WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary surveys performed

  1. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  2. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  3. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  4. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  5. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  6. Sanitary survey of the drinking water supply of Kombinati suburb-Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angjeli, V; Reme, B; Leno, L; Bukli, R; Bushati, G

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological pollution of drinking water is a major health problem in the suburbs of the Albanian capital. Intermittent supply and contamination, resulting in several gastrointestinal manifestations, are the main concerns for the population and health workers. The risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases is high. Pollution originates from contamination of drinking water with domestic sewage. This research investigated the drinking water cycle from its natural source to the consumer, analysing samples and verifying pollution levels in the microbiological and chemical setting. The most important pollution sources were found in the distribution network, due to cross-contamination with sewers and illegal connections. The second pollution source was found around the extraction wells. This is related to abusive constructions within the sanitary zone around the wells and maybe the highly sewage-contaminated river water which feeds the aquifer.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  8. A SURVEY REGARDING SANITARY ASPECTS OF ROASTBEEF PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN AN ITALIAN CATERING CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Serraino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to know the potential opportunities to bacteria’s contamination and survival in roast beef production process in a self service restaurant, were collected data, by direct observation of food handling practices and the environment hygiene. Furthermore a bacteriological survey on both raw and cooked roast beef, meat juice and kitchen environment was made. Finally, using an instant-read thermometer we investigated over the relationship between time, temperature and the number of bacteria in roast beef during the heat holding and the slicing process. Thus we demonstrated the importance of Good Manufacturing Practice (sanitation, maintenance of right temperatures, and exclusion of cross-contamination during storage, handling and cooking. So to achieve a ready-to-eat roast beef safe for the consumers.

  9. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  10. Hot sanitary water production with CO_2 heat pumps: Effect of control strategy on system performance and stratification inside the storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammaro, M.; Mauro, A.W.; Montagud, C.; Corberán, J.M.; Mastrullo, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work three different control strategies for the production of sanitary hot water by means of an electric heat pump working with CO_2 are investigated. The heat pump is a prototype, here modelled in the vapour-compression software package IMST-ART. By simulating this model, the performance of the heat pump is correlated to the boundary conditions and is scaled to different sizes, namely 1, 1.5, and 2 times larger than the reference system. After having chosen an application for which the load profile of sanitary hot water during the year is known, these heat pumps are simulated in a TRNSYS16 model where the production of sanitary hot water and the consumption are buffered by the presence of a tank. Key parameter in guaranteeing comfort and good performance of the system is the stratification inside the storage tank. The size of the tank necessary to keep a certain level of comfort at the user is then determined through a parametric analysis for each size of the heat pump. The energetic performance is also evaluated for each system in terms of seasonal performance factor. Then, the results obtained are compared with a different system where the heat pump is equipped with an inverter and the circulation pump follows a different control logic. The size of the tank and the seasonal performance factor are therefore determined in this case too. Moreover, a “night&day” control logic is compared to these first two options to have a baseline of comparison in terms of volume of storage needed to guarantee a same level of comfort and performance. To provide information also on the running costs, a parametric analysis was run varying the type of control, the heat pump and the tank sizes for different load profiles. The results show that the size of the heat pump has a significant effect on the comfort of the user, which usually leads to oversizing of the storage tank when the load profile is unknown. With regard to this, the results obtained for the alternative

  11. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  12. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Offsite Portion of the Potential Release Site-7 Abandoned Sanitary Line, Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The ORISE objective was to confirm that the remedial action process implemented by the contractor was in accordance with the PRS-7 Work Package. Following removal of the sanitary line, the soil beneath the line would be sampled to determine if remediation was required (ARC 2007a).

  13. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  14. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  15. A measure for provisional-and-urgent sanitary improvement in developing countries: septic-tank performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Dong, N T; Matsui, S

    2008-01-01

    Although many cities have planed to develop sewerages in developing countries, sewerage establishment still requires huge investment and engineering efforts. Improvement of existing sanitation facilities may contribute the betterment of urban sanitation before sewerage establishment. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure to improve urban sanitation in areas where a sewerage development plan is proposed but has not been yet established, based on a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam. We found that 90.5% of human excreta flowed into septic tanks. However, 89.6% of septic tanks have never been desludged in the past and their performance was observed to be at a low level. The study also showed that if they introduce regular desludging with a frequency of once a year, they can eliminate 72.8% of COD loads from septic tanks. It was indicated that the performance can be dramatically recovered by regular desludging, which could contribute urban sanitation improvement in Hanoi. In conclusion, the performance recovery of septic tanks by regular desludging was proposed as a provisional-and-urgent measure for urban sanitation improvement, together with the septage treatment in sewage sludge treatment facilities, which should be established earlier than other facilities of sewage treatment systems. IWA Publishing 2008.

  16. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  17. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  18. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  19. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kostarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rospotrebnadzor in Perm region are known to be founded on September 15, 1922, when a Decree by Russian People's Commissars Council "On the Republic's sanitary bodies" was issued. A sanitary-hygienic faculty of Perm Medical Institute was set up in 1931 and it gave grounds for preparing qualified sanitary inspectors for state sanitary authorities. We described basic tasks which were tackled by sanitary inspectors during the Great Patriotic War and just after it. Rospotrebnadzor activities are proved to make for substantial improvements of sanitary-epidemiologic situation in the region. Currently more than 95 % of population are provided with drinking water which fully corresponds to the sanitary legislation requirements. We note constant improvements in catering objects quality and we also see that a quantity of food samples taken at such objects which don't correspond to hygienic standards remains stably low. A share of working places deviating from hygienic standards as per noise, vibration, and illumination, has reduced. Medical examinations are now available to 97.9 % of workers functioning under hazardous (dangerous working conditions. The lowest occupa-tional morbidity level over the last few years was registered in Perm region in 2016. The Service was among the first in the country to transfer to result-oriented budgeting and risk-oriented surveillance model. Organizational structure is constantly being developed; new legal, economic and organizational

  20. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Abelquist, E.W.

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  1. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  2. A survey on exploring key performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Badawy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Performance Indicators (KPIs allows gathering knowledge and exploring the best way to achieve organization goals. Many researchers have provided different ideas for determining KPI's either manually, and semi-automatic, or automatic which is applied in different fields. This work concentrates on providing a survey of different approaches for exploring and predicting key performance indicators (KPIs.

  3. Florence Nightingale and the India sanitary reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-09-01

    After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale persisted in researching the health conditions of British troops throughout the Empire. Undaunted by geographic limitations, she surveyed and publicized data that documented the mismanagement of living conditions and health care among the occupational forces on the Indian continent. Nightingale proposed widespread changes in the reporting of military health status and biostatistics, in sanitary engineering, and in self-care activities. With dogged persistence, she continued to gather follow-up data to measure the changing health status of soldiers in a land she never saw.

  4. AngularJS Performance: A Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Miguel; Valente, Marco Tulio; Terra, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    AngularJS is a popular JavaScript MVC-based framework to construct single-page web applications. In this paper, we report the results of a survey with 95 professional developers about performance issues of AngularJS applications. We report common practices followed by developers to avoid performance problems (e.g., use of third-party or custom components), the general causes of performance problems in AngularJS applications (e.g., inadequate architecture decisions taken by AngularJS users), a...

  5. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitary operations. 416.4 Section 416... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces of... compounds, sanitizing agents, processing aids, and other chemicals used by an establishment must be safe and...

  6. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  7. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  8. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  9. Acceptability and performance of the menstrual cup in South Africa: a randomized crossover trial comparing the menstrual cup to tampons or sanitary pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beksinska, Mags E; Smit, Jenni; Greener, Ross; Todd, Catherine S; Lee, Mei-ling Ting; Maphumulo, Virginia; Hoffmann, Vivian

    2015-02-01

    In low-income settings, many women and girls face activity restrictions during menses, owing to lack of affordable menstrual products. The menstrual cup (MC) is a nonabsorbent reusable cup that collects menstrual blood. We assessed the acceptability and performance of the MPower® MC compared to pads or tampons among women in a low-resource setting. We conducted a randomized two-period crossover trial at one site in Durban, South Africa, between January and November 2013. Participants aged 18-45 years with regular menstrual cycles were eligible for inclusion if they had no intention of becoming pregnant, were using an effective contraceptive method, had water from the municipal system as their primary water source, and had no sexually transmitted infections. We used a computer-generated randomization sequence to assign participants to one of two sequences of menstrual product use, with allocation concealed only from the study investigators. Participants used each method over three menstrual cycles (total 6 months) and were interviewed at baseline and monthly follow-up visits. The product acceptability outcome compared product satisfaction question scores using an ordinal logistic regression model with individual random effects. This study is registered on the South African Clinical Trials database: number DOH-27-01134273. Of 124 women assessed, 110 were eligible and randomly assigned to selected menstrual products. One hundred and five women completed all follow-up visits. By comparison to pads/tampons (usual product used), the MC was rated significantly better for comfort, quality, menstrual blood collection, appearance, and preference. Both of these comparative outcome measures, along with likelihood of continued use, recommending the product, and future purchase, increased for the MC over time. MC acceptance in a population of novice users, many with limited experience with tampons, indicates that there is a pool of potential users in low-resource settings.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  11. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov

    2017-01-01

    The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...

