态风险自然干扰分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 甘淑; 王德智

    2015-01-01

    Taking Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve of Hainan Province for example, this paper selected seven indicators as the major ecological risk natural disturbance of the study area, proposed indicators and formulas for measuring the natural disturbance, established a comprehensive disturbance evaluation model, and completed the analysis and evaluation of natural disturbance source of ecological risk of the study area. The influence strength of various types of natural disturbances from big to small was flooded> wind damage> biological disasters> chilling; storm surges> tropical cyclones> pest> sea level rise> extreme cold temperature> tidal> natural biological invasion. On this basis, this paper proposed ecological risk management and countermeasures of Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve.%本文以海南省东寨港红树林自然保护区为例,选取7个指标作为研究区主要生态风险自然干扰源,并提出度量自然干扰的指标和公式,建立综合干扰评价模型,完成了区域生态风险自然干扰源的分析与评价。研究区中各种自然干扰类型的影响强度排序依次为水淹>风害>生物灾害>冷害;风暴潮>热带气旋>病虫害>海平面上升>极端冷温>潮汐>生物自然入侵。在此基础上提出东寨港红树林自然保护区生态风险管理与应对对策。

  12. Investigation of the Heavy Metal Contamination of the Sedi¬Ments from the Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the Yellow River draws wide attention in the recent years. The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou is one of the major wetlands of the river and located at the beginning of the lower reach. In this article, we aimed to investigate the degree and the sources of the metal pollution in the reserve.Methods: Metals as Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in the sediment were monitored using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo and the modified degree of contamination (mCd were developed to evaluate individual metal pollution and overall enrichment impact of the elements.Results: Compared with sediment quality guidelines, the effect of Cr and Pb are more serious than others. Igeo values show Pb pollution are moderate at the Xinzhai, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites, and mCd analysis indicate the whole contamination at the Wantan, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites was low. Principal component analysis indicated that the first factor was Cu, Mn and Cd, mainly from soil erosion and the irrational use of phosphate fertilizers; the second Pb from fossil fuel burning; and the third Cr from weathering process. Conclusion: We conclude that Pb contamination is serious in the reserve, and the main sources of the metal are crude oil consumption and coal combustion of the brick kilns around. We also draw a conclusion that it is vital to evaluate contamination degree with both individual elements and overall average.

  13. Birds in Bangliang Gibbon Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China%广西邦亮长臂猿自然保护区的鸟类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李肇天; 周放; 杨岗; 李东; 余辰星; 许亮; 谭武靖

    2011-01-01

    Bird species were recorded in Bangliang Gibbon Nature Reserve,Guangxi in May 2006,January,May and September to October 2010. A total of 223 bird species was accumulatively recorded under 49 families and 14 orders. Of them, 146 species were residents in the nature reserve, 40 species were summer migrants, 34 species winter migrants, and 3 passage visitors. The avifauna is belongs to South China Region with a typical characteristics of north tropics. Twenty five birds were nationally protected; 5 species were listed in IUCN as globally threatened species. Bangliang Nature Reserve locates in the Sino-Vietnam Border biota which is one of the global hotspots of biodiversity. The reserve covers a typically karat area in north tropic in which harbors abundant species diversity .however,the animal resources are not studied well.%摘要:于2006年5月及2010年的1月、5月和9~ 10月,采用样线法和定点观察法,结合雾网法对邦亮自然保护区鸟类资源进行了调查。共记录到鸟类223种,隶属于14目49科,其中留鸟146种、夏候鸟40种、冬候鸟34种、旅鸟3种。区系分析表明,保护区鸟类具有典型的华南区区系特点和显著的北热带特征。保护区有国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生鸟类25种,列入IUCN( 2010)名录的5种。保护区处于中越边境生物(亚)区这一全球重要的生物多样性研究热点地区,属于典型的北热带喀斯特地貌,物种丰富但缺乏研究,具有很高的研究价值和保护意义。

  14. 哈泥湿地可持续发展法律管窥%Legal Countermeasures on Sustainable Development of the Hani Wetland Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽媛

    2011-01-01

    The article explores and analyzes the prospect of the Hani wetland Nature Reserve in Jilin Province on the basis of the realities,introduces theoretical methods for the sustainable development of wetland nature reserve,including the creation of new mechanisms for wetland management,playing the interactive function of administrative mechanisms,public participation and consultation mechanism,improving the wetland compensation and environmental impact assessment system,in order to provide some opinions for the government decision-making.%该文以吉林省哈泥自然保护区湿地保护的现状出发,从法律层面提出了实现哈泥自然保护区湿地资源可持续发展和利用的理论对策,即:创设新型的湿地管理机制,发挥行政机制、公众参与、磋商机制的互动作用,完善湿地生态补偿、环境影响评价制度等构想,以资政府决策参考。

  15. Live birth of twins after performing early hCG administration as a modification of natural cycle in vitro fertilization, in a women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Jordana H; Sokal-Arnon, Tamar; Son, Weon-Young; Tan, Seang Lin; Dahan, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    This case reports the first twin live births achieved in a woman with a serum FSH of such magnitude -80 IU/L, after following early hCG administration in natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF). Case report. A 27-year-old with 2 years of primary infertility presented with regular menses since menarche. FSH following clomiphene citrate challenge test was 80 IU/L. Antral follicle count was 1. After failing two IVF cycles, natural cycle IVF with early hCG administration was attempted. Ovulation with 10,000 IU hCG was triggered when the dominant follicle was 10 mm in mean diameter. Two smaller follicles were also present. Oocyte collection was performed 38 h after hCG injection. Three mature oocytes were retrieved. Two oocytes fertilized normally. Two good-quality embryos were transferred on day 2. Bichorionic biamniotic pregnancy was achieved and healthy twins were delivered at term. This case suggests that natural cycles with early hCG administration should be investigated further as an option for poor responders to retrieve more than one mature oocyte, and prevent premature ovulation. We believe this case to represent the patient with the highest serum FSH level, reflective of ovarian reserve at the time of treatment, to achieve a live birth. It is also the first case report to describe this modification on the traditional natural cycle.

  16. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km(2) from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  17. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depth<1m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p<0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution.

  18. 凉水自然保护区森林资源动态分析%Dynamic Analysis of Forest Resources in Liangshui Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国春; 王维芳; 赵颖慧

    2012-01-01

    应用地理信息系统空间分析技术,对凉水自然保护区1974年和2009年2个年度的森林资源主要因子进行了时间和空间上的动态分析。结果表明,35年来,保护区内森林结构正在向着良好的方向发展,到2009年,天然红松林逐渐占据主导地位,成过熟林继续保持主导地位,天然林比例大幅提高,森林蓄积量降低。35年来,保护区内的森林资源受到了很好的经营,正向着森林的顶级群落演变。%The main factors of the forest resources of Liangshui Nature Reserve in 1974 2009 were analyzed by using GIS spatial analysis techniques from the time space aspects.Result shows that the forest structure in the reserve developed toward a good direction during the 35 years' protection.By 2009,natural Pinus koraiensis gradually occupy the dominant position and mature forests continue to maintain a dominant position;the proportion of natural forests increase and forest volume decrease.The forest resources,which have been protected well over the past 35 years,are developing toward the forest climax community.

  19. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable

  20. Analysis on Vegetation Landscape of Shananxi Nature Reserve%陕西米仓山自然保护区植被景观分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳霞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the vegetation map of Micang Mountain Nature Reserve in Shananxi province,with the help of GIS software to get the information of the vegetation landscape patch, the vegetation landscape pattern and fragmentation from patch area,perimeter and number characteristics in Shananxi Micang Mountain Nature Reserve were analyzed. The results showed that deciduous broadleaved forest,coniferus-broadleaved mixed forest and deciduous broadleaved shrub were three main components in Shananxi Micang Mountain Nature Reserve. The distribution difference of area, perimeter and the number of patches of different landscape elements were significant. The degrees of fragmentation of deciduous broadleaved forest, coniferus-broadleaved mixed forest and artificial forest were lower, and the degrees of fragmentation of warm coniferous forest, farmland, abandoned land and shrub and grass were higher.%以陕西米仓山自然保护区植被图为基础,利用GIS软件将其数字化,并提取各植被景现斑块信息,从植被景观斑块的数量、面积和周长等方面对陕西米仓山自然保护区的植被景观及破碎化程度进行分析。结果表明:落叶阔叶林、针阔叶混交林和落叶阔叶灌丛是该保护区的3个主要景观类型;植被景观斑块数量、面积和周长的分布差异较大;落叶阔叶林、针阔叶混交林和人工林景观的破碎化程度较低,而暖性针叶林、农田、撂荒地和灌草丛景观的破碎化程度较高。

  1. HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK (Forest In Hatam Community Live On Arfak Mountains Natural Reserve Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trida Salosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar AlamPegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan. ABSTRACT Arfak Mountains is a region with its own uniqueness in the Province of West Papua. This region is dominated by high mountains with particularities of flora and fauna in ecosystems of mountain and alpine. Therefore, it is designated as a Natural Reservation of Arfak Mountains. Arfak Mountains region is occupied by a large tribe of Arfak which is Hatam is one of its sub-tribe. Forests are part of Hatam people's lives. Establishment of districts expansion will indirectly result in the preservation of species in natural reservation. SWOT analysis used in this study is intended to look at the potential strategies in accomodating people interest and preserving the natural reservation. The study was conducted in villages of

  2. Malacodiversity of the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province%江西铜钹山自然保护区贝类物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳珊; 吴小平; 姜娇; 林向阳; 周少华; 谢广龙; 宋世超; 林昌勇; 汪文敏; 邓谱涓

    2014-01-01

    基于2012年7月至2013年8月调查的江西铜钹山自然保护区贝类资源,研究保护区内贝类的物种多样性,以及在不同生境类型下的分布规律和区系与动物地理组成,探索该地区内贝类物种组成和栖息环境之间的关系。通过定性与定量的方法共采得贝类42种及亚种,分别隶属于2纲4目16科28属。其中,淡水贝类15种,分别隶属于2纲3目7科10属;陆生贝类27种,分别隶属于1纲3目9科18属,其中有3种为江西的新记录:小柱倍唇螺(Diplommatina paxillus)、三重真卷螺(Euplecta trifilaris)和小石环肋螺(Plectotropis calculus)。淡水贝类优势种为放逸短沟蜷(Semisulcospira libertine)和小土蜗(Galba pervia),陆生贝类优势种为扁恰里螺(Kaliella depressa)、弗氏巴蜗牛(Bradybaena fortunei)和灰尖巴蜗牛(Bradybaena ravida ravida)。贝类动物地理区系组成以东洋界为主,共22种,占总种数的52.38%。采用Margalef丰富度指数dMA、Shannon-Wiener(1949)多样性指数H'、Pielou均匀度指数JSW对在不同生境类型下的贝类多样性进行分析,结果表明:灌丛生境陆生贝类的丰富度指数和多样性指数均最高,针阔混交林生境的均匀度指数最高。根据 Jaccard 公式计算并比较铜钹山与邻近自然保护区陆生贝类物种相似性系数发现:铜钹山自然保护区陆生贝类物种较丰富;与阳际峰自然保护区陆生贝类物种相似系数较高,为23.33%,与湖南莽山自然保护区物种相似性系数较低,为6.45%,并对其相似性差异进行了原因分析。%On account of the investigation of Mollusk at the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve from July 2012 to August 2013, we researched the distribution pattern of mollusk and its zoogeographical structure in different kinds of habitats, besides, we explored the relationship between species composition and their habitat of mollusk. The

  3. Reptiles Resources in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve%梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 冉辉; 梁琍; 沈正雄

    2011-01-01

    According to survey of reptiles resource in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve in recent thirty years, this study showed that the reptiles in the reserve are 43 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, 3 suborders, 2 orders, accounting for 40.19% of the total number in Guizhou province. Among them, Zaocys nigromarginatus and Japalura szechwanensis are new records to Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve. The 38 species of Oriental Realm and 22 common species of both Central China and South China appear dominant over other species in this fauna. The total of 43 reptiles species in the reserve belong to the species of terrestrial wildlife which are protected by China and are beneficial or of important economic and scientific research value. In these species, 14 species are included in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals, and 2 species are ranked in CITES Appendix II, 1 species is put into CITES Appendix III. Among the 43 species, 3 species are dominant, 5 species are common, and others are rare species. Considering the reserve condition and reptiles resource status, the endangered factors and protect suggestion for the reptiles resource in the reserve are discussed.%基于近三十年来铜仁学院生物科学与化学系对梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源的调查,本文报道了该保护区现已记录爬行类隶属2目3亚目10科28属43种,占贵州省爬行类种数的40.19%,其中发现2个梵净山国家自然保护区爬行类新纪录,即黑线乌梢蛇和四川攀蜥。其动物区系组成以38种东洋界种类为主,并以22种东洋界华中区与华南区共有种占明显优势。保护区内43种爬行类均属“国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物”;14种被列入“中国濒危动物红皮书”;有2种被列入CITES附录Ⅱ,1种被列入CITES附录Ⅲ;有3种为优势种,5种为常见种,其余35种为稀少种。结合该区实际

  4. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  5. 雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林%ASPEN (Populus davidiana) FOREST IN WULING   MOUNTAIN NATURAL RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文增

    2001-01-01

    The researches on Populus davidiana forest were carried out in Wuling Mountain Natural Reserve. It expounded its distribution, habitat, physiognomy character (biological spectrum, leaf-size class, leaf-tepe, leaf-margin), structural feature(synusia, vertical stratification, quantitative character), and predicated on the succession dynamic status of Populus davidiana forest was put forward.%对雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林进行了研究。详细论述了其分布、生境、种类组成、外貌特征(生活型谱、叶级、叶形、叶缘)、结构特征(层次、层片、综合数量特征),并对其演替动态进行了分析。

  6. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  7. Protected rural areas of Serbia - the possibility of sustainable development (Example: Special Nature Reserve “Uvac” and the settlement of Negbina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community Protected rural areas of Serbia, that is, administrative territories of settlements belonging to their geospatial coverage, need the integration of a range of fundamental and applied problems and objectives for possible sustainable development. The necessity of proposing and adopting mechanisms for sustainable development, while maintaining the consistency principle - focuses based on specific values of individual protected territories, would represent a fundamental prerequisite. Rural settlements which areas (partially or totally belong to the Special Nature Reserve "Uvac", hereinafter referred to as SNR "Uvac", are characterized by disfunctional environmental protection. The establishment of appropriate management mechanisms would create the basis for not only environmental, but also demographic, and social development as well, which would allow finding a solution for the survival and revitalization of settlements and greater development opportunities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  8. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Some Other Invertebrates from the Managed Nature Reserves "Dolna Topchiya" and "Balabana" (Lower Valley of the River of Tundzha, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the "Balabana" and "Dolna Topchiya" managed nature reserves is studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. The area of study is interesting from a biological point of view, as the Tundzha River constitutes a corridor of penetration of southern and thermophilic elements. On the other hand, the specifics of the territory predetermine the presence of many typically forest and some mountain species, as well as a lot of inhabitants of open biotopes, in particular – steppe forms. During the study, altogether 2041 specimens of carabid beetles belonging to 88 species are captured, as well as 76 other invertebrate species, some of which are with a conservation significance – new, endemic, rare, protected or endangered. Forty-six carabid species are reported for the first time for the Sakar-Tundzha region. Ground beetles are characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging and the life forms they refer to.

  9. Descriptive study of an outbreak of equine sarcoid in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra in the Gariep Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Nel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of equine sarcoid occurred in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra at the Gariep Nature Reserve located in the southern Free State Province of South Africa in 1996. The course of the outbreak during 1996 to 2003 is described. During this period the average population size was 69 animals. Initially (1996 all affected animals were removed from the population. New cases continued to manifest and the incidence varied between 4.6% and 17.6 %. Prevalence reached 24.7% in 2002. No sexual predilection was noticed in the 39 recorded cases. Of the affected individuals, 64 % had a single lesion and no animal had more than 4 lesions. In males, the majority of lesions occurred in the inguinal area (55.17 %, whereas in females they mostly occurred on the head and neck (41.38 %. Lesions can increase 260 % in size annually and may impede movement.

  10. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  11. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of a Natural Reserve (Isola delle Femmine) (Italy) located in front of a plant for the production of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-15

    Isola delle Femmine Natural Reserve is a very little isle about 15 km from the centre of Palermo, in front of a plant for the production of cement and about 600 m from coast. In the present research, profiles soil PAHs were obtained for 16 sites within the reserve and for 8 stations on the rural soil taken as reference. summation Sigma PAHs, in the soil of investigated area, ranged from 35 to 545 microg/kg. With the aim to find the origin of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine, we compare the distribution of single analytes in the investigated area with those of the reference rural area (Monte Raffo Rosso), with those of atmospheric urban particulate collected at Palermo along with reported of emissions of some cement plants. The island's investigated area showed a high amount of 4- and 5-rings PAHs, whereas 3-ring PAHs are present mainly in the emission of cement plants (from literature). The percentage of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-rings PAHs determined in samples of Isola delle Femmine are similar to those of the reference rural soils and to those of urban atmospheric particulate. Cement plant activity has a negligible weight on the presence of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine.

  12. Study on Resource Plants and Diversity of Taikuanhe Nature Reserve,Shanxi%山西太宽河自然保护区资源植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶晶; 王良民; 苗青; 王钰婧

    2009-01-01

    太宽河自然保护区位于山西中务山中西段,有着丰富的野生资源植物,维管植物共119科464属887种,按经济用途将其分为15类,其中含种类较多的依次为:药用植物531种、观赏植物180种、有毒植物124种、饲料植物82种、油脂植物73种.概述了主要资源植物,并为资源植物开发利用和保护提出建议.%Taikuanhe Nature Reserve is located in the middle-west of Zhongtiaoshan,Shanxi. There are a-bundant resource plants in the Reserve(119 families,464 generas,887 species), which are divided into 15 groups according to their economical uses. The groups including more species are medicinal plants (531 species) ,ornamental plants (180 species) ,poisonous plants (124 species),forage plants (82 species) and oil plants (73 species). The major resource plants are described. Some strategies are suggested for exploitation and protection of the resource plants.

