WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitation electronic resource

  1. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recovering nutrients, water and energy from domestic waste streams, including wastewater and faecal sludge, is slowly gaining momentum in low-income countries. Resource recovery and reuse (RRR offers value beyond environmental benefits through cost recovery. An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stakeholders involved from waste collection to treatment. This paper shows options of how resource recovery and reuse can be an incentive for the sustainable sanitation service chain, by recovering costs where revenue can feed back internally or using generated revenues from reuse to fill financial gaps across the service chain to complement other supporting mechanisms for making waste management more attractive.

  2. A primer for health care managers: data sanitization, equipment disposal, and electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Cathy M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, security regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act concerning data sanitization and the disposal of media containing stored electronic protected health information are discussed, and methods for effective sanitization and media disposal are presented. When disposing of electronic media, electronic waste-or e-waste-is produced. Electronic waste can harm human health and the environment. Responsible equipment disposal methods can minimize the impact of e-waste. Examples of how health care organizations can meet the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations while also behaving responsibly toward the environment are provided. Examples include the environmental stewardship activities of reduce, reuse, reeducate, recover, and recycle.

  3. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  4. World health, populations, sanitation and resources. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, S V

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses 5 crises that are confronted by mankind: 1) population pressure, 2) the environment, 3) food, 4) energy, and 5) raw materials. Developing countries are those with rapid population growth rates while developed countries have slow growth rates. Sweden, Austria, East and West Germany, and Luxemburg were the only 5 countries with zero population growth in 1980. Other developed countries such as Canada and the USA double in population every 88 and 99 years, respectively. In contrast, developing countries such as Kenya, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa double every 18, 21, 22, and 25 years respectively. Such population increases cause problems in the environment, transportation, education, crime, and riots. The level of foreign aid for food to developing countries needs to increase or else the economic gap between rich and poor nations will increase on an average from 5:1 to 8:1 in Latin America and to 20:1 in South Asia. Availability of food has increaseed in developed countries whereas in developing countries it has dropped. Use of tropical forest lands as well as the sea bed for a source of food is difficult. There ia an upper limit to the fresh water runoff from land areas of the earth and fresh water is non-renewable. There is also a scarcity of other non-renewable resources, including at least 20 minerals. Finally, the standard of living in prosperous countries must be lowered at the same time as raising it in developing countries.

  5. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  6. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral

  7. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  8. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  9. Sanitation without pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  10. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  11. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  12. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  13. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  14. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  15. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  16. Seeing Beyond Service - Redefining the Problem of Water and Sanitation Service Delivery in Resource-Limited Settings to Enable Effective Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strock, Christopher Moore

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of water and sanitation service delivery in resource-limited settings using two different social theories (modernization and world system). Understanding that barriers to effectiveness are rooted in global structures that tend to present at local levels helps redefine the problem leading to comprehensive policies and practices. The guiding research questions included an identification of an effectiveness gap in services delivered in d...

  17. Ciência, tecnologia e inovação na interface entre as áreas de recursos hídricos e saneamento Science, technology and innovation in the interface domains of water resources and environmental sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilo de Oliveira Nascimento; Léo Heller

    2005-01-01

    ... básico, de desenvolvimento tecnológico e de desenvolvimento institucional.The paper presents an evaluation of emerging subjects in research, development and innovation in interface domains of environmental sanitation and water resources...

  18. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  19. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  20. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  1. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  2. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  3. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  4. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  5. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  6. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  7. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  8. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  9. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...... with local livelihoods and investments in private sanitation in rapidly changing rural and peri-urban communities of Ghana. Sanitation policy makers and programme managers must acknowledge that these profound local, ethnic and economic forces are shaping people’s abilities and motivations for sanitation...

  10. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  11. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  12. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  13. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  14. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  15. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  16. Ghana - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification...

  17. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  18. Sanitation system for Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Félix Cristóbal

    1986-01-01

    The Full Sanitation Plan for Madrid is the final action of a series undertaken for several years with the purpose to reach the completion of the sanitation system of the town. With the whole of these actions it could be said that the basic substructure has acquired enough level to deserve de real needs of the town.

  19. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  20. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing...

  1. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  2. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  3. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  4. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  5. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  6. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  7. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  8. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  9. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  10. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  11. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  12. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  13. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  14. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  15. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  16. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    design methods that search nature for animals and plants that solve similar problems. The paper describes how four conceptual sanitation solutions for dry toilets solving problems with smell, cleaning and flies can be made in collaboration between a design engineer and a biologist using biomimetic design......Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries. Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systematic...

  17. Feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) for onsite sanitation and resource recovery (nutrients, energy and water) in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Robert A; Ozcan, Onur Y; Ozcan, Onur O; Calabria, Jorge L; Dick, George H; Yeh, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Slums are challenging locations for sanitation technologies. High population densities, a lack of water and electricity infrastructure, and space constraints combine to ensure that many traditional waste treatment technologies fail when implemented in this context. This paper proposes the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for slum sanitation. AnMBRs allow for localized water reuse, high quality treatment, and energy production at the point of treatment. A water, energy, nutrient, and mass balance was conducted on a theoretical AnMBR directly coupled to a public toilet. The combined system would be capable of recycling its water for use in toilet flushing and would be capable of providing enough energy to power both the toilet and AnMBR operation. The addition of food waste to the feed would help to ensure process stability and energy production by the AnMBR. Ammonia accumulation within the system would have to be managed through struvite precipitation, ion exchange, oxidation, plant uptake or other means. Generated biogas can be converted into heat and/or electricity using small scale gas generators. AnMBR technology has high potential for success in slum settings, if considerations for maintenance and supplies are made as part of the design and system delivery.

  18. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  19. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  20. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  1. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  2. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    sanitation facilities and interviewing stakeholders including Jockin Arputham, the founder of the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF) and president of Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI). The paper illustrates and compares the failures of technocratic design which turned into unused and dangerous...

  3. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  4. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  5. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  6. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  7. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  8. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  9. Towards “Sustainable” Sanitation: Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While sanitation is fundamental for health and wellbeing, cities of all sizes face growing challenges in providing safe, affordable and functional sanitation systems that are also sustainable. Factors such as limited political will, inadequate technical, financial and institutional capacities and failure to integrate safe sanitation systems into broader urban development have led to a persistence of unsustainable systems and missed opportunities to tackle overlapping and interacting urban challenges. This paper reviews challenges associated with providing sanitation systems in urban areas and explores ways to promote sustainable sanitation in cities. It focuses on opportunities to stimulate sustainable sanitation approaches from a resource recovery perspective, generating added value to society while protecting human and ecosystem health. We show how, if integrated within urban development, sustainable sanitation has great potential to catalyse action and contribute to multiple sustainable development goals.

  10. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  11. Sanitation: User perceptions and acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and the communication of good sanitation, hygiene and related practices. Safe sanitation, which includes ventilated improved pit (VIP) toilets, ecological sanitation (such as urine diversion toilets), pour-flush and flush toilets, is about offering people dignity... and health. Without it, people (mostly children) suffer from incidence of disease and death, women and children remain at risk of attacks, school days and work days are lost to the economy, and the environment is increasingly polluted with human waste (Van...

  12. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    the  amount in each product’s case.     Table 2: Produce Packaging  Product   Amount  Tomatoes  25 lb  Broccoli   20 lb  Iceberg lettuce  6 heads...aftertaste through it computer-based cleansing process and use of a citrus-based “green” cleansing product . Microbiologists from CFD performed...several tests of bacteria counts and pathogen log rate reductions of various FF&V products before and after they passed through the sanitizing sink process

  13. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  14. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  15. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  16. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  17. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  20. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  1. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  2. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  3. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  4. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  5. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  6. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic wastewa

  7. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  8. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  11. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  12. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  13. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  14. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  15. The sanitation value chain: its concept and new research collaboration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, N.

    2017-03-01

    Sanitation is essential for promoting health, preventing environment pollution, conserving ecosystem, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slum, conservation of ecosystem, and resources management. Namely, the question, “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in future?” is a global environmental problem to be solved. In developing world, population is growing rapidly especially in urban slums and they have still high under 5 mortality and poverty issues. It also reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation in 2015 (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing especially in rural area of developed world. Based on the above mentioned background, new research project on sanitation value chain has started. This is a collaboration project with LIPI, RIHN (Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto) and HU (Hokkaido University). The concept of the sanitation value chain and the brief summary of the project are discussed in the keynote presentation. The concept of sanitation value chain proposed in the project : The project is proposing new concept, Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people/and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical systems; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of the technologies. The goals of the research are 1) To propose the Sanitation Value Chain as a common solution for both developing and developed countries, 2) To show the validity of the

  16. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.131 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta... being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily. (b) Sanitation of...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  18. 9 CFR 147.21 - Flock sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flock sanitation. 147.21 Section 147... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.21 Flock sanitation. To aid in the maintenance of healthy flocks, the following procedures should...

  19. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  20. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  1. Assessing demand for improved sustainable sanitation in low-income informal settlements of urban areas: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Kulabako, Robinah Nakawunde; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Charles, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Sanitation improvement is crucial in saving lives that are lost due to water contamination. Progress towards achieving full sanitation coverage is still slow in low-income informal settlements in most developing countries. Furthermore, resources are being wasted on installing facilities that are later misused or never used because they do not meet the local demand. Understanding demand for improved sanitation in the local context is critical if facilities are to be continually used. Various approaches that attempt to change peoples' behaviours or create demand have been reviewed to identify what they are designed to address. A multi-disciplinary research team using mixed methods is re-emphasised as a comprehensive approach for assessing demand for improved sanitation in low-income informal settlements, where the sanitation situation is more challenging than in other areas. Further research involving a multi-disciplinary research team and use of mixed methods to assess sanitation demand in informal settlements is needed.

  2. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  3. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  4. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  5. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  6. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  7. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  8. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  9. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  10. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated...

  11. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  12. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  13. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  14. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  15. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  16. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  17. [Collective action and veto players in public policy: the sanitation policy in Brazil (1998-2002)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Ana Cristina Augusto; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2011-08-01

    In 1999, the federal government has committed itself to the IMF with the privatization of the sanitation and other public services, seeking resources to address the fiscal crisis. He proposed the bill 4147/01 as the regulatory framework that would provide the necessary security for investors interested in acquiring the state-owned sanitation enterprises. Against this initiative, a coalition of industry interests mobilized in order to veto the adoption of privatization: the National Front for Environmental Sanitation (FNSA). This paper identifies the actors, the agenda and the interests involved in this political coalition. It shows that the coalition acted decisively as an instance of veto, limiting the effects of the agreement with the IMF on the public policy of sanitation in Brazil this time.

  18. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  19. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  20. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  1. Ecosanitation: An Integrated Approach towards Sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Gabani,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 2.6 billion people in the world without improved sanitation. Improved sanitation is defined by WHO as connection to a Public sewer, connection to a septic system, a pour-flush latrine, a simple or ventilated pit latrine. Most of this 2.6 billion reside in rural Asia and Africa. But technically even access to improved sanitation does not solve the problem, a spit latrines which serve about 2.8 billion people usually fail to sanitize and contribute to ground water pollution. Also, septic systems and sewerage treatment plant often discharge in to the overloading and eutrophication. The need to close the loop on nutrients indicates that a paradigm shift towards sustainable sanitation is necessary environment with little or no sanitization or nutrient removal, polluting the ground water table streams, lake sand coastal zones, helping to perpetuate the cycle of human disease and upsetting fragile aquatic ecosystems by nutrient. The health risks associated with the current state of sanitation in the world require immediate action. Thus in present scenario huge amount of water and piping coverage is required and inspite of all these things the operational and maintenance cost are also high. This traditional British flush sanitation system has created havoc. Ample amount of NPK which is readily available in absorbable form by plants is wasted down the drain. Due to ever expansion of urban areas are getting far away which is increasing the cost of conveyance of sewage.

  2. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scal

  3. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and th

  4. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena i

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  6. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  8. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.9 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, gray water, or any other waste material...

  9. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.7 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, or any other waste...

  10. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  11. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  12. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  13. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  14. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  15. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  16. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  17. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  18. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  19. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses...

  20. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control procedures. (a) Sanitation SOP. Each processor should have and implement a written sanitation...

  1. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  2. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  3. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  4. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  5. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were .... type (formal or informal, off-the books) and resident .... Knowledge of protection n (%) .... prevented through engineering, medical and legislative.