  12. Follow-up skeletal surveys for nonaccidental trauma: can a more limited survey be performed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, Susan R. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nixon, G.W.; Prince, Jeffrey S. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Campbell, Kristine A.; Hansen, Karen [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated the value of the follow-up skeletal survey in identifying additional fractures, clarifying indeterminate findings, and improving dating of skeletal injuries in victims of physical abuse. To determine whether a more limited follow-up survey could yield the same radiologic data as a full follow-up survey. The study cohort comprised 101 children who had follow-up surveys that met our inclusion criteria. Consensus readings of both original and follow-up surveys were performed by two pediatric radiologists. These results were compared to determine additional findings from the follow-up surveys. Limited skeletal survey protocols were evaluated to determine whether they would detect the same fractures seen with a complete osseous survey. In the 101 children 244 fractures were identified on the initial osseous survey. Follow-up surveys demonstrated new information in 38 children (37.6%). A 15-view limited follow-up survey identified all additional information seen on the complete follow-up survey. Our data demonstrate that a 15-view limited follow-up skeletal survey could be performed without missing clinically significant new fractures and still allow proper identification of confirmed fractures or normal findings. A limited survey would decrease radiation dose in children. (orig.)

  13. Follow-up skeletal surveys for nonaccidental trauma: can a more limited survey be performed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, Susan R.; Nixon, G.W.; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Kristine A.; Hansen, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the value of the follow-up skeletal survey in identifying additional fractures, clarifying indeterminate findings, and improving dating of skeletal injuries in victims of physical abuse. To determine whether a more limited follow-up survey could yield the same radiologic data as a full follow-up survey. The study cohort comprised 101 children who had follow-up surveys that met our inclusion criteria. Consensus readings of both original and follow-up surveys were performed by two pediatric radiologists. These results were compared to determine additional findings from the follow-up surveys. Limited skeletal survey protocols were evaluated to determine whether they would detect the same fractures seen with a complete osseous survey. In the 101 children 244 fractures were identified on the initial osseous survey. Follow-up surveys demonstrated new information in 38 children (37.6%). A 15-view limited follow-up survey identified all additional information seen on the complete follow-up survey. Our data demonstrate that a 15-view limited follow-up skeletal survey could be performed without missing clinically significant new fractures and still allow proper identification of confirmed fractures or normal findings. A limited survey would decrease radiation dose in children. (orig.)

  14. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel

  15. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  16. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  17. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Di Maria, Francesco; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m 3 . The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed

  18. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto E-mail: umberto.desideri@unipg.it; Di Maria, Francesco E-mail: fdm@unipg.it; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-07-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m{sup 3}. The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed.

  19. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  20. Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A Survey of Sugar Industry in Kenya. ... employees in the company core values and design of strategic control systems to cope with changing internal and external operating business ...

  1. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Chaban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Sloviansk resort, was the editor of a local newspaper. V.T. Skrylnikov is an author of many works on balneotherapy.

  2. Attitudes towards the Use of the Medical and Sanitary Services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Manouchehr

    1977-01-01

    Describes research methodology and findings of a survey in Iran to determine relationships between educational level, age, residence, and other variables involved in attitudes regarding the use of medical and sanitary services. Public health education is seen to be needed. For journal availability, see SO 506 019. (Author/AV)

  3. Canine visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological survey in three sanitary districts of Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil Inquérito epidemiológico da leishmaniose visceral canina em três distritos sanitários do Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred da Silva Julião

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to investigate the occurence of canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL in Itapuã, Cajazeiras and Pau da Lima sanitary districts (SD, all belonging to the city of Salvador. In order to achieve it, a canine epidemiological and entomological surveys were applied as an epidemiological questionnaire to the owners of the animals sampled and to the veterinary physicians of the city. The study detected six VL seropositive dogs among the eight hundred and eleven ones randomly sampled. It was not possible to determine the autoctonous condition for L. chagasi infection. One animal was positive by culture of splenic material and in the entomologic survey of the vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, none was captured. Veterinary clinicians from 41.7% of the clinics evaluated reported the diagnostic of, at least, one VL case in Salvador domiciliated dogs. The SD of Itapuã, Cajazeiras and Pau da Lima presented VL transmission risk once there is Leishmania parasite occurrence in the municipality, verified in this study by splenic culturing of an animal aspirative puncture, previous record of vector (L. longipalpis presence in the Itapuã district by the Bahia State Health Agency (SESAB and canine VL diagnostics by veterinary doctors from clinics all around the city of Salvador. This work is the first epidemiological analysis of this zoonosis in these SD and they point out the need to perform sampled entomological and serological surveys in all areas of the city. The development of a VL surveillance system may contribute for monitoring the disease in Salvador.Objetivou-se com este estudo investigar a ocorrência da Leishmaniose Visceral (LV canina nos Distritos Sanitários (DS de Itapuã, Cajazeiras e Pau da Lima, pertencentes ao município de Salvador, por meio da realização de inquérito sorológico canino; inquérito entomológico, aplicação de questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários dos animais amostrados e a m

  4. [Sanitary education of workers of bakeries and pastry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'shchikov, M I; Nemets, M G; Novikova, O V; Gavrilenko, E V; Osipova, E M; Osinova, T I

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents experience with sanitary education of workers from food industrial enterprises. The study revealed a number of disadvantages of the methodological aspect of sanitary education of these workers. A sanitary education programme has been worked out for workers engaged in food and food processing industries (production of bread, baked goods, and confectionery) and approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department), Ministry of Health of Russia on March 1999.

  5. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35... is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph... comply with bottled water quality standards (§ 165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a...

  6. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  7. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  8. Nuclear safeguards surveys as performed by the Albuquerque operations office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear safeguards survey program as administered by the Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) is comprehensive in scope and evaluates the facility's safeguards program for an entire appraisal period. The survey program focuses on both the integrated and graded safeguards concepts and includes both compliance and performance evaluations. The program utilizes independent measurement support to verify facility inventory values and measurement system capabilities. The AL survey program is oriented towards facility development and management as opposed to development and management by numerous detailed departmental directives

  9. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  10. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  11. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  12. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  13. Simulação e avaliação do desempenho hidrológico da drenagem horizontal de percolado em aterro sanitário Leachate horizontal drainage hydrologic performance evaluation and simulation in sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Capelo Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da quantidade de percolado gerado em aterros sanitários continua sendo uma tarefa difícil, principalmente no semi-árido nordestino onde predominam caracteríticas meteorológicas e geológicas bem peculiares. O programa HELP (avaliação do comportamento hidrológico em aterros sanitários, desenvolvido por Schroder et al (1984, foi utilizado na simulação de várias configurações de drenagem de fundo. Aplicou-se ao modelo, dados meteorológicos e de solos da região onde está o aterro sanitário de Caucaia (ASMOC, a qual é representativa do semi-árido nordestino. Três características da drenagem de fundo foram variadas (configuração da drenagem, inclinação de fundo e adição de uma camada drenante com alta permeabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar a altura da coluna de percolado, a quantidade de percolado infiltrado no solo e o volume coletado para tratamento. Nas trincheiras sem camada drenante, o aumento da inclinação de fundo e a alteração da configuração dos drenos tiveram pouca influência sobre as variáveis estudadas. A adição da camada drenante proporcionou uma redução significativa da altura da coluna e na infiltração de percolado no solo, mostrando que é um componente fundamental para o bom funcionamento do sistema de drenagem horizontal em aterros sanitários.Leachate quantification in sanitary landfills has always been a difficult task for designers. In the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, where meteorological and geological characteristics are very peculiar, this task becomes even more complicated. With the aid of the computer program HELP-Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance developed by Schroeder et al (1984, and using local meteorological and geological data, various scenarios were simulated altering trench bottom inclination, drainage system configurations, and adding a layer with high hydraulic conductivity. With those changes, leachate head accumulated in the waste, leachate

  14. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  15. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  16. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  17. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  18. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Revol, H.

    2002-01-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  19. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  20. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  1. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  2. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Salimi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Afsane Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Resul...

  3. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary...