  13. Coprological Assessment of Enteric Parasites in Argali Sheep ( Ovis ammon , Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica , and Domestic Sheep and Goats at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia

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    David E. Kenny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009 (April/May the Denver Zoological Foundation in collaboration with the Mongolian Academy of Sciences conducted a fi eld coprological assessment feasibility study at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia. Our initial effort was directed at fi nding simple methodologies that would work consistently in the fi eld for identifying some of the enteric parasites for argali sheep ( Ovis ammon and Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica , and then to compare these to samples from local nomad domestic fat-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries and cashmere goats ( Capra hircus . Direct fecal examination yielded less eggs than the fl otation techniques, but was still felt to be useful as a quick screening tool. From the fl otation techniques we settled on using sugar because it appeared to yield the most eggs and sugar is readily available in Mongolia. We successfully recovered Entamoeba sp., Eimeria spp., trichostrongyles, large trichostrongyle species, Trichuris ovis and Strongyloides papillosus . We are using the digital images we captured to create a fi eld guide for common enteric parasites found in wildlife and domestics ungulates found in the reserve. In the future, we plan to use the fi eld guide and the quantitative modi fi ed McMaster technique to compare parasite egg-type numbers in both wild and domestic ungulates during different seasons.

  14. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  15. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

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    Mingchang Cao

    Full Text Available The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776 is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR. In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13% and independent effects (17.42% at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR.

  16. Home range and habitat use of male Reeves's Pheasant(Symaticus reevesii)during winter in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiliang; Zhang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhengwang; Zheng Guangmei; Ruan Xiangfeng; Zhang Keyin; Xi Bo

    2006-01-01

    Home range and habitat use of male Reeves's Pheasant(syrmaticus reevesii)were studied during winter of 2001~2002 and 2002~2003 in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan Province.Results from five individuals of Reeves's Pheasant with over 30 relocations,indicated that the average size of home range was 10.03±1.17 hm2 by Minimum Convex Polygon method.8.60±0.35 hm2 by 90% Harmonic Mean Transformation method,and 9.50±1.90 hm2 by 95% Fixed Kernel method.It was observed that the winter range is smaller than that in the breeding season.The mean core area of the home range was found to be 1.88±0.37 hm2.Although the habitat composition of the core area varied greatly for individuals,a large part of the habitats used were composed of conifer and broadleaf mixed forests,masson pine forests,fir forests,and shrubs.Habitat use within the study area was non-random,while habitats within home ranges were randomly used.Habitat use was dictated by tree diameter at breast height,shrub height and coverage at 2.0 m.The proximity between forests and shrubs were also found to be important in providing refuge for the birds during winter.Recommendations for conservation management include protecting the existing habitats in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,increasing suitable habitat for Reeves's Pheasant through artificial plantations(e.g.firs),and restoring some parts of the large shrub area into forests.

  17. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

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    Silva Joaquim A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  18. THE RESOURSE OF FORAGE PLANT IN HONGHE NATURE RESERVE%洪河自然保护区饲用植物资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海一; 倪红伟; 印文汇; 朱宝光; 崔涛

    2000-01-01

    探讨了洪河自然保护区饲用植物的经济类群、分布状况及其经济价值;洪河自然保护区饲用植物共有256种,隶属38科、113属,可划分为 禾本科、豆科、杂类草3个经济类群;主要分布于菊科、禾本科、豆科、十字花科、蓼科和蔷薇科6科中;在森林、灌丛、草甸生态系统中分布较广。洪河自然保护区;饲用植物;经济类群%This article gives a research on the economy category, the dispersition and the economy value of the forage plant in Honghe nature reserve. It shows that in Honghe nature reserve there are two handred and fifty-six species, belonging to one handred and thirteen genera of thirty-[=]eight families, which can be divided into three economy categories: the grass family. the pulse family and the mixed grasses. And these categories most belonging to six families: the composite family, the grass family, the pulse family, the mustard family, the knotweed family and the rose family. they are wide dispersed in forest. fruss and marsh land ecosystem. And they are important forage and producing value.

  19. 郑州黄河湿地自然保护区生态评价%The Ecological Evaluation of The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦利; 邱记东; 段志强

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the factors related to diversity, representative, rarity, nature, ecological fragility, size suitability and human impacts are selected for the evaluation of ecological quality of Yellow River wetland of Zhengzhou adopting expert consultation laws. The results shows that the quality of the nature reserve can protect biodiversity efficiently. But it's necessary to take scientific and effective and protective messures.%以具有代表性的湿地评价的生物多样性、代表性、稀有性、自然性、面积适宜性,脆弱性和人类威胁等7个指标建立评价体系,对郑州黄河湿地自然保护区进行了生态评价,结果表明:该保护区生态质量较好,但仍需措施来提高保护区的生物多样性保护能力。

  20. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

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    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  1. 社会资本与移民适应:三江源生态移民的文化失调与修补%Social Capital and Migrants Adaptation:Ecological Migrants’ Cultural Disorder and Amendment in Sanjiangyuan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦仁忠; 唐任伍

    2015-01-01

    Ecological migration project is an important protection of ecology in Sanjiangyuan area .fifty thousands Tibetan herders have undergone the social change from nomadic scattering to township settling to fulfill this project , which resulted in the dis-adjustment of these people.In this article, authors proposed the approach by implementing the social capital and its functional meaning to amend the disorder to guaranteeing the cultural adaptation and social harmony .%生态移民是三江源生态保护的一项重要工程,为了这项工程,5万多藏族牧民经历了从“游牧散居”到“城镇定居”的社会变迁,引起了牧民的文化不适。发挥社会资本的功能性作用,使牧民的文化失调在信任、恩惠互动的社会网络关系中逐步修补,有利于牧民的文化适应和社会和谐。

  2. “Chlorophyll ideology” and Protected Areas. The Social Discourses on the Reserve Area “Tancat de la Pipa” in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain

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    Marina Requena i Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century, the empirical evidence that the natural limits to growth were being overstepped (García, 2004 supposed an increase in environmental awareness and led to a search for answers of different kinds. Most of these answers are part of the neoliberal politics that reconcile economic development with environmental sustainability. One of these solutions is the creation of protected areas. In this paper we analyse, firstly, the growth of protected areas in Europe and how we should perceive that growth. Then, we pay special attention to the theoretical implications of the concept of a “Natural Park”, one of the most common kinds of protected area in Spain. Subsequently, based on our research in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain and one of the reserve areas, “El Tancat de la Pipa”, we present the limitations and possibilities of these spaces. The analysis of the discourses, produced through interviews and discussion groups, contextualizes the social representations of this habitat according to their connection with the different social sectors and unravels the meaning given to this area. For the traditional sectors, “El Tancat de la Pipa” is perceived as an expropriation of their land. For environmental technicians, the area represents an object of environmental, educational and scientific consumption. For the ecology movements, it is a “renaturalized” area that is in keeping with developmentalism. And finally, for modernization consumers, this zone means a place for consumption that should receive “more marketing” and be transformed into a “theme park” for family leisure.

  3. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria

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    Grasser Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria, local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is

  4. Wild Resource Plants of Yundingshan Nature Reserve,Shanxi%山西云顶山自然保护区野生资源植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海强; 刘莹; 张峰; 梁小明; 张伟林

    2013-01-01

    There are 86 families, 395 genera and 936 species of wild seed plants in Yundingshan Provincial Nature Reserve,Shanxi. The resource plants are classified into 7 groups,including timbered plants,medicinal plants,oil plants,ornamental plants,edible plants,poisonous plants and honey plants. Among them the timbered plants 56 species, which accounting for 5. 98% of the wild plants; the medicinal plants 542 species,which accounting for 57. 91% of the wild plants;the oil plants 71 species,which accounting for 7. 59% of the wild plants;the ornamental plants 353 species,which accounting for 37. 71% of the wild plants;the edible plants 79 species, which accounting for 8. 44% of the wild plants; the poisonous plants 73 species, which accounting for 7. 80% of the wild plants;the honey plants 108 species,which accounting for 11. 54% of the wild plants. Therefore,the medicinal plants,ornamental plants and honey plants are the most abundant resource plants of Yundingshan Provincial Nature Reserve, they constitute the main plants resource of Yundingshan Provincial Nature Reserve which have great value to exploit. Moreover,some strategies were discussed for the protection of the wild resource plants.%山西云顶山省级自然保护区现有野生种子植物936种,隶属于395属,86科.按照野生植物的主要经济用途分类,可将云顶山植物资源分为材用植物、药用植物、油脂植物、观赏植物、食用植物、有毒植物和蜜源植物7类,其中材用植物56种,占云顶山省级自然保护区野生种子植物种数的5.98%;药用植物542种,占云顶山省级自然保护区野生种子植物种数的57.91%;油脂植物71种,占云顶山省级自然保护区野生种子植物种数的7.59%;观赏植物353种,占云顶山省级自然保护区野生种子植物种数的37.71%;食用植物79种,占云顶山省级自然保护区野生种子植物种数的8.44%;有毒植物73种,占云顶山省级自然保护

  5. 秦岭自然保护区群成本效益研究(III)——综合效益评价%Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Qinling Mountain Nature Reserve Group:Evaluation of Comprehensive Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌海; 温亚利; 李宵宇; 胡崇德; 司开创

    2012-01-01

    根据秦岭自然保护区群成本效益的计量结果,如何评价秦岭自然保护区群的综合效益是本文研究的关键问题。本文选用了模糊数学隶属函数法,结合秦岭自然保护区群三大效益的计量指标体系及计量结果,进一步筛选出17个主要的综合效益评价指标,同时按照评价指标体系对七大保护区的截面数据进行了估算。研究结果表明,秦岭自然保护区群中周至保护区和太白山的综合效益发展是最好的,佛坪、长青、牛背梁以及朱鹮自然保护区次之,相对综合效益发展最差的是天华山保护区。本研究总结出一套适合森林类型的自然保护区综合效益的评价指标体系与评价方法,可以在缺乏时间序列数据的情况下,利用横向截面数据了解目前自然保护区综合效益发展的情况,并为自然保护区生物多样性的保护提供科学依据。%Comprehensive benefit evaluation is the basis for nature reserve resource management and planning,and important in territorial planning.We evaluated nature reserve comprehensive benefits(1) to understand the operation and management of a nature reserve system,especially the harmonious development of the nature reserve with surrounding areas,and(2) provide a basis for the optimization of protection policy.Cost benefit evaluation takes the measurement as the foundation,and considers the whole reserve operation status,and the influence of the cost and benefit on regional development.We used the method of horizontal comparative analysis,involving the transverse comparison of nature reserves within the study area.Through the same time evaluation of the comprehensive benefit between them,we determined the optimal scheme and solved deficiencies in nature reserve development.We selected a fuzzy mathematics method and combined this with a measurement index system and measurement results for three major benefits across the Qinling Mountains nature reserve group

  6. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

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    Schwarz Alexandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5% to 2008 (16.5%, thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%. Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained

  7. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:General y speaking, playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded. This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method. The aims of the study reported in this paper were (1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and (3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests. Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012. Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used. Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described. The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory, where visibility was poor, and to repel intruders. When not disturbed, Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls. Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse, shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect. The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  8. Parentage determination of an isolated Yangtze finless porpoise population Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis in the Yangtze Tian-e-Zhou Baiji National Natural Reserve based on molecular data

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    XIA Junhong; ZHENG Jinsong; XU Limei; WANG Ding

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors are poorly known for the Yangtze finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis. In this study, the parentage of an isolated Yangtze finless porpoise population inhabiting the Yangtze Tian-e-Zhou Baiji National Natural Reserve is determined by analysis of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and the porpoise's reproductive behaviors are studied. Overall 4 full parentage assignments and additional 3 single parentage assignments were determined for the population of 23 individuals. The analysis shows that their estimated reproductive cycle is shorter than that reported previously and there probably exists an overlapping between gestation and lactation period. The study also shows that the female does not show fidelity to a particular male for breeding and vice versa, the oldest males did not monopolize mating and the dominance rank could not be so strict for the porpoise society. Moreover, the porpoise's mating pattern and relatedness among candidate parents are discussed here. These results provide important information for making guidelines of management and conservation for this protected population.

  9. 历山自然保护区外来入侵植物研究%Study on Invasive Alien Plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi

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    马世军; 王建军

    2011-01-01

    The invasive alien plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi, totally 11 species, were studied,including Chenopodium hybridum ,Amaranthus retroflexus ,Vaccaria segetalis ,Melilotus albus , Hibisicus trio-num , Ipomoea purpurea ,Datura stramonium ,Conyza Canadensis ,Erigeron annuus ,Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. The diffusing mechanism, invasion route, distribution, habitat, ecological damage and utilization value for those invasive alien plants were analyzed,respectively. Moreover,the management strategies for those invasive alien species were also discussed, including mechanical, chemical and biological controls and strengthening research of diffusing mechanism.%历山自然保护区的外来入侵植物有11种,分别是杂配藜、反枝苋、王不留行、白香草木樨、野西瓜苗、圆叶牵牛、曼陀罗、小蓬草、一年蓬、苦苣菜、野燕麦等.本文论述了它们的入侵途径、分布、生境、危害及利用价值,提出了对外来入侵植物的管理对策,包括人工措施、化学措施、生物措施、加强扩散机制研究等.

  10. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

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    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  11. Evaluation ofnest site preferences ofa nest dismantler, the Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) inDongzhai National Nature Reserve ofcentral China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the lfedging of the young. One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited, and sites are often reused. Methods: By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations, we determined the nest habitat prefer-ence of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, China. We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected. Results: We found that nest tree height, diameter at breast height, live crown ratio, tree rank, and presence of overstory were signiifcantly higher at nesting locations than random locations; slope, leaf litter cover percentage and depth, presence of understory and midstory, and number of trees per hectare were signiifcantly lower at nest sites than random sites. Drongos preferred to use some tree species, such asMetasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollis-sima, andPterocarya stenoptera for nesting. Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground. Conclusion: Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nest-dismantling behavior in this species.

  12. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79–26.66), Cd (0.03–0.19), Pb (36.71–59.86), Cr (9.67–134.51), Zn (119.69–157.84), As (15.65–31.60), and Hg (0.00–0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As. PMID:27795956

  13. Identification of Entamoeba polecki with Unique 18S rRNA Gene Sequences from Celebes Crested Macaques and Pigs in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Josef; Feng, Meng; Imada, Mihoko; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Unique species of macaques are distributed across Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and the details of Entamoeba infections in these macaques are unknown. A total of 77 stool samples from Celebes crested macaques (Macaca nigra) and 14 stool samples from pigs were collected in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, and the prevalence of Entamoeba infection was examined by PCR. Entamoeba polecki was detected in 97% of the macaques and all of the pigs, but no other Entamoeba species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from M. nigra was unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki subtype (ST) 4. This is the first case of identification of E. polecki ST4 from wild nonhuman primates. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from pigs was also unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki ST1. These results suggest that the diversity of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki is associated with differences in host species and geographic localization, and that there has been no transmission of E. polecki between macaques and pigs in the study area.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of anammox bacteria in estuarial sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by analyzing the 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The community and population dynamics of anammox bacteria in summer (wet) and winter (dry) seasons in estuarial mudflat sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve were investigated by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes. 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity showed that sequences related to 'Kuenenia' anammox bacteria were presented in summer but not winter while 'Scalindua' anammox bacteria occurred in both seasons and could be divided into six different clusters. Compared to the 16S rRNA genes, the hzo genes revealed a relatively uniform seasonal diversity, with sequences relating to 'Scalindua', 'Anammoxoglobus', and planctomycete KSU-1 found in both seasons. The seasonal specific bacterial groups and diversity based on the 16S rRNA and hzo genes indicated strong seasonal community structures in estuary sediment of this site. Furthermore, the higher abundance of hzo genes in summer than winter indicates clear seasonal population dynamics. Combining the physicochemical characteristics of estuary sediment in the two seasons and their correlations with anammox bacteria community structure, we proposed the strong seasonal dynamics in estuary sediment of Mai Po to be due to the anthropogenic and terrestrial inputs, especially in summer, which brings in freshwater anammox bacteria, such as 'Kuenenia', interacting with the coastal marine anammox bacteria 'Scalindua'.

  15. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  16. Correlation between the avian community and habitat at different water levels during spring migration in Zhalong National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-fei; SUN Meng; WU Qing-Ming; MA Jian-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Zhalong National Nature Reserve (Zhalong) is an important stopover for migratory birds.In recent decades,Zhalong has become the focus of researchers and public discussion in relation to irrigation.We studied relationships between birds and habitats at different water levels to guide development of more effective habitat management measures.We used line transects to survey bird numbers and distribution during April-May from 2005-2009 at Zhalong,and used cluster analysis and Chi-Square tests to analyze data.We recorded 139 bird species of 39families and 13 orders during spring migration,including Anseriformes,Charadriiformes,Ciconiiformes,Columbiformes,Coraciiformes,Cuculiformes,Falconiformes,Galliformes,Gruiformes,Passeriformes,Piciformes,Podicipediformes,Strigiformes.Dominant vegetation and geographic region were the main influence factors of avian distribution.Different ecological groups preferred different water levels (p<0.01) and different habitat types (p<0.01).Grallatores,Natatores and Passeres were the main ecological groups in different wetland habitats,and reed marsh and lake are the main habitats for management.Grallatores preferred reed marsh and lake with water levels >30 cm and 5-15 cm.Natatores preferred lakes with deep water (>30 cm).Passeres preferred open forest and reed marsh with no surface water.Different avian ecological groups occupied specific habitats depending on water level and we recorded some overlaps in bird distribution.

  17. Dune vegetation and coastal thicket plant communities in threatened limestone fynbos of Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve, Struisbaai, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Zietsman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal thicket and dune vegetation of Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve was classified using Braun-Blanquet procedures and TWINSPAN. The vegetation was sampled using 74 randomly stratified sample plots. The floristic composition, cover- abundance of each species, and several environmental variables were recorded in each sample plot. Six plant communities were identified, namely, Rhus glauca - Euclea racemosa low to tall closed thicket community; Chrysanthemoides monilifera - Solanum africanum low closed dune shrub community; Chrysanthemoides monilifera - Ehrharta villosa var. maxima low to high closed dune shrub community; Ehrharta villosa var. maxima low to short closed dune grassland community; Ammophila arenaria low to short closed dune grassland community; and Arcthotheca populifolia - Thinopyrum distichum low to short open beach community. These were subdivided into eight subcommunities and four variants. All communities, sub-communities and variants were described and ecologically interpreted. The distribution of the communities, sub-communities and variants can mainly be ascribed to differences in landform, rockiness of the soil surface the degree of protection / exposure of the vegetation to the dominating winds of the area.