  6. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  7. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  8. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  9. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  10. Terra Preta Sanitation: A Key Component for Sustainability in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS plays a key role in sustainable sanitation (SuSan and in the sustainable management of resources such as water, energy, soil (agriculture, liquid and solid organic waste streams as well as in the development of sustainable urban environment and infrastructure systems. This paper discusses the advantages of, and requirements for, SuSan systems, focusing on TPS. Case studies showing the stepwise extension and re-development of conventional sanitation systems (CSS using TPS technologies and system approaches are presented and discussed. Decentralized TPS systems integrated in sustainable urban resource management were implemented in the German cities of Hamburg and Berlin. The compilation of best practice examples and findings using the newest TPS systems illustrates the immense potential of this approach for the transformation from conventional to SuSan systems. For this purpose, the potential savings of drinking water resources and the recycling potential of nutrient components are quantified. The results strongly suggest the need to encourage the development and application of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies, urban infrastructures, and resource management systems that have TP as a key component.

  11. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  12. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  13. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  14. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  15. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  16. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  17. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  18. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  19. The Waterless Portable Private Toilet: An Innovative Sanitation Solution in Disaster Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyun; Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophes can occur without warning and inevitably cause short-term and long-term problems. In disaster zones, having an action plan to alleviate difficulties can reduce or prevent many long-lasting complications. One of the most critical and urgent issues is sanitation. Water, energy, personnel, transportation, and the allocation of resources in disaster areas tend to become very limited during emergencies. Sanitation systems suffer in the process, potentially leading to crises due to unsafe and unhygienic surroundings. This article explores the problems of current sanitation practices in disaster areas and identifies the essential characteristics of sustainable sanitation systems. This study also presents a plan for an innovative and sustainable sanitation system using a waterless, portable, private toilet, in addition to a procedure for collecting and disposing waste. The system is agronomic, is socially acceptable, prevents contact with human waste, and can be used for individuals or families. Environmental pollution and social problems (such as sexual harassment) can be reduced both during and after restoration.

  20. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  1. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus

  2. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  4. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  5. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  6. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  7. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  8. User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 37th WEDC International Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014 Sustainable Water and Sanitation services for all in a fast changing world User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa Ms L C. Duncker, South Africa Briefing...

  9. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon. ... out in March 2007 among 1400 households with respect to the water supply, sanitation and ... The companies present in the quarters discharge their wastewater in the drains.

  10. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  11. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  12. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  13. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  14. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  15. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  16. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  17. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  18. Child mortality inequalities and linkage with sanitation facilities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Amal K; Kabir, M

    2008-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assets and other household data, collected as part of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2004, to rank individuals according to a household socioeconomic index and to investigate whether this predicts access to the sanitation system or outcomes. PCA was used for determining wealth indices for 11,440 women in 10,500 households in Bangladesh. The index was based on the presence or absence of items from a list of 13 specific household assets and three housing characteristics. PCA revealed 35 components, of which the first component accounted for 18% of the total variance. Ownership of assets and housing features contributed almost equally to the variance in the first component. In this study, ownership of latrines was examined as an example of sanitation-intervention access, and rates of mortality of neonates, infant, and children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) as examples of health outcomes. The analysis demonstrated significant gradients in both access and outcome measures across the wealth quintiles. The findings call for more attention to approaches for reducing health inequalities. These could include reforms in the health sector to provide more equitable allocation of resources, improvement in the quality of health services offered to the poor, and redesigning interventions and their delivery to ensure that they are more pro-poor.

  19. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  20. 9 CFR 3.107 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.107 Section 3.107 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  1. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  2. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals). Trash and organic waste matter...

  3. 21 CFR 178.1010 - Sanitizing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weight of 3,300, and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether. Additionally, the aqueous solution may contain... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS.... (4) An aqueous solution containing iodine, butoxy monoether of mixed (ethylene-propylene...

  4. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  5. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  6. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  7. The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being. And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world.

  8. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  9. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  10. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  11. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  12. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  13. Restoring sanitation services after an earthquake: field experience in Bam, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinera, Jean-François; Reed, Robert A; Njiru, Cyrus

    2005-09-01

    A powerful earthquake hit the city of Bam in southeast Iran on 26 December 2003. In its aftermath, a number of international relief agencies, including Oxfam, assisted in providing emergency sanitation services. Oxfam's programme consisted of constructing and repairing toilets and showers in villages located outside of the city. In contrast with other organisations, Oxfam opted for brick-work structures, using local materials and human resources rather than prefabricated cubicles. The choice illustrates the dilemmas faced by agencies involved in emergency sanitation: responding to needs in a manner consistent with international standards and offering assistance in a timely fashion while involving beneficiaries. Following a preliminary survey, Oxfam concluded that the provision of showers and latrines, in addition to utilisation of local materials and human resources, was essential for ensuring well-being, empowerment and dignity among members of the affected population, thereby maximising the benefits.

  14. Drinking water and sanitation: progress in 73 countries in relation to socioeconomic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-02-01

    To assess progress in the provision of drinking water and sanitation in relation to national socioeconomic indicators. We used household survey data for 73 countries - collected between 2000 and 2012 - to calculate linear rates of change in population access to improved drinking water (n = 67) and/or sanitation (n = 61). To enable comparison of progress between countries with different initial levels of access, the calculated rates of change were normalized to fall between -1 and 1. In regression analyses, we investigated associations between the normalized rates of change in population access and national socioeconomic indicators: gross national income per capita, government effectiveness, official development assistance, freshwater resources, education, poverty, Gini coefficient, child mortality and the human development index. The normalized rates of change indicated that most of the investigated countries were making progress towards achieving universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation. However, only about a third showed a level of progress that was at least half the maximum achievable level. The normalized rates of change did not appear to be correlated with any of the national indicators that we investigated. In many countries, the progress being made towards universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation is falling well short of the maximum achievable level. Progress does not appear to be correlated with a country's social and economic characteristics. The between-country variations observed in such progress may be linked to variations in government policies and in the institutional commitment and capacity needed to execute such policies effectively.

  15. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  16. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  17. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  18. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino De Gisi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation, renewable energy. Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms. It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

  19. Route Sanitizer: Connected Vehicle Trajectory De-Identification Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-01

    Route Sanitizer is ORNL's connected vehicle moving object database de-identification tool and a graphical user interface to ORNL's connected vehicle de-identification algorithm. It uses the Google Chrome (soon to be Electron) platform so it will run on different computing platforms. The basic de-identification strategy is record redaction: portions of a vehicle trajectory (e.g. sequences of precise temporal spatial records) are removed. It does not alter retained records. The algorithm uses custom techniques to find areas within trajectories that may be considered private, then it suppresses those in addition to enough of the trajectory surrounding those locations to protect against "inference attacks" in a mathematically sound way. Map data is integrated into the process to make this possible.

  20. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  1. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  2. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available is used, but because most of the residents in the Durban area enjoy electricity for cooking, no fires were made and thus no ash was available. Faecal material was collected from various UD toilets in early June 2004. Due to the difficulty of working... for testing total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria, faecal streptococci bacteria and Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs. For the bacterial determination, 20g of sample material were weighed off in duplicate. One was used for analysis and the other...

  3. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  4. Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Dube

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the world has progressed in the area of water and sanitation, more than 2.3 billion people still live without access to sanitation facilities and some are unable to practice basic hygiene. Access to water and basic sanitation has deteriorated in Chitungwiza and children are at risk of developing illness and missing school due to the deterioration. We sought to investigate the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that are causally related to water- and sanitation- related hygiene practices among school going children. A random sample of 400 primary school children (196 males, 204 females in four schools in Chitungwiza town, Zimbabwe was interviewed. Behavioural factors were assessed through cross examination of the PROCEED PRECEDE Model. The respondents had been stratified through the random sampling where strata were classes. A structured observation checklist was also administered to assess hygiene enabling facilities for each school. Children’s knowledge and perceptions were inconsistent with hygienic behaviour. The family institution seemed to play a more important role in life skills training and positive reinforcement compared to the school (50% vs 27.3%. There was no association between a child’s sex, age and parents’ occupation with any of the factors assessed (P=0.646. Schools did not provide a hygiene enabling environment as there were no learning materials, policy and resources on hygiene and health. The challenges lay in the provision of hygiene enabling facilities, particularly, the lack of access to sanitation for the maturing girl child and a school curriculum that provides positive reinforcement and practical life skills training approach.

  5. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  6. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  7. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  8. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  9. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jordanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43% was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%. Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  10. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  11. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  12. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  14. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  15. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  16. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  18. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  19. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  20. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  1. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  2. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  3. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  4. The role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available (DWA). Sanitation technology demonstration will play an important role in assisting stakeholders in decision- making processes with regards to sanitation options and general design issues related to sustainable human settlements. 1. Introduction... and decision making regarding sanitation technologies. The Centre will present sanitation technology providers and users an open process to understanding comparable and accessible sanitation technologies with assistance of the personnel on site. Visits...

  5. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  6. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dutch Elm Disease Control: Intensive Sanitation and Survey Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; David P. Worley

    1977-01-01

    Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season. The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more...

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  10. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by JD Nelson and Associates Dr. Tichenor’s Antiseptic Gel, by Dr. G.H. Tichenor Antiseptic Co. Clean Well All-Natural Hand Sanitizer, Clean Well All-Natural Hand Sanitizing Wipes, and Clean Well All-Natural Antibacterial Foaming Hand Soap, by Oh So Clean Inc., ...

  11. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Cairncross

    Full Text Available In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  12. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  13. Biocidal Inactivation of Lactococcus lactis Bacteriophages: Efficacy and Targets of Commonly Used Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Stephen; Murphy, James; Mahony, Jennifer; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Ventura, Marco; Noben, Jean-Paul; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Neve, Horst; Nauta, Arjen; Van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis strains, being intensely used in the dairy industry, are particularly vulnerable to members of the so-called 936 group of phages. Sanitization and disinfection using purpose-made biocidal solutions is a critical step in controlling phage contamination in such dairy processing plants. The susceptibility of 36 936 group phages to biocidal treatments was examined using 14 biocides and commercially available sanitizers. The targets of a number of these biocides were investigated by means of electron microscopic and proteomic analyses. The results from this study highlight significant variations in phage resistance to biocides among 936 phages. Furthermore, rather than possessing resistance to specific biocides or biocide types, biocide-resistant phages tend to possess a broad tolerance to multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:28210242

  14. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  15. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  16. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  17. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants i

  18. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  19. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  20. Field survey of a sustainable sanitation system in a residential house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoko; Otaki, Masahiro; Miura, Shinji; Hamasuna, Hironobu; Ishizaki, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable sanitation is an approach for more ecological and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we proposed one of the new integrated waste treatment systems: an "sustainable sanitation system" that includes separation of the black water from water system by a non-flushing toilet (bio-toilet), and a gray water treatment based on a biological and ecological concept. Sustainable sanitation system also converts the domestic waste to soil conditioners and fertilizers, for farmland use. As one of the case studies, Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in which people actually live using the bio-toilet for the black water treatment and the household wastewater treatment facility for the gray water was introduced. The availability of this system was investigated by analyzing the sawdust used in the bio-toilet and the quality of the effluent in the household wastewater treatment facility. As the result, the water content of the sawdust did not exceed 60% in any of the sampling points and the BOD and COD of the effluent of the household wastewater treatment facility were below 10 and 20 mg/L respectively, due to the low loading. Compared to the pollution load on the water environment created by the conventional system, it was found that the effluent of the house has a lower load than the tertiary treatment and the volume of the water consumption is 75% of the conventional system.

  1. Field survey of a sustainable sanitation system in a residential house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoko NAKAGAWA; Masahiro OTAKI; Shinji MIURA; Hironobu HAMASUNA; Katsuyoshi ISHIZAKI

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable sanitation is an approach for more ecological and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we proposed one of the new integrated waste treatment systems: an "sustainable sanitation system" that includes separation of the black water from water system by a non-flushing toilet (bio-toilet), and a gray water treatment based on a biological and ecological concept.Sustainable sanitation system also converts the domestic waste to soil conditioners and fertilizers, for farmland use. As one of the case studies, Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in which people actually live using the bio-toilet for the black water treatment and the household wastewater treatment facility for the gray water was introduced. The availability of this system was investigated by analyzing the sawdust used in the bio-toilet and the quality of the effluent in the household wastewater treatment facility. As the result,the water content of the sawdust did not exceed 60% in any of the sampling points and the BOD and COD of the effluent of the household wastewater treatment facility were below 10 and 20 mg/L respectively, due to the low loading. Compared to the pollution load on the water environment created by the conventional system, it was found that the effluent of the house has a lower load than the tertiary treatment and the volume of the water consumption is 75% of the conventional system.