  4. A radon survey performed in caves in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of radon and radon decay product concentrations in several caves in a limestone region in Slovenia was initiated in 1986. In the period from 1989 to 1998, monthly surveys were undertaken in several caves which are open to tourists or used for speleotherapy purposes. The reason for carrying out these surveys, were dose estimates obtained for the guides and medical staff working in the caves. Daily average radon gas concentration determined ranged from several 100 Bq/m 3 up to 27 kBq/m 3 . Higher values were measured in the summer period. The equilibrium factors derived ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with the higher values being measured in the winter period in vertical caves. In horizontal caves (with two entrances located opposite one another) these values ranged between 0.55 and 0.89. Annual doses estimated on the basis of various lung models ranged from 10 mSv to 85 mSv per year and per 2000 working hours. A significant difference was observed between the doses estimated by means of dosimetric models, and those estimated on the basis of the epidemiological model presented in ICRP 65. The value for the unattached fraction indicated in ICRP 65 is about 3%, but our measurements performed in the caves yielded higher values of up to 15%, with this highest value being determined in the Postojna cave. In the coming years, we will perform measurements to obtain the values for concentrations of unattached particles of radon daughters and values for particle-size distribution in the 3 different caves with the highest occupancy times for visitors. There are no regulations in force in Slovenia affecting exposures to elevated radon and radon daughter concentrations among underground workers. The health inspectorate can impose radiation monitoring measures for the purposes of performing dose calculations for underground workers. The results from such monitoring measures will contribute to the establishment of an ordinance regulating the performance of measurements at low

  5. [To the 90th anniversary of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service Formation in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, E N; Podunova, L G

    2012-01-01

    State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training of the Ministry of Health Care and Social Development Foundation of Russian Sanitary Epidemiologic Service dates back to September, 15, 1922, when a Decree on Sanitary Institutions of the Republic was signed. Afterwards the institutions of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service were improved: foundation of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1933-1951), approval of new concept of the Service and intensification of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1951-1991), foundation of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service, centralization of management and financing of the Service, formation of Sanitary Epidemiologic Legislation (1991-2004), further restructurization of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service in accordance with administrative changes in Russia (2004 until now).

  6. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  7. 2010 Survey on cell phone use while performing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Darling, E; Searles, B

    2011-09-01

    Cell phone use in the U.S. has increased dramatically over the past decade and text messaging among adults is now mainstream. In professions such as perfusion, where clinical vigilance is essential to patient care, the potential distraction of cell phones may be especially problematic. However, the extent of this as an issue is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine the frequency of cell phone use in the perfusion community, and (2) to identify concerns and opinions among perfusionists regarding cell phone use. In October 2010, a link to a 19-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was posted on the AmSECT (PerfList) and Perfusion.com (PerfMail) forums. There were 439 respondents. Demographic distribution is as follows; Chief Perfusionist (30.5%), Staff Perfusionist (62.0%), and Other (7.5%), with age ranges of 20-30 years (14.2%), 30-40 years (26.5%), 40-50 years (26.7%), 50-60 years (26.7%), >60 years (5.9%). The use of a cell phone during the performance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was reported by 55.6% of perfusionists. Sending text messages while performing CPB was acknowledged by 49.2%, with clear generational differences detected when cross-referenced with age groups. For smart phone features, perfusionists report having accessed e-mail (21%), used the internet (15.1%), or have checked/posted on social networking sites (3.1%) while performing CPB. Safety concerns were expressed by 78.3% who believe that cell phones can introduce a potentially significant safety risk to patients. Speaking on a cell phone and text messaging during CPB are regarded as "always an unsafe practice" by 42.3% and 51.7% of respondents, respectively. Personal distraction by cell phone use that negatively affected performance was admitted by 7.3%, whereas witnessing another perfusionist distracted with phone/text while on CPB was acknowledged by 33.7% of respondents. This survey suggests that the majority of perfusionists believe cell phones raise

  8. Hospital network performance: a survey of hospital stakeholders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, F; Gibertoni, D; Marcon, A; Sicotte, C; Minvielle, E; Rucci, P; Angelastro, A; Carradori, T; Fantini, M P

    2013-02-01

    Hospital networks are an emerging organizational form designed to face the new challenges of public health systems. Although the benefits introduced by network models in terms of rationalization of resources are known, evidence about stakeholders' perspectives on hospital network performance from the literature is scanty. Using the Competing Values Framework of organizational effectiveness and its subsequent adaptation by Minvielle et al., we conducted in 2009 a survey in five hospitals of an Italian network for oncological care to examine and compare the views on hospital network performance of internal stakeholders (physicians, nurses and the administrative staff). 329 questionnaires exploring stakeholders' perspectives were completed, with a response rate of 65.8%. Using exploratory factor analysis of the 66 items of the questionnaire, we identified 4 factors, i.e. Centrality of relationships, Quality of care, Attractiveness/Reputation and Staff empowerment and Protection of workers' rights. 42 items were retained in the analysis. Factor scores proved to be high (mean score>8 on a 10-item scale), except for Attractiveness/Reputation (mean score 6.79), indicating that stakeholders attach a higher importance to relational and health care aspects. Comparison of factor scores among stakeholders did not reveal significant differences, suggesting a broadly shared view on hospital network performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumescent liposuction report performance measurement initiative: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, William; Cox, Sue Ellen; Kuznets, Naomi; Coleman, William P

    2004-07-01

    This study was created by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement to measure clinical performance and improvement opportunities for physicians and ambulatory health-care organizations. Data were collected prospectively between February 2001 and August 2002. Thirty-nine study centers participated, and 688 patients who had tumescent liposuction were surveyed and followed for 6 months. The objective was to determine patient satisfaction with tumescent liposuction and examine current liposuction practice and the safety of tumescent liposuction in a representative cohort of patients. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement collected prospective data from February 2001 to August 2002 from 68 organizations registered for this study. Ultimately 39 organizations submitted 688 useable cases performed totally with local anesthesia, "tumescent technique." The overall clinical complication rate found in the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement study was 0.7% (5 of 702). There was a minor complication rate of 0.57%. The major complication rate was 0.14% with one patient requiring hospitalization. Seventy-five percent of the patients reported no discomfort during their procedures. Of the 59% of patients who responded to a 6-month postoperative survey, 91% were positive about their decision to have liposuction (rating of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) and 84% had high levels (4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) of overall satisfaction with the procedure. Our findings are consistent with others in that tumescent liposuction is a safe procedure with a low complication rate and high patient satisfaction.

  10. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food borne illness has been a global challenge and it persisted as a ... an absence of sanitary facilities for waste management was major cause. ... inspection on the establishments to promote and ensure proper hygiene and ...

  11. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  12. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  13. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods

  14. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  15. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  16. Organization of setting-up sanitary pass-control regime and sanitary treatment of injured persons in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, A.S.; Klochkov, V.N.; Yatsenko, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of sanitary pass-control regime is to prevent propagation of radioactive contamination outside the area of emergency-rescue works and guarantee of sanitary treatment of all persons having radioactive contamination. The paper has studied the questions of organization of sanitary pass-control regime, arrangement of sanitary treatment of the injured persons and rendering first aid in case of radioactive contamination of wounds. 5 refs

  17. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  18. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  19. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  20. 75 FR 57263 - New Policy Announcing That Traditional Horizontal Survey Projects Performed With Terrestrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Traditional Horizontal Survey Projects Performed With Terrestrial Survey Techniques Will No Longer Be Accepted... for additional information should be directed to Mr. Mark Eckl, Observation and Analysis Division... horizontal surveys requires use of resources that are limited and will be used more appropriately elsewhere...

  1. Performance of Ductless Personalized Ventilation in Open-Plan Office - Field Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Ezzat Khalifa, H.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in an architectural company located in Syracuse, USA. 54 employees who participated in the survey performed mostly design work. Large open-plan office and several single offices ventilated by displacement air distribution were included in the survey. Ductless...

  2. Dengue em três distritos sanitários de Belo Horizonte, Brasil: inquérito soroepidemiológico de base populacional, 2006 a 2007 Dengue fever in three sanitary districts in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil: a population-based seroepidemiological survey, 2006 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Marques Pessanha

    2010-04-01

    seroprevalence with contextual and individual variables. METHOD: The survey was conducted in the sanitary districts of Venda Nova, Leste and Centro-Oeste between June 2006 and March 2007. All residents aged 1 year or older were eligible for the study. Participants answered a questionnaire and had a 5 mL blood sample collected to determine the presence of anti-dengue types 1, 2, and 3 virus antibodies by seroneutralization. The questionnaire covered demographic aspects, socioeconomic status, physical characteristics of the home, residential mobility between cities, previous history of signs and symptoms associated with dengue fever, and knowledge concerning dengue fever prevention measures, among others. RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 11.9% (95%CI: 9.7-14.6 among the 709 individuals included in the study, and it was not associated with sex, age, family income, and having moved to another town in the past 10 years. Seropositivity was associated with type of construction (apartment or house/shanty, with apartment being a protection factor and with an elevated health vulnerability index where the dwelling was located. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, seroprevalence was lower than in previous studies carried out in mid-size and large Brazilian cities. This suggests that Belo Horizonte has employed efficient control measures. However, heterogeneity within the city was observed in terms of dengue fever transmission, which was largely associated with contextual indicators of vulnerability. The number of susceptibles is still high, and the control of dengue fever remains a difficult public health issue.

  3. African Primary Care Research: Performing surveys using questionnaires

    OpenAIRE

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on pri...