  18. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  19. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  20. Study on Bryophytes Flora in Tianma Nature Reserve of Anhui Province, China%天马自然保护区苔藓植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师雪芹; 陈家伟

    2012-01-01

    通过调查,天马自然保护区共有苔藓植物50科94属176种.保护区优势科为真藓科Bryaceae、曲尾藓科Dicranaceae、青藓科Brachytheciaceae、灰藓科Hypnaceae、提灯藓科Mniaceae、光萼苔科Porellaceae、锦藓科Sematophyllaceae、金发藓科Polytrichaceae、羽藓科Thuidiaceae和绢藓科Entodontaceae;优势属为光萼苔属Porella、曲柄藓属Campylopus、凤尾藓属Fissidens、真藓属Bryum、匐灯藓属Plagiomnium、泽藓属Philonotis和绢藓属Entodon.区系成分以东亚成分为主(37.04%),温带成分次之(33.33%),热带成分较少(25.31%).%176 species belonging to 94 genera in 50 families of bryophyte are reported in Tianma Nature Reserve located in the west of Anhui province. The predominant families are Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Hypnaceae, Mniaceae, Porellaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Polytrichaceae, Thuidiaceae and Entodontaceae; predominant genera are Porella , Campylopus, Fissidens , Bryum , Plagiomnium , Philonotis , Entodon . Based on the analysis of geographic elements of species, the result shows the East Asiatic element is dominant, accounting for about 37. 04% , the temperate element accounts 33. 33% of the whole bryophyte flora and the proportion of the tropical element is 25.31 % .

  1. Foods eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuecong; Stanford, Craig B; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Li, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. We analyzed the nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, and water soluble carbohydrate [WSC]) and feeding deterrents (crude fiber, condensed tannin [CT], and total phenolic [TP]) of 111 parts from 53 plant species and of 6 lichen species. Results showed that lichens were a good choice for R. roxellana living in habitats with limited and seasonally available plant foods. They contained higher concentrations of WSC than foliage, fat concentrations equivalent to those in plant parts (except fruits/seeds), and lower concentrations of fiber than mature leaves, flowers, and fruits. Although lichens were lower in protein than plant parts (except fruits), the monkeys could likely meet their protein requirement by eating seasonal plant foods rich in protein, including foliage, flowers, buds, and seeds. The monkeys were not observed to select foliage higher in protein, but appeared to select mature leaves higher in WSC and lower in fiber. Fruits were a good source of WSC and fat, and seeds were a good source of fat. Neither CT nor TP content showed negative effects on the selection of mature leaves or lichens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seasonal variation and potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface waters of Chao Phraya River and Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-07-01

    Using molecular techniques, a longitudinal study was conducted with the aims at identifying the seasonal difference of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water as well as analyzing the potential sources based on species information. One hundred forty-four water samples were collected, 72 samples from the Chao Phraya River, Thailand, collected in the summer, rainy and cool seasons and 72 samples from sea water at Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, collected before, during and after the presence of migratory seagulls. Total prevalence of Cryptosporidium contamination in river and sea water locations was 11% and 6%, respectively. The highest prevalence was observed at the end of rainy season continuing into the cool season in river water (29%) and in sea water (12%). During the rainy season, prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4% in river and sea water samples, but none in summer season. All positive samples from the river was C. parvum, while C. meleagridis (1), and C. serpentis (1) were obtained from sea water. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genetic study in Thailand of Cryptosporidium spp contamination in river and sea water locations and the first report of C. serpentis, suggesting that humans, household pets, farm animals, wildlife and migratory birds may be the potential sources of the parasites. The findings are of use for implementing preventive measures to reduce the transmission of cryptosporidiosis to both humans and animals.

  3. [Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guang-Shui; Wan, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3.76 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ) and August (2.69 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73%-86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1.55 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1.58 and 1.75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10.01 and 5.77 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively.

  4. Ramet Population Structure of Fargesia nitida (Mitford)Keng f. et Yi in Different Successional Stands of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Jian-Ping Tao; Yuan Li; Yong-Jian Wang; Yi Xi; Wei-Yin Zhang; Run-Guo Zang

    2006-01-01

    Forest structure and succession in Wolong Nature Reserve is influenced by the understory dwarf bamboo population. However, less is known about how the forest succession affects the dwarf bamboo population.To examine the bamboo ramet population growth of Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. et Yi and to determine how ramet population structure varies along the succession of coniferous forest, we sampled ramet populations of F. nitida from the following three successional stages:(i) a deciduous broad-leaved (BL)stand;(ii) a mixed broad-leaved coniferous (MI) stand;and (iii) a coniferous (CF) stand. We investigated the population structure, biomass allocation, and morphological characteristics of the bamboo ramet among the three stand types. Clonal ramets, constituting the bamboo population, tended to become short and small with succession. The ramet changed towards having a greater mass investment in leaves, branches and underground roots and rhizomes rather than in the culm. With respect to leaf traits, individual leaf mass and area in the BL stand were markedly bigger than those in both the MI and CF stands, except for no significant difference in specific leaf area. The age distribution showed that the bamboo population approached an older age with succession. The results demonstrate that the ramet population structure of F.nitida is unstable and its growth performance is inhibited by succession.

  5. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic.

  6. Spatial variations of Pb in the vertical zone of the soil-plant system in the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of vertical and horizontal variations of lead element(Pb) in soil-plant system of vertical zone in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve(CNNR) were studied.The results showed that Pb concentrations in soils of vertical zone are all above 25 mg/kg,and the average Pb concentration of each soil zone negatively correlates its degree of variation,i.e.brown coniferous forest soil zone has the lowest average Pb concentration of four soil zones,and the highest horizontal variation; however,mountain soddy forest soil has the highest average Pb concentration,and the lowest horizontal variation; the average concentration of plant Pb of each plant zone is lower than the worldwide average level of Pb in plant( Clarke),respectively,and plant Pb content order is consistent with soil Pb content order,but their horizontal variations are different from those in soil zones,the variation of mountain tundra forest zone is highest,but Betula ermanii forest zone the lowest.Vertical variation of plant Pb is obviously higher than that in soils with variation coefficient of 89.76%; the enrichment capability of plant for Pb is depended on the plant types and the different organs of plant; parent material and parent rock,pH values,soil organic matter and soil particle fraction etc.are the main factors influencing variations of Pb content in soil-plant system of vertical zone in CNNR.

  7. Quantifying Streamflow Variations in Ungauged Lake Basins by Integrating Remote Sensing and Water Balance Modelling: A Case Study of the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological predictions in ungauged lakes are one of the most important issues in hydrological sciences. The habitat of the Relict Gull (Larus relictus in the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve (ELRNNR has been seriously endangered by lake shrinkage, yet the hydrological processes in the catchment are poorly understood due to the lack of in-situ observations. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the variation in lake streamflow and its drivers. In this study, we employed the remote sensing technique and empirical equation to quantify the time series of lake water budgets, and integrated a water balance model and climate elasticity method to further examine ELRNNR basin streamflow variations from1974 to 2013. The results show that lake variations went through three phases with significant differences: The rapidly expanding sub-period (1974–1979, the relatively stable sub-period (1980–1999, and the dramatically shrinking sub-period (2000–2013. Both climate variation (expressed by precipitation and evapotranspiration and human activities were quantified as drivers of streamflow variation, and the driving forces in the three phases had different contributions. As human activities gradually intensified, the contributions of human disturbances on streamflow variation obviously increased, accounting for 22.3% during 1980–1999 and up to 59.2% during 2000–2013. Intensified human interferences and climate warming have jointly led to the lake shrinkage since 1999. This study provides a useful reference to quantify lake streamflow and its drivers in ungauged basins.

  8. SEROSURVEILLANCE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 WITH HAEMAGGLUTINATION-INHIBITION ON WILD AQUATIC BIRDS IN PULAU DUA SERANG NATURAL RESERVES, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further detailed research is required to obtain deeper information on the role of wild birds on the distribution of Avianinfluenza in Asia. A research has been carried out on February–June 2007 focused on blood sampling (serosurveillanceof wild birds in Pulau Dua Nature Reserves (CAPD, Serang, Banten. The research is aimed to investigate the infectionof AI virus sub-tye H5N1 on the studied wild birds. The blood samples were taken from studied aquatic birds, followedby HI (haemagglutination-inhibition test. A total of 183 samples represent 7 water bird species were taken i.e Cattleegret Bubulcus ibis, Javan pond-heron Ardeola speciosa, Little egret Egretta garzetta, Intermediate egret Egrettaintermedia, Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Great egret Casmerodius albus and Grey heron Ardeacinerea. The result revealed that 41 (23.27% samples showed the present of AIV antibodies serotype H5N1 which isidentified as positive. Data showed 5 positive-test species, including B. ibis (29.27%, E. garzetta (29.27%, E.intermedia (4.88%, Ardeola speciosa (7.32%, and N. nycticorax (29.27%. A total of 41.46% were infected adultindividual, whereas 58.54% were juveniles.

  9. 自然保护区周边社区贫困问题分析--以云南金平分水岭国家级自然保护区为例%Analysis on the Poverty Problem of the Communities Surrounding in Nature Reserve---Jinping Fenshuiling Nature Reserve of Yunnan as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩倩; 赖庆奎

    2016-01-01

    通过对金平分水岭保护区周边典型村寨进行调查,从时间和空间两方面分析收入情况,结果表明:虽然国家和各级政府实施了许多扶贫措施,但是,保护区周边社区农户的收入相对于其他地方还是比较低,此外,在距离保护区不同距离的村寨,收入情况也不相同。提出了在实施扶贫措施时,要结合精准识别,精准帮扶、精准管理的治贫方式。%Investigate typical village surrounding the Fenshuiling nature reserve, analyze the income from the two aspects of time and space. The results showed that although the state and government implement many poverty alleviation measures at all levels, the community surrounding reserve of farmers income relative to other places is still relatively low. In addition, at different distances from the villages in reserve, income is not the same. Thus, in the implementation of poverty alleviation measures, combine precision identification, precision helping, precision management of the governance of poverty.

  10. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  11. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  12. Survey and evaluation of natural resource of friendship nature reserve in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江友好自然保护区自然资源的调查及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万婷; 穆立蔷; 冯富娟

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it thoroughly investigated the nature reserve about the friendship nature reserve in Heilongjiang Province. The vegetation of the reserve belongs to the temperate zone,Pan-Arctic Flora, the Eurasian Forest Subfioral and the Changbai Mountain Flora, and some of parts of which belong to the Mongolian Flora and the North China Flora. In the nature reserve, there are 836 species of higher plants, of which 183 species are moss, belonging to 56 families and 100 genera; 41 species are ferns, belonging to 14 families and 26 genera, and 612 species are seed plants, belonging to 89 families and 288 genera. There are 330 species of vertebrates, of which 43 species are fishes,belonging to 5 orders and 11 families; 8 species are amphibians, belonging to 2 orders and 4 families;11 species are reptiles, belonging to 3 orders and 4 families; 221 species are birds, belonging to 17 orders and 44 families; and 47 species are mammals, belonging to 6 orders and 16 families. As for invertebrates, 370 species are insects, belonging to 12 orders and 95 families; 72 species are the soil animals, belonging to 15 orders 42 families. 8 species of plants are listed in the second grade of the National Rare & Endangered Plant and 6 species of animals are listed in the first grade of the National Protected Animals, including 2 species of mammals and 4 species of birds. More than 510 species have either medicinal values or economic values, like fiber and nectar plants, showing the widely exploitable potential.%文章对黑龙江友好自然保护区的自然资源状况等进行了彻查.保护区植被属于温带性质,植物区系属泛北极植物区、欧亚森林植物亚区、长白植物区系,同时有蒙古植物区系、华北植物区系成分.保护区内共分布有高等植物836种,其中苔藓植物56科100属183种,蕨类植物14科26属41种,种子植物89科288属612种.共有脊椎动物330种,其中鱼类有5目11科43种,两栖类动物有2目4科8

  13. 北京松山国家级自然保护区鼠类群落多样性与结构变动分析%Rats Community Structure and Diversity in the Songshan National Nature Reserve, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐磊; 胡德夫; 丁长青; 隋金玲; 张东; 杨亮; 吴记贵; 蒋万杰

    2012-01-01

    Rats were investigated in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve in Junes and Octobers of both 2009 and 2010. A total of 95 individuals belonging to eight species, four genera and two families were captured. The survey regions were divided into seven habitat types based on forest vegetations. The rodent community structures of different microhabitats were analyzed on seven indexes, including species (S), capture rate (C), proportion (G), Shannon-Wiener index (H') , evenness index (J') , degree of dominance (D) and similarity index (/). The results showed that Rattus confucianus, Apodemus draco and Apodemus speciosus were dominant species in the nature reserve. The proportion of Apodemus agrarius in rat community became significantly lower than that of 20 years ago, and Apodemus uralensis was found for the first time in the nature reserve. The community diversity and evenness enhanced with increase of the species number, and reduced with increase of the dominant species number.

  14. 云南碧塔海自然保护区生态旅游开发模式研究%Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂华; 王跃华; 钟林生

    2000-01-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i. e, tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  15. Flora of Hulan Estuary Wetlands Nature Reserve%呼兰河口湿地自然保护区植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旭

    2013-01-01

      通过对呼兰河口湿地自然保护区内植被区系进行的研究,结果表明:以禾本科、莎草科的中生、湿生、沼生及水生植物为优势的草甸、沼泽、水生植被类型是该区的主要类型;群落结构与生态系统组成相对森林简单,植物种类也较森林少,共计70科,244属,465种,其植物种类约占黑龙江省植物种类的28.28%左右;种子植物区系成分东北植物区系占第一位,华北植物区系占第二位,东北平原亚区占第三位,少许大兴安岭植物区和东蒙古草原亚区种类;该区属的地理分布区类型以温带成分占优势,世界广布种亦占有较大比重。其优势植物是中生的禾本科植物小叶章、湿生的莎草科植物修氏苔草及沼生的禾本科植物芦苇、莎草科植物毛果苔草、漂筏苔草等,形成了独具特色的草本湿地。%Vegetation flora in Hulan estuarine wetlands area was studied .Meadow ,marsh & aquatic vegetation types are the main types for mesophyte ,hygrophyte & marsh plants of poaceae & sedge ;community structure & ecosys-tem components in this nature reserve is relatively simple than that of forest ,and its plant species are less than that of forest ;a total of 70 families ,244 genera and 465 kinds ,which accounts for about 28 .28% in plant species of Hei-longjiang Province .Seed flora:northeast flora accounted for the first one ;north flora is in the second place ;the northeast plain sub-region accounted for the third place ,and there is a little Daxing’anling flora and the species in sub-region of Eastern Mongolian prairie .The temperate zone of the geographical distribution types belonged to Hu-lan Estuary Wetlands Nature Reserve is dominant .The world’s widely distributed species also account for a large proportion .The advantaged plants are Deyeuxia angustifolia (mesophytic grass family) ,Carex schmidtii (hygric sedge family) ,Phragmites australis (marsh sedge

  16. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  17. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leempoel, K.; Bourgeois, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, M.; Satyaranayana, B.; Bogaert, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2013-02-01

    Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc.) to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve - ZMNNR, P. R. China) were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B), 2000 (Landsat ETM+), and 2009 (GeoEye-1) satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (-36%) was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy) and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%), the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements) (August-September, 2009) and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1), both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73-100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%). Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e.g. Kandelia obovata) at Gaoqiao. Despite the limitations such as geometric distortion and single band information, the 42-yr old Corona declassified images are invaluable for land-use/cover change detections when compared to recent satellite data

  18. Nature Reserve wild plants ornamental value evaluation in Tumuji%图牧吉自然保护区野生植物观赏价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国富; 杜广明; 朱琳; 宋敏超

    2012-01-01

    The ornamental value of wild plant resources in Tumuji Nature Reserve was evaluated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to establish the foundation for exploitation and utilization of wild plant resources in the premise of protection. The results showed that, the 9 kinds of wild plant had higher comprehensive evaluation value such as PotentiUa anserina L., Thymus quinquecostatus vat. asiat/cus Kitag., Lilium pumilum DC, Portulaca grandiflora L., Thalictrum petaloideum L., Clematis hexapetala Pall., Medicago falcata L., Leontoodium leonptopodioides (Willd.) Beauv. and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd.which could be considered as the introduction and application of wild native plant species in peripheral region and could be protectively developed and utilized.%采用层次分析法(AHP)评价了图牧吉自然保护区野生植物资源的观赏价值,为在保护的前提下充分开发利用该保护区野生植物资源奠定了基础。结果表明,鹅绒萎陵菜、百里香、细叶百合、太阳花、瓣蕊唐松草、棉团铁线莲、野苜蓿、火绒草、狭叶柴胡等9种野生植物综合评价值较高,是周边地区可以考虑引种应用的乡土野生植物种类,可进行保护性开发和利用。

  19. Evaluation of nest site preferences of a nest dismantler,the Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the fledging of the young.One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited,and sites are often reused.Methods:By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations,we determined the nest habitat preference of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan,China.We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected.Results:We found that nest tree height,diameter at breast height,live crown ratio,tree rank,and presence of overstory were significantly higher at nesting locations than random locations;slope,leaf litter cover percentage and depth,presence of understory and midstory,and number of trees per hectare were significantly lower at nest sites than random sites.Drongos preferred to use some tree species,such as Metasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollissima,and Pterocarya stenoptera for nesting.Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground.Conclusion:Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nestdismantling behavior in this species.

  20. Vegetation of the Sileza Nature Reserve and neighbouring areas, South Africa, and its importance in conserving the woody grasslands of the Maputaland Centre of Endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Matthews

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the plant communities of the Sileza Nature Reserve and surrounding areas (± 4 124 ha is presented. The study area falls within the Maputaland Centre o f Endemism, which is part ot the Maputaland-Pondoland Region, a centre of plant diversity rich in endemic plants and animals. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 12 distinct, mainly grassland plant communities. A hierarchical classification, description and ecological interpretation ot these communities are presented. The level o f the water table, either directly, or indirectly through its role in soil formation, is the deciding factor in defining plant communities on the geologically young sandy substrate. Fire is an essential factor, particularly in maintaining the woody grasslands, a rare vegetation type rich in geoxylic suffrutices. and unique to the Maputaland Centre. A comparison between the endemic complement in the subtropical coastal grasslands of Maputaland and the high-altitude Afromontane grasslands of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism shows marked differences in grow th form and vegetation type partitioning between the two centres. This can probably be ascribed to the relative youth (Quaternary of the Maputaland coastal plain and its associated plant communities. Notable for their richness in Maputaland Centre endemic/near-endemic taxa. the conservation of sand forest and woody grasslands should receive high priority. Afforestation with alien trees is the most serious threat to the biodiversity of the Maputaland coastal grasslands, not only because of habitat destruction, but also through its expected negative effect on the hydrology of the region

  1. Study on Biodiversity of Nanhe Nature Reserve in Hubei%湖北南河自然保护区生物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方国海; 蒲云海; 刘瑛; 杨建国; 陈伟

    2009-01-01

    对湖北南河自然保护区的生物多样性进行了研究.结果表明:①保护区有自然植被为3个植被型组,6 个植被型,18 个群系;②保护区有维管束植物183 科731 属1 548种,占湖北省维管束植物总种数的25.72%.属国家珍稀濒危或重点保护植物27种.③保护区有脊椎动物28 目83 科277种,占湖北省脊椎动物总种数的31.24%.其中国家重点保护野生动物52种.%The authors study on biodiversity in Nanhe Nature Reserve, Hubei. The results show that:①There are 18 formations which belong to 3 vegetation type groups and 6 vegetation types in this region.②The vascular plants consist of 1 548 species (including subspecies and varieties) which belong to 731 genus and 183 families,which are 25.72% of total in Hubei province,and about 27 species of the vascular plants are rare, endangered and main protected plants in China. ③277 wild animal species of 83 families in 28 orders were founded in the area, which is 31.24% of the total in Hubei province of them, 52 species are national key protected animals.