  2. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  3. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  4. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  5. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  8. 21 CFR 111.15 - What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What sanitation requirements apply to your... Plant and Grounds § 111.15 What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds? (a...) Sanitation supervisors. You must assign one or more employees to supervise overall sanitation. Each of...

  9. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  10. Tracking progress towards global drinking water and sanitation targets: A within and among country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Goldstick, Jason; Bartram, Jamie; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-01-15

    Global access to safe drinking water and sanitation has improved dramatically during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in progress between countries and inequality within countries. We assessed countries' temporal patterns in access to drinking water and sanitation using publicly available data. We then classified countries using non-linear modeling techniques as having one of the following trajectories: 100% coverage, linear growth, linear decline, no change, saturation, acceleration, deceleration, negative acceleration, or negative deceleration. We further assessed the degree to which temporal profiles follow a sigmoidal pattern and how these patterns might vary within a given country between rural and urban settings. Among countries with more than 10 data points, between 15% and 38% showed a non-linear trajectory, depending on the indicator. Overall, countries' progress followed a sigmoidal trend, but some countries are making better progress and some worse progress than would be expected. We highlight several countries that are not on track to meet the MDG for water or sanitation, but whose access is accelerating, suggesting better performance during the coming years. Conversely, we also highlight several countries that have made sufficient progress to meet the MDG target, but in which access is decelerating. Patterns were heterogeneous and non-linearity was common. Characterization of these heterogeneous patterns will help policy makers allocate resources more effectively. For example, policy makers can identify countries that could make use of additional resources or might be in need of additional institutional capacity development to properly manage resources; this will be essential to meet the forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation, is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses...

  12. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    were involved in the study; comparison of hygiene and sanitation practices of a ... Qualitative data were also collected in June 2011 to complement the findings of the quantitative data from a purposively selected group of women and men ...

  13. Privatization of Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation.1 Countries across the world are increasingly looking to .... Subsequent international conferences related to freshwater ...

  14. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  16. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  17. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    This study examined the state of sanitation facilities and hygiene behaviour in .... a good network of tarred internal road, regular electricity supply, piped-borne .... condominial sewerage) that have been used with great success in. 3. India and ...

  18. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  19. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  20. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  1. Modelling Water-Sanitation Relationship in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities. This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed. The output of the analysis revealed that 62% representing 1,346, 649, population could not access portable water, while 38% corresponding to 813,199 could fairly access portable water in 1993. However, coverage for safe drinking water between 1993 and 2002 in Edo-State is not significant at 95% confidence interval. In addition, 72% (2,009,566 population did not have any access to sanitation; while 28% (777,210 population had fair supply of sanitation. The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. The results obtained also indicate widespread of water and sanitation related diseased in the State with the recorded highest cases of Schistosomaisis (134, 361:43%; Typhoid (81,981:27%; Cholera (62,191:20% and Diarrhea (29,893:10% respectively. Water harvesting is the major source of water supply in the Edo-state with 69.8% in Etsako West, 65.6% in Esan north East 65.5% in Etsako central while Oredo and Akoko-Edo had 5.9% and 4.3% respectively. Protected water supply from pipe borne water and borehole were noticeable in Oredo with 54.2%, 19.9% and Akoko-Edo with 5.2% and 6.0 respectively. The result on social sector expenditure shows that water and sanitation had least allocation of 18.4%, while Education, Health and

  2. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their

  3. Role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR and the Water Research Commission (WRC) have envisioned a Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre to provide a cutting-edge environment for bringing to light old and new, as well as promising sanitation technologies. The purpose...

  4. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  5. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  6. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  7. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  8. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.

  9. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  10. [Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Immediately after the official recognition of Minamata disease (1956.5.l) a study group at Kumamoto University suggested that Minamata disease was caused by food poisoning. The next year, this suggestion was accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Prior to the decision to apply the Food Sanitation Act (FSA), the local government asked MHW for the application of FSA. Soon after, the chief of the Public Health Bureau replied to the local government that the application of FSA to the Minamata area was impossible. Epidemiological investigations of residents and polluted areas, therefore, were not carried out. Data essential for the screening for exposed residents were unavailable. The criteria for the screening were presented. The Environmental Agency (EA) presented the criteria in the form of notice in 1971, which were revised in 1977. Notwithstanding the clear difference between the original and revised criteria, EA insisted that these two sets of criteria were quite similar. This insistence by EA and the absence of epidemiological data on residents and polluted area resulted in the present confusion about Minamata disease. The application of FSA was stopped by bureaucrats who had no interest in the environmental problems and by several scientists patronized by stakeholders (Chisso, Japanese Association of Chemical Industries, MHW and EA). Stakeholders suppressed science.

  11. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  12. Evolution of udder hygiene. Premilking teat sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Drechsler, P A

    1993-11-01

    Compared with post-milking teat dipping, predipping is in its infancy. Few controlled studies have been published on premilking teat disinfection/sanitation. Experimental challenge procedures resulted in consistent reductions for predipping compared with no udder preparation and conventional udder preparation, indicating a potential for effectiveness. Challenge studies that included the treatments of predip only and postdip only indicated that interactions during the milking process require elucidation. Positive benefits have been observed for predipping in field trials among some herds, but wide variation has been observed between herds in all field trial evaluations. Parity, DIM, and season of the year had major interactions on efficacy of predipping in Pankey et al's 1987 report; other trials have been of shorter duration and precluded analysis of these interactions. Interactions among these variables influenced incidence of mastitis by environmental pathogens. The length of time after milking before teats are contaminated probably is a major influence on predip efficacy. Predipping has reduced incidence of new IMIs and new cases of clinical mastitis. Unfortunately, certain factors negated these positive effects. These factors need to be defined. Producers should monitor effects of predipping to determine whether the investment in product and time has an economic return under the conditions of their dairy.

  13. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  15. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  16. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  17. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  18. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  19. Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan L; McAtee, Shannon; Bryan, Patricia E; Jeun, Rebecca; Ward, Tabitha; Kraus, Jacob; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Flowers, Catherine C; Mejia, Rojelio

    2017-09-05

    Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays . We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus, four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica. Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/µL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus. Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.

  20. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  1. Utilizing Earth Observations for Reaching Sustainable Development Goals in Water, Sanitation and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Nusrat, F.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Alam, M.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals call for universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, improvement of water quality, and adequate and equitable sanitation for all, with special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations (Goal 6). In addition, the world community also aims to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other infectious diseases (Goal 3). Water and sanitation-related diseases remain the leading causes of death in children under five, mostly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, due to diarrheal diseases linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise substantially. More than 80 per cent of wastewater resulting from human activities is also discharged into rivers or sea without any treatment and poor water quality controls. As a result, around 1.8 billion people globally are still forced to use a source of drinking water that is fecally contaminated. Earth observation techniques provide the most effective and encompassing tool to monitor both regional and local scale changes in water quality and quantity, impacts of droughts and flooding, and water resources vulnerabilities in delta regions around the globe. University of Rhode Island, along with partners in the US and Bangladesh, is using satellite remote sensing datasets and earth observation techniques to develop a series of tools for surveillance, analysis and decision support for various government, academic, and non-government stakeholder organizations in South-Asia to achieve sustainable development goals in 1) providing safe water and sanitation access in vulnerable regions through safe water resources mapping, 2) providing increasing access to medicine and vaccines through estimation of disease burden and

  2. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry.

  3. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  4. Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cronin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors.

  5. Sustainable design of sanitation system based on material and value flow analysis for urban slum in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken USHIJIMA; Mitsuteru IRIE; Neni SINTAWARDANI; Jovita TRIASTUTI; Umi HAMIDAH; Tadaharu ISHIKAWA; Naoyuki FUNAMIZU

    2013-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) and value flow analysis (VFA) were applied to the sanitation system in an urban slum in Indonesia. Based on the results of the MFA and VFA, garbage and excreta disposal costs were evaluated to be 0.7% and 1.1%, respectively, of per capita income. Such value flows seem reasonable in light of the recognized affordability to pay (ATP) standard. However, current excreta disposal methods create negative impacts on downstream populations. Because such disadvantages do not go back to disposers, but passed to downstream, the current value flow structure does not motivate individual toilet users to install treatment facility. Based on current material and value flow structures, a resource recycling sanitation system scenario was examined. Based on VFA, an affordable initial cost for such a system was calculated; this was found to be comparable in price to a cheaper composting toilet that is currently available in the market.

  6. Preventing SQL Injection through Automatic Query Sanitization with ASSIST

    CERN Document Server

    Mui, Raymond; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.3

    2010-01-01

    Web applications are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. Many of our activities are dependent on the functionality and security of these applications. As the scale of these applications grows, injection vulnerabilities such as SQL injection are major security challenges for developers today. This paper presents the technique of automatic query sanitization to automatically remove SQL injection vulnerabilities in code. In our technique, a combination of static analysis and program transformation are used to automatically instrument web applications with sanitization code. We have implemented this technique in a tool named ASSIST (Automatic and Static SQL Injection Sanitization Tool) for protecting Java-based web applications. Our experimental evaluation showed that our technique is effective against SQL injection vulnerabilities and has a low overhead.

  7. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  8. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  9. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  10. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  11. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  12. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  13. OVERCOMING POVERTY TRAP: THE CASE OF WATER & SANITATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Leilani Masniarita Pohan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming Poverty Trap : The Case of  Water & Sanitation in Indonesia. Poverty trap is a cycle in which poor individuals exhibit low health quality due to malnutrition and limited access to health related facilities. Poor health causes low productivity which eventually cycles back to low income. Indonesia significantly reduced poverty from 15.6% in 1990 to 3.3% in 2010. However, this achievement is not conveyed equally across regions. Using data form RAND Corporation, estimations showed that access to sanitation and clean water play a crucial role in improving one’s health quality.   Keywords: poverty trap, productivity, income, health facility.

  14. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cumming

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015 outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  15. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  16. Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? An Analysis of Global Progress on Community- and Household-Level Access to Safe Water and Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the “sanitation deficit” is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post–2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both. PMID:25502659

  17. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  18. What works in water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries with EWB-USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Melissa J

    2016-03-01

    sanitation projects by focusing on sustainable engineering solutions, community-education, capacity building, and appropriate technologies and local resources.

  19. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  20. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  1. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  2. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  3. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge... of biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent discharges into the sanctuary. DATES:...

  4. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms...

  5. The human right to water and sanitation: reflections on making the system effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on water has been more successful than the MDG on sanitation. Does this have implications for the human right to sanitation? This chapter argues that there are key differences between access to water and sanitation in terms of the legal content of both, the physi

  6. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  7. Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands can be both a blessing and a curse. They are beneficial sources of safe water and nutrition and places from which humans derive their livelihoods. At the same time, wetlands are known to be sources of disease-causing microorganisms and invertebrates that can threaten human health. Safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene (WASH) are crucial preconditions for the prevention of disease transmission. And of special importance for people living in wetlands, depending on and being exposed to them. WASH should be prioritized especially in those wetlands that are subject to intensive use, that have a poor sanitation infrastructure, and which at the same time only provide limited water resources. However, despite this critical importance, WASH in wetlands is not well characterized in literature. This study therefore aimed at providing insights into the water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and behavioural determinants of households in wetlands by presenting the case of a rural wetland in East Africa. The mixed method approach included a broad set of empirical data collected during a household survey (n=400), an observational WASH assessment (n=397) and in-depth interviews (n=20) conducted from January to March 2015 in Ewaso Narok Swamp in Kenya. Different user groups of the wetland were targeted. The study in Ewaso Narok Swamp showed that wetland users' water supply and storage, sanitation and personal hygiene conditions were inadequate for large parts of the community and significantly differed between groups. Whereas the WASH conditions of people working in the service sector were rather positive, for pastoralists, they were correspondingly negative. The WASH behaviour was also perceived to be inadequate influenced by a variety of determining factors. The observational index as applied in this study indicated to be a valuable, rapid and efficient tool for assessing domestic WASH and for detecting differences between different groups in wetlands. Combined

  8. Exploring Community Sanitation Preferences for Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    designed on the premise that human excreta is waste and only suitable for ... contamination and keeps nutrients out of the agro-ecological cycle ... optimise management of nutrients and water resources (Langergraber & ..... health, hygiene and waste recycling. Thus, with careful discussions with the community leaders and.

  9. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  10. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    of community initiated actions. Based on these findings, we suggest that future hygiene promotion strategies aim for a closer match between community priorities and government hygiene policies, e.g. by allowing for a larger diversity of low-cost sanitation solutions. Scaling up participatory community...