  4. How to Use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance. REL 2016-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  9. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  11. Desempenho de sistema de tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário com recirculação do efluente Performance of a sanitary landfill leachate treatment system with effluent recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Lavina Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de um sistema de tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário, em escala piloto, formado por três lagoas em série (L1, L2 e L3 seguidas por um filtro de pedras (FP. Foram estudadas três condições operacionais, verificando-se o efeito da recirculação do efluente da L3 para a L1: 0, 50 e 100% da vazão. O sistema absorveu bem as flutuações de cargas, apresentando remoções superiores a 80% para DBO F, 70% para DQO T e 98% para nitrogênio amoniacal. Na lagoa L2 houve nitrificação parcial, com acúmulo de nitritos. Ocorreu presença marcante do gênero Chlamydomonas nas lagoas L2 e L3 fotossintéticas. Observou-se diminuição da toxicidade do lixiviado, com reduções superiores a 95% na saída do sistema. A melhor eficiência de remoção para as três condições operacionais estudadas foi obtida com 100% de recirculação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a landfill leachate treatment system, at pilot scale, formed by three in series ponds (L1, L2, and L3 followed by a rock filter. Three operational conditions were studied, assessing the effluent recirculation effect from L3 to L1: 0, 50 and 100% of the flow rate. The system assimilated well the load fluctuations, showing removal efficiencies over 80% for BOD F, 70% for COD T and 98% for ammonia. In the L2 pond there was partial nitrification with nitrite accumulation. It was observed an outstanding presence of the Chlamydomonas gender in photosynthetic ponds L2 and L3. A reduction of the toxicity from the landfill leachate was observed, with reduction of over 95% in the system output. The better removal efficiency for the three studied operational conditions was obtained for 100% of recirculation.

  12. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  13. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND CATALOG OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Kelz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 □' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 depending on the wavelength, and Lyα luminosities between 3 x 10 42 and 6 x 10 42 erg s -1 are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Lyα emission at 1.9 44 □' which appear to be extended Lyα nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Lyα EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW 0 >240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

  14. The main trends of interaction of sanitary-epidemiological teams in the system of the Russian service of disaster medicine in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichenko, A.I.; Zhuravleva, V.E.; Varenikov, I.I.; Komarova, V.V.; Borisov, B.K.; Pozhidaev, A.E.; Pozhidaeva, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    For improvement of the system of prevention of emergency situations (ES) and for rendering emergency therapeutic-prophylactic and sanitary-epidemiological aid to population in case of ES the paper has determined and proved the first and foremost tasks which are to be settled by joint efforts of the Russian Centre on Disaster Medicine Zashchita and Scientific-practical Center of hygienic expert survey for practical perfection of the efficient forms of interaction of medical-sanitary forces engaged in work in ES. 4 refs

  15. The THU-NAOC transient survey: the performance and results from the first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tian-Meng; Zhou Xu; Nie Jun-Dan; Jiang Zhao-Ji; Ma Jun; Wang Ling-Zhi; Zhou Zhi-Min; Zou Hu; Wang Xiao-Feng; Chen Jun-Cheng; Zhou Li; Li Wen-Xiong; Liu Qing; Mo Jun; Zhang Kai-Cheng; Yao Xin-Yu; Zhao Xu-Lin; Huang Fang; Zhang Ju-Jia; Wu Chao

    2015-01-01

    The Tsinghua University-National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) Transient Survey is an automatic survey that conducts a systematic exploration of optical transients. This project utilizes a 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope at the Xinglong Station of NAOC. This survey repeatedly covers ∼ 1000 square degrees of the northern sky with a cadence of 3–4 d. With an exposure of 60 s, the survey reaches a limiting unfiltered magnitude of about 19.5 mag, which enables us to discover supernovae in their relatively young stages. We describe the overall performance of our survey during the first year and present some preliminary results. (research papers)

  16. Semiconductor industry: a survey of structure, conduct, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The study describes the structure, conduct, and performance of the semiconductor industry. The industry is characterized by a high rate of innovation and technological change, rapidly falling costs and prices, and rapidly rising sales in boom periods as well as large declines in sales in recession periods. These desirable performance characteristics take place in an industry that has moderately high domestic levels of concentration. However, there are many features that cause this industry to have behavior and performance that is markedly different from such highly concentrated industries as automobiles and steel. These features were investigated and are reported

  17. Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Survey of regulatory agency review of generating unit performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, E.M. Jr.; Tarletz, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Regulatory agencies across the country are being called upon increasingly to monitor the management of electric utilities. Such activity, which once was relatively rare, is now common. Most frequently this oversight centers around the operating performance of generating units, both nuclear and fossil. There are, perhaps, several reasons for this increased interest in the efficient operation of generating units: increased fuel costs and fuel cost differentials, increased lead times and costs for construction of new generating units, and increased dependence on existing units because of construction programs being revised to meet decreased load growth. The monitoring of generating units has taken the form of after the fact evaluation of performance on a case-by-case basis and the implementation of productivity incentive programs. Performance standards are used in these contexts both to measure the adequacy of unit performance and to implement incentives in the form of rewards or penalties. The standard used may be a subjective test of prudent performance or some numerical index of plant performance, e.g., equivalent availability, capacity factor or heat rate. Some of the activity by regulators is reviewed in applying subjective and numerical standards and the considerations involved in applying such standards are discussed

  19. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  20. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01).

  1. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  2. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  3. NORTH PORTAL - SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  4. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  5. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  6. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions control the performance, stability, and rate of degradation of natural and engineered barriers to waste repositories of the near field. Chemical processes are overviewed in this context. Temperature, and associated temperature gradients, are also important parameters in near-field performance assessment. The mechanical conditions of the near-field rock will be perturbed by construction of the underground repository. Mechanical analysis in the near field is further complicated by the introduction of HLW canisters and associated engineered barrier materials. Hydrological processes important to near-field performance include those associated with fluid transport. Considerable discussions and studies have been conducted on the issue of coupling among chemical-thermal-mechanical-hydrological processes; they are overviewed. (R.P.) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  8. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. 20.2003... Disposal § 20.2003 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. (a) A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) The material is...

  9. Productivity Implications of Employee Performance Appraisal System : A Critical Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. VSR Subramaniam

    2004-01-01

    The Productivity of any organisation is directly correlated to the Effectiveness of the Employee Performance Appraisal System, subject to the Effectiveness of the Support Systems, depending upon the type of organizational business. INFERENCE : Technology, Systems and Manpower are linked in an inter- related circle focusing towards Productivity =============================================================== DOCTORAL (Ph.D) RESEARCH WORK OF DR.VSR.SUBRAMANIAM IN JAMNALAL BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF MANA...

  10. A study on human performance enhancement plan in maintenance field by survey on actual condition of human performance tools - 15035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Human errors in nuclear power plant are one of the important factors that may cause reactor trip. Most operating companies of nuclear power plants manage human factor systematically through tools like HPES (Human Performance Enhancement), PSR (Periodic Safety Review), OE (Operating Experience), human performance tools, safety culture assessment and CAP (Corrective Action Program). But human factors are managed passively in maintenance field, because maintenance works are carrying out by partner companies. KHNP also contracts the maintenance work to the partner companies, and advise them to use human performance tools. But the actual condition on partner companies has not been surveyed. This paper suggests some plans that can improve human performance by analyzing the opinion of partner company employees about the causes and solutions of human errors, by analyzing utilization of human performance tools and by comparing the results of the partner companies survey with the results of the operating company survey. The survey is conducted to 3 partner companies by similar contents and categories in order to compare partner company with operating company, and the main analysis fields are the following: -1) Level of understanding and utilization of the human performance tools, -2) Difficulties of applying the human performance tools, -3) Level of employee's training (or education) in the use of the human performance tools, and -4) Root causes of human errors and countermeasures. (authors)

  11. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to describe the performance assessment (PA) context in which near-field models have been developed and applied. An overview is given of a number of PA studies. Although the focus is on near-field models, the overview covers the full context in which the PAs have been performed, including the purpose of the studies and regulatory context. Special emphasis has been given to the scenarios analyzed in the assessments; the scenarios set the framework for model development and application. Another aspect to consider in a study of near-field modeling from the perspective of total PA is the linking between near-field and far-field assessment. (R.P.) 6 tabs

  12. SIP Signaling Implementations and Performance Enhancement over MANET: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alshamrani, M; Cruickshank, Haitham; Sun, Zhili; Ansa, G; Alshahwan, F

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and multimedia over MANET is still a challenging issue. Many routing factors affect the performance of SIP signaling and the voice Quality of Service (QoS). Node mobility in MANET causes dynamic changes to route calculations, topology, hop numbers, and the connectivity status between the correspondent nodes. SIP-based VoIP depends on the caller’s registration, call initiation, and call termin...

  13. A Survey of the Duties and Job Performance of Student Assistants in Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Derr, Janice

    2009-01-01

    The results of a recently conducted Web-based survey of Access Services department supervisors are presented in this article. The survey, which was completed by 94 respondents, identified 19 core tasks completed by student assistants and further found a high overall approval of student assistant job performance. The information generated by the…

  14. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos

    2018-01-15

    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  15. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  16. Performance Analysis of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Receivers in Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobeiey, M.