  2. Survey about Nectar Plant Resources in Maolan Nature Reserve%茂兰自然保护区野生蜜源植物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃龙江; 冉景丞; 姚正明; 刘绍飞; 莫家伟; 唐安学; 蒙会理

    2012-01-01

    After four years of research on wild nectar plants in Maolan Nature Reserve, the distribution, habitats and biological traits of those nectar plants were introduced in details, and some suggestions were given on their utilization status and development prospect. The results showed that there are up to 148 kinds of wild nectar plant resources, including 46 kinds of main wild nectar plants, belonging to 19 families 34 genera;90 kinds of auxiliary nectar plants, belonging to 33 families, 64 genera; 12 kinds of toxic nectar plants, attached to the 9 families, 10 genera.This study is to describe in details the flowering and habitat of wild nectar plants,and put forward some suggestions on its development, utilization and prospects.%通过对茂兰自然保护区野生蜜源植物资源进行了4年的调查研究,对野生蜜源植物的分布情况、生境特点和生物学性状做详细介绍,并对其开发利用现状及前景分析提出建议.结果表明,茂兰自然保护区内有野生蜜源植物资源多达148种,其中主要野生蜜源植物46种,隶属19科、34属;辅助蜜源植物90种,隶属33科、64属;有毒蜜源植物12种,隶属9科、10属.从种类构成上看,该区野生蜜源植物的优势科为豆科和蔷薇科,其次是山茶科、唇形科、菊科.

  3. The spatial relationship between salt marsh vegetation patterns, soil elevation and tidal channels using remote sensing at Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zongsheng; ZHOU Yunxuan; TIAN Bo; DING Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships has always been a study hotspot in ecology. A number of biotic, hydrologic and edaphic factors have great influence on the distribution of macrophytes within salt marsh. Since the exotic speciesSpartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) was introduced in 1995, a rapid expansion has occurred at Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve (CDNR) in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary, China. Several important vegetation-environment factors including soil elevation, tidal channels density (TCD), vegetation classification and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) were extracted by remote sensing method combined with field measurement. To ignore the details in interaction between biological and physical process, the relationship between them was discussed at a large scale of the whole saltmarsh. The results showed that Scirpus mariqueter (S. mariqueter) can endure the greatest elevation variance with 0.33 m throughout the marsh in CDNR. But it is dominant in the area less than 2.5 m with the occurrence frequency reaching 98%.S. alterniflora has usually been found on the most elevated soils higher than 3.5 m but has a narrow spatial distribution. The rapid decrease ofS. mariqueter can be explained by stronger competitive capacity ofS. alterniflora on the high tidal flat. FVC increases with elevation which shows significant correlation with elevation (r=0.30,p<0.001). But the frequency distribution of FVC indicates that vegetation is not well developed on both elevated banks near tidal channels from the whole scale mainly due to tidal channel lateral swing and human activities. The significant negative correlation (r=–0.20,p<0.001) was found between FVC and TCD, which shows vegetation is restricted to grow in higher TCD area corresponding to lower elevation mainly occupied byS. mariqueter communities. The maximum occurrence frequency of this species reaches to 97% at the salt marsh with TCD more than 8 m/m2.

  4. Management of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes fishery in the Berlengas Nature Reserve (Portugal: evaluation of bag and size limit regulation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1790 is an important shellfish resource in Portugal. Due to the social-economic importance of barnacle harvesting, a management plan aimed at achieving a controlled and sustainable activity (including temporal and spatial closures, rotational harvesting, a limited number of harvesting licenses, bag and size limits for catches and catch reporting was implemented in 2000 at the Berlengas Nature Reserve (RNB in central Portugal. We evaluated the bag and size limits imposed by the management plan, performing observations on harvesting activity and asking licensed harvesters and RNB staff about these measures. Both inquiries and observations suggest that licensed harvesters are not following the bag and size limits imposed. Mean amounts captured in RNB varied from 14 to 24 kg per harvester/day, but 25% of the observations corresponded to higher catches per individual than the total amount allowed (20 kg. Only half of the sampled amounts (taken in autumn 2005 and 2006 were in agreement with the size limit regulation and 50% of the total biomass comprised individuals of maximal rostro-carinal length (RC ≥ 25 mm. For most harvesters, size limit is the most difficult management rule to fulfil. Both harvesters and RNB staff agree that surveillance is scarce and is a major problem of this fishing activity. In order to achieve a more sustainable use of this resource, we propose the implementation of a more effective surveillance and monitoring plan, the definition of a unique landing site, the maintenance of the bag limit (20 kg and a reduction of the size limit (50% of total biomass comprising individuals ≥ 22 mm RC.

  5. 公路项目环评涉及自然保护区评价重点的探讨%Discussion about environmental impact assessment of highway projects related to the emphasis of nature reserve evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东昌

    2014-01-01

    根据现有自然保护区的特点,以及现行的法律法规和环境影响评价的相关要求,对于在公路环评中涉及自然保护区的项目,如何做好环境影响评价进行探讨。%According to the characteristics of the existing nature reserves, as well as the existing laws , regulations and the requirements of environmental impact assessment , how to do the environmental impact assessment of highway projects effectively in nature reserves is discussed .

  6. 贵州茂兰喀斯特森林自然保护区的生态旅游%A DISCUSSION OF THE ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MAOLAN KARST FOREST NATURAL RESERVE OF GUIZHOU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维词; 李坡; 贺卫; 朱文孝

    2001-01-01

    Maolan Karst Forest Natural Reserve is located in Libo county,south of the Guizhou province,which belongs to one of the first karst forest reserves in our country.This paper stated the significance of ecotourism development and evaluated the conditions of ecotourism resources exploitation in Maolan Karst Forest Natural Reserve.According to the fragility of ecoenvironment in Maolan Karst Forest Natural Reserve and the connotation of ecoturism,the authors expounded four principles which should be abided by in ecotourism development and pointed out three models (directions) of ecoturism development in Maolan Karst Forest Natural Reserve.Finally corresponding countermeasures to accelerate ecotourism development in Maolan Karst Forest Natural Reserve were suggested.%阐述了贵州茂兰喀斯特森林自然保护区开展生态旅游的意义,分析评述了该保护区开展生态旅游的优劣势。针对茂兰喀斯特森林自然保护区生态环境本底脆弱和生态旅游的内涵要求,探讨了在该保护区开展生态旅游应坚持的四条原则,提出了适合茂兰喀斯特森林保护区地域特色的生态旅游开发的方向及相应的对策。

  7. 我国自然保护区的管理现状和未来发展对策%China's Nature Reserves Management Status and Future Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 刘延滨

    2012-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves is one of the most effective means for natural resources protection,and Nature Reserve is the key of China's ecological security and sustainable development.This paper analyzed four problems of the current management of nature reserves in China,including the management system not smooth,imperfect legal system,less financing channels and serious shortage of investment,and incoordination with community development.The countermeasures were put forward addressing issues,including improved nature reserve management system,building a complete legal system,broaden the nature reserve financing channels,and the establishment of effective community participation.%建立自然保护区是自然资源保护最有效的手段之一,同时自然保护区是我国生态安全和可持续发展的保证。简要分析了目前我国自然保护区管理上所存在的问题,主要包括管理体制不顺,法制建设不完善,资金的筹措渠道少和投入严重不足和与社区发展不协调四个方面的问题。针对问题提出了相应的对策,包括完善自然保护区管理体制,构建完备的法律体系,拓宽自然保护区资金渠道,建立有效的社区参与机制。

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leempoel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve – ZMNNR, P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B, 2000 (Landsat ETM+, and 2009 (GeoEye-1 satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%. Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P < 0.05 between the three mangrove classes (B. gymnorrhiza and small and tall A. corniculatum. Distribution of tall A. corniculatum on the convex side of creeks and small A.corniculatum on the concave side (with sand show intriguing patterns of watercourse changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated

  9. Birds Diversity in Hanshiqiao Wetland Nature Reserve of Beijing%北京汉石桥湿地自然 保护区鸟类多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 牛童; 李万成; 陈卫; 洪剑明

    2015-01-01

    2013年7月至2014年6月,在汉石桥湿地自然保护区通过样线法、样点法等进行鸟类资源调查.调查发现鸟类15目42科88种,其中雀形目43种,占总种数的48.86%.从居留型来看,旅鸟40种,占45.45%.利用Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数对鸟类多样性分析,发现多样性指数春秋季高,夏冬季低.利用G-F指数对鸟类分布生境的分析,发现鸟类多样性林地最高,居民地最低.鸟类居留型的变化验证了鸟类栖息地北移的现象.此外,根据研究结果对汉石桥湿地自然保护区保护管理提出建议.%From July 2013 to June 2014, a survey on bird resources was conducted with line transect method and point transect method in Hanshiqiao Wetland Nature Reserve. 15 orders 42 families and 88 species were found in the survey, among them 43 species were Passeriformes, accounting for 48.86% of the total. For residential birds, 40 species were passing migrant birds, accounting for 45.45% of the total. Birds diversity analysis with Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index showed that birds diversity higher in spring and autumn, and lower in summer and winter. To the distribution of birds, G-F index showed forest area had most species of birds, and residence areas had least number of bird species. The results also proved that bird habitat is moving northwards. Besides, some advices were made for protecting the birds and the wetland habitat.

  10. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Abdolbaset

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants (WFPs contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR, Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp. are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity

  11. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Langenberger, Gerhard; Sauerborn, Joachim

    2012-05-05

    Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use of wild food plants. There is a big

  12. Ramet population structure of Fargesia nitida in different canopy conditions of the subalpine dark coniferous forest in the Wolong Nature Reserve ,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jianping; SONG Lixia; LI Yuan; WANG Yongjian; YU Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo Fargesia nitida,one of the giant panda's main food sources and the dominant shrub species of the forest understory,is mainly distributed in the dark coniferous belt in western Sichuan and southern Gansu in China.To study the impact of different forest canopy conditions on subalpine dwarf bamboo populations,ramet population structures of clonal Fargesia nitida were surveyed in:forest understory (FU),moderate gap (MG),large gap (LG) and marginal open space (MOS).In order to determine how the ramet structures could be affected and its effects on these four canopy conditions,a field survey of the age structure of Fargesia nitida population,its morphological traits and biomass was conducted in the Abies faxoniana forest situated in the Wolong Nature Reserve,western Sichuan,China.The main results were as follows.First,at the ramet level,the structures of the ramet populations in four canopy conditions were significantly different,and as the canopy density decreased,the mean height,basal diameter and biomass of the populations increased following the order:LG < MG < FU.Second,the biomass proportions of ramets modularly varied with different canopy conditions and leaf biomass proportion was positively related to the canopy density except for the MOS where the biomass proportions of rhizome and roots were both higher than those in the three other canopy conditions.Third,ramet specific leaf weight increased in parallel with the decrease in canopy density.In the MG,the values of the individual leaf biomass and leaf area were the largest,followed by those in the MOS.Both the individual leaf biomass and leaf area were significantly different from those in the FU and LG.Leaf number per ramet was significantly different among the four different canopy conditions and the biggest in the LG.Fourth,the ramet population mortality was the lowest in the FU (Chi-square test,p <0.01),while there was no significant difference in the average population age (Mann

  13. 气候变化对自然保护区的影响及法律对策研究%Climate Change on Nature Reserve Influence and Legal Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏少敏; 徐靓

    2011-01-01

    随着气候变化问题的加剧,自然保护区缺乏应对气候变化的相应措施,造成其保护珍稀资源的功能受到了限制。为了解决这一问题,有必要分析研究气候变化对自然保护区的影响,提出相应的法律对策,以期使自然保护区保护珍稀资源的功能得到最大的发挥。%As an important region to protect vulnerability ecological environment,nature reserve is more vulnerable to be influenced by climate change.However,as the climate change is intensifying,the function of protecting rare resources by nature reserve has been limited because of the lack of appropriate measures to cope with climate change.To solve this problem,it is necessary to analyze the impact of climate change on nature reserve and propose corresponding legal measures,in order to maximize the function of protecting rare resources by nature reserve.

  14. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  15. Investigation and Analysis on Land Ownership of Nature Reserve in Shandong Province%山东省自然保护区土地权属状况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田贵全; 宗雪梅; 孟祥亮; 曹惠明

    2015-01-01

    Area of state-owned land, collective land, and administrative land of nature reserves and their functional zones in Shandong province was investigated systematically, and the land ownership status was analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that, the land ownership of 83.6%of the nature reserves was clearly, there was little constituent difference in land ownership among core zone, buffer zone and experimental zone, but the difference was obviously among national, provincial, municipal and county nature reserves, the mainly land ownership was collective land of forest ecological, inland wetland, and geoheritage nature reserves, on the contrary, state-owned land was in majority of marine nature reserves.%系统调查了山东省自然保护区各功能区与各级各类自然保护区国有土地、集体土地和保护区拥有管理权的土地面积,定量分析了山东省自然保护区土地权属状况。结果表明,山东省83.6%的自然保护区土地权属清晰,核心区、缓冲区和实验区的土地权属构成差异不大,国家级、省级、市级和县级自然保护区土地权属构成差异明显,森林生态类、内陆湿地类和地质遗迹类自然保护区土地权属以集体土地为主,海洋海岸类自然保护区土地权属以国有土地居多。

  16. 广西元宝山自然保护区两栖动物资源调查及保护%Survey and Conservation of Amphibia Resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才云; 曾小飚

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi were investigated from March to August in 2009. The results showed that 27 species of amphibians, belonging to 18 genera, 8 families, 2 orders, were recorded in the reserve. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index and Pielou evenness index were 2.877 and 0.873 respectively. According to the zoogeographic division, this area belong to Western mountain and plateau subregion, Central China region, Oriental Realm. The fauna is mainly composed of species distributed in both Central and South China Region. The ecological categories of 27 amphibians are mainly running-water type and Terrestrial & Quiet-water type. Compared to Maoershan Nature Reserve and Guilin Lijiang scenic spots located in the north of Guangxi similarly, the similarity coefficient of amphibian communities in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve is higher. On the contrary,it has smaller similarity coefficient than Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Longtan Nature Reserve, Diding Nature Reserve of west of Guangxi and Shiwandashan, Guabang mountain of South of Guangxi. Based on the status of the amphibian resources, some protective suggestions were provided in the paper.%2009年3~8月,对广西元宝山自然保护区的两栖动物资源进行了调查.结果表明,该保护区有两栖动物27种,隶属18属8科2目;物种多样性指数为2.877,均匀度指数为0.873.动物地理区划属东洋界华中区西部山地高原亚区黔桂湘低山丘陵省,区系组成以华中区与华南区共有种为主:生态类型以流水型和陆栖静水型种类占优势:保护区和同样地处桂北的猫儿山自然保护区、桂林漓江风景名胜区的两栖动物群落相似系数较高,而与桂西地区的岑王老山自然保护区、龙滩自然保护区、底定自然保护区和桂南地区的十万大山、挂榜山的相似系数较小.最后,根据资源现状提出了保护对策.

  17. 大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及其生态位特征%Classification and ecological niche of natural secondary forest in the Nature Reserve of Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓文; 王永健; 唐亚坤; ULRICH Apel; 王艳; 肖宋高; 李振

    2012-01-01

    Based on data with important values for classification and niche measuring,the classification, niche breadth and overlap of dominant woody species of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were studied by means of sampling, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) ,detrend-ed correspondence analysis (DCA) and niche analysis. The results showed that communities of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were divided into six community types (coniferous forest I and II 籧oniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and IJ , deciduous broad-leaved forest E and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest F) based on TWINSPAN and DCA. DCA ordination figures also reflected the pattern of communities changing from the coniferous forest I and H to coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and JJ ,then to deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. Pinus massoni-ana and Pinus hivangshanensis had a large niche breadth in coniferous forest I and JJ . Pinus and Quer-cus both had larger niche in coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and TJ . Many woody species had larger niche in deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. The niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in different communities might change according to the succession trend. It was feasible for using niche overlap index and species characteristic as the main evaluation criterion in terms of majority species relationships in different community succession.%通过样方调查、TWINSPAN分类与DCA排序及生态位分析,以物种重要值为分类排序与生态位计测的数据指标,研究湖北省大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及优势木本生态位宽度与重叠.结果表明:应用TWINSPAN分类并结合DCA排序,可将植被划分为6个群落类型(针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,E落叶阔叶林和F常绿落叶阔叶混交林).同时DCA排序图中反映了植被由针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——落叶阔叶林与

  18. Distribución y diversidad de hábitats en el humedal de la Reserva Natural Presidente Sarmiento, San Juan, Argentina Distribution and habitats diversity on the wetland of President Sarmiento Natural Reserve, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Germán Flores

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el Área Natural Protegida Presidente Sarmiento (APN, ubicada en la depresión intermontaña del valle de Zonda, región del centro-oeste de Argentina, se cartografiaron los factores relieve, consistencia y estado de humedad de los suelos y vegetación, con el fin de contribuir al manejo del humedal. Éste se ubica en la porción distal de un extenso abanico aluvial, en coincidencia con la zona de descarga de agua. Se efectuó un análisis multidisciplinar para establecer relaciones entre la diversidad de hábitats y relieves, la vegetación y los suelos. Se identificaron y clasificaron genéticamente 10 ambientes regionales en la cuenca, donde el ANP ocupa 2 de estos 10 ambientes. A escala local, con fotos aéreas y trabajo de campo, se identificaron 7 sitios con sus variaciones en consistencia de suelos y vegetación. Se clasificaron 37 especies agrupadas en 18 familias. Las Fabaceae y Asteraceae son predominantes. En la reserva, el tamarindo (Tamarix gallica resultó ser la especie exótica más adaptable; invade y desplaza a las especies nativas. La metodología de trabajo resultó ser muy útil, comenzando desde lo regional hasta el análisis del relieve local.In the Natural Area Protected President Sarmiento (APN, situated in an intermountain depression of an arid region of the Zonda valley, a multidisciplinary analysis was performed, to stablish a relationship between habitat diversity, relief, soils and vegetation. This wetland, Provincial Park Reserve President Sarmiento, is lies in a desertic area of central-western part of Argentina. Ten regional environment units within the basin, and 7 sites within the Park were identified and classified. The sites are located in the distal part of an extensive alluvial fan. The survey of the vegetation identified a total of 37 plant species grouped into 18 families. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae are dominants. The tamarindo (Tamarix gallica was the exotic flora most adaptable to this environment