  11. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Prevention. Appendix A Size/Cost Factors Used to Determine Inspection Fees Impacts Approximate Vessel size... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  12. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Prevention. Appendix A ] Size/Cost Factor Approximate cost per GRT Vessel size GRT \\1\\ (in U.S. dollars... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  13. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  14. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was ... areas around major cities in developing countries. ... microbial analysis (Luiza et al, 2015). Health .... handling food remains a key cost effective and .... and solid waste systems are considered to be .... municipal sanitation planning system has not.

  15. Seminar on Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, unit two of the curriculum guide is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Four major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, providing sanitary conditions in food service establishments, discusses safe use and storage of cleaning…

  16. Seminar On Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, the conceptual outline is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Two major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, the effect of sanitary practices on the financial profits of food service, focuses on: (1) service and quality to…

  17. Effect of residual sanitizers on Salmonella enterica biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica are a diverse group of bacteria that represent a serious risk to public health. Bacterial attachment on food and contact surfaces can lead to biofilm formation, and once in this state, bacteria are more resistant to sanitization and may serve as a continuous contam...

  18. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  19. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility o

  20. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  1. 7 CFR 58.146 - Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... surfaces shall be subjected to an effective sanitizing treatment prior to use, except where dry cleaning is... above the floor in clean, dry locations and in a self draining position on racks constructed of... adjustment and condition of mechanical parts. (c) Milk transport tanks. A covered or enclosed wash dock and...

  2. Sustainable Living in Africa: Case of Water, Sanitation, Air Pollution and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Omole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study reviewed developmental challenges confronting African countries with specific reference to the availability of potable water, sanitation, energy, water and ambient air. It showed the conflict between the need to exploit environmental capital in order to keep up with the pace of human development activities and the need to utilize resources sustainably. Hitherto, the cost of this development has been at the expense of public health and cleaner environment. The outcome demonstrates the need for a change of approach in the way and manner that environmental resources are exploited for developmental purposes. Two concepts for addressing these problems were discussed. These are the “soft path” approach and the trialog model. The former places high priority on the proper use and management of existing infrastructure or resources rather than acquisition or exploitation of more infrastructure or resources. The latter concept addresses the principle of resource governance through the application of an understanding of the complex relationship between the main stakeholders—government, science, and society. Case studies on the practicality of these concepts were also highlighted and discussed.

  3. Material flow analysis as a tool for sustainable sanitation planning in developing countries: case study of Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzinger, F; Kröger, K; Otterpohl, R

    2009-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis is a method that can be used to assess sanitation systems with regard to their environmental impacts. Modelling water and nutrients flows of the urban water, wastewater and waste system can highlight risks for environmental pollution and can help evaluating the potential for linking sanitation with resource recovery and agricultural production. This study presents the results of an analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus flows of Arba Minch town in South Ethiopia. The current situation is modelled and possible scenarios for upgrading the town's sanitation system are assessed. Two different scenarios for nutrient recovery are analysed. Scenario one includes co-composting municipal organic waste with faecal sludge from pit latrines and septic tanks as well as the use of compost in agriculture. The second scenario based on urine-diversion toilets includes application of urine as fertiliser and composting of faecal matter. In order to allow for variations in the rate of adoption, the model can simulate varying degrees of technology implementation. Thus, the impact of a step-wise or successive approach can be illustrated. The results show that significant amounts of plant nutrients can be provided by both options, co-composting and urine diversion.

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  5. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  6. Book review, Sanità animale, Salvatore Montinaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un manuale strutturato per fornire un quadro d'insieme della materia e chiarire il metodo logico con il quale trovare i riferimenti scientifici e normativi necessari per affrontare il lavoro di tutti i giorni: così viene presentato Sanità animale, un volume che rispetto ai pochi testi analoghi sul mercato, si distingue per l'utilizzo parco di stralci normativi, comunque sistematicamente citati, in modo da renderne agevole la consultazione. L'attenzione maggiore è spostata verso l'analisi scientifica e normativa delle problematiche affrontate, delle peculiarità delle singole malattie e dei principi d'intervento sul campo. Il medico veterinario Salvatore Montinaro, forte dell'esperienza maturata in diverse amministrazioni (Regione, ASL, IZS riesce nell'intento di descrivere in maniera semplice, ma completa e dettagliata, il funzionamento della sanità animale e della lotta alle malattie diffusive animali. Come esplicita nell'introduzione del capitolo Norme Veterinarie e SSN: "Non si cercherà in questa sede di ripercorrere la storia della veterinaria pubblica, dal codice di Hammurabi in poi: ci si limiterà piuttosto a uno sguardo retrospettivo nella storia recente, finalizzato a identificare in modo sistematico, partendo dal generale per arrivare al particolare, i principali punti di riferimento che caratterizzano il quadro normativo della sanità pubblica veterinaria". Anche per questo il manuale è indirizzato soprattutto a coloro che già lavorano, o che intendono lavorare, nei servizi veterinari di sanità animale delle Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ponendosi come un testo "professionale" e un sussidio tecnico da avere a portata di mano. Salvatore Montinaro, classe 1967, svolge la sua attività professionale come dirigente del servizio veterinario di sanità animale della ASL di Nuoro, inoltre, fa parte del gruppo di esperti comunitari del TAIEX ed è consulente tecnico della FAO.

  7. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  8. Water and sanitation in schools: a systematic review of the health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children's health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  9. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  10. Greenlandic water and sanitation-a context oriented analysis of system challenges towards local sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2017-08-28

    Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms of organization. Against this background, the article discusses the challenges facing Greenland's self-rule in relation to further develop the existing water and wastewater systems so that they can contribute to the sustainable development of Greenland. The article reviews the historical development of the water supply and wastewater system. This leads to an analysis of the sectorisation, which in recent decades has reorganized the Greenlandic infrastructures, and of how this process is influencing local sustainable development. The article discusses the socio-economic and human impacts and points to the need for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development.

  11. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  12. Approaches to promote handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle income countries: a mixed method systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Hannes, Karin; Govender, Tashlin; Naidoo, Selvan; Avau, Bert; Vande Veegaete, Axel; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lutje, Vittoria; Cargo, Margaret; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Young, Taryn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical to the survival of people and the planet. The Sustainable Development Goal 6 (i.e. ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’) addresses the issues relating to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. It is unclear which Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) promotional approach is the most effective for sanitation and hygiene behaviour change, and other outcomes le...

  13. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  14. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  15. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  16. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  17. Use of propolis in the sanitization of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-07-09

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  18. Improving Sanitation Project Management for Unsewered Rural Communities in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.

  19. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  20. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

  1. Designing interactive technology for crowd experiences - beyond sanitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerasawmy, Rune

    2014-01-01

    experience within interaction design. This dissertation introduces an understanding of crowd experience as a distinct type of social experiences driven by non-rational behavior. This conceptual understanding is established in the intersection between sociological crowd theory and a pragmatist perspective...... sanitization. The domain of my experimental design inquiries is at sporting events. From extensive theoretical studies and my empirical explorations I present a perspective on modern and professionalized sporting events as sanitized, where the spectator experiences and technology are being produced, controlled......This dissertation concerns the topic on designing interactive technology for crowd expe- riences. It takes the outset in the experience-oriented design approach within interaction design, exploring the research question how can we conceptually understand and design interactive technology for crowd...

  2. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health. PMID:25007823

  3. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their he

  4. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their he

  5. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  6. Peracetic acid products expand sanitizing, organic water treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Jokumsen, Alfred; Larsen, Villy J.; Henriksen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. PAA is among the few disinfectants approved for organic aquaculture

  7. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Xesús Feás; Lazaro Pacheco; Antonio Iglesias; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all case...

  8. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  9. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  10. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Eliandra M; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves' stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves.

  11. Biosurfactant produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 can increase the adherence and resistance to sanitizers on lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandra Mirlei Rossi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on the adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on the resistance to sanitizers. First, S. Enteritidis SE86 was inoculated on lettuce leaves in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, S. Enteritidis SE86 was inoculated on lettuce leaves, with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 hours (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15% and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves stomata in the presence of biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to the adherence and increased the resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves.

  12. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  13. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections.

  14. The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dawn L.; Kahawita, Tanya M.; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks though evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera. Results The review yielded eighteen studies and of the five studies reporting on health impact, four reported outcomes associated with water treatment at the point of use, and one with the provision of improved water and sanitation infrastructure. Furthermore, whilst the reporting of function and use of interventions has become more common in recent publications, the quality of studies remains low. The majority of papers (>60%) described water quality interventions, with those at the water source focussing on ineffective chlorination of wells, and the remaining being applied at the point of use. Interventions such as filtration, solar disinfection and distribution of chlorine products were implemented but their limitations regarding the need for adherence and correct use were not fully considered. Hand washing and hygiene interventions address several transmission routes but only 22% of the studies attempted to evaluate them and mainly focussed on improving knowledge and uptake of messages but not necessarily translating this into safer practices. The use and maintenance of safe water storage containers was only evaluated once, under-estimating the considerable potential for contamination between collection and use. This problem was confirmed in another study evaluating methods of container disinfection. One study investigated uptake of household disinfection kits which were accepted by the target population. A single study in an endemic setting compared a combination of interventions to improve water and sanitation infrastructure, and

  15. The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn L Taylor

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks though evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera.The review yielded eighteen studies and of the five studies reporting on health impact, four reported outcomes associated with water treatment at the point of use, and one with the provision of improved water and sanitation infrastructure. Furthermore, whilst the reporting of function and use of interventions has become more common in recent publications, the quality of studies remains low. The majority of papers (>60% described water quality interventions, with those at the water source focussing on ineffective chlorination of wells, and the remaining being applied at the point of use. Interventions such as filtration, solar disinfection and distribution of chlorine products were implemented but their limitations regarding the need for adherence and correct use were not fully considered. Hand washing and hygiene interventions address several transmission routes but only 22% of the studies attempted to evaluate them and mainly focussed on improving knowledge and uptake of messages but not necessarily translating this into safer practices. The use and maintenance of safe water storage containers was only evaluated once, under-estimating the considerable potential for contamination between collection and use. This problem was confirmed in another study evaluating methods of container disinfection. One study investigated uptake of household disinfection kits which were accepted by the target population. A single study in an endemic setting compared a combination of interventions to improve water and sanitation infrastructure, and the resulting

  16. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Chirjiv K., E-mail: chirjiv@gmail.com; Apul, Defne S., E-mail: defne.apul@utoledo.edu

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. • Many different composting toilet designs are available. • Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. • There are many barriers to composting toilets. • Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In today’s flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50–60%), temperature (40–65 °C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25–35), pH (5.5–8.0), and porosity (35–50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature–time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and

  17. Impact of Rainfall on Diarrheal Disease Risk Associated with Unimproved Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani,Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E.; Cevallos,William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved san...

  18. Impact Evaluation of a Large-scale Rural Sanitation Project in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Lisa; Shah, Manisha; Olivia, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sanitation and poor hygiene behavior cause a tremendous disease burden among the poor. This paper evaluates the impact of the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project in Indonesia, where about 11 percent of children have diarrhea in any two-week period and more than 33,000 children die each year from diarrhea. The evaluation utilizes a randomized controlled trial but is un...

  19. Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Scott; Neskoski, Melissa; Spindler, Xanthe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2017-03-06

    Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

  20. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC.

  1. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isola...

  2. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhaman Mulchand Jain; Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa; Arun Suresh Dodamani; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  3. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Chirjiv K; Apul, Defne S

    2014-02-01

    In today's flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50-60%), temperature (40-65°C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25-35), pH (5.5-8.0), and porosity (35-50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature-time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  4. Water-sanitation-hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; de Palencia, Alejandro Jiménez-Fernández; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-10-01

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District-Kenya-; Kibondo District-Tanzania-; and Municipality of Manhiça-Mozambique-) are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  6. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esrey, S A; Potash, J B; Roberts, L; Shiff, C

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma...