    2017-10-01

    The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has issued standards that provide the minimum requirements for different types of hydrographic surveys execution to collect data to be used to compile navigational charts. Such standards are usually updated from time to time to reflect new survey techniques and practices and must be achieved to assure both surface navigation safety and marine environment protection. Hydrographic surveys can be classified to four orders namely, special order, order 1a, order 1b, and order 2. The order of hydrographic surveys to use should be determined in accordance with the importance to the safety of navigation in the surveyed area. Typically, geodetic-grade dual-frequency GPS receivers are utilized for position determination during data collection in hydrographic surveys. However, with the evolution of high-sensitivity low-cost single-frequency receivers, it is very important to evaluate the performance of such receivers. This paper investigates the performance of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers in hydrographic surveying applications. The main objective is to examine whether low-cost single-frequency receivers fulfil the IHO standards for hydrographic surveys. It is shown that the low-cost single-frequency receivers meet the IHO horizontal accuracy for all hydrographic surveys orders at any depth. However, the single-frequency receivers meet only order 2 requirements for vertical accuracy at depth more than or equal 100 m.

  17. Prospective technologies and equipment for sanitary hygienic measures for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary hygienic conditions is a prerequisite for good health and performance of crews on extended space missions. There is a rich assortment of associated means, methods and equipment developed and experimentally tested in orbital flights. However, over a one-year period a crew of three uses up about 800 kg of ground-supplied wet wipes and towels for personal needs. The degree of closure of life support systems for long-duration orbital flights should be maximized, particularly for interplanetary missions, which exclude any possibility of re-supply. Washing with regenerated water is the ultimate sanitary hygienic goal. That is why it is so important to design devices for crew bathing during long-term space missions. Investigations showed that regeneration of wash water (WW) using membrane processes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.), unlike sorption, would not require much additional expendables. A two-stage membrane recovery unit eliminated >85% of permeate from real WW with organic and inorganic selectivity of 82 95%. The two-stage WW recovery unit was tested with artificial and real WW containing detergents available for space crews. Investigations into the ways of doing laundry and drying along with which detergents will be the best fit for space flight are also planned. Testing of a technology for water extraction from used textiles using a conventional period of contact of 1 s or more, showed that the humidity of the outgoing air flow neared 100%. Issues related to designing the next generation of space life support systems should consider the benefits of integrating new sanitary hygienic technologies, equipment, and methods.

  18. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-01-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  19. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  20. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: The Case of Mexican Avocados

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Nishita

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects on demand, supply, imports, and prices of partial easing of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers to trade in the U.S. market in the case of Mexican avocados. The SPS Agreement plays a role in the avocado market studied here through its implications for negotiations between countries that have not utilized the formal channels of the WTO for resolving disputes. A quarantine in place from 1914 until very recently banned entry of Mexican avocados into the...

  1. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  2. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  3. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  4. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  5. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  6. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: telescope design and simulated performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics missions by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, the team has been working with the WFIRST Science Definition Team to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the current interim reference mission point design of the payload, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slit-less spectroscopy science channels. We also present the first results of Structural/Thermal/Optical performance modeling of the telescope point design.

  7. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R T [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  8. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  9. Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaidy Suianny Rocha de Moura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Moura E.S.R., Abrantes M.R., Mendes C.G., Oliveira A.R.M, Souza E.S. & Silva J.B.A. [Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses.] Perfil higiênico-sanitário e perigos microbiológicos em abatedouros públicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:203-208, 2015. Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: jeanberg@ufersa.edu.br The aim of this study was to evaluate hygienic and sanitary conditions of municipal slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Norte. Through a check list, hygienic conditions of establishments and handlers were observed and the percentage of compliance was rated excellent (≥ 80%, good (60 to 79.9%, regular (40 to 59.9% and poor (<40%, according to official standards established by Brazilian legislation. Ten water samples were collected to analyze total and thermotolerant coliforms; and 200 swab samples, including 150 from the utensils, equipment, handlers, and cattle carcasses were investigated for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria, and 50 from the environment for Listeria sp. research. It was noted, through the check list, the existence of various inadequate parameters when compared to those established, and required by law. According to the percentage of compliance found in abattoirs during the assessment visits, no slaughterhouse was rated as excellent, only one was considered good, one was classified as regular and three were considered poor. As for the microbiological analyzes, the presence of coliforms was confirmed in water from two slaughterhouses. High bacteria counts were found in swabs from tools, handlers, and cattle carcasses, and the presence of Listeria sp. was observed in three slaughterhouses. Therefore, the precarious sanitary conditions of the municipal slaughterhouses studied in Rio Grande do Norte represent a risk to

  10. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  11. The Use of Heat-Resistant Concrete Made with Ceramic Sanitary Ware Waste for a Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ogrodnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the concrete made of aggregate obtained from wastes of sanitary ceramics. Previous examinations proved high in strength and durability of concrete of this type, and it showed a resistance to high temperatures. The material was classified as a fireproof concrete. While searching for the optimal applications of such concrete, a series of examinations and analyses on its thermal energy storage (TES properties were performed. This paper describes the two-stage experiment on the thermal behavior of the concrete made with sanitary ceramic wastes during cooling processes in comparison to different building materials subjected to the same thermal conditions. On the basis of the thermal, infrared analysis, and suitable calculations, the thermal power and the ability of the composite to store thermal energy was estimated. Finally, it was stated that the concrete made of sanitary ceramic waste aggregate and alumina cement can be recommended as a heat-accumulating material, and in combination with high durability can be used, e.g., for the construction of fireplace bodies.

  12. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  13. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  14. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay) or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane). They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also ...

  15. Quality prediction of a leached produced in a sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto; Garcia R, Francisco Fernando; Rivera Mesa, Carolina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed with the purpose of predicting the concentration of pollutants in the leached produced by the biological degradation of the solid wastes disposed in sanitary landfills. The model consists in a kinetic equation of first level, able to describe the degradation of the organic matter being the solid residuals. This model was calibrated using the results obtained from six laboratory scale lysimeters operated under different conditions. The model predicted the concentration of the pollutants in the leached with an accuracy of 94%

  16. Training, Innovation and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Business Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, A. Michael

    This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes,…

  17. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2004-05. Facilities Core Data Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Facilities Performance Indicators" is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The second iteration of the web-based Facilities Core Data Survey was posted and available to facilities professionals at more than 3,000 institutions in the Fall of 2005. The website offered a printed…

  18. Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for

  19. Competitiveness of firms, performance and customer orientation measures – empirical survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Klapalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to presents results from two empirical surveys concerning selected factors which can be connected to customer orientation, performance and competitiveness of firms. The purpose of the surveys was also to reveal potential differences between sectors arising from not only the different influences of internal but as well as external environment. A survey instrument was developed to analyse the relationship between several variables measuring customer orientation of surveyed firms and between these factors and level of financial performance. Several statistical methods were applied to analyse the data, specifically descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test using financial performance for clustering firms and for assessment of potential differences of customer orientation criteria evaluation and Spearman rank correlation coefficients to assess the linear bivariate relationship between customer orientation variables. The results of ANOVA show that only the innovativeness is distinctive distinguishing criteria in conformity with the indicators of financial prosperity and that there are some differences between companies from two groups of sectors within the managers’ perception of customer orientation criteria performance.

  20. A Performance Survey on Stack-based and Register-based Virtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Ruijie; Liu, Siqi

    2016-01-01

    Virtual machines have been widely adapted for high-level programming language implementations and for providing a degree of platform neutrality. As the overall use and adaptation of virtual machines grow, the overall performance of virtual machines has become a widely-discussed topic. In this paper, we present a survey on the performance differences of the two most widely adapted types of virtual machines - the stack-based virtual machine and the register-based virtual machine - using various...