  19. Population Structure of Schima superba in Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve%清凉峰自然保护区木荷种群结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳新红; 李因刚; 沈国春; 翁东明; 张宏伟; 张方钢

    2011-01-01

    The population structure and spatial distribution patterns of Schima superba on 1 hm2 permanent sample plot located at Qingliangfeng Nature Reserve were analyzed by measuring , registering, tagging, identifying and mapping all the trees with DBH≥ 1 cm in the 1 hm2 permanent sample plot. The result indicated the percentage of Schima superba with DBH≤ 17.5 cm and DBH > 27.5 cm was 80.5%, 8.4%. With self-renewal ability, the population was stable. Based on analysis of population size class structure, the trend of population density of Schima superba changing with individual DBH was similar to skew normal distribution. Possibly attributed to the choice of plot, Schima superba, distribution of which took on obvious spatial heterogeneity, mostly gathered at slope and ridge. The analysis of population spatial association indicated there was negative correlation between individuals with DBH≥ 16.1 cm and those with 1 cm≤DBH < 16.1 cm at scales ≤8 m, and no correlation at larger scales. Importance values of Schima superba in 25 little plots were 0 ~34.35%,and the average was 8.24%. The great difference among little plots was due to aggregation of spatial distribution of Schima superba.%以位于浙江清凉峰国家级自然保护区1 hm永久样地为研究材料,逐一测量并记录了样地中所有胸径≥1 cm树木的胸围,并对其挂牌标记、鉴定种名和确定坐标位置,分析了样地内木荷种群结构与空间格局.研究结果表明,DBH≤17.5 cm的木荷个体数量占80.5%,DBH>27.5 cm的仅占8.4%,种群能够实现自我更新,属稳定型种群.基于种群径级结构分析,木荷种群密度随个体胸径的变化趋势类似于偏正态分布形曲线.木荷在整个样地中的分布表现出明显的空间异质性,多数聚集于坡面和山脊的生境中.种群空间关联性分析表明,木荷大径级(DBH≥16.1 cm)和小径级(1 cm≤DBH<16.1 cm)间在0~8 m的尺度上负相关,8~25 m

  20. Study on the insect diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve%莫莫格国家自然保护区昆虫多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春明; 左悦; 任炳忠

    2011-01-01

    The insect species in Momoge National Nature Reserve were systematically investigated in the study. Shannon-Wiener's diversity index, Simpson's index, Pielou's evenness and interspecific encounter probability indexes were used to study the insect diversity of the different representative habitats. The results showed there were differences among the 5 orders diversity, and the diversity indexes of Suaeda community were the lowest when analyzing the 6 orders' diversity as a whole. The diversity indexes of the three orders (Lepidoptera,Diptera and Orthoptera) in Suaeda community were the lowest of when analyzing the insect diversity indexes respectively. Coleoptera had the lowest indexes in Elm tree community;and Hymenoptera had the lowest indexes in Carex spp. -Deyetixia angusrifolia community. It was obvious that insects of different orders had dissimilar optimum habitat selection in heterogenous habitat type. Insect communities' diversity in Momoge protection areas was clarified in the study, and the above results provided theoretical basis for development and protection of insect resources in Momoge wetland protection area.%对莫莫格国家级自然保护区的昆虫进行了系统调查,采用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Simpson优势度集中性指数(D)、Pielou均匀度指数(J')及PIE种间相遇率对不同生境优势目昆虫进行了比较分析.结果表明:应用4种多样性指数测度6个优势目昆虫总体多样性时,其结果虽有差别,但都显示碱蓬群落的多样性指数值最低.分别对5个优势目的昆虫进行多样性分析,结果表明:直翅目、双翅目、鳞翅目锤角亚目的昆虫在碱蓬群落中多样性指数均为最低;鞘翅目在榆树林群落的多样性指数最低;膜翅目在苔草-小叶樟群落的多样性指数最低.不同目昆虫在不同的群落中分布有差异,表明昆虫对栖息的生境条件具有选择性.探明了莫莫格保护区不同类群昆虫群落的多样性,对未

  1. The Importance of Preservation of Autochthonous Biotope of Pannonian Plane in the Area of Special Nature Reserve “Pašnjaci Velike Droplje“ for Education and Ecotourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Pasic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past the region of Vojvodina was dominated by vast steppes, saline areas, marshes and flooded terrains. Wet terrains were converted into steppes during the Holocene climate changes, but the land under cultivation is gradually taking their place, too. Autochthonous biotope is preserved in some regions of Vojvodina. These regions are under state protection. Special nature reserve “Pašnjaci velike droplje“consists of saline areas and vast steppes and it is the only habitat of Great Bustard in Serbia. Reserve is located in north Banat. Development of ecotourism is based upon endangered ornithology species, heterogeneous fauna as well as upon up the educational purpose of the reserve. There are also possibilities for organizing of photo safaris and nature schools in the reserve. In order to protect autochthonous biotope, legal regulations on protection should be obeyed, fields should be revitalized i.e. they should be transformed into former state of natural mosaic of vast steppes and saline areas.

  2. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  3. Researches on Designing Technology of Animal Corridor in Urban Nature Reserve%城市自然保护区动物廊道构建技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶有华; 孙红斌; 林石狮; 夏熳璐; 王伟; 陈冰

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of cities, the natural eco-system has been badly hit, the urban nature reserves are being squeezed and interference, and the urban landscape is severely fragmented and patchy, resulting in the ecological risk increased, so to build an animal corridor is a key point to protect the integrity and continuity of the city nature reserve. Shenzhen is the strength of our highly urbanized areas, nature reserves in the city are being squeezed and the strong impact of urban construction. Urban nature reserves are disturbance and fragmentation, habitat also suffered varying degrees of damage, and the situation of biodiversity conservation is extremely serious. In this study, the Dapeng Peninsula nature reserve was taken as a case to explore the construction techniques of animal corridor in urban nature reserve, hoping to give an experience for the construction of animal corridor in urban nature reserves and the biodiversity conservation. The construction technology for animal corridor in Dapeng Peninsula Nature Reserve was carried out through field investigation, data analysis, expert advice and GIS analysis and other means. Results showed that, wildlife resources are more abundant in Dapeng Peninsula, with an approximately of 61 rare, endangered and protection animals. Combined with the actual situation of animal recovery in Dapeng Peninsula Nature Reserve, the principles of animal corridor restoration was determined, including the characteristics of the ecosystem, whether animals need a new physical channel, the extent of the protected animals, nature and ornamental characteristics, and consequently to determine the recovery object of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Combined with domestic and international theoretical framework of corridor, three restoration types of animal corridor (landscape type, linear type and a stepping stone to type), corresponding to species, and its habitat were proposed for Dapeng Peninsula nature reserve. The restore

  4. 天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群生命表%Life table of natural Ginkgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 张光富; 王锐; 孙国; 赵明水

    2011-01-01

    Based on the population life table and the theory of survival analysis, the static life table of GinKgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was compiled by applying the age class structure represented by DBH class and the smoothing out technique. The mortality rate curve, killing power curve, survival rate curve, and survival function curve were also analyzed to reveal the population' s quantitative dynamics. There was a fluctuation in the structure of G. biloba population. The survival curve of the population tended to the type of Deevey Ⅱ , and the individuals at adult stage were abundant. The mortality rate curve and killing power curve in the lifespan had similar variation trend, all with the peaks in 6th and llth age class periods. The survival rate of the population decreased monotonically, whereas the cumulative mortality rate was in adverse. The survival functional curve showed that the G. biloba population grew poorly in early age period and stably in middle age period, but declined in old age period.%以种群生命表和生存分析理论为基础,采用空间代替时间法和分段匀滑技术,编制浙江天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群特定时间生命表,绘制其死亡率曲线、消失率曲线、存活曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量动态变化.结果表明:银杏种群结构存在波动性,趋于Deevey Ⅱ型,其成年阶段的个体较丰富;银杏种群死亡率和消失率曲线变化趋势基本一致,均出现2个高峰,均在第Ⅵ龄级和第Ⅺ龄级阶段出现第一和第二峰值;银杏种群的生存率单调下降,累计死亡率单调上升,生存率下降趋势前期高于后期,累计死亡率则相反;由生存函数曲线看出,天目山银杏种群具有前期薄弱、中期稳定和后期衰退的特点.

  5. 石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区湿地生境退化与保护对策%Habitat Degradation and its Conservation Strategies in Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 温华军; 沙平; 张玉铭; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    Shishou Milu Nature Reserve is set up for the natural population restoration of Milu deer (Elaphurus davidianus) , and the protection of the wetland biological diversity and ecosystem with Milu deer as a flagship species. Since January 1995, 94 Milu deer had been initially translocated to the Reserve in three batches, and the population grew steadily in the following years to reach a peak of 1010 by the spring of 2010. Eventually, three different free : living sub - populations were established separately in the core zone of Reserve, Sanheyuan wetland which is on the south side of the Yangtze River and Yangbotan wetland which is at the east of the Reserve. It is the first time to establish the free -living populations in the world. However, the human activities, environment changes and the growth of Milu population densities have lead to the reduction of the carrying capacity of the Reserve, degradation of the wetland and the deceleration of Milu deer population growth. In order to resolve these problems, some advices are proposed in this study: firstly, taking effect measures to improve ecosystem conditions, restore wetland functions and increase the carrying capacity of the Reserve; secondly, broadening the grazing area of Milu deer and setting up a long - term goal.%从人为因素、自然环境变化及种群增长等方面分析了保护区内湿地生境质量下降、生境退化、环境阻力增大、麋鹿种群增长速度减缓的原因,并从改善生态环境、恢复湿地功能、提高单位面积的载畜量、扩大野生放养的面积等方面提出了相应的对策与建议。

  6. RIQUEZA Y ABUNDANCIA DE HESPERIOIDEA Y PAPILIONOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LAS DELICIAS, SANTA MARTA, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA Species Richness and Abundance of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera in Las Delicias Natural Reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA A VARGAS-ZAPATA

    to intervention and specificity in the use of resources. In the present study the changes in richness and abundance of butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea in nature reserve Las Delicias were evaluated. Two sampling sites with different degrees of intervention were selected. The first site is located between 400- 550m over sea level, while the second at 200m. We performed four samples, from April to July 2008, using two networks lepidopterist and 10van Someren Rydon traps baited with macerated fruit and fish. We captured 432 individuals belonging to 66 species, distributed in 52 genera. Nymphalidae were the most rich family (42 and abundance (250; highlighting the species Mechanitis lysimnia Fabricius (41 specimens, typical in forest with very good coverage. Site 2, was the most diverse (48 and abundance (236, because in this place there was a greater stratification and tree coverage, and the presence of water resources during the sampling. With the arrival of rain in June and July, there was greater flowering and fruiting of vegetation in the area, increasing the availability of resources and therefore a greater richness and abundance of Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea in the study area.

  7. Study of Sustainable Development of Lianhuashan-Baipenzhu Provincial Nature Reserve%莲花山白盆珠省级自然保护区可持续发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慈佑; 廖远芳

    2013-01-01

      As the sustainable development has become the theme of human development nowadays ,and in view of the significant development and utilization values of forest and wetland ecological system of Lianhuashan -Baipenzhu Provincial Nature Reserve ,this article analyzes the resources and management status of Lianhuashan -Baipenzhu Provincial Nature Reserve ,points out the existing problems ,and puts forward some countermeasures ,in order to promote the sustainable development of the Lianhuashan -Baipenzhu Provincial Nature Reserve .%  指出了在可持续发展成为人类发展主题的当今,莲花山白盆珠省级自然保护区具有森林、湿地生态系统和谐依存的特殊区域的重要属性,以及今后的发展和利用价值,对莲花山白盆珠省级自然保护区资源、管理现状进行了分析,指出了其中存在的问题,并提出了对策和建议,以促进莲花山白盆珠省级自然保护区的可持续发展。

  8. Community Participation Patterns in Ecotourism Development of Wetland Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province: A Case Study in the Jiangsu Wetland Nature Reserve%湿地生态旅游资源开发的社区参与模式探讨——以江苏海滨湿地保护区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王媛

    2011-01-01

    旅游地的发展都要依托社区,处理好社区与旅游发展的关系,才有可能获得旅游发展新的突破。本文对江苏海滨湿地周边社区居民参与旅游开发的意识、旅游规划的参与、参与旅游经营及收益情况等方面进行分析,发现当地社区参与观念淡薄,社区在旅游规划、旅游经营、旅游收益、相关宣传和培训等方面的参与处于非常落后的阶段,参与方式单一,程度浅,参与内容狭窄。因此本文在旅游可持续发展的前提下,依据墨菲的社区旅游战略模式,结合研究地的实际,从进入性模式、商业经营模式、社会文化展现模式、管理模式、环境保护模式和社区参与旅游规划决策模式6个方面建立了基于社区参与的生态旅游开发模式。这种模式的构建,一方面促进了对社区参与旅游开发的内在因素的探究和把握,从而有助于江苏海滨湿地生态旅游资源的合理、可持续开发和利用,并对维护江苏沿海地区的生态平衡起到重要作用;另一方面又可通过对这些内在因素的了解,为当地社区旅游开发提供一种全新的模式。%Developing tourism sites from the community' s perspective and balancing the relationship between the tourism and community development are crucial to achieving a new breakthrough in tourism. This study analyzed the surrounding communities near two national nature reserves of coastal wetland tourism resources in Jiangsu Province, aiming at improving an understanding of ecological tourism, the awareness to participate in tourism planning, related tourism businesses and profitability, and involvement in relevant promotion and training. It has been found that the wetland ecological tourism recourses in Yancheng are abundant and unique, but the concept of community participation in the local government and higher level administrative departments, e.g., natural reserve administrative

  9. 长白山森林生态系统中的稀有和濒危多孔菌%Rare and threathened polypores in the ecosystem of Changbaishan Nature Reserve of Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成

    2003-01-01

    In last 10 years, extensive field inventories were carried out to investigate Polypore species, the major wood-de-caying fungi in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve of Northeastern China. The following 27 species were treated as rare or threathened species: Amylocystis lapponica ( Romell ) Singer, Anomoporth albolutescens ( Romell )Pouzar, Anomoporia bombycbza (Fr.) Pouzar, Anomoporia vesiculosa Y.C. Dai & Niemelae, Antrodia carbon-ica (Overh.) Ryvarden & Glib., Antrodia crassa (P. Karst. ) Ryvarden, Antrodiella citrinella Niemel/i & Ry-varden, Diplomitoporus flavescens (Bres.) Domdnski, DonkiopoHa excpansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar,Gloeo-phyllum carbonarium (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Ryvarden, Haploporus odorus (Sommerf.) Bondartsev & Singer, Inwmtopsis subiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, Nigroporus ussu Hensis (Bondartsev & Ljub. ) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Oxyporus sinensis X.L. Zeng, Parmastomyces taxi(Bondartsev) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Phellinidium sulphurascens( Pilat ) Y.C. Dai, Phellinus vaninii Ljub., Polyporus vassilievae Thorn, Pycnoporellus fulgens(Fr.) Donk, Skeletocutis brezdspora Niemela, Skeletocutis ochroalba Niemela, Nieletocut/s perennls Ryvarden, Tmchispora candidissima (Schwein.) Bondartsev & Singer, Wolfiporia dilatohypha Ryvarden & Glib., Wol fiporia curvispora Y.C. Dai, Wrightoporia avellanea ( Bres. ) Pouzar and Wrightoporia lenta ( Oveh. & J.Lowe) Pouzar. Polypores are richer in East Asia than in Europe and North America, not only because of de-structive galciations and fewer hosts in the latters, but also because of the geography. NE Asia is a link between Europe and North America. Changbaishan Nature Reserve is very rich in polypores, and over 260 species were recorded in the reserve. Some rare species in North America and Europe, for instance, Anomotoria albo-lutescens, Antrodia crassa, Diplomitoporus flavescozs, Inonotopsis subiculosa and Skeletocutis ochroalba etc.were found in Changbaishan Nature Reserve as well, and these species are in fact rare in the earth

  10. Can we predict age at natural menopause using ovarian reserve tests or motherʼs age at menopause? A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depmann, Martine; Broer, Simone L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Tehrani, Fahimeh R.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Mol, Ben W.; Broekmans, Frank J.

    OBJECTIVE:: This review aimed to appraise data on prediction of age at natural menopause (ANM) based on antimüllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and motherʼs ANM to evaluate clinical usefulness and to identify directions for further research. METHODS:: We conducted three systematic

  11. Study on Decade Ecological Quality Changes at Lashihai Provincial Nature Reserve%拉市海省级自然保护区生态质量10年变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段卫虎; 王一凯; 黄诚; 王艳霞; 周汝良

    2014-01-01

    拉市海省级自然保护区位于云南丽江市,是一个高原湿地生态系统。它是由拉市海及其周围的森林、草甸、沼泽、农田和居民区等生境构成。拉市海保护区多样性的生境,为该保护区中丰富多样的珍惜动植物提供了良好的生活环境。本文通过2000年~2010年的。感数据,获得针对拉市海自然保护区的森林、草地、湿地三类生态系统的十年叶面积指数植被覆盖度、初、级净生产量三个生态质量指标。在此基础上,定量化评估拉市海自然保护区各生态系统质量十年动态变化,为拉市海的自然保护区的保护管理工作提供更加科学依据。%Lashihai Provincial Nature Reserve is a plateau wetland ecosystem in Yunnan Lijiang. It is composed of the Lashihai and its surrounding forests, meadows, marshes, farmland and residential areas and other habitats. habitat diversity in Lashihai provincial nature reserve, that protected areas provides a rich variety of flora and fauna to cherish a good living environment. By 2000 to 2010 remote sensing data, obtained Lashihai nature reserve decade leaf area index, vegetation coverage, the net primary production of three ecological quality indicators for forests, grasslands, wetlands ecosystem. Basing on this, quantitative assessment of decade dynamic changes in Lashihai Nature Reserve, providing a more comprehensive and scientific basis for the management of protected work of Lashihai Nature Reserve.