  7. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  8. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  9. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  10. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊贵琍; 余涛

    2012-01-01

    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  11. Ecological Sanitation in Morocco Promotion of the Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilets-Case of Dayet Ifrah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Abarghaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of people in rural areas in Morocco don’t have adequate systems of collection, evacuation and transport of black and gray water. They simply defecate in nature. There is a huge demand, which cannot possibly be met by conventional sanitation systems due to the enormous costs of the pipe network, lack of water and serious environmental drawbacks in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional wastewater systems. For this reason, we have thought to promote ecological sanitation, or “ecosan“ for short, that recognizes human excreta and water from households not as a waste but as resources that can be recovered, treated where necessary and safely used again. Ecosan is a philosophy which houses a multitude of different technologies applied in ecological sanitation projects such as Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDT. Approach: The scope of the study was to highlight the ecosan promotion strategies and policies for its adoption by the future ecosan users in Morocco and to show that the development of ecosan pilot systems adapted to the sociocultural context of Morocco is possible and can be used as model for rural areas. Ecosan systems studied had been implemented in a small rural area in Morocco called “Dayet Ifrah”. But, it’s necessary at the beginning to sensitize people in Dayet Ifrah and to convince to adopt and accept urine diversion dehydration toilets. Marketing has been more successful than anything else in changing the behavior of people when they can see direct personal benefits. Choosing a (social marketing approach means that the attractiveness of the product is one important factor. That was what happened in 2009. Results: After this phase of sensitizing, results reveal that the households were convinced of the benefits these infrastructures afford them. Ecosan reduces the health risks related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste, prevents the pollution of surface and

  12. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  13. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  14. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-01

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.  Created: 10/1/2006 by Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service (CCHIS), National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 1/7/2009.

  15. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Rheingans, Richard; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies. PMID:28067812

  16. Justicia y racionamiento sanitario en el Plan AUGE: dilemas bioéticos asociados a la distribución de recursos escasos Justiça e fundamentação sanitária no Plano AUGE: dilemas bioéticos associados à distribuição de recursos escassos Justice and health care rationing in AUGE: bioethical dilemmas associated to the distribution of scarce resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga Fajuri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los criterios de racionamiento en materia sanitaria establecidos por el Plan AUGE en Chile, se fundan principalmente en máximas de eficiencia que son contrarias a los principios de equidad que debieran sustentar las políticas sanitarias de las sociedades democráticas. Para la aplicación y justificación de las técnicas de racionamiento sanitario se requiere no sólo una reflexión desde la ciencia médica y la economía de la salud, sino que también desde la filosofía moral y la bioética. El estudio de las teorías de la justicia distributiva sanitaria permite valorar críticamente los criterios de racionamiento sanitarios utilizados por las Guías Clínicas de cada una de las patologías GES/AUGE que resultan contrarios al principio de equidad.Os critérios de fundamentação em matéria sanitária estabelecidos pelo Plano AUGE, no Chile, se fundam, principalmente, em máximas de eficiência que são contrárias aos princípios de equidade que deveriam sustentar as políticas sanitárias ds sociedades democráticas. Para a aplicação e justificação das técnicas de racionamento sanitário se requer não só uma reflexão a partir da ciência médica e da economia da saúde, mas, também, a partir da filosofia moral e da bioética. O estudo das teorias da justiça distributiva sanitária permite valorar criticamente os critérios de racionamento sanitário utilizados pelas Guias Clínicas de cada uma das patologias GES/AUGE que resultam contrários ao princípio da equidade.Rationing criteria in health care establish by AUGE, in Chile, are based, mainly, in maximum efficiency, contrary to the equity principle, which should sustain health care policies in democratic societies. For the application and justification of health care rationing techniques is required not only a medical science and health care economy reflection, but a moral philosophy and bioethical reflection as well. The study of health care distributive justice theories

  17. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  18. The true costs of participatory sanitation: Evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Saywell, Darren; Shields, Katherine F; Kolsky, Pete; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behavior-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34-$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15-$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93-$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35-$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behavior-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behavior-change programs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A caracterização do risco sanitário nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rogério Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da caracterização do risco sanitário (avaliação e gerenciamento de risco nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária, a partir de um estudo de caso relativo ao controle sanitário de portos, aeroportos e fronteiras. A análise de decisões tomadas no âmbito de processos sanitários permitiu evidenciar que o grau de risco é superficialmente tratado neles, inferindo-se que a caracterização do risco nos referidos processos aproxima-se mais da aplicação do senso comum do que de uma abordagem científica.

  20. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: differentiating the implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the

  1. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment.

  2. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H.G.; Spiller, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can tak

  3. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  4. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  5. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  6. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  7. Profile of Knowledge Management, Basic Sanitation and Attitudes towards Clean and Health Community in Kupang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmah; Ardi, Muhammad; Yahya, Mohamad; Upa, Muhamad D. Pua; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2017-01-01

    The objective of research is to describe the knowledge and attitude of basic sanitation management community in Kupang City. This type of research is a survey research using quantitative approach. Data were collected by using the instrument in the form of test knowledge of basic sanitation management and attitude questionnaire. The data was then…

  8. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray...

  9. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  10. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or...

  11. 36 CFR 3.13 - What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? 3.13 Section 3.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? (a) Discharging sewage from any vessel,...

  12. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  13. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  14. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  15. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are tenabl

  16. Health, hygiene and appropriate sanitation: experiences and perceptions of the urban poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.; Fawcett, B.; Mannan, F.

    2011-01-01

    “Don’t teach us what is sanitation and hygiene.” This quote from Maqbul, a middle-aged male resident in Modher Bosti, a slum in Dhaka city, summed up the frustration of many people living in urban poverty to ongoing sanitation and hygiene programmes. In the light of their experiences, such programme

  17. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  18. Characterization of contaminants from a sanitized milk processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cleto

    Full Text Available Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank--transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  19. Automated Client-side Sanitizer for Code Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar K. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are useful for various online services. These web applications are becoming ubiquitous in our daily lives. They are used for multiple purposes such as e-commerce, financial services, emails, healthcare services and many other captious services. But the presence of vulnerabilities in the web application may become a serious cause for the security of the web application. A web application may contain different types of vulnerabilities. Cross-site scripting is one of the type of code injection attacks. According to OWASP TOP 10 vulnerability report, Cross-site Scripting (XSS is among top 5 vulnerabilities. So this research work aims to implement an effective solution for the prevention of cross- site scripting vulnerabilities. In this paper, we implemented a novel client-side XSS sanitizer that prevents web applications from XSS attacks. Our sanitizer is able to detect cross-site scripting vulnerabilities at the client-side. It strengthens web browser, because modern web browser do not provide any specific notification, alert or indication of security holes or vulnerabilities and their presence in the web application.

  20. Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshat Tussupova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets. As hardly any information exists about sanitation in rural Kazakhstan, the study essentially focuses on water services. The results show that 65% of rural dwellers want to connect and pay for the piped water supply. At the same time, about 80% have toilets outside their home. Consequently, the water program aiming at providing 80% of rural people with access to tap water from a centralized piped system will not be possible. However, by carefully managing the existing water supply and sanitation system in joint collaboration with the local users, significant progress can be made. The present results show the important first steps that need to be taken in this direction.

  1. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  2. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  3. Expanding the Frontiers of Microfinance in the Service of the Poor: Experiment with Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Afrane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance application in water and sanitation is a burgeoning concept. For some Microfinance Institutions (MFIs, the concept and its viability appear nebulous since there is inadequate information to enable them create effective portfolios for that. This paper provides a clear case of extending microfinance to water and sanitation businesses. It adopted diverse approaches to collect data from 60 landlords and tenants as well as a number of potential and existing indigenous entrepreneurs in the water and sanitation in Nima, a low income slum area in Accra, Ghana. The study found that not only does microfinance investment in water and sanitation enhance access to, and demand for water and improved sanitation, but also create business opportunities for both MFIs and individual entrepreneurs.

  4. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  5. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  6. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Tsinda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  7. Current perspectives in contaminant hydrology and water resources sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hygiene, agriculture, and industry needs. Improved resource monitoring and better understanding of the anthropogenic threats to freshwater environments are critical to efficient management of freshwater resources and ultimately to the survival and quality of life of the global human population. This book helps address the need for improved freshwater resource monitoring and threat assessment by presenting current reviews and case studies focused on the fate and transport of contaminants in the environment and on the sustainability of groundwater and surface-water resources around the world. It is intended for students and professionals working in hydrology and water resources management.

  8. Ecological sanitation products reuse for agriculture in Sahel: effects on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Sawadogo, B.; Sou/Dakoure, M.; Ouedraogo, D. M. S.; Hijikata, N.; Yacouba, H.; Bonzi, M.; Coulibaly, L.

    2015-03-01

    The sanitary products (i.e toilet compost, urine, and greywater) from resource oriented sanitation are a low-cost alternative to chemical fertilizers and irrigation water for poor communities in dry areas. However, if these products are not managed carefully, increased soil salinity and sodium accumulation could occur. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these products at different combinations on the properties of cultivated soil and on okra plant productivity. The treatments were: (1) fresh dam water (FDW) as a negative control, (2) FDW plus chemical fertilizer (i.e.NPK) (FDW + NPK) as a positive control, (3) treated greywater (TGW), (4) FDW plus Urine/Toilet Compost (UTC) (FDW + UTC), (5) TGW + UTC, (6) TGW + NPK. Effects on okra productivity were assessed by measuring the fresh fruit yield whereas effects on soil were evaluated through measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total organic carbon (TOC) at various depths. Results showed that the yields obtained with TGW (0.71 t ha-1) and TGW + UTC (0.67 t ha-1) were significantly higher than the yields obtained with the positive control FDW + NPK (0.22 t ha-1) meaning that the fertilizer value of the sanitary products was higher than that of chemical fertilizer. Concerning effects on soil, SAR values increased significantly in plots treated by TGW (8.86 ± 1.52) and TGW + UTC (10.55 ± 1.85) compared to plots fertilized with FDW (5.61 ± 1.45) and FDW + NPK (2.71 ± 0.67). The TOC of plots treated with TGW + UTC (6.09 ± 0.99 g kg-1) was significantly higher than those of FDW + NPK (4.46 ± 0.22 g kg-1). Combined sanitary products from resource oriented sanitation can be reused as a nutrient source and water for food production, provided that soil salinity is monitored and the soil has high drainage capacity.

  9. The water-energy relationship: energy management on water supply systems of Brazil's sanitation companies; A relacao entre agua e energia: gestao energetica nos sistemas de abastecimento de agua das companhias de saneamento basico do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Gustavo Nikolaus Pinto de

    2010-03-15

    Energy and water resources are related in various ways, among which is the use of electric power in Water Supply Systems (WSS). This dissertation identifies actions that can be carried out under the adoption of energy management systems by sanitation companies in order to better use energy resources and, therefore, water resources. The importance of the input electric power to the WSS is presented, as well as the inefficiency of its use mainly due to losses in distribution networks, inappropriate operational routine and inadequate equipment. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of possible actions for energy management in the WSS. The first action was the energy performance indicators use in hypothetical WSS, and the second, the use of EPANET 2.0 simulation software to verify the feasibility of the frequency converter equipment in the water network distribution of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro's Environmental Sanitation Centre. (author)

  10. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  11. 50 CFR 260.103 - Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. 260.103 Section 260.103 Wildlife and Fisheries... Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. (a) All..., choppers, and containers which fail to meet appropriate and adequate sanitation requirements will...

  12. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms.

  13. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  14. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  15. Vigilância Sanitária: uma proposta de análise dos contextos locais Sanitary Surveillance: a proposal for analyzing local environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Franke Piovesan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta pesquisa realizada em oito municípios do Estado da Paraíba, com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre os serviços de Vigilância Sanitária e os contextos sanitário, epidemiológico, político, social e econômico de seus territórios. O estudo, concluído em julho de 2003, foi desenvolvido pela Assessoria de Descentralização da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA e integra o Projeto Redevisa (Rede Descentralizada de Vigilância Sanitária, cuja proposta incluía a identificação de prioridades sanitárias e epidemiológicas locais e regionais para o repasse de recursos financeiros pela ANVISA. A pesquisa envolveu a visita aos municípios para a coleta de dados e informações, e seus resultados foram analisados à luz de forças restritivas e impulsoras para o desempenho dos Serviços de Vigilância Sanitária sob os aspectos relacionados à estrutura, processos de trabalho, gestão, contexto político e recursos financeiros. O estudo constatou a deficiente articulação entre o trabalho das Vigilâncias pesquisadas e o espaço sobre o qual atuam, tendo identificado fatores restritivos importantes para a ação de controle sanitário local. Neste artigo são expostas as idéias norteadoras da pesquisa, os resultados da análise, bem como o método proposto de reconhecimento e sistematização das informações indispensáveis para o planejamento em Vigilância Sanitária.This paper presents the results of a study carried out in eight municipalities of the state of Paraíba with the objective of analyzing the relationship between local services and the sanitary, epidemiological, political, social and economic contexts of these territories. The study, completed in July 2003, was developed by the Advisory Office for Decentralization of Sanitary Surveillance Actions from the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, and integrates the Redevisa Project (Sanitary Surveillance Decentralized Networking

  16. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  17. A SURVEY ON ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND HYGENE INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available In a thousands beds general hospital affiliated to the Tehran University, long-standing infestations of insects such as cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes and rat were found as a result of vicious circles and substandard clearing which are due to not well trained and drilled personnel of contracting agency, out of work condition of two incinerators, quasti-administrative aspects of their program on hospital sanitation and in controlling of hospital infection. Out of 37 samples collected for bacteriological examination, 21, eases of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were isolated and detected. The intensity of illumination at two operation rooms were substandard level, while the, sound level were exceed the recommended standard.