  1. A qualitative understanding of the effects of reusable sanitary pads and puberty education: implications for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Steinfield, Laurel; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-06-27

    The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with schoolgirls who participated in the Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty trial concurrent with the final set of quantitative surveys. A framework approach and cross-case analysis were employed to describe and compare the experiences of 27 menstruating girls across the four intervention conditions; education (n = 8), reusable sanitary pads (n = 8), education with reusable sanitary pads (n = 6), and control (n = 5). Themes included: menstrual hygiene, soiling, irritation and infection, physical experience, knowledge of menstruation, psychological, social and cultural factors, and support from others. Those receiving reusable pads experienced improvements in comfort and reliability. This translated into reduced fears around garment soiling and related school absenteeism. Other menstrual hygiene challenges of washing, drying and privacy remained prominent. Puberty education improved girls' confidence to discuss menstruation and prompted additional support from teachers and peers. Findings have important implications for the development and evaluation of future interventions. Results suggest the provision of menstrual absorbents addresses one core barrier to menstrual health, but that interventions addressing broader needs such as privacy may improve effectiveness. Puberty education sessions should increase attention to body awareness and include strategies to address a wider range of practical menstrual challenges

  2. An automated radiological survey method for performing site remediation and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handy, R.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Harder, G.F.; Tolaymat, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable, computer-based method of performing environmental monitoring and assessment for site remediation and decommissioning has been developed. The integrated system has been developed to provide for survey time reductions and real-time data analysis. The technique utilizes a notebook 486 computer with the necessary hardware and software components that makes it possible to be used in an almost unlimited number of environmental monitoring and assessment scenarios. The results from a pilot, open-quotes hide-and-seekclose quotes gamma survey and an actual alpha decontamination survey were elucidated. It was found that a open-quotes hide-and-seekclose quotes survey could come up with timely and accurate conclusions about the position of the source. The use of the automated system in a Th-232 alpha survey resulted in a reduction in the standard time necessary to do a radiological survey. In addition, the ability to analyze the data on-site allowed for identification and location of areas which needed further decontamination. Finally, a discussion on possible future improvements and field conclusions was made

  3. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  4. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  6. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Mentoring perception and academic performance: an Academic Health Science Centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Shetty, Kunal; Sevdalis, Nick; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    To determine the association between professors' self-perception of mentoring skills and their academic performance. Two hundred and fifteen professors from Imperial College London, the first Academic Health Science Centre (AHSC) in the UK, were surveyed. The instrument adopted was the Mentorship Skills Self-Assessment Survey. Statement scores were aggregated to provide a score for each shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skill. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate their relationship with quantitative measures of academic performance (publications, citations and h-index). There were 104 professors that responded (response rate 48%). There were no statistically significant negative correlations between any mentoring statement and any performance measure. In contrast, several mentoring survey items were positively correlated with academic performance. The total survey score for frequency of application of mentoring skills had a statistically significant positive association with number of publications (B=0.012, SE=0.004, p=0.006), as did the frequency of acquiring mentors with number of citations (B=1.572, SE=0.702, p=0.030). Building trust and managing risks had a statistically significant positive association with h-index (B=0.941, SE=0.460, p=0.047 and B=0.613, SE=0.287, p=0.038, respectively). This study supports the view that mentoring is associated with high academic performance. Importantly, it suggests that frequent use of mentoring skills and quality of mentoring have positive effects on academic performance. Formal mentoring programmes should be considered a fundamental part of all AHSCs' configuration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Performance and Lessons Learned from the First Two Years of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroski, William N.; Gunn, James E.; Kron, Richard G.; Peoples, John, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Over a 5-year observing period, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will acquire data to construct a digital 5-color photometric map of the Northern Galactic sky to about 23rd magnitude, and a correspondingly large and homogeneous spectroscopic survey. The SDSS is in a unique class of projects, in that all aspects of the SDSS infrastructure, from the telescopes and instruments, to software and operations staffing, were designed and assembled specifically to conduct this Survey. To ensure success, observing operations are run in production mode and performance metrics are used to measure progress over time. The methodology of preparing the performance baseline plan, and an assessment of Survey progress after two full years of operation, are reviewed and some lessons learned discussed. In particular, the SDSS has benefited greatly by asking peers in the field to participate in external reviews that periodically assess performance and offer independent, fresh views of potential areas of concerns. Additionally, difficulties caused by the absence of an experienced systems-engineering staff during the final phase of construction and commissioning are reviewed. The challenges of building a production machine out of complex and state-of-the-art sub-systems cannot be overstated. In the case of the SDSS, insufficient systems engineering led to problems meeting initial image quality requirements, primarily because of problems with the thermal performance of the telescope and its environment. A concerted campaign to deal with these issues was successful, but that success came rather later than we would have liked. The improvements made to address the situation, and the resulting increase in operational performance, are discussed.

  9. Department of Defense Physical Strength and Job Performance Survey: Report on the Ability of First-Term Enlisted Personnel to Perform Physically Demanding Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Barrie

    2002-01-01

    ... to perform physically demanding tasks. Within each service, 10 occupational specialties with moderate to high strength requirements were identified as the target populations for the DOD Physical Strength mid Job Performance Survey...

  10. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  11. Cloud service performance evaluation: status, challenges, and opportunities – a survey from the system modeling perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With rapid advancement of Cloud computing and networking technologies, a wide spectrum of Cloud services have been developed by various providers and utilized by numerous organizations as indispensable ingredients of their information systems. Cloud service performance has a significant impact on performance of the future information infrastructure. Thorough evaluation on Cloud service performance is crucial and beneficial to both service providers and consumers; thus forming an active research area. Some key technologies for Cloud computing, such as virtualization and the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, bring in special challenges to service performance evaluation. A tremendous amount of effort has been put by the research community to address these challenges and exciting progress has been made. Among the work on Cloud performance analysis, evaluation approaches developed with a system modeling perspective play an important role. However, related works have been reported in different sections of the literature; thus lacking a big picture that shows the latest status of this area. The objectives of this article is to present a survey that reflects the state of the art of Cloud service performance evaluation from the system modeling perspective. This articles also examines open issues and challenges to the surveyed evaluation approaches and identifies possible opportunities for future research in this important field.

  12. Effects of procurement on project performance:a survey of Swedish construction clients

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Per-Erik; Vennström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of the construction industry development and improvement of procurement procedures is vital. The purpose of this investigation is to increase the understanding of how procurement procedures affect project performance. A procurement model including eight hypotheses is first developed on the basis of a literature review and then tested through multivariate statistical techniques based on empirical data collected through a survey investigation of 106 Swedish c...

  13. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Jamilah Karim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Hasan Sham; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli

    2012-01-01

    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  15. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  16. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonirritating cleansing agent shall be provided for use at each shower. (2) Sanitary flush toilet facilities. (i..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for...

  17. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  18. Survey Relationship between IT-business Alignment and Business Performance: Using Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir manian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of importance of IT deployment, nowadays in many organizations we are witness of appearing problems related to dissatisfaction of business needs due to high investment in the field of IT. The fervent debate concerning IT productivity–or lack of such productivity- named productivity paradox persuade us to survey relationship between IT–business alignment and business performance. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether IT-business alignment could have a decisive influence on their performance in IT-base firms by adopting a contingency theory perspective and operationalizing the fit systemically. Also to measure organizational performance, we adopt BSC framework which is not applied in this matter yet. Finally, this paper will explore the notion that alignment between business and IT is the key to achieving improved business performance through IT.

  19. Detailed test plan on co-disposal of deminumum levels of LLRW and sanitary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, E.S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of this investigation are: (1) to study the attenuation mechanisms for radionuclides (LLRW) in simulated sanitary landfills with and without leachate recycle; and (2) to determine the complexation potential of ligands (viz., sulfides, humic substances) present in the leachate during different stages of landfill stabilization. Since the major emphasis of this research is on containment and isolation of LLRW within a sanitary landfill the following key elements have been incorporated into the design of the simulated pilot-scale sanitary landfills: (1) containment of LLRW within the landfills by placing the municipal refuse and LLRW in polymeric membrane-lined cells (30-mil, HDA, Gundline liner, Gundle, TX) with a leachate collection system; (2) enhancement of stabilization by leachate recycle; and (3) recovery of the gas produced from the sanitary landfills. The proposed research program addresses the fate of LLRW in municipal sanitary landfills thereby, establishing a data base to predict radionuclide pathways in sanitary landfills and to aid in assessing the environmental impacts of codisposal of LLRW within sanitary landfills. The outcome of this study may also serve to alleviate the current concern of unnecessary filling of limited space in existing licensed shallow-land burial sites. 4 figures, 1 table

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Survey Tool Assessing Inpatient Consult Service Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Chang, Yuchiao

    2017-12-01

    Subspecialty consultation in inpatient medicine is increasing, and enhancing performance of consultation services may have a broad-reaching impact. Multisource feedback is an important tool in assessing competence and improving performance. A mechanism for primary team resident feedback on performance of consult services has not been described. We developed and evaluated an instrument designed to assess internal medicine (IM) subspecialty inpatient consult service performance. We hypothesized that the instrument would be feasible to administer and provide important information to fellowship directors. The instrument was administered in 2015 and 2016 at a single academic center. All IM residents were invited to evaluate 10 IM subspecialty consult services on 4 items and an overall satisfaction rating. The instrument allowed for free-text feedback to fellows. Program directors completed another survey assessing the impact of the consult service evaluation. A total of 113 residents responded (47 in 2015 and 66 in 2016, for a combined response rate of 35%). Each of the 4 items measured (communication, professionalism, teaching, and pushback) correlated significantly with the overall satisfaction rating in univariate and multivariate analyses. There were no differences in ratings across postgraduate year or year of administration. There was considerable variation in ratings among the services evaluated. The 7 program directors who provided feedback found the survey useful and made programmatic changes following evaluation implementation. A primary team resident evaluation of inpatient medicine subspecialty consult services is feasible, provides valuable information, and is associated with changes in consult service structure and curricula.