  12. 基于利基战略的自然保护区生态旅游发展模式研究%Study on Development Pattern of Ecotourism in Nature Reserve Based on Niche Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连玉銮

    2011-01-01

    The development pattern of ecotourism in nature reserve was analyzed based on Niche Strategy. Starting from the development process and characteristics of Niche Strategy, as a kind of small and subsequent operator, carting ecotourism in nature reserve has comparative advantages, and introducing Niche Strategy is the demand of ecotourism market differentiation and culture. With Wanglang Nature Reserve as an example, the suitability of Niche Strategy for ecotourism in nature reserve of our country was interpreted. It was concluded that nature reserve ought to make the market segmentation and market positioning more accurate, improve the quality of products and services, safeguard niche market, track the change of market and take corresponding marketing policy.%分析了基于利基战略的自然保护区生态旅游发展模式.从利基营销战略的发展过程及特点出发,说明自然保护区是我国旅游市场中的"中小经营者"和"后发经营者".在自然保护区开展生态旅游具有比较优势,同时保护区目标具有多元性的性质,在自然保护区中引入利基战略是生态旅游市场分化与培育的需要.笔者以王朗自然保护区的实践说明了利基战略对我国自然保护区生态旅游的适用性,归纳出自然保护区生态旅游利基战略的实施要准确细分和定位市场,重视产品和服务的质量,建立市场壁垒,关注市场的动态变化并选择针对性的营销策略.

  13. 铜壁关自然保护区天然缅竹秆形结构规律的研究%Culm Form Structure of Natural Bambusa burmanica from Tongbiguan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建设; 石明; 杜凡; 张晓凯

    2014-01-01

    2013年5月,抽样调查了盈江县铜壁关自然保护区的天然缅竹,测量其全高(H)、枝下高(h)、胸径(D)、基径(d)、秆重(G)、分段秆重(g)、节间直径(dj)、节位数(N)和节壁厚(T)等因子,对缅竹进行秆形结构分析,并将缅竹与毛竹进行对比。研究结果显示:缅竹的基径对胸径的拟合方程为:ln (d)=ln 1.406+0.885 ln (D)(R 2=0.880);秆重对胸径的拟合方程为:ln (G)=ln 86.544+2.797 ln (D)(R 2=0.907);壁厚对高度的拟合方程为:T=3.487-0.433 ln (Hx)(R 2=0.832);节间直径对高度的拟合方程为:dj =8.803-0.004 Hx (R 2=0.745)。这些因子间均表现出较好的相关性,其它秆形结构因子间的相关性不显著。胸径相同时,缅竹全高、秆重均大于毛竹;从基部到33节时,缅竹节间长明显大于毛竹。表明在竹材的加工利用方面,缅竹与毛竹相比具有较高的利用率和较大的开发潜力。%This paper investigated several factors of Bambusa burmanica from Tongbiguan nature reserve in May,2013,such as culm height (H),clear bole height (h),diameter at breast height (D),base diameter (d),culm weight (G),segmented stem weight (g),internode diameter (dj ),joint amount (N)and wall thickness (T).Comparing the culm structure between Bambusa burmanica and Phyl-lostachys pubescens ,the study results indicated that the model of d to D was ln (d)=ln 1.406+0.885 ln (D)(R 2 =0.880);the model of G to D was ln (G)=ln 86.544+2.797 ln (D)(R 2 =0.907);the model of T to Hx was T=3.487-0.433 ln (Hx) (R 2 =0.832);the model of dj to Hx was dj =8.803-0.004 Hx (R 2 =0.745 ).Significant correlation relationship was found among these data groups,but not be-tween the rest factors. When the diameter at breast height was equal,the culm height and culm weight of Bambusa Burmanica were greater than those of Phyllostachys pubescens .The internode length of Bambu-sa burmanica was much longer than that of Phyllostachys pubescens from the root

  14. Ecological Quality Assessment of Yunling Nature Reserve in Lanping County of Yunnan Province%兰坪云岭省级自然保护区生态质量评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌

    2011-01-01

    2010年4~7月,采用系统调查和资料收集相结合的方法,对兰坪云岭自然保护区的生物多样性进行了多学科考察,并对其生态质量进行了评价,结果表明:保护区植被可划分为9个植被型、12个植被亚型、21个群系,种子植物141科、608属、1 515种(含种下等级),哺乳动物80种,鸟类167种,两栖爬行类46种;保护区的生态质量具有典型性、区位性、多样性、稀有性、自然性、脆弱性和面积的适应性.评价结果为云岭省级自然保护区自然资源的合理开发利用和生物多样性保护提供科学依据.%Combining the methods of field survey and data collection, the biodiversity of Yunling Nature Reserve in Lanping County of Yunnan province was investigated from April to July in 2010. The study results showed that the vegetation of the nature reserve could be classified into 9 types, 12 sub-types and 21 formations. The flora and fauna included 141 families, 608 genera and 1515 species of spermatophyte, 80 species of mammals, 167 species of birds, 46 species of amphibians and reptiles. The ecological quality of the nature reserve is characterized by typi-calness, location, diversity, rareness, naturalness, fragility and appropriate area. The results of this assessment provided a scientific basis for reasonable utilization of natural resources and effective protection of biodiversity of Yunling Nature Reserve.

  15. Tree canopy cover and natural regeneration into strictly-protected forest areas: the MaB reserve of Montedimezzo (Isernia,Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa Giannini; Andrea Cutini; Orazio Gugliotta; Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-01-01

    The ecological analysis and the analysis of mechanisms underlying the natural regeneration process into strictly protected forest areas, is basic to the understanding of ecosystem functioning and to estimate the recovery ability as a function of time and environmental changes. Aim of the paper is to analyze the spatial-temporal dynamics of tree species regeneration into mixed Turkey oak-common beech stands growing undisturbed since more than one half- century. The ability of first establishme...

  16. Heilongjiang Naoli river national nature reserve's Environmental education present situation and the development countermeasures%黑龙江挠力河国家级自然保护区环境教育现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红菲; 郝婧; 杨渺

    2014-01-01

    环境教育是实现保护区资源保护的一种有效途径,虽然在挠力河自然保护区内开展过相关的环境教育,但形式单一、不成规模。通过对游客进行问卷调查,可见游客对保护区开展的环境教育满意度不高,感知程度并不明显。基于对环境教育开展情况的相关调查的结果,提出针对挠力河自然保护区的环境教育对策。%Environmental education is an effective way of reserve's resources protection. Although the Naoli river nature reserve carried out the related environmental education, but the forms are all single, no scale. Through the questionnaire survey to the tourists, visitors are not satisfied with the to the environmental education of the nature reserve, and the awareness degree is not obvious. Based on the results of the investigation of environmental education development, I propose the corresponding environment education countermeasures.

  17. 广西自然保护区周边社区对保护区的威胁与管理对策%Study on Threats and Management Strategies of Communities Surrounding Nature Reserves in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星群; 文军

    2012-01-01

    对广西自然保护区周边社区居民生产生活状况实地调查,发现周边社区对自然保护区的威胁集中在:侵占林地、放牧、狩猎、采集、砍伐林木、森林火灾隐患等6个方面。分别从社区居民、自然保护区管理等角度分析周边社区对自然保护区构成威胁的原因,提出减少威胁的对策。%Based on interviews and questionnaires about production and living of communities surrounding na- ture reserves, it shows that communities' threats to nature reserves concentrate in occupation of forest land, grazing, hunting, gathering, deforestation, forest fire danger. Reasons of causing threats are analyzed from resi- dents of community, management of nature reserve. Some management strategies are put forward to reduce threats.

  18. Towards a Community-Based Integrated Institutional Framework for Ecotourism Management: The Case of the Masebe Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Boonzaaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first adopted in the 1980s, the Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM approach has played a significant role in environmental management. This paper argues that for the CBNRM approach to be relevant, functional, and sustainable, it has to be based on existing local institutional (authority structures, which may have to be adapted, and it may even require new institutions to be created to comply with the requirements of sustainable nature conservation. The main aim of this paper is to propose a CBNRM model based on existing local community (authority structures and to investigate its usefulness in an African setting. The Langa Ndebele chiefdom in the Limpopo Province of South Africa serves as a case study because it displays all the features necessary to explore the possible application of the proposed CBNRM model. Data was gathered by means of field research which involved detailed interviews and discussions with functionaries of the relevant institutions at grassroots level. Specific recommendations relating to the use of the model are made.

  19. 唐家河与蜂桶寨自然保护区大熊猫生境选择初步比较%Preliminary Comparison of Habitat Selection of Giant Pandas between in Tangjiahe and in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀娟; 张泽钧; 胡锦矗

    2012-01-01

    对不同山系大熊猫生境选择横向比较迄今未有报道.笔者等以大熊猫在生境利用过程中留下的粪便等为依据,通过设置大小不同的3种样方,对岷山山系唐家河自然保护区和邛崃山系蜂桶寨自然保护区大熊猫的生境选择进行了初步比较.在研究的13个生境变量中,两地大熊猫在竹子密度、竹子高度、竹子基茎、灌木密度和灌木距离等5个生境变量的选择上存在极显著差异,而对其它生境变量的选择差异不明显.两地大熊猫对生境平均利用时间的长短与生境质量高低相一致.大熊猫在唐家河与蜂桶寨两地生境选择上的异同反映了不同区域大熊猫对生境的选择既有物种的相似性,又有适应局部环境差异的可塑性.分析认为两地竹子、灌木种类的不同及唐家河自然保护区1991年发生的特大洪水可能是导致这种差异的外在原因.%Giant panda's habitat choice of different mountains has not been reported. Thus, we set sizes of three different kinds of squares in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve located in the Min Mountains, and in Fengtongzhan Nature Reserve located in the Qionglai Mountains, respectively. We identified habitats selected and utilized by giant pandas through droppings left. Among thirteen habitat variables, five of them, namely bamboo height, density and basal diameter, shrub density and distance differed significantly between in Tangjiahe and in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserves, and for the others, the differences were not significant. The giant panda's habitat selections in the two places reflected the similarity of the giant pandas in different regions, but'also their plastic adaption to local environmental differences. For the giant panda, two reasons perhaps resulted in the difference in habitat selection between the two reserves. One was that different species of bamboos and shrubs existed in these two reserves; the other was the flood occurred

  20. Research of rare&endangered plants and key protected plants in Jiangxi Lingyunshan Provincial Nature Reserve%江西凌云山自然保护区珍稀濒危保护植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春峰; 裘利洪; 杨清培; 施建敏; 揭正平; 曾祥明

    2015-01-01

    Based on field survey, the floristic characteristics of rare & endangered plants and key protected plants in Lingyunshan Nature Reserve were studied. The results indicated that there are 79 rare & endangered plants and key protected plants in the reserve which belong to 61 genera and 40 families, including 10 species of national key protected plants, 6 species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, 29 species in China Species Red List (CSRL), 10 species in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and 57 species of Jiangxi key protected plants. The flora characteristics of rare and endangered plants in nature area were analyzed, and several protection suggestions were put forward.%调查表明凌云山自然保护区共有珍稀濒危植物79种,隶属于40科61属,其中国家重点保护植物有10种,IUCN保护植物共有6种,中国物种红色名录物种(CSRL)有29种,CITES名录附录Ⅱ物种有10种,江西省重点保护植物57种. 分析了保护区珍稀濒危植物区系特征,针对所受威胁提出了保护建议.

  1. 湖南莽山自然保护区生物多样性保护调查研究%Investigation of Biodiversity Conservation in Mangshan Nature Reserve in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 黄继山

    2011-01-01

    Mangshan is a bright pearl enchased in Nanling cordillera. It is a natural museum and gene pool of animal and plants. It has abundant species, so the biodiversity conservation plays an important role in the planning and development of Mangshan nature reserve. The species of animal and plants in the Mangshan nature reserve were systematically investigated, and then some suitable protecting measures were proposed.%莽山是一颗镶嵌在南岭山脉上璀璨明珠,是一个天然的动植物博物馆和基因库.景区内物种丰富,生物多样性保护对保护区发展规划具有重要意义.在对景区内动植物分类介绍的基础上,对如何进一步加强自然保护区生物多样性的保护提出了可行的建议.

  2. Tree canopy cover and natural regeneration into strictly-protected forest areas: the MaB reserve of Montedimezzo (Isernia,Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Giannini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The ecological analysis and the analysis of mechanisms underlying the natural regeneration process into strictly protected forest areas, is basic to the understanding of ecosystem functioning and to estimate the recovery ability as a function of time and environmental changes. Aim of the paper is to analyze the spatial-temporal dynamics of tree species regeneration into mixed Turkey oak-common beech stands growing undisturbed since more than one half- century. The ability of first establishment and following growth of natural regeneration related to the ecological parameters, the structural features of standing crop and its development stages, are analyzed in detail. The study was carried out into two permanent monitoring plots (A and (B where two different tree species play the main functional role. In (A common beech is dominant (Fagus sylvatica L.-elevation 1040 m a.s.l.; in (B Turkey oak is prevailing (Quercus cerris L.-elevation 940 m a.s.l.. In each plot, the analysis of vertical stand structure, of natural regeneration pattern and ecological surveys (LAI, trasmittance, soil moisture content, canopy interception of rainfall were undertaken by monthly surveys from May to October into 57 sub-plots each 1m2 wide over the period 2005-2007. Results highlighted that (B, Turkey oak prevailing, shows a more complex structure, a higher tree canopy thickness and the lack of gaps. The area shows therefore a lower trasmittance and a higher LAI value; throughfall and soil moisture content are also reduced as compared to (A. As for the natural regeneration pattern, further to a first stage when seedlings mortality is high, their survival rate is being kept high and steady over time in (A. A further mortality peak has been detected vice versa over the following summer season in (B. The different main tree species composition and radiation regime seem to be the basic reasons of the dynamics observed

  3. Sdudy of butterflies in Gansu Taitong-Kongtongshan national nature reserve Ⅱ%甘肃太统-崆峒山国家级自然保护区蝶类研究Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 张亚莉; 马正学

    2015-01-01

    2008—2014年4—8月,在甘肃太统‐崆峒山国家级自然保护区内采集到蝶类标本400多件,经过整理和物种鉴定,属于蛱蝶科(Nymphalidae)9种、眼蝶科(Satyridae)10种、灰蝶科(Lycaenidae)16种、弄蝶科(Hesperiidae)9种,共计4科36属44种;其中有甘肃省新记录属3个和新记录种7个,甘肃太统‐崆峒山国家自然保护区新记录属32属和新记录种44种。%The distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera ) in Gansu Taitong‐Kongtongshan national nature reserve are studied during 2008 to 2014 . According to the identification of about 400 specimens of butterflies , 44 species and subspecies of butterflies are obtained in Gansu Taitong‐Kongtongshan national nature reserve , all the species are classified in 4 families and 36 genus , among which ,10 species , which found to belong to Satyridae , and accounted for 22.73% of the total , 16 species ,which are found to belong to Lycaenidae and accounted for ,36.36% of the total;9 species are found to belong to Nymphalidae and other 9 species are found to belong to Hesperiidae , both accounting for ,20.45% of the total . Among the newly‐found butterfly categories , 3 genera and 7 species are recorded in Gansu ,and 44 species are recorded in Taitong‐Kongtongshan national nature reserve .

  4. Investigation on Macro Fungi Resources in Liziping Nature Reserve of Sichuan Province%四川栗子坪自然保护区大型真菌资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    The macro fungi resources in Liziping Nature Reserve were investigated from July 2006 to September 2010. The species of macro fungi in Liziping region was studied through field investigation, collection and identification. It was found that there were 217 species of macro fungi in the nature reserve, belonging to 100 genera and 36 families, among which there were 127 species of edible fungi, 35 species of toadstools, 17 species of medicinal fungi, 39 species of wood-rotting fungi, 90 species of mycorrhizal fungi and 6 species of unknown use. The macro fungi re-sources in Liziping Nature Reserve was abundant and had a good prospect for development and utilization.%连续5年对四川栗子坪自然保护区的大型真菌资源进行了调查.采用踏查的方式采集,记录并鉴定保护区内大型真菌的种类.结果表明,栗子坪自然保护区大型真菌种类极为丰富,有36科100属217种,其中食用菌127种、毒菌35种、药用菌17种、木腐菌39种、菌根菌90种、未知用途6种.该地区的大型真菌资源有良好的开发利用前景.

  5. 河南省自然保护区生态旅游资源特征与开发%Characteristics and Development on Ecotourism Resources of Natural Reserve in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉芹; 李春生

    2001-01-01

    河南省自然保护区类型多样,生态旅游资源丰富。文章在阐述河南省生态旅游资源概况的基础上,分析了全省生态旅游资源的基本特征,认为在河南省自然保护区开展生态旅游,不但环境质量较好,而且生态旅游资源组合功能强、特征鲜明、优势显著。最后,对河南省自然保护区生态旅游开发提出了有关建议,即提高认识、合理开发、强化管理、突出特色、推出精品。%Ecotourism is a special tourism form. The natural reserve are many and varied and ecotourism resources are rich in Henan province. This paper studied the ecotourism resources of Henan province, analysed some basic characteristics of ecoturism resources. The author thinks that to develop ecotourism in natural reserve of Henan province, not only enviromental quality is good, but also its clear-cut characteristics and remarkable superiority. Finally, some measures are proposed to the development of ecotourism in natural reserve of Henan province, namely: deepen ones understanding, rational developing, strengthen administration, tostress features and detrusion essence.

  6. 兰坪白族普米族自治县云岭自然保护区的生态建设和维护%Ecological Construction and Management of Yunling Nature Reserve in Lanping Bai & Pumi Nationality County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奋江

    2015-01-01

    The total area of Yunling nature reserve is 732,426 ha including the key protection area and the buffer protection area.The nature reserve aims to protect the habitat of Yunnan sun -nose monkey and Taxusyunnanensis-Chenget L.K.Fu.Currently,the nature reserve is facing the problems of the shortage of environmental awareness and fund and management organization.Therefore,environmental education should be strengthened.The more ade-quate management organization needs to be built up to implement the rules and regulations.The fund sources should be assured.Sustainable tourism development and other types of economic development should be studied and evaluated and promoted.Additionally,the factors of the road construction could not be neglected.%云岭自然保护区总面积73426hm2,划为核心区和缓冲区两部分,主要保护对象为以滇金丝猴为代表的动物栖息地和以云南红豆杉为代表的珍稀植物集中分布地。目前主要存在周边群众的保护意识问题、组织机构建设问题、经费问题。应大力开展环保宣传教育、建立健全管理机构、执行各项法律法规、在经费方面给予保障、有计划地开展多种经营、适当开发旅游、组织开展科学研究、在道路建设方面注意诸多因素。

  7. 雾灵山自然保护区唇形科植物资源调查研究%Investigation on Resources of the Labiatae Species in Wulingshan Natural Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅聿青

    2015-01-01

    为了使雾灵山自然保护区植物资源得到合理的开发利用,通过对保护区内的唇形科(Labiatae)植物资源种类进行调查、分析,发现雾灵山自然保护区唇形科植物中有药用植物50种,染料植物33种,香料植物25种,观赏植物20种,饲料植物12种,油料植物9种,茶用植物6种,食用植物5种,蜜源植物5种,有毒植物3种.依据目前雾灵山自然保护区内唇形科植物的开发利用现状及可持续开发利用的原则,提出了保护与合理开发利用的对策建议.%For sustainable utilization of the plant resource in Wulingshan National Natural Reserve,field investigation for the plant species of Labiatae in Wulingshan Natural Reserve was conducted.We summarized the flora characteristics and the resource values of the Labiatae species. 50 medicinal plants,33 dye plant,25 fragrant plants,20 ornamental plant,12 forage plants,9 oil plants,6 tea plants,5 edible plants,5 honey plants and 3 poisonous plants were included in Wulingshan National Natural Reserve for Labiatae. Basing on the status of the development and utilization in this region and the principle of sustainable use,sustainable utilization methods and the protection mesure were provided.