  18. USE OF GASEOUS OZONE FOR SANITATION COLD ROOM STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Cavalcante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the ozone application for sanitation of a cold room used to store Minas Frescal cheese during 120 days. The microbiological quality of the air, the room walls and the room door were evaluated during 60 days with and with no addition of ozone at 0,03 mg.L-1. The air sedimentation technique was applied for the evaluation of the air quality (aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and yeasts and moulds and the swab technique was used for the evaluation of internal surface counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms. Reductions of 0.81 and 1.01 log cycles in the room air were caused by air ozonation. Additionally, significant decimal reductions around 0.50 log were observed in the walls and door swabs of the cold room. Therefore, ozone gas has improved microbiological quality of the surfaces and the air of cold room. This suggests ozone as an alternative method for disinfection of rooms.

  19. Why gender matters in the solution towards safe sanitation? Reflections from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Das, Madhumita

    2016-12-01

    While the topic of women and water, sanitation and hygiene is a widely accepted concern among academics and activists, it continues to be an issue in developing countries with serious consequences. Based on a qualitative research conducted in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, the paper affirms that sanitation issues for women and girls are compounded by inequitable gender norms that put them at greater risk of experiencing violence and multiple health vulnerabilities. Women, despite having a high demand for safe toilet facilities, continue to practise unsafe sanitation. The findings highlight the role of three structural constraints as the key factors influencing toilet construction and use: poverty, inadequate sanitation policy and its implementation and gender-based power dynamics at the household level. The paper concludes by emphasising the relevance of engendering sanitation programmes and policies by involving women and girls in the planning process to ensure that dignified and gender-sensitive sanitation solutions are developed. The paper also stresses the need to have measures for strengthening and effectively implementing a sanitation policy for the poor and for programmes to work with both men and women to address gender power relations which influence toilet adoption and use.

  20. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2016-12-05

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch.

  1. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  2. Epidemic cholera in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2009: the importance of sanitation and soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, Abdirahman Sheikh; Ahmed, Jamal A; Nyoka, Raymond; Auko, Erick; Kahi, Vincet; Ndirangu, James; Nguhi, Margaret; Burton, John Wagacha; Muhindo, Bosco Z; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B

    2012-03-12

    Cholera remains a major public health problem that causes substantial morbidity and mortality in displaced populations due to inadequate or unprotected water supplies, poor sanitation and hygiene, overcrowding, and limited resources. A cholera outbreak with 224 cases and four deaths occurred in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya from September to December 2009. We conducted a case-control study to characterize the epidemiology of the outbreak. Cases were identified by reviewing the hospital registry for patients meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition for cholera. For each case a matched control was selected. A questionnaire focusing on potential risk factors was administered to cases and controls. From 18 September to 15 December 2009, a total of 224 cases were identified and were hospitalised at Kakuma IRC hospital.  Three refugees and one Kenyan national died of cholera. V. cholerae O1, serotype Inaba was isolated in 44 (42%) out of 104 stool specimens collected. A total of 93 cases and 93 matched controls were enrolled in the study. In a multivariate model, washing hands with soap was protective against cholera (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.25[0.09-0.71]; p soap, along with education on hand hygiene and cleaning water storage containers, may be an affordable intervention to prevent cholera.

  3. A 'Knowledge Ecologies' Analysis of Co-designing Water and Sanitation Services in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Dena; Sofoulis, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities. Team members were later interviewed about their experiences. Project processes are discussed using a 'Knowledge Ecology' framework, which applies principles of ecosystems analysis to knowledge ecologies, identifying the knowledge equivalents of 'biotic' and 'abiotic' factors and looking at their various interactions. In a positivist 'knowledge integration' perspective, different knowledges are like Lego blocks that combine with other 'data sets' to create a unified structure. The knowledge ecology framework highlights how interactions between different knowledges and knowledge practitioners ('biotic factors') are shaped by contextual ('abiotic') factors: the conditions of knowledge production, the research policy and funding climate, the distribution of research resources, and differential access to enabling infrastructures (networks, facilities). This case study highlights the importance of efforts to negotiate between different knowledge frameworks, including by strategic use of language and precepts that help translate social research into technical design outcomes that are grounded in social reality.

  4. SWOT analysis of total sanitation campaign in Yavatmal district of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC in the Yavatmal district of Maharashtra. Methodology: Data was collected in December 2006 through interviews with stakeholders, house-to-house surveys, focus group discussions, and transect walks. Information in each category was finalized in a meeting after brainstorming and discussion with the TSC cell members. Results: The strengths of the campaign were innovations in Information Education and Communication, motivation through incentives, competitive spirit, active participation and partnerships, involvement of women, and universal coverage. The main weaknesses of the program were the absence of Rural Sanitary Marts/Production Centers, poor maintenance of Women Sanitary Complexes, lack of facilities for monitoring/ follow-up and a temporary focus of the campaign approach. There is an opportunity to tap additional resources, learn from other experiences, and institute back-up agencies to support and guide the community in the post-TSC phase. A change in administration and local leadership and loss of priority and interest needed to sustain the momentum while scaling up the interventions are possible threats for the program.

  5. SWOT Analysis of Total Sanitation Campaign in Yavatmal District of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta; Shirke, Avinash; Jagtap, Minal

    2008-10-01

    To study the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in the Yavatmal district of Maharashtra. Data was collected in December 2006 through interviews with stakeholders, house-to-house surveys, focus group discussions, and transect walks. Information in each category was finalized in a meeting after brainstorming and discussion with the TSC cell members. The strengths of the campaign were innovations in Information Education and Communication, motivation through incentives, competitive spirit, active participation and partnerships, involvement of women, and universal coverage. The main weaknesses of the program were the absence of Rural Sanitary Marts/Production Centers, poor maintenance of Women Sanitary Complexes, lack of facilities for monitoring/ follow-up and a temporary focus of the campaign approach. There is an opportunity to tap additional resources, learn from other experiences, and institute back-up agencies to support and guide the community in the post-TSC phase. A change in administration and local leadership and loss of priority and interest needed to sustain the momentum while scaling up the interventions are possible threats for the program.

  6. Effect of Different Sanitizers on Microbial, Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Jalapeno Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ruiz-Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sanitation is a critical step to insure safety of fresh-cut produce. The inadequacies of chlorine, currently used as a sanitizer, have stimulated interest in finding safer, more effective sanitizers, however little is known on the impact of these novel sanitizers on sensory and nutrimental quality of the treated products. Approach: The effect of four sanitizers: Sodium hypochlorite (OCl, Peroxiacetic Acid (PA, Acidified Sodium Chlorite (ASC and carvacrol on microbiological, sensorial and nutritional quality (total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers stored at 5°C during 27 days was evaluated. Results: All sanitizers (except carvacrol maintained microbiological and overall quality of jalapeno peppers during 27 days. ASC (500 and 250 mg L-1 maintained the best microbiological and sensorial properties at the end of the storage period. Carvacrol, active ingredient of oregano essential oil, maintained shelf life for only 17 days. At the end of the storage period, all treatments showed a decrease of 12-43% respect to the initial vitamin C values. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity decreased in a lesser degree. None of the treatments except ACS 500 mg L-1, induced higher losses of vitamin C, total phenols or antioxidant capacity compared to control. Conclusion: Our results showed that all sanitizers were capable of controlling microbial growth without inducing major loss of antioxidant capacity and photochemical. Carvacrol was the only sanitizer that reduced sensory acceptability of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers, however carvacrol treated samples retained the highest levels of photochemical and antioxidant capacity. ASC was the most effective sanitizer even though it was used at concentrations lower that those currently approved by the FDA.

  7. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  8. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali B Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. RESULTS: In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. CONCLUSION: Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction

  9. Cultured construction: global evidence of the impact of national values on sanitation infrastructure choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2015-06-16

    Case study research often claims culture-variously defined-impacts infrastructure development. I test this claim using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and newly available data representing change in national coverage of sewer connections, sewerage treatment, and onsite sanitation between 1990 and 2010 for 21 developing nations. The results show that the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, and individualism-collectivism have statistically significant relationships to sanitation technology choice. These data prove the global impact of culture on infrastructure choice, and reemphasize that local cultural preferences must be considered when constructing sanitation infrastructure.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE IN A PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION: A CASE STUDY INVOLVING A SANITATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Esquierro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes recommendations for improving the implementation of a Project Management Office (PMO in a government organization. Such organizations can face uncertainties due to unpredicted and unexpected environmental events. The methodology used here was based on review of the literature, experience of the authors, and analysis of the process to be employed to create a PMO in the Department of Municipal Water and Sewage Systems (SEMAE, Brazil. This study aims to show how implementing a PMO can ensure proper management of strategic projects related to conservation of water resources. The PMO plays an important role in the implementation of strategic projects for public sanitation. This study also shows that the effectiveness of actions taken by the PMO is strongly influenced by how this process is implemented.

  11. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以婧; 李明

    2012-01-01

    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  12. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  13. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  14. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  15. EPA Removes Burrows Sanitation Site in Michigan from National List of Most Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Immediate Release No. 15-OPA142 CHICAGO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that the Burrows Sanitation Superfund site in Hartford Township, Van Buren County, Michigan, has been officially removed from the Agency's l

  16. (Un)reliability in sanitation monitoring: Analysis of East African urban data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the difficulties measuring sanitation improvements in eastern Africa, arguing that data supplied by international bodies such as the WHO and UNICEF may not always be realistic and should be used with caution.

  17. Cape Verde - Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project and Land Management for Investment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The overall objective of this survey is to collect relevant information on water, sanitation and hygiene sectors in Praia, hinterlands of Santiago and Sal Islands....

  18. Use of Disinfectants and Sanitizers in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter is to brings attention several concerns that the Agency has regarding the use of sanitizer and/or disinfectant products, and other types of antimicrobial products, to treat the surfaces of heating, ventilation

  19. Kemampuan Daya Hambat Bahan Aktif Beberapa Merek Dagang Hand sanitizer terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Srikartika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHand sanitizer sebagai pembersih tangan antiseptik inovatif saat ini, sering menjadi alternatif pengganti cuci tangan dengan sabun dan air. Mencuci tangan dengan hand sanitizer merupakan salah satu cara memelihara kebersihan tangan agar terhindar dari penyakit  yang disebabkan oleh flora normal di kulit yang berpotensi patogenik seperti bakteri Staphylococcus aureus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai kemampuan daya hambat beberapa merek dagang hand sanitizer terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap pada empat macam hand sanitizer dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Data diolah secara manual dan menggunakan analisis varians (ANOVA dilanjutkan dengan uji pos-hoc dengan Tukey HSD dan independent t test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan aktif hand sanitizer mampu mengurangi pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus secara signifikan. Perbedaan prosentase rerata pengurangan jumlah koloni pada waktu 30 detik berkisar antara 57,65%-72,45%, sedangkan pada waktu 1 menit berkisar 67,88%-82,65%. Hasil analisis menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna terhadap perlakuan, antar perlakuan dan waktu yang diujikan dengan nilai signifikasi p <0,05. Didapatkan hand sanitizer lebih efektif menghambat pertumbuhan pada waktu 1 menit daripada 30 detik. Hand sanitizer yang mengandung alkohol 70% dan triklosan 0,05% memiliki kemampuan daya hambat lebih baik terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: bahan aktif, hand sanitizer, Staphylococcus aureus AbstractHand sanitizer is one of the ways for maintaining the hand hygiene. Hand sanitizer as an innovative antiseptic product at this time, becomes an alternative hand washing with soap and water. It prevents  the disease that can be caused by normal flora that potentially pathogenic bacterium such as Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibition ability of several trademarks hand sanitizer on the growth of

  20. (Un)reliability in sanitation monitoring: Analysis of East African urban data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the difficulties measuring sanitation improvements in eastern Africa, arguing that data supplied by international bodies such as the WHO and UNICEF may not always be realistic and should be used with caution.

  1. Improving health at schools through franchising of water and sanitation services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Some areas of the developing world have seen an increasingly poor and often unacceptable quality of water and sanitation service. The reason for this is invariably inadequate arrangements and incentives for operation and maintenance (O...