  1. Degree of patient satisfaction with health care performance assesed by marketing surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druguş, Daniela; Azoicăi, Doina

    2015-01-01

    Marketing surveys of the health system collect useful information to develop effective management strategies. The research aim consisted in measuring patient satisfaction with health care quality. The qualitative research was based on an online SurveyMonkey open-ended questionnaire. The analysis of patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction with healthcare professionals was performed in 1838 patients. Correlation analysis allowed the identification of some determinants associated with patient satisfaction. The variable most commonly associated with satisfaction was "I got adequate information about procedures/treatment" according to 32.2% of respondents. The patients who were dissatisfied most commonly complained that they were "Not adequately informed about maneuvers and treatment", reported by 40.0% of respondents. This study provides a basis for building an original model for determining the variables of an efficient healthcare system which to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  2. The Impact of Knowledge Management Practices on NPP Organizational Performance - Results of a Global Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA has been asked by Member States in the 2012 General Conference Resolutions to ''further increase the level of awareness of efforts in managing nuclear knowledge'' and to continue ''to further develop and disseminate guidance and methodologies for planning, designing, and implementing nuclear knowledge management programs''. The present report summarizes the results of empirical research on the relationship between KM practices in nuclear power plants, their impact on the quality of organizational knowledge processes and the resulting effects on the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. It presents the basic findings of the ''IAEA Global Nuclear Power Plant Survey: Investigating the Link Between Knowledge Management Practices and Organizational Performance'', which was conducted in 2010. This benchmark survey of KM practices in nuclear power plants was developed using a standard research methodology. The survey was made available on a global basis to all nuclear power plant sites. Senior operations managers were asked to complete the survey with input, as required, from their plant management team. Data from individual survey responses were treated as confidential, and only aggregate findings were reported. A total of 124 station ''site organizations'' participated in the survey, representing a response rate of approximately 60%. The findings provide empirical evidence of the importance of KM practices in improving the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. They provide information about the current state of the industry with respect to KM practices, illustrating the direct and tangible benefits of implementing such practices and justifying continued or further efforts to ensure that KM programmes and systems are strategically planned and implemented in operating nuclear power plants. The research provides insights into the mechanisms by which KM practices have an impact on organizational effectiveness and provides a basis for

  3. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers; Rapport sur les incidences environnementales et sanitaires des essais nucleaires effectues par la France entre 1960 et 1996 et elements de comparaison avec les essais des autres puissances nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch; Revol, H

    2002-07-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  4. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  5. A comprehensive survey of the relationship between self-efficacy and performance for the governmental auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jau-Ming; Lee, Shue-Ching; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Lu, Tzu-Li

    2016-01-01

    As governmental auditing is involved in evaluating the legitimacy, economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of how the various administrative branches use their allocated resources to optimize the government's functions, it is expected that the performance of the auditors in charge are strongly influenced by their respective qualities such as self-efficacy and experience, etc. To further understand the factors that may enhance their performance and to ultimately provide practical recommendations for the audit authorities, we have surveyed about 50 % of all the governmental auditors in Taiwan. The result showed that any auditing experience and professionalization do positively influence the professional awareness, and acquired knowledge and skillset of an auditor can effectively improve his or her professional judgment. We also found that perceived ability, problem-solving skills, and resource sharing may significantly impact any performance involved. Our study provides a workable management guidelines for strengthening the self-efficacy of audit authorities in Taiwan.

  6. The performance effect of the Lean package – a survey study using a structural equation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    Purpose - Our aim is to test and validate a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model in order to understand how the practices of Lean affect performance. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional survey with 200 responding companies indicating...... that they use Lean. This is analyzed in a structural quation model setting. Findings - Previous quantitative research has shown mixed results for the performance of Lean because they have not addressed the system-wide mediating relations between Lean practices. We find that Companies using a system...... practices in creating improved performance. Hence, we develop a new systemwide structural equation model approach with multiple mediations, and we validate this with substantial tests....

  7. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Survey of EEC solid waste arisings and performance of non-destructive assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, W.B.; Adaway, D.W.; Yates, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the work carried out during an one-year contract which surveyed the radioactive solid waste arisings in EEC Member States and also tabulated information on the performance of the non-destructive assay (NDA) system used. The work was jointly carried out with CEA partners at Cadarache and Paris. The tabulated data give information on types, packaging, associated activity, and NDA capability of the utilities or research organisations. Some short comings in NDA capabilities are identified and possible solutions are given

  9. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory's continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site

  10. Information Sharing, Cooperative Behaviour and Hotel Performance: A Survey of the Kenyan Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Odari Namusonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing is the life blood of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving operational performance of supply chains has been widely acclaimed. However whether information sharing would result in improved performance in the context of the hospitality industry has not been empirically determined. This study sought to find out the role of information sharing on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\\supply chain departments of these hotels. Logarithmic transformations were used in conjunction with multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between information sharing, cooperative behaviour and hotel performance. The study concludes that information sharing in the Kenyan hospitality industry does not directly relate to hotel performance. Its relationship is mediated by cooperative behaviour (trust and attitude with supply chain partners. This suggests that information sharing is essential but insufficient by itself to bring significant performance improvements in hotels in the Kenyan hospitality industry. A possible reason for this is that this collaborative practice is highly dependent on information sharing capability, structure of the information as well as culture. Through quadrant analysis the study identifies and recommends the sharing of information about long term strategic plans and events such as entering new markets and acquiring a new customer base as an area of primary priority for improvement.

  11. Insomnia and the Performance of US Workers: Results from the America Insomnia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Walsh, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and associations of broadly defined (i.e., meeting full ICD-10, DSM-IV, or RDC/ICSD-2 inclusion criteria) insomnia with work performance net of comorbid conditions in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Design/Setting: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Participants: National sample of 7,428 employed health plan subscribers (ages 18+). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Broadly defined insomnia was assessed with the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ). Work absenteeism and presenteeism (low on-the-job work performance defined in the metric of lost workday equivalents) were assessed with the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). Regression analysis examined associations between insomnia and HPQ scores controlling 26 comorbid conditions based on self-report and medical/pharmacy claims records. The estimated prevalence of insomnia was 23.2%. Insomnia was significantly associated with lost work performance due to presenteeism (χ21 = 39.5, P absenteeism (χ21 = 3.2, P = 0.07), with an annualized individual-level association of insomnia with presenteeism equivalent to 11.3 days of lost work performance. This estimate decreased to 7.8 days when controls were introduced for comorbid conditions. The individual-level human capital value of this net estimate was $2,280. If we provisionally assume these estimates generalize to the total US workforce, they are equivalent to annualized population-level estimates of 252.7 days and $63.2 billion. Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with substantial workplace costs. Although experimental studies suggest some of these costs could be recovered with insomnia disease management programs, effectiveness trials are needed to obtain precise estimates of return-on-investment of such interventions from the employer perspective. Citation: Kessler RC; Berglund PA; Coulouvrat C; Hajak G; Roth T; Shahly V; Shillington AC; Stephenson JJ; Walsh JK. Insomnia and the performance

  12. Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America insomnia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Berglund, Patricia A; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C; Stephenson, Judith J; Walsh, James K

    2011-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associations of broadly defined (i.e., meeting full ICD-10, DSM-IV, or RDC/ICSD-2 inclusion criteria) insomnia with work performance net of comorbid conditions in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Cross-sectional telephone survey. National sample of 7,428 employed health plan subscribers (ages 18+). None. Broadly defined insomnia was assessed with the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ). Work absenteeism and presenteeism (low on-the-job work performance defined in the metric of lost workday equivalents) were assessed with the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). Regression analysis examined associations between insomnia and HPQ scores controlling 26 comorbid conditions based on self-report and medical/pharmacy claims records. The estimated prevalence of insomnia was 23.2%. Insomnia was significantly associated with lost work performance due to presenteeism (χ² (1) = 39.5, P absenteeism (χ² (1) = 3.2, P = 0.07), with an annualized individual-level association of insomnia with presenteeism equivalent to 11.3 days of lost work performance. This estimate decreased to 7.8 days when controls were introduced for comorbid conditions. The individual-level human capital value of this net estimate was $2,280. If we provisionally assume these estimates generalize to the total US workforce, they are equivalent to annualized population-level estimates of 252.7 days and $63.2 billion. Insomnia is associated with substantial workplace costs. Although experimental studies suggest some of these costs could be recovered with insomnia disease management programs, effectiveness trials are needed to obtain precise estimates of return-on-investment of such interventions from the employer perspective.

  13. Seasonal trends in vegetation and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and PBDEs near a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Annick D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Blais, Jules M.