  8. Study on Poisonous Pteridophyte Plants in the North Slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve%太白山自然保护区北坡有毒蕨类植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左茜; 李璟琦; 谢梓燚; 贺钰

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in the north slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve was studied by the author through three following ways :by reading references ,climbing up the mountain and investigating in wild field ,and studying the specimens preserved before .The results indicated that there are 7 species in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve ,which takes 6 .4% species of the to-tal poisonous pteridophyte plants .According to different characters and usages ,poisonous pteridophyte plant were classified into medicine ,edibles and ornamental plants .The study provided scientific evidences for further exploitation and utilization of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve .%通过野外实地考察、室内标本鉴定和查阅整理资料相结合的方法,对太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物的种类、分布、有毒成分及其利用状况进行研究。结果表明:太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物有5科5属7种,均为小毒,占蕨类总数的6.4%,有药用、食用、观赏等多种用途。本研究可为合理开发和利用太白山有毒蕨类植物提供理论依据。

  9. 广西那佐自然保护区苔藓植物的组成与区系%Species and Floristic Composition of Bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏; 熊源新; 王美会; 徐力; 马建鹏; 赵智艳

    2011-01-01

    为了解广西那佐自然保护区内苔藓植物的组成情况,对保护区内的苔藓植物进行调查研究,分析保护区内苔藓植物的物种组成及区系组成.结果表明,保护区内苔藓丰富性较低,有苔藓植物31科58属115种(含亚、变种),优势科为灰藓科Hypnaceae、丛藓科Pottiaceae、青藓科Brachytheciaceae和羽藓科Thuidiaceae,占优势的属为灰藓属Hypnum、曲柄藓属Campylopus、凤尾藓属Fissidens等;区系分析中温带与热带所占有的比例相当,说明该地苔藓植物具有温带向热带过渡分布的趋势.%Results from investigation of species and floristic composition of bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi province showed that the bryophyte richness is low and there are 115 bryophytes species belonging to 58 genera and 31 families in Nazuo Nature Reserve in Guangxi province.The dominant families are Hypnaceae, Pottiaceae, Brachytheciaceae and Thuidiaceae. The dominant genera are Hypnum, Campylopus, Fissidens and so on. The proportion of bryophytes with temperate features is almost equal to that with tropical features, which indicate that distribution of bryophytes in Nazuo Nature Reserve have the trend of transition from temperate zone to tropical zone.

  10. 重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物资源的调查%Investigation on Bryophytes in Simian Mountains Nature Reserve in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍彬

    2012-01-01

    Based on an investigation and preliminary taxonomy in Chongqing Simian Mountains nature reserve area, the results showed that there are totally 34 families,52 genera and 62 species of bryophytes in this area, the resources are very rich.%在调查、分类和鉴定的基础上,发现重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物有34科、52属、62种,蕴藏资源丰富.

  11. Bottlenecks in Geospatial Data-Driven Decision-Making for Natural Disaster Management: A Case Study of Forest Fire Prevention and Control in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenter, J. S.; Mueller, J. M.; Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual forest fires are a source of great economic and environmental cost in the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), a region of high ecological and historical value in Guatemala's department of Petén. Scarce institutional resources, limited local response capacity, and difficult terrain place a premium on the use of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR, but also present significant institutional barriers to optimizing the value of this data. Drawing upon key informant interviews and a contingent valuation survey of national and local actors conducted during a three-year performance evaluation of the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), this paper traces the flow of SERVIR data from acquisition to decision in order to assess the institutional and contextual factors affecting the value of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR. Findings indicate that the use of satellite data for forest fire management in the MBR is widespread and multi-dimensional: historical assessments of land use and land cover, fire scarring, and climate data help central-level fire management agencies identify and regulate fire-sensitive areas; regular monitoring and dissemination of climate data enables coordination between agricultural burning activities and fire early warning systems; and daily satellite detection of thermal anomalies in land surface temperature permits first responders to monitor and react to "hotspot" activity. Findings also suggest, however, that while the decentralized operations of Petén's fire management systems foster the use of Earth observation data, systemic bottlenecks, including budgetary constraints, inadequate data infrastructure and interpretation capacity, and obstacles to regulatory enforcement, impede the flow of information and use of technology and thus impact the value of that data, particularly in remote and under-resourced areas of the MBR. A geographic expansion and fortification

  12. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  13. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  14. Environmental Suitability for Camping Tourism in Langxiang Nature Reserve Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process%基于层次分析法的朗乡自然保护区露营旅游环境适宜度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁维; 张杰; 周波; 王爱红; 于雷; 马珂馨

    2015-01-01

    的可操作性和推广价值。%Objective]A comprehensive evaluation on environmental suitability for camping tourism in nature reserve was conducted to fully and accurately understand the potential of resources for developing camping tourism,in order to provide scientific basis for decision making on deployment,construction scale and resource protection of ecotourism projects in nature reserve. [Method]An evaluation index system was constructed with resource conditions for camping tourism, traffic conditions and social environment conditions of Langxiang Provincal Nature Reserve as project analytic hierarchies. The weights for index components were determined based on analytic hierarchy process ( AHP) and Delphi method. The index components were scored based on corresponding national standards ( GB ) and industry standards. A comprehensive mathematical model was constructed for environmental suitability of camping tourism. Criteria for grading environmental suitability of camping tourism in nature reserve was developed and used to evaluate the environmental suitability of camping tourism in Langxiang Provincial Nature Reserve.[Result]In the project hierarchies,the camping tourism resource conditions (B1) obtained the highest weight value of 0. 456 7,while the social environment conditions (B3) had the lowest weight value of 0. 223 7; Through the comprehensive evaluation,the total score of environmental suitability of camping tourism in Langxiang Provincial Nature Reserve was 76. 722 4,falling into grade IV. This result indicated that the suitability of camping tourism in this Nature Reserve was at a high level. Among the evaluation factors,camping tourism resource conditions ( B1 ) and traffic conditions ( B2 ) were given high scores,36. 613 7 and 26. 910 4 respectively. Social environment conditions (B3) was given a lower score (13. 198 3). The camping tourism resource conditions (B1) was the best in both weight and score,followed by the traffic conditions (B2

  15. A Preliminary Analysis on Landscape Pattern of Fodingshan Nature Reserve in Guizhou Province%贵州佛顶山自然保护区景观格局初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟海军; 吴际通; 张海波

    2014-01-01

    Fodingshan Nature Reserve is important served as a bio-corridor to build the network of Nature Reserves in the east and southeast of Guizhou province.So,based on the data of Secondary Forest Resources Inventory ,several indices of landscape ecology such as PLAND、MPS、AI、PAFRAC、SHDI and SHEI were calculated to analyze the characteristics of landscape of Fodingshan Nature Reserve by using the software ARCGIS and FRAGSTATS .The results showed that ,the forest land patches are dominate (91.93%) and pure stand patches account for the bulk of it (61.76%) with better integrity than other patches;while the landscape divided by the origin of stands ,the patches of natural stands account for 89.19%of total area with lower fragmentation than other patches ,but the primitive stands are very rare within it;in the aspect of functional zone of Nature Reserve ,both of SHDI and SHEI of Core Zone are lower than other zones ,which indicate that the division of Core Zone is reasonable because of its lower heterogeneity of patches , lower fragmentation and lower disturb of human′s activities.Eventually,we can conclude that the forest community of Fodingshan is dominated by natural secondary stands with a relative short history of natural succession ,which can be illustrated as a stage of suc-cession that from competitive succession to climax stage ,so,strengthening the protection of natural resources is very important in or-der to prevent the converse succession caused by disturb of human beings .%以森林资源二类调查数据为基础,采用PLAND指数、MPS指数、AI指数、PAFRAC指数、SHDI、SHEI指数对贵州佛顶山自然保护区景观格局特征进行分析。结果表明:在以地类划分的景观中,林地斑块占主体(91.93%),其中尤以纯林斑块面积最大(61.76%),且斑块完整性最高;在以林分起源划分的景观中,天然林斑块面积占总面积89.19%,且斑块破碎化程度低,保存完好,

  16. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  17. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Private Natural Heritage Reserve Sanctuary Caraça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Simões, Taynãna César; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil. One of the most visited tourist attractions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The aim of this study was to contribute to the control of leishmaniasis among tourists of the RPPNPC by surveying its sand fly fauna and testing for the presence of Leishmania DNA in females. Twenty-five CDC light traps were exposed on 7 trails of the RPPNPC where samples were collected bimonthly for a year, starting in June 2013. A total of 376 specimens of 18 species and 10 genera of sandflies were captured. The predominant species were Psychodopygus lloydi (72.34%) and Pintomyia monticola (5.59%). HaeIII restriction enzyme detected and characterized Leishmania braziliensis DNA in 2 of the samples for an infection rate of 0.7% (2/266). Recent studies found specimens of Ps. lloyd infected with Leishmania braziliensis elsewhere in Minas Gerais, which may be an indication that this species is involved in the transmission of Leishmania in this state.

  18. China's Ultimate Recoverable Reserves Calculated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong

    2003-01-01

    @@ A nationwide project is being launched to assess the potential capacity of China's oil and natural gas resources, a senior official from the Ministry of Land and Resources said in early December. Based on the existing data, China's oil and natural gas reserves are estimated at 106.9 billion tons and 53trillion cubic meters respectively at the present time.

  19. G-F指数测度百山祖兽类物种多样性%Mammalian species diversity in Baishanzu National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province of East China based on G-F index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小荣; 许大明; 鲍毅新; 章书声

    2013-01-01

    2010年8月—2012年6月,利用样线法、访问调查法及红外相机技术,结合历史资料对浙江省百山祖国家级自然保护区兽类资源现状进行了调查,并与浙江省内其他5个自然保护区的兽类F指数(family index)和G-F指数(genus-family index)进行比较.结果表明:百山祖共有兽类8目20科55种,区系组成以东洋界种类为主,有国家一级重点保护动物3种,二级重点保护动物11种;百山祖与浙江省内其他5个自然保护区的兽类F指数和G-F指数均不存在显著差异,特别是百山祖和凤阳山的兽类F指数和G-F指数相当接近,相似性指数也高,这可能与百山祖和凤阳山地理位置接近、生境组成相似有关.各保护区的物种分布密度虽然差异不显著,但牛头山自然保护区因为保护区面积较小,导致物种分布密度偏大.%By the methods of interview survey and field survey in combining with historical literatures,an investigation was conducted on the terrestrial mammal resources in the Baishanzu National Nature Reserve,Zhejiang Province of East China from August 2010 to June 2012.A total of 55 mammal species were recorded,belonging to 20 families and 8 orders.The oriental species were dominant,and there were 3 and 11 classes Ⅰ and Ⅱ nationally protected species,respectively.A comparison between the Baishanzu Reserve and the other 5 nature reserves also located in Zhejiang Province showed that there were no significant differences in the mammalian family index (F-index) and genus-family index (G-F index) among these reserves.Especially,the Baishanzu and Fengyangshan reserves had highly similar mammalian F index and G-F index values,possibly due to the geographic proximity and habitat composition.No significant difference was observed in the species distribution density among the six reserves,but Niutoushan Nature Reserve,due to its smaller area,had a higher species distribution density.

  20. Amphibian and Reptile Resources in Tiantangshan Nature Reserve%广西天堂山自然保护区两栖爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 贝永建

    2014-01-01

    2011及2012年的6~8月,对广西天堂山自然保护区的两栖和爬行动物资源进行了调查研究。结果表明,天堂山保护区分布有两栖爬行动物共82种。其中有两栖类动物25种,隶属3目7科16属;爬行动物57种,隶属3目12科38属。根据其资源特点,提出了对天堂山自然保护区两栖爬行动物进行保护的对策与建议。%During June and August of 2011and 2012, the amphibians and reptiles in Tiantangshan Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, were investigated. The results showed that there were 25 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera, 7 families and 3 orders and 57 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera, 12 families and 3 orders. Based on the characteristics of these resources, advices for protecting the amphibians and reptiles in Tiantangsan nature reserve were provided.

  1. Evaluation of Ecosystem Services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve%闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅娇艳

    2012-01-01

    According to the theories of ecological economics and resource economics, a comprehensive evaluation of ecosystem services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was carried out based on existing survey data in order to protect the wetland and provide a scientific basis for public decision-making. The Ecosystem service value of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was estimated at RMB 4966.l×104. The components of the ecosystem services were ranked on their values as: climate regulation> cultural carrier> biodiversity conservation>provision of goods.%研究运用生态经济学和资源环境经济学等有关理论和研究方法,利用前人已有调查资料,对闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值做了较全面的评价,拟为保护湿地和公共决策提供科学依据.闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值为4 966.1万元/a.按照价值量大小排序为:调节气候价值>文化载体价值>保护生物多样性价值>提供产品价值.

  2. 甘肃省插岗梁自然保护区维管植物区系组成与特征%Floristic Composition and Characteristics of Vascular Plants of Chagangliang Nature Reserve,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建兵; 赵佳丽; 王建华

    2015-01-01

    统计分析了甘肃省插岗梁自然保护区的维管植物区系,结果表明:1)该保护区维管植物较为丰富,共有1168种(含种下等级),隶属于531属139科;2)区系组成以温带为主,为热带向温带区系成分过渡的区域;3)珍稀濒危物种较多,被列入保护名录的有34种。%Flora of vascular plants in Chagangliang Nature Reserve,Gansu Province was analyzed.The re-sults showed that:(1)Vascular plants species were very rich.There were 1 168 taxa recorded in this na-ture reserve,belonging to 531 genera in 139 families.(2)Floristic elements were mainly temperate distri-bution and the flora was within the transitional region ranging from tropical to temperate.(3)There were a lot of rare and threatened plants,i.e.34 species were listed into protection contents.

  3. Experiences in Conservation and Management of Mai Po Nature Reserve of HongKong and Their Implications%香港米埔自然保护区保护与管理经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何诗雨; 胡涛; 徐华林; 史秀华

    2016-01-01

    随着深圳市城市发展步伐的不断加快,福田红树林自然保护区受到水体污染、人为干扰、病虫害及外来物种等各方面影响,导致其生态系统出现不同程度的退化。通过赴香港米埔自然保护区考察与学习,分析了香港米埔自然保护区精细化管理、生态系统日趋稳定及教育宣传等经验,提出了深圳福田乃至全国红树林自然保护区保护与管理对策和建议。%With the rapid economic development of Shenzhen, the mangrove forest in Futian Nature Reserve was affected by various factors, such as water pollution, human disturbance, pests, diseases, and invasive species, which resulted in ecosystem degradation of the mangrove forest. By visiting Hong Kong Mai Po Nature Reserve, countermeasures and suggestions were proposed for conservation and management of mangrove forest in Shenzhen and other regions in China.

  4. 贵州省金沙冷水河自然保护区蕨类植物研究%The Research to Pteriphyte of Lengshuihe Nature Reserve in Jinsha of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富羽; 顾翠; 骆强

    2014-01-01

    对采自贵州金沙冷水河自然保护区的300余号蕨类植物标本进行整理、鉴定。结果表明:该保护区共有蕨类植物22科48属105种(含种下分类单位);其中,优势科有鳞毛蕨科Dryopteridaceae、水龙骨科Polypodiaceae、卷柏科Selaginellaceae和凤尾蕨科Pteridaceae,优势属为卷柏属Selaginella、凤尾蕨属Pteris、铁角蕨属Asplenium和耳蕨属Polystichum;经区系成分分析,认为该保护区的蕨类植物种类具以温带地理成分占优势的温带性质,属东亚区系。%More than 300 pteridophytes specimens were collected from Lengshuihe nature reserve of Jin-sha county, Guizhou province. From the speciemens, indentified 105 species (containing the taxa below the species) belonged to 48 genera in 22 families. The dominant families were Dryopteridaceae, Polypodiceae, Se-laginellaceae and Pteridaceae , and the main genera were Selaginella, Pteris, Asplenium and Polytichum . Flo-ristically the pteridophyte in Nature Reserve is mainly belonged to the temperate elements and is a part of East-Asia flora.