  2. Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: users' satisfaction and determinant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwebaze, Innocent Kamara; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Niwagaba, Charles; Luthi, Christoph; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a key preventive measure against sanitary-related gastro-enteric diseases such as diarrhoea. We assessed the access to sanitation facilities and users' satisfaction in 50 randomly selected slums of Kampala through a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010. A total of 1500 household respondents were interviewed. Sixty-eight per cent of the respondents used shared toilets, 20% private, 11% public toilets and less than 1% reported using flying toilets or practising open defecation. More than half of the respondents (51.7%) were not satisfied with their sanitation facilities. Determinants for satisfaction with the facilities used included the nature and type of toilet facilities used, their cleanliness, and the number of families sharing them. The study findings showed that slum dwellers had high access to sanitation facilities. However, most of them were shared and majority of the respondents were not satisfied with their facilities, primarily due to cleanliness and over demand.

  3. 75 FR 4379 - Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of the...

  4. Drinking water quality: stakes of control and sanitation in the town of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality: stakes of control and sanitation in the town of Dschang - Cameroon. ... used 728 alternative points for water assessment (705 wells and 23 springs), ... For the wastewater drainage and treatment, no device is constructed.

  5. Effects of poor sanitation on public health: Case of Yopougon town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    Key words: Public health, malaria, diarrhea, respiratory infections, sanitation, risk. INTRODUCTION ... drainage without prior treatment. The objective of this ... concerned the recurrent diseases including malaria, diarrheal diseases and acute ...

  6. Interpreting the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) Findings on Sanitation, Hygiene, and Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-05-01

    In this Perspective on the GEMS study by Kelly Baker and colleagues, Jonny Crocker and Jamie Bartram consider the implications of associations found and not found between diarrheal disease and sanitation and hygiene.

  7. Interpreting the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS Findings on Sanitation, Hygiene, and Diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this Perspective on the GEMS study by Kelly Baker and colleagues, Jonny Crocker and Jamie Bartram consider the implications of associations found and not found between diarrheal disease and sanitation and hygiene.

  8. Effects of poor sanitation on public health: Case of Yopougon town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of poor sanitation on public health: Case of Yopougon town (Abidjan) ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Under-five children are much affected with 24% of the patients among which 43% were cases of the ...

  9. Sanitation and risks of waterborne diseases in Aholouyèmè in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-04-30

    Apr 30, 2016 ... Objective: The present study aims to analyze the risk of diseases related to bad conditions of sanitation in ... such as intestinal parasitosis, febrile diarrhoea and cholera prevailed in the district. .... cause the spread of infection.

  10. Comparing hand washing to hand sanitizers in reducing elementary school students' absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A; Sherwood, Jessie J; Warner, Dorothy; Clark, Diane

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer to standard hand washing in reducing illness and subsequent absenteeism in school-age children. A randomized cross-over design was used with 18 classrooms of 2nd and 3rd grade students (n = 383) from 4 elementary schools. Half of the classes from each school used an anti-microbial gel hand sanitizer while the other half used soap and water for regular hand hygiene for 2 months, then, the students switched cleaning methods for the following 2 months. No significant differences in absenteeism rates were demonstrated. A follow-up focus group comprised of teachers and school nurses indicated that hand sanitizers were preferred over soap and water. Hand sanitizers are an appropriate alternative to hand washing for hand cleansing and may offer additional benefits in the school setting.

  11. Using microfinance to facilitate household investment in sanitation in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Kimberley H; Goldberg, Jeffrey; Leatherman, Sheila

    2016-11-01

    Improved sanitation access is extremely low in rural Cambodia. Non-governmental organizations have helped build local supply side latrine markets to promote household latrine purchase and use, but households cite inability to pay as a key barrier to purchase. To examine the extent to which microfinance can be used to facilitate household investment in sanitation, we applied a two-pronged assessment: (1) to address the gap between interest in and use of microfinance, we conducted a pilot study to assess microfinance demand and feasibility of integration with a sanitation marketing program and (2) using a household survey (n = 935) at latrine sales events in two rural provinces, we assessed attitudes about microfinance and financing for sanitation. We found substantial stated intent to use a microfinance institution (MFI) loan to purchase a latrine (27%). Five percent of current owners used an MFI loan for latrine purchase. Credit officers attended 159 events, with 4761 individuals attending. Actual loan applications were low, with 4% of sales events attendees applying for a loan immediately following the event (mean = 1.7 loans per event). Ongoing coordination was challenging, requiring management commitment from the sanitation marketing program and commitment to social responsibility from the MFI. Given the importance of improving sanitation coverage and concomitant health impacts, linking functional sanitation markets to already operational finance markets has the potential to give individuals and households more financial flexibility. Further product research and better integration of private vendors and financing modalities are necessary to create a scalable microfinance option for sanitation markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  13. Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level.

    OpenAIRE

    Prüss, Annette; Kay, David; Fewtrell, Lorna; Bartram, Jamie

    2002-01-01

    We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the burden from other risk factors or diseases. We divided the world's population into typical exposure scenarios for 14 geographical regions. W...

  14. Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  15. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined.

  16. Bayesian networks as a decision support tool for rural water supply and sanitation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo Castro, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts made towards the Millennium Development Goals targets during the last decade, still millions of people across the world lack of improved access to water supply or basic sanitation. The increasing complexity of the context in which these services are delivered is not properly captured by the conventional approaches that pursue to assess water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) interventions. Instead, a holistic framework is required to integrate the wide range of...

  17. Rationale and knowledge for the universal implementation of sanitation in areas of social vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes de Arruda Juliano, Ester Feche; Macruz Feuerwerker, Laura Camargo; Viggiani Coutinho, Sonia Maria; Malheiros,Tadeu Fabricio

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of principles of equality and universality stipulated in legislation for the sanitation sector requires discussions on innovation. The existing model was able to meet sanitary demands, but was unable to attend all areas causing disparities in vulnerable areas. The universal implementation of sanitation requires identification of the know-how that promotes it and analysis of the model adopted today to establish a new method. Analysis of how different viewpoints on the restructurin...

  18. Water and sanitation policies limits in Senegal cities : the case of Rufisque

    OpenAIRE

    Sy, I.; Handschumacher, Pascal; Wyss, K.; Piermay, Jean-Luc; Tanner, M.; Cisse, G.

    2009-01-01

    Potable water and sanitation facilities access constitutes one of the major problems faced by developing countries. In Senegal, more than 70% of urban centres lack drinking water distribution networks and satisfactory sewage systems. For this reason, public authorities have initiated series of institutional plans to strengthen the implementation of water and sanitation policies in various urban contexts as in the town of Rufisque. Geographical and epidemiological investigations were carried o...

  19. How to Climate Proof Water Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Tom; Parker, Alison; Weatherhead, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation...

  20. Implications of Natural Occlusion of Ventilated Racks on Ammonia and Sanitation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Creamer, Michelle A; Petty, Joann; Martin, Tara,; Bergdall, Valerie; Hickman-Davis, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of ventilated rat racks prior to semiannual sanitation revealed silicone nozzles and ventilation ports that were partially or completely occluded with granular debris. We subsequently sought to document performance standards for rack sanitation and investigate the effect of ventilation port occlusion on rack function and animal husbandry practices. We hypothesized that individually ventilated cages with occluded airflow would require more frequent cage changes, comparable to those...

  1. The Applicability and Use of Waterless Hand Sanitizer in Veterinary and Animal Agricultural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Naya Subira

    2004-01-01

    THE APPLICABILITY AND USE OF WATERLESS HAND SANITIZER IN VETERINARY AND ANIMAL AGRICULTURAL SETTINGS Naya S. McMillan An increase in outbreaks caused by zoonotic agents has brought about intensified efforts to address the transmission of infectious organisms in animal settings. In October 2002, the CDC released recommendations for the use of waterless hand sanitizer (WHS) in human healthcare settings. The question arises whether WHS may be as effective in veterinary and anima...

  2. Robust planning of sanitation services in urban informal settlements: An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Rafael J P; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Larsen, Tove A

    2017-03-01

    New types of sanitation services are emerging to tackle the sanitation crisis in informal settlements. These services link toilet facilities to semi-decentralized treatment plants via frequent, road-based transport of excreta. However, information for the planning of such sanitation services is scarce, and their future operating conditions are highly uncertain. The key questions of this paper are therefore: a) what are the drivers behind success or failure of a service-based sanitation system in informal settlements and b) on what scales and under which conditions can such a system operate successfully? To answer these questions, already at an early stage of the planning process, we introduce a stochastic model to analyze a wide range of system designs under varying technical designs, socio-economic factors, and spatial condition. Based on these initial results, we design a sanitation service and use the numeric model to study its reliability and costs over a wide range of scales, i.e., system capacities, from very few to many hundred users per semi-decentralized treatment unit. Key findings are that such a system can only operate within a narrow, but realistic range of conditions. Key requirements are toilet facilities, which can be serviced rapidly, and a flexible workforce. A high density of facilities will also lower the costs. Under these premises, we develop a road-based sanitation service and model its functionality in different settings and under many scenarios. Results show that the developed sanitation system using a single vehicle is scalable (100-700 users), can provide reliable service, and can be cheap (<1.5 c/p/day). Hence, this paper demonstrates opportunities for road-based sanitation in informal settlements and presents a quantitative framework for designing such systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  4. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions.

  5. Impact of rainfall on diarrheal disease risk associated with unimproved water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2014-04-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved sanitation increased the adjusted odds of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.7-7.8 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.5, respectively). The OR associated with an unimproved water source was highest after maximum rainfall (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.9-24.5), whereas the OR associated with unimproved sanitation was highest after minimal rainfall (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.6). Our finding that use of safe water sources and improved sanitation facilities are most protective under opposing rainfall conditions highlights the need for integrated interventions to reduce the burden of diarrheal disease.

  6. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  7. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Yushuf Sharker, M A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M

    2010-12-01

    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology. Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens. At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but soap intervention compounds were much more likely to wash their hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds. Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of household sanitizers for reducing levels of Escherichia coli on iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Chitra; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2002-10-01

    Diluted solutions of various household sanitizers (apple cider vinegar, white vinegar, bleach, and a reconstituted lemon juice product) were tested for their effectiveness in reducing counts of inoculated Escherichia coli and naturally present aerobic, mesophilic bacteria on lettuce. Sanitization treatments were carried out at 4 degrees C and at room temperature (ca. 21 degrees C) with and without agitation and at different exposure times (0, 1, 5, and 10 min). Of the sanitizers tested, 35% white vinegar (1.9% acetic acid) was the most effective in reducing E. coli levels (with a 5-log10 reduction after 5 min with agitation and after 10 min without agitation) and in reducing aerobic plate counts (with a >2-log10 reduction after 10 min with agitation). Lettuce samples treated with diluted household sanitizers were analyzed for consumer acceptability by sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale. The sanitized samples did not differ in acceptability (P > 0.05), except for samples treated with white vinegar. Samples treated with the white vinegar for 10 min were noticeably sour and slightly wilted in appearance. Consumer acceptability was maintained with all sanitization treatments, including those involving 35% white vinegar.

  9. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P intention to use hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.

  11. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  12. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  13. Competency-Based Modules in Food Sanitation and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Ilagan-Manzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the food safety practices among food service establishments in order to increase awareness among students the dangers of food poisoning. The output of this study may serve as a tool for information dissemination. The study used the descriptive method research. The respondents of the study were the supervisors of selected fast-food chains and deluxe hotels in Manila. Descriptive Statistics was used to describe the basic features of the data in the study and to validate the data gathered. The safety of consumers is the paramount responsibility of any food service establishment. Standards, procedures and guidelines are developed to prevent the outbreak of food borne illnesses and intoxication. However, these standards, procedures and guidelines as food sanitation and safety will be meaningless if they are not study implemented through education, information, dissemination, and training among the personnel. Food safety is everybody’s concern. It is in this context that the researcher tried in her own lifestyle way to help by proposing these competency-based modules.

  14. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population.