  5. A Catalogue of Insects from Dadongshan (Mt.) of Guangdong Nanlin National Nature Reserve (Ⅰ)%广东南岭国家级自然保护区大东山昆虫名录(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振耀; 梁铬球; 贾凤龙; 谢委才; 陈志明; 邓世福; 唐长根; 陈景烈; 杨清云

    2001-01-01

    Dadongshan (Mt.) Management station of Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve is locates in 114°41'E,24°50'N.From 1992 to 1998,the writers investigated and Colleted insects 10 time in this mountain.The present paper reports a catalogue of insects from Dadongshan (Mt.) Management Station of Guangdong Nanling Natinal Nature Reserve.The catalogue 7 orders,which are Odonata,Blattaria,Mantodea,Isoptera,Phasmatodea,Ortheroptera and Dermaptera ,and include 253 species 169 genera 53 families.In them,10 new spescies (Odonata 1 species,Phamatodea 8 species and Orthorptera 1 species) had been recorded in last year.%报道广东南岭国家级自然保护区大东山管理站所辖林区蜻蜓目、蜚蠊目、螳螂目、等翅目、竹节虫目、直翅目和革翅目等7目昆虫名录,计有53科169属253种,其中蜻蜓目1种、竹节虫目8种、直翅目1种为本研究发现的新种。

  6. Floristic Characteristics of Seed Plants in YihuangMergus squamatus Provincial Nature Reserve from Jiangxi%江西宜黄中华秋沙鸭省级自然保护区种子植物区系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晶; 马建波; 李赟璟; 余道平; 刘以珍

    2015-01-01

    通过样线法对江西宜黄中华秋沙鸭省级自然保护区进行植物区系调查。结果表明:(1)该保护区共有野生种子植物119科428属776种,以禾本科、蔷薇科、菊科等为优势科,以蓼属和悬钩子属为优势属;(2)单种科属和寡种科属的比例较高,表明该区植物区系分化较明显;(3)种子植物科可以分成8个分布型7个变型,科的区系热/温比为2.43,表现出区系的隐域性及与热带植物区系联系密切;(4)种子植物属可以分成14个正型15个变型,属的区系热/温比为1.05,区系性质表现为热带向温带过渡。%The flora of YihuangMergus squamatus provincial nature reserve were surveyed and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) 776 species of spermatophytes affiliated to 428 genera in 119 families were discovered in the nature reserve, the families of flora were dominated by Gramineae (47 genera/80 species,similarly hereinafter), Compositae (35/51), Rosaceae (13/37) etc., the genera of flora were dominated byPolygonum andRubus. (2) There was a high proportion in genera and families which contain one to four species, indicated the differentiation of the flora in this nature reserve. (3) The distribution types of families could be classified into 8 distribution types and 7 subtypes, and the ratio of tropical geographical elements to temperate geographical elements of families were 2.43, showed a tightness relation with tropical flora of the families in this nature reserve. Furthermore, the high proportion of cosmopolitan elements in families implied the intrazonal feature of the flora. (4) The distribution types of genera could be classified into 14 distribution types and 15 subtypes, and the ratio between tropical geographical elements and temperate geographical elements of genera were 1.05, suggested that the flora transitional character from tropical flora to temperate flora. The floristic characteristics show that the nature reserve provides an

  7. 四川百里峡省级自然保护区植物资源调查研究%Study on plant resource of bailixia provincial nature reserve in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩巧

    2015-01-01

    In order to further grasp the present situation of plant resources of Bailixia provincial nature reserve in Sichuan ,the plant resources of nature reserve w ere investigated . The results showed that ,there were 1 429 species of wild vascular plants belonging to 682 genera and 150 families in nature reserve ,among them ,there are 74 species pteridophyte belonging to 44 genus and 22 families ,24 species gymnosperm belonging to 17 genus and 8 families ,1 319 species angiosperm belonging to 625 genus and 120 families .T he quantity of vascular plants families account for 64.66% of Sichuan ,w hich account for 41.21% of China . The quantity of vascular plants genera account for 42.32% of Sichuan ,which account for 20.20% of China .The quantity of vascular plants species account for 15.32% of Sichuan , w hich account for 4.88% of China .T here are 7 kinds of national first class protected plants and 13 kinds of national second class protected plants in nature reserve ,in addition , T huj a sutchnenensis which is now listed as a critically endangered species in the world was found . The seed plant flora consists of 15 areal‐types and 18 sub‐types .The flora of seed plant showed an obvious feature of temperate ,tropical elements also accounted for a certain proportion ,which has the transition characteristics from temperate to tropic .The flora are of antiquity to some extentand . The vegetation of the nature reserve is divided into 3 vegetation type groups ,8 vegetation types and 24 formations .%为进一步掌握四川百里峡省级自然保护区植物资源的现状,对保护区植物资源进行调查,结果表明:自然保护区共有野生维管植物150科,682属,1429种.其中蕨类植物22科,44属,74种;裸子植物8科,17属,24种;被子植物120科,625属,1319种.维管植物科数占四川省的64.66%,全国的41.21%;属数占四川省的42.32%,全国的20.20%;种数占四川省的15.32%,全国的4.88

  8. Monetization non associated natural gas offshore reserve in the Espirito Santo Basin; Monetizacao de uma reserva 'offshore' de gas natural nao associado na Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, Jose Ricardo; Barbosa, Leonardo Alcantara [BG Group, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cintra, Marcos Antonio Lins da Costa [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunet, Patricia Lima [Anadarko Exploracao e Producao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Longo, Rafael Rodrigo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes, from the perspective of a new player in the Brazilian market, the opportunities and the challenges to monetize a non-associated natural gas offshore resource, located in the Espirito Santo Basin. The fictitious exploration block 'BM-ES-07', located in shallow waters, near to the coast of Linhares, in Espirito Santo, was a hundred percent acquired, by an international independent oil and gas company during the fourth bid round of the ANP, occurred in 2002. With 10 (ten) billion cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of recoverable gas, the field will initiate its production in 2012, also producing condensate (C5+). The total investments are estimated (based in 2006 prices) in R$420 millions, including exploration, development and production costs. Considering the assumptions presented, the article describes the project development, presenting the economics results, and also discusses the alternatives for natural gas marketing. (author)

  9. 云南哈巴雪山自然保护区生物多样性经济价值评估%Evaluation on the Economic Value of Biodiversity in Habaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晶; 臧润国; 杨国伟; 方震东

    2012-01-01

    云南哈巴雪山自然保护区具有完整的森林生态系统和丰富的生物多样性,对保障长江下游的生态安全具有重要作用.依据2008年“云南哈巴雪山自然保护区综合科学考察项目”的野外调查资料,应用市场价格法、替代市场法等对保护区生物多样性经济价值进行评估,并对非使用价值进行了估算.结果表明,保护区生物多样性每年的经济总价值约为196 351.1万元,包括直接使用价值为21 224.7万元,间接使用价值169 158.2万元,非使用价值5 968.2万元.评估结果显示,保护区生物多样性所产生的生态服务及物种保育等间接价值远远超出其产生的直接使用价值,体现了生物多样性经济价值的外部经济特征.%The Habaxueshan Nature Reserve located in the middle-upper reaches of the Changjiang River, and it' s well preserved natural forest ecosystems and rich biodiversity are important for ensuring the ecological security of lower reaches. The economic value of biodiversity was evaluated for the nature reserve using Conventional Market (CM) and Implicit Market (IM) Methods based on field data collected during the implementation of the compre-hensive scientific investigation in the nature reserve in 2008, and the non-use value of biodiversity also estimated. The result showed that; the total economic value (TEV) of biodiversity up to 1.963 511 billion Yuan annually, which include 212. 247 million Yuan of direct use value (DUV) , 1. 691 582 billion Yuan of the indirect use value (IUV) and 59. 682 million Yuan of the Non-use value (NUV). The result also showed that the ecological service value of biodiversity exceeded it' s DUV greatly, and that indicated the characteristics of public good and external economic value of the biodiversity.

  10. Legal Study on Conflict of Resource Conservation and Utilization in Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province%云南省自然保护区资源保护与利用冲突问题的法律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马平; 杨春玲

    2011-01-01

    云南省内自然保护区资源保护与利用中存在的冲突,其在表征上是我国自然保护区法律规范之间存在冲突,内在实质是由于经济发展与环境生态之间、不同利益主体发展权之间以及现代生产生活方式与传统文化与知识之间的冲突.在现代法治社会中,正确认知与解决上述冲突需要完善相关法律指引,尤需对现有立法和行政理念进行修正,应以保护环境、维护生物多样性之完整为出发点,尊重本地社区的参与和发展等权利,实现自然资源的合理利用.%There is conflict between resource conservation and utilization in Nature Reserves of Yunnan Province, which is a conflict between legal norms in the representation of China' s nature reserves, while the inner essence is due to the conflict between economic development and environment and ecology, between different interest groups' right to development and modern production and way of life and traditional culture and knowledge. In the modern society of the rule of law, correct understanding and resolution of those conflicts need to improve relevant laws and guidelines, in particular, need correcting the concept of the existing legislative and administrative. We should take protecting the environment, maintaining the integrity of biodiversity as a starting point; respect the rights of participation and development of local community, to realize the rational use of natural resources.

  11. 纳板河流域国家级自然保护区水资源质量分析初探%Preliminary Discussion on River Water Quality Analysis in Nabanhe Watershed National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞; 田茂兴

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Sino- German cooperation project " LILAC (Living Landscapes China)", the protection bureau of Nabanhe Watershed National Nature Reserve carried out the investigation water resources protection and management in March and July of 2010, jointly with the University of Stuttgart (Germany) and Tongji University (China). The aim of the subproject "Land Use and Water" is to estimate the influence of large -scale cultivation of nature rubber and other cash crops on water resources. The first assessment of river water quality in Nabanhe Watershed National Nature Reserve is made through the results of the both field visits.%基于中德合作项目LILAC(生命景观中国),纳板河国家级自然保护区保护局与德国斯图加特大学及上海同济大学合作并于2010年3月和7月开展了两次水资源管理和保护的调研工作——“土地利用和水”子项目.项目的目的是研究保护区内种植橡胶及经济作物对水资源的影响。本文通过此次调研获得的数据,对纳板河水资源质量进行了初步评价。

  12. Evaluation of Forest Ecological Benefit of Zhouzhi National Natural Reserve%周至国家级自然保护区森林生态效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向川; 王玛丽

    2013-01-01

    By using equivalent beneficial material substitution method and currency substitution method,the forest ecological benefit of Zhouzhi Natural Reserve was analyzed and evaluated from various aspects containing benefits of water regeneration,benefits of purification of air,benefits of preventing soil and benefits of biodiversity protection.The value of forest ecological benefit of Zhouzhi Natural Reserve is 1.679 6 billion in preliminary calculation.The great benefits of forest ecological benefit in climate regulation,noise reducing,pollution reducing,ecological balance preservation and providing beautiful natural landscape were pointed out,and several suggestions for rapidly establishing and perfecting forest ecological benefit positioning monitoring system were put forward.%采用等效益物替代法和货币置换法从涵养水源效益、固土保肥效益、释氧固碳效益、净化大气环境效益、生物多样性保护效益等多个角度对周至自然保护区的森林生态效益进行了分析评价,并初步测算出周至保护区森林生态效益年总价值为16.7696亿元,同时还指出了其在调节气候、降低噪音、减少污染、维持生态平衡以及提供优美的自然景观等方面的巨大效益,并提出尽快建立并完善森林生态效益定位监测系统的建议.

  13. 陕西省平河梁自然保护区蝶类资源调查及区系研究%Faunal Analysis of Butterflies in Pingheliang Nature Reserve of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑彩霞; 刘长海; 徐世才; 赵盈利

    2012-01-01

    对采自陕西平河梁自然保护区蝶类标本进行鉴定,发现该保护区蝶类共8科44属68种,其中凤蝶科5属10种,粉蝶科5属15种,眼蝶科8属13种,灰蝶科2属2种,蛱蝶科19属23种,环蝶科2属2种,蚬蝶科1属1种,弄蝶科2属2种.分类统计表明,在属级阶元上,采集的44属中,蛱蝶科>眼蝶科>凤蝶科=粉蝶科>环蝶科=灰蝶科=弄蝶科>蚬蝶科,蛱蝶科居于优势地位,占总属数的43.18%;在种级阶元上,采集的68种蝴蝶中,蛱蝶科>粉蝶科>眼蝶科>凤蝶科>环蝶科=灰蝶科=弄蝶科>蚬蝶科,仍以蛱蝶科占优势,占总种数的33.82%;平河梁自然保护区单属种较多,有31属仅分布1种,占总属数的70.45%;从单属种分布来看,蛱蝶科>眼蝶科>凤蝶科>灰蝶科=弄蝶科=环蝶科>蚬蝶科>粉蝶科;平河梁自然保护区具有蝴蝶属级多样性较高的特点.区系分析表明,平河梁自然保护区的古北界蝶类有6属8种,分别占总数的13.64%、11.76%;东洋界蝶类有20属20种,分别占总数的45.45%、29.41%;广布种有27属40种,分别占总数的61.36%、58.82%;以广布种为优势成分.从世界动物地理区系看,平河梁自然保护区蝶类分布极不平衡,是以古北和东洋区共有种为主体构成的;从中国动物地理区划来看,平河梁自然保护区属华中区,共有种较多,具有较为丰富的蝶类资源.%Through the investigation on the butterfly specimens in Pingheliang nature reserve of Shaanxi Province, it was found out that there were totally 68 species of 44 genera in 8 familes of butterflies in this nature reserve, among which there were 10 species in 5 genera of Papilionidae, 15 species in 5 genera of Pieridae,13 species in 8 genera of Satyridae,2 species in 2 genera of Lycaenidae,23 species in 19 genera of Nymphalidae, 2 species in 2 genera of Amathusiidae, 1 species in 1 genera of Riodinidae ,2 species in 2 genera of Hesperiidae. As indicated by taxonomic

  14. 八岔岛国家级自然保护区保护现状及对策研究%Protection Situation and Countermeasure Research of Bacha Island National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 李永亮

    2014-01-01

    The spe cies and composition of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and other species were introduced in the protected areas of Bacha Island National Nature Reserve. Many environmental problems including large scale land clearing, poaching, extinctive catching and fishing, overuse of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizer etc. existed in Bacha Island National Nature Reserve. In view of the current status of environmental protection of this reserve, some countermeasures must be taken, such as improving public awareness and education, coordinating the relations between development and protection, strengthening management and improving relevant laws, establishing reserved areas for protecting rare and endangered wild animals, strengthening research in related fields, cooperating widely and strengthening capital investment, etc., in order to improve the environment of wildlife habitat in Bacha Island more effectively.%通过论述八岔岛国家级自然保护区野生动物种类及组成,对保护区内鱼类、鸟类、兽类、两栖类、爬行类等物种种类进行了介绍。八岔岛国家级自然保护区在对动植物进行保护的同时,面临着大规模土地开发,非法狩猎及灭绝性捕捞,农药、除草剂、化肥的大量使用等环境问题。针对保护区的环境保护现状,通过开展宣传教育、协调发展与保护的关系、加强管理和执法并完善相关法律、建立珍稀濒危野生动物保护地、加强相关领域研究、开展广泛合作并加强资金投入等措施,可以更有效地改善八岔岛保护区野生动物生存环境。

  15. Composition and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Foping Nature Reserve%佛坪自然保护区两栖爬行动物的组成与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩会生; 曾治高; 宋团谱; 郑晓燕; 蔡晓丽; 付沛

    2012-01-01

    Foping Nature Reserve is located on the southern slope of the middle range of the Qinling Mountains in China, and a rich resource of amphibians and reptiles. Currently, 16 amphibians and 28 reptiles occurred in the reserve. Among them, 10 amphibians and 7 reptiles belong to the endemic species of China. Giant salamander (Andriasdavidianus) belongs to the second-class key species under state-protection, and is a critically endangered species. Besides this species, another 11 species in the reserve are also listed as endangered or vulnerable species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. No obvious characters of ecological distribution along the altitudinal gradient were found for the amphibians and reptiles. However, more species and populations were distributed in the area below 1 500 m a. s. 1. Foping Nature Reserve is a key region for the diversity conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the Qinling Mountains. Some suggestions were put forward to protect and manage these species.%地处秦岭中段南坡的佛坪自然保护区具有半富的两栖爬行动物资源.当前该保护区分布有16种两栖动物和28种爬行动物,其中的10种两栖类和7种爬行类为中国特有种.分析这些两栖爬行动物的保护状态发现,除大鲵为国家Ⅱ级重点保护的、处于极危状态的物种外,还有11种为处于濒危或易危状态的物种.区内两栖爬行动物的垂直分布特征并不明显,但在海拔1500 m以下的区域分布的种类较多、数量较大.表明佛坪自然保护区是秦岭两栖爬行动物多样性保护的关键区域.针对该区城两栖爬行动物的保护与管理提出了一些建议.

  16. 贵州省赤水桫椤自然保护区兽类的初步研究%Preliminary research on the mammals is nature reserve of Alsophila of Chishui in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓实群; 郭微; 黎道洪

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary investigation and collection of mammals were conducted in nature reserve of Chishui of Guizhou from the 9th to 18th of November,2003.Over 10 samples of mammals were obtained.Through identification and classification,with original record of materials,this protection area has 60 speices of mammals in all,belonging to 8 orders,21 families,45 genera.Wildlife under key national protection are 3 kinds of grade I and 11 kinds of grade II.Speices in Oriental realm are the main body from the component disrtict,45 kinds in all,accounting for 75% of the number of mammals in the nature reserve.The disrtibuting type relies mainly on the southeast Asian tropical zone-subtropical zone type.There are 35 kinds,accounting for 58.3% of the total kinds in the nature reserve.Six are Chineses special kinds,accounting for 10% of the mammals.In addition,there are 13 kinds of endangered mammals,3 kinds of mammals in imminent danger,and 1 kind of rare mammal,accounting for 9.8%,2.3% and 0.75%,respectively,of the Chinese animals on the brink of extinction.%2003年11月9日~18日对贵州赤水桫椤自然保护区兽类进行了初步调查和采集,共采获兽类标本10余号,经鉴定和分类,加上原有资料的记载,该保护区共有60种兽类,隶属8目21科45属,其中国家重点保护野生动物I级3种,II级11种.从区系组成看,以东洋界种为主体,共45种,占保护区兽类种数的75%.分布型以东南亚热带-亚热带型为主,有35种,占保护区兽类种数的58.3%,中国特有种有6种,占保护区兽类种数的10%.此外,易危兽类有13种,濒危兽类有3种,稀有兽类有1种.分别占中国濒危动物的9.8%,2.3%和0.75%.

  17. Image Filtering System for Natural Reserves Based on Color Features%基于颜色特征的自然保护区图像筛选系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子君; 张杰斌; 周欣欣; 高强

    2016-01-01

    为了解决自然保护区动物图像筛选工作量大与效率低的问题,在分析自然保护区采集的图像特点的基础上,设计并实现一种基于颜色特征的图像筛选系统. 该系统对图像进行分割,提取图像的整体颜色特征和局部颜色特征,采用陆地移动距离算法(Earth Mover''s Distance,EMD)将待筛选图像同已筛选图像进行匹配,根据匹配结果判断图像中是否有动物,将无动物的图像筛选掉,从而减少工作量. 以某自然保护区的若干采集点拍摄的图像为例,实验结果表明与人工筛选图像相比,该系统能够减少约1/3的工作量,提高了工作效率.%To solve the problem of heavy workload and low efficiency when filtering images of natural reserves , on the basis of an-alyzing the characteristics of the collected images of natural reserves , an image filtering system based on color features is designed and implemented .Images are segmented , global color features and local color features are extracted by the system , and earth mover'' s distance ( EMD) is adopted to match pending images with filtered images .After judging the images according to the matching results , the images without animals are removed , thus reducing workload .By filtering the images collected at several collection points in a certain natural reserve , it is verified that the system can effectively reduce about one third of the workload of manual image filtering , and results in higher work efficiency .

  18. 海上溢油事故对九段沙湿地保护区影响研究%Study on influence of marine oil spill accident on Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宁; 丁玲; 郑磊夫

    2015-01-01

    Lingang offshore wind farm is located in the intersection of the Yangtze Delta and Hangzhou Bay where the hydrolog-ical conditions are complicated and the waterways are in a crisscross pattern. To study the influence of oil spill in this sea area caused by ship collision to the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve and countermeasures, the MIKE21 ( SA) module was used to establish a two-dimensional oil spill model and analyze the spill oil movement under 3 typical conditions of various hydrology, weather and ocean on the basis of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The analysis results show that the drifting trajecto-ries and coverage of the oil film are influenced by wind direction and wind velocity;under the 3 conditions, the oil films could not