  15. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  16. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  17. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For example...site: www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  18. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰

    2011-01-01

    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  19. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  20. Building capacity for water, sanitation, and hygiene programming: Training evaluation theory applied to CLTS management training in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Shields, Katherine F; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Saywell, Darren; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Are sanitation interventions a threat to drinking water supplies in rural India? An application of tryptophan-like fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Sadhu, A; Sampath, G; Sugden, S; Dutta Gupta, S; Lapworth, D J; Marchant, B P; Pedley, S

    2016-01-01

    Open defecation is practised by over 600 million people in India and there is a strong political drive to eliminate this through the provision of on-site sanitation in rural areas. However, there are concerns that the subsequent leaching of excreta from subsurface storage could be adversely impacting underlying groundwater resources upon which rural populations are almost completely dependent for domestic water supply. We investigated this link in four villages undergoing sanitary interventions in Bihar State, India. A total of 150 supplies were sampled for thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF): an emerging real-time indicator of faecal contamination. Sanitary risk inspections were also performed at all sites, including whether a supply was located within 10 m of a toilet, the recommended minimum separation. Overall, 18% of water supplies contained TTCs, 91% of which were located within 10 m of a toilet, 58% had TLF above detection limit, and sanitary risk scores were high. Statistical analysis demonstrated TLF was an effective indicator of TTC presence-absence, with a possibility of TTCs only where TLF exceeded 0.4 μg/L dissolved tryptophan. Analysis also indicated proximity to a toilet was the only significant sanitary risk factor predicting TTC presence-absence and the most significant predictor of TLF. Faecal contamination was considered a result of individual water supply vulnerability rather than indicative of widespread leaching into the aquifer. Therefore, increasing faecal contamination of groundwater-derived potable supplies is inevitable across the country as uptake of on-site sanitation intensifies. Communities need to be aware of this link and implement suitable decentralised low-cost treatment of water prior to consumption and improve the construction and protection of new supplies.

  2. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  3. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷东升; 郭振英

    2016-01-01

    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  4. Household sanitation facilities and women's risk of non-partner sexual violence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Weitzman, Abigail; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2016-11-08

    Globally, one in ten individuals practice open defecation. Despite media speculation that it increases women's risk of sexual violence, little empirical evidence supports the claims. We investigate the relationship between household sanitation facilities and women's risk of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) in India, where nearly half of the population lives without a pit or toilet. We use the most recent NPSV data, from the National Family Health Survey-III, to estimate logistic regression models of the effects of household sanitation facilities (toilet, pit, or none) on NPSV in the last year among women who have resided in their current home for one year or more. These effects are estimated net of other socioeconomic factors, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on child diarrhea, and, as a falsification test, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) in the last year. Net of their socioeconomic status, women who use open defecation are twice as likely to face NPSV as women with a household toilet. This is twice the association between open defecation and child diarrhea. The results of our falsification test indicate that open defecation is not correlated with IPSV, thus disconfirming a simultaneous selection of women into open defecation and sexual violence. Our findings provide empirical evidence that lacking household sanitation is associated with higher risk of NPSV.

  5. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation.

  6. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloruntoba, Elizabeth Omoladun; Folarin, Taiwo Bukola; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu

    2014-12-01

    Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions. To determine the hygiene and sanitation risk factors predisposing U-5C to diarrhoea in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty pairs of children, matched on age, were recruited as cases and controls over a period of 5 months in Ibadan. Questionnaire and observation checklist were used to obtain information on hygiene practices from caregivers/mothers and sanitation conditions in the households of 30% of the consenting mothers/caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Caregivers/mothers' mean ages were 31.3 ±7.5 (cases) and 30.6 ±6.0(controls) years. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers did not wash hands with soap before food preparation (OR=3.0, pHygiene and sanitation conditions within households were risk factors for diarrhoea. This study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in sanitation in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  7. Perceptions of water, sanitation and health: a case study from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, S; Benedikter, S; Koester, U; Phan, N; Berger, C; Rechenburg, A; Kistemann, T

    2009-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta in the south of Vietnam about 5.7 million people lack access to safe drinking water and 10 million people in rural areas live without adequate sanitation. Between May and August, 2007 a survey was carried out in An Bin, a peri-urban ward in the Mekong Delta, to gain insight into water, sanitation and health as well as to health-related hygiene behaviour. The study employed a combination of quantitative (standardized questionnaire) and qualitative (focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews) methods. The most important features in the choice of drinking water sources are matters of hygiene and the taste of the water. The majority (74%) of the 120 households surveyed indicated their ownership of a sanitation facility, but the fish pond toilet (64%) which is predominantly utilized is considered to be unimproved sanitation. The local peri-urban population link water and hygiene to health, but sanitation instead to environmental pollution. This and other outcomes lead to the assumption that people have a basic knowledge of proper hygiene behaviour. However, hygiene measures such as hand washing are put into practice in an untimely manner, most likely due to a misconception of risks and/or a lack of background knowledge of cause-effect relationships as well as ingrained habits.

  8. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

  9. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  10. Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics: design, manufacture and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Vesco, S; Tagliaferri, V

    2014-08-01

    Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings are of utmost interest in several manufacturing domains. In particular, fabrics and textile materials are often pre-treated by impregnation or incorporation with antimicrobial pesticides for protection purposes against bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for man or other animals. In this respect, the present investigation deals with the design and manufacture of self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics. The functionalization of the coatings was yield by incorporating active inorganic matter alone (i.e., photo-catalytic TiO2 anatase and Ag(+) ions) inside an organic inorganic hybrid binder. The achieved formulations were deposited on coextruded polyvinylchloride-polyester fabrics by air-mix spraying and left to dry at ambient temperature. The performance of the resulting coatings were characterized for their self-cleaning and self-sanitizing ability according to standardized testing procedure and/or applicable international regulations.

  11. Impurities in a lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352: identification and role of sanitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Munir N; Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Khaselev, Nona; Lozano, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify two impurities in the parenteral lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352, investigate the role of sanitizing agents as their potential source, evaluate their effect on drug product stability, and develop a strategy to prevent their contamination of the drug product. The two impurities were identified as o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol based on liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and chromatographic comparison to authentic samples. The LC/MS spectra of commercially available o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol showed identical patterns of fragmentation and the same retention times as the impurities identified in the BMS-204352 lyophilized product. Levels of these impurities were low and ranged between 0.2-0.3 microg/vial as determined by HPLC and using an authentic external reference standard. To confirm the hypothesis that the commercial sanitizing agents used in the sterile area were the source of these phenolic impurities, several product samples were spiked with the sanitizing agents. Both o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol were detected in the spiked samples. Further investigation revealed that o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol are active ingredients of these commercial sanitizing agents. Drug product samples containing the phenolic impurities showed no potency loss following storage at 30, 50, and 70 degrees C indicating these impurities had no adverse effect on product stability. These studies suggest that sanitizing agents used in the sterile area, although may be present at trace levels below typical cleaning procedure detection methods, need to be properly controlled and closely monitored during the manufacturing of injectable products, particularly highly potent drugs. Sanitizing agents, even though not used on product contact surfaces, may potentially contaminate a product through vapor transfer in an open environment.

  12. Effectiveness of sanitizing products on controlling selected pathogen surrogates on retail deli slicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Michael C; Kirsch, Katie R; Taylor, T Matthew; Mitchell, Jeff; Osburn, Wesley N

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficacy of quaternary ammonium chloride-based wet foam (WF) and dry foam (DF) sanitizer systems (600 ppm) for reducing Listeria innocua (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) or a 100.0 μg/ml rifampin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) on niche and transfer point areas of an unwashed retail deli slicer as compared with traditional chlorine (Cl(-)) treatment (200 ppm) and (ii) to compare sanitizer surface contact times (10 and 15 min) for pathogen surrogate control. Turkey frankfurter slurries inoculated with L. innocua or Salmonella Typhimurium were used to inoculate seven high-risk sites on a commercial slicer. After 30 min of bacterial attachment, slicers were dry wiped to remove excess food matter, followed by a randomly assigned sanitizer treatment. Surviving pathogen surrogate cells were enumerated on modified Oxford's agar not containing antimicrobic supplement (L. innocua) or on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 100 μg/ml rifampin (Salmonella Typhimurium LT2). Replicate-specific L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium reductions were calculated as log CFU per square centimeter of control minus log CFU per square centimeter of enumerated survivors for each site. For both organisms, all sanitizer treatments differed from each other, with Cl(-) producing the least reduction and WF the greatest reduction. A significant (P < 0.05) site-by-treatment interaction was observed. The results of the study indicate that quaternary ammonium chloride sanitizers (600 ppm) applied by both WF and DF were more effective at reducing L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium than a traditional Cl sanitizer (200 ppm) on unwashed slicer surfaces.

  13. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  14. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  15. Factors associated with use of improved water sources and sanitation among rural primary schoolchildren in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Wee Liang; Gan, Goh Lee

    2011-07-01

    Access to improved water supplies and sanitation generally reduces childhood diarrhea incidence. Using a cross-sectional stratified cluster sampling design, interviews were conducted among grade 4-6 primary schoolchildren from 10 primary schools in highland and lowland districts of Pursat Province, Cambodia, in both June (rainy season) and December (dry season) 2009 to determine the demographics and water sources/sanitation used. Parents also recorded any incidents of diarrhea in their children over those months. We explored the sociodemographic factors associated with use of improved water sources/sanitation, using mixed effect modelling. Participation was 84.7% (1,101/1,300). About half exclusively used improved water sources but less than 25% had access to improved sanitation during both seasons. Adjusting for clustering within households and within individuals over time, exclusive use of improved water sources and sanitation were associated with the following: dry season, more permanent housing type, family size improved sanitation was associated with good hygiene practices and exclusive use of improved water sources was associated with male gender. Access to improved water sources and sanitation among rural Cambodian primary schoolchildren can be improved, particularly in those with lower socio-economic status. Programs to promote use of improved water sources/sanitation need to target less educated parents.

  16. Effect of chemical sanitizers with and without ultrasonication on Listeria monocytogenes as a biofilm within polyvinyl chloride drain pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a biofilm in a floor drain, L. monocytogenes is exceedingly difficult to eradicate with standard sanitizing protocols. The objective of these studies was to test the use of ultra-sonication to break up biofilm architecture allowing chemical sanitizers to contact cells directly. L. monoc...

  17. Reflexive assessment of practical and holistic sanitation development tools using the rural and peri-urban case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberghien, J E; Robbins, P T; Tyrrel, S F

    2011-03-01

    Lack of sanitation affects the lives of billions of people worldwide. It is now generally agreed that sustainable solutions to this complex problem require social and cultural factors to be addressed in addition to the habitual economic and technical aspects. Increasingly, sector professionals view the fragmented approaches to sanitation as a limiting factor. This refers to the fragmentation of the knowledge on the subject among often hermetic disciplines and to the distribution of political mandates on sanitation across many institutions, which independently tackle specific aspects of the issue. Holistic approaches have often been suggested as a solution. This paper presents the development of such a holistic approach, designed to assess sanitation development in rural and peri-urban settings. Tested in three Mexican communities, it relies on qualitative research tools to identify critical influences to sanitation development. This article presents generic results about micro and macro-factors affecting sanitation development in Mexican villages, and reflexively examines the research process as well as the strengths and limitations of the approach. The conceptual map developed for each case study successfully highlights the interconnectedness of all factors affecting sanitation development. Despite some weaknesses, these maps constitute a practical assessment tool for interdisciplinary teams deployed in integrated water and sanitation development programs and a valuable didactic tool for training activities.

  18. Knowledge Brokerage for Environmentally Sustainable Sanitation. Position Paper and Guidelines from the EU-FP7 BESSE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BESSE, Project team; Bijker, W.E.; Caiati, Giovanni; d'Andrea, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded BESSE project explores how sanitation in Europe can be made more sustainable. European sanitation is still based on 19th and early 20th century technologies and management systems. These systems do not adequately respond to the sustainable development needs of the 21st century, such as

  19. Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marion W; Scott, Beth

    2007-06-01

    Household demand for improved sanitation in developing countries is an important social and behavioral process with implications for public health, sanitation policy and planning, and sanitation design and technology development. This paper develops a behavioral approach to assess household demand for improved sanitation in Ghana. Adoption decision stages of preference, intention, and choice to install a toilet in Ghana are defined, measured in a survey, and used to estimate sanitation demand, identify factors affecting demand at each stage, and classify households by adoption stage to identify targeted demand-stimulation strategies. Results from a representative national sample of 536 households indicate that of 74% of households without any home sanitation, 31% have some likelihood of installing a toilet within the next year, but only 6% are very likely to do so; 62% had not considered the idea. Motivating and constraining factors are compared at each adoption stage and strategies likely to increase toilet installation in Ghana discussed. The approach is useful for assessing behavioral indicators of sanitation demand in developing countries and suggesting where marketing approaches can and cannot work to accelerate adoption of household sanitation improvements.

  20. Development for Children, or Children for Development? Examining Children's Participation in School-Led Total Sanitation Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Deepa; Kooy, Michelle; Ouden, van den Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach is said to have radically revolutionized a poorly performing sanitation sector. The claims of CLTS programmes successfully stopping practices of open defecation have only recently begun to be critically reviewed: scholars and practitioners are qu