    Spruce needle and atmospheric (gaseous and particulate-bound) concentrations were surveyed near a sanitary landfill from February 2004 to June 2005. The influence of several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, as well as increased domestic heating during the winter was assessed. In general, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in spruce needles increased over time and decreased following snowmelt with a minimum coinciding with bud burst of deciduous trees. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDE and PAH, both particulate-bound and gaseous phase, were linked to daily weather events and thus showed more variability than those in spruce needles. Highest PAH concentrations were encountered during the winter, likely reflecting increased emission from heating homes. Pseudo Clausius-Clapeyron plots revealed higher PBDE gaseous concentrations with increasing temperature, but showed no correlation between PAH gaseous concentrations and temperature as this effect was obscured by seasonal emission patterns. Finally, air mass back trajectories and local wind directions revealed that particulate-bound PBDEs, along with both gaseous and particulate-bound PAHs were from local sources, whereas gaseous PBDEs were likely from distant sources.

  14. [Patients' perception on attention received from Health Centres non-sanitary staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moral, R; Alba Dios, A; Jiménez García, C; González Neubauer, V; García Torres, M; Pérula de Torres, L A; Barrios Blasco, L

    2011-01-01

    To know patients' perceptions about relational aspects and technical procedures when they are attended by the administrative staff in Health Centres. To assess the utility of two ways for measuring satisfaction. Cross-sectional study carried out in people attending the administrative sections of Health Centres for diverse reasons. Just after the interaction with the administrative they were interviewed using two different questions for assessing their opinions and satisfaction with communicational and technical aspects related with their demands. Descriptive analysis. Significant differences among mean was explored by χ(2) test. Open-ended questions were grouped in categories in a process involving three researchers independently. Over than 90% (360) of the attendees declared to be satisfied or very satisfied with the service received from the staff personal. Nevertheless, among 18-36% gave suggestions for improving the service after their consultation. Independently the domain explored, people suggested the communicational, personal capability, quality and quantity of explanations and waiting time as the main aspects to be improved. Surveys with open-ended questions are more useful to assess the quality of the attention the citizens receive from no-sanitary staff in Health Centres. These type of questions are also more useful for detecting problems and planning new interventions. Relational and informative issues seem to be the most prioritary areas to improve in this section of Health Centres. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Grating scattering BRDF and imaging performances: A test survey performed in the frame of the flex mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Bernd; Deep, Atul; Vink, Ramon; Coatantiec, Claude

    2017-11-01

    Key components in optical spectrometers are the gratings. Their influence on the overall infield straylight of the spectrometer depends not only on the technology used for grating fabrication but also on the potential existence of ghost images caused by irregularities of the grating constant. For the straylight analysis of spectrometer no general Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model of gratings exist, as it does for optically smooth surfaces. These models are needed for the determination of spectrometer straylight background and for the calculation of spectrometer out of band rejection performances. Within the frame of the Fluorescence Earth Explorer mission (FLEX), gratings manufactured using different technologies have been investigated in terms of straylight background and imaging performance in the used diffraction order. The gratings which have been investigated cover a lithographically written grating, a volume Bragg grating, two holographic gratings and an off-the-shelf ruled grating. In this paper we present a survey of the measured bidirectional reflectance/transmittance distribution function and the determination of an equivalent surface micro-roughness of the gratings, describing the scattering of the grating around the diffraction order. This is specifically needed for the straylight modeling of the spectrometer.

  16. Relationship between Performance of Quantity Surveying Students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Nathaniel Ayinde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the educational sector over the century have devoted substantial resources in seeking ways of improving students’ academic performance, yet, the desired improved academic performance has not been achieved. By appraising the relationship between the performance of Quantity Surveying (QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses; the study identified a major curriculum drafting deficiency in the QS programmes in Nigeria which if addressed could help achieve the much needed improved students’ academic performance. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the performance of QS students in Building construction and construction Measurement Courses; and to determine whether a relationship exist in the performances of QS students in the two subject areas. Purposive sampling technique was used to select Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 241 students who provide data for the study. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and data was analyzed using frequency, percentile and correlation analysis. Finding indicates that 43% of the respondents on the average put up good performances in Building Construction Courses while only 19% of the respondents on the average had good grades in Construction Measurement Courses. Results also showed that a significant relationship exist between the performance of QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses as 83.3% (five out of six pair courses shows significant positive linear correlation. The study recommends that a quick curriculum re-adjustment should be initiated so as to enhance improved academic performance by QS Students especially in Construction Measurement courses.

  17. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  18. Problems of sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Volkov, N.N.; Grachev, M.I.; Korostin, A.S.; Prostakishin, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The planning and carrying out sanitary-hygienic arrangements in emergency situation are based on scientific-research, organizing-methodical and practical trends of activities including: the necessity of taking into consideration the risk of sanitary-hygienic complications as a result of emergency situation; elaboration of criteria and classification of hazards potential danger of industrial plants and territories; the establishment of system of providing sanitary-hygienic measures in emergency situation; working out prophylactic measures for prevention, localization and liquidation of sanitary-hygienic after-effects of emergency situation; development of the system of control and express-analysis of hazardous factors; elaboration of rating-methodical base and arrangements aimed at protection of health and life of people. 5 refs

  19. Literature Survey on the Effects of Pure Carbon Dioxide on Health, Comfort and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    permissible occupational exposure level to CO2 is set at 5,000 ppm (ACGIH, 2011). Although in many studies CO2 has been related with health symptoms, comfort and performance of office work and schoolwork, it in itself has traditionally been assumed innocuous at the typical levels indoors; in these studies, CO......2 was merely a proxy for elevated exposure levels to air pollutants, and an indicator of inadequate outdoor air ventilation and poor indoor air quality. Two recent experiments suggest however that the exposure to pure CO2 at the levels typically occurring indoors and lower than the levels prescribed...... as permissible by the occupational standards can have negative effects on some aspects of human performance, in particular on tasks requiring concentration (Kajtar et al., 2006) and on tasks, in which decision should be taken (Satish et al., 2012). The present paper reports the results of the literature survey...

  20. TQM and firms performance: An EFQM excellence model research based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Vijande, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop an instrument for measuring TQM implementation following the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model and to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between management practices and measures of business performance in the model. To this end, the study employs survey data collected from Spanish manufacturing and service firms. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the psychometric properties of the measurement scales and the hypothesized relationships between total quality management practices and organizational performance are examined using structural equation modeling. The findings of the research indicate that the adoption of the TQM practices suggested in the EFQM Excellence Model allows firms to outperform their competitors in the results criteria included in the Model. Therefore, this paper provides a valuable benchmarking data for firms as it substantiates the EFQM Enabler’s contribution to the attainment of competitive advantage.

  1. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  2. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  3. Mapping performance of the fishery industries innovation: A survey in the North Coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, M.; Legowo, A. M.; Albaarri, A. N.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Agustini, T. W.; Setyastuti, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to put the performance indicators of industry innovation fisheries which would be used as inputs to create innovation strategies in order to win the market competition, especially in USA. Survey and in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 industries with shrimp, tuna and crab commodities representing the fishery industry in Indonesia to USA export destination. The result of mapping performance of innovation indicators of Indonesian Fishery Industry resulted the 10’s strategies alternative to win the market. Based on survey result indicate that “the regulation of catch and/or harvest of cultivation factor” is considered the weakest factor in develop innovation with a score of 3.3, while the international trade factor are considered as the strongest factor in developing innovation development with scores 5,0. Aggressive strategy by strengthening the strength owned by the internal industry was by always looking at the opportunity, so that they could take the opportunity to win the market competition at the right time.

  4. Oblique Chest Views as a Routine Part of Skeletal Surveys Performed for Possible Physical Abuse--Is This Practice Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Nixon, G. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of oblique chest views in the diagnosis of rib fractures when used as a routine part of the skeletal survey performed for possible physical abuse. Methods: Oblique chest views have been part of the routine skeletal survey protocol at Primary Children's Medical Center since October 2002. Dictated radiology reports…

  5. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  6. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  7. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  8. Relationship Between Hospital Performance on a Patient Satisfaction Survey and Surgical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Greg D; Lawson, Elise H; Dawes, Aaron J; Russell, Marcia M; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Zingmond, David S; Ko, Clifford Y

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services include patient experience as a core component of its Value-Based Purchasing program, which ties financial incentives to hospital performance on a range of quality measures. However, it remains unclear whether patient satisfaction is an accurate marker of high-quality surgical care. To determine whether hospital performance on a patient satisfaction survey is associated with objective measures of surgical quality. Retrospective observational study of participating American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS NSQIP) hospitals. We used data from a linked database of Medicare inpatient claims, ACS NSQIP, the American Hospital Association annual survey, and Hospital Compare from December 2, 2004, through December 31, 2008. A total of 103 866 patients older than 65 years undergoing inpatient surgery were included. Hospitals were grouped by quartile based on their performance on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. Controlling for preoperative risk factors, we created hierarchical logistic regression models to predict the occurrence of adverse postoperative outcomes based on a hospital's patient satisfaction scores. Thirty-day postoperative mortality, major and minor complications, failure to rescue, and hospital readmission. Of the 180 hospitals, the overall mean patient satisfaction score was 68.0% (first quartile mean, 58.7%; fourth quartile mean, 76.7%). Compared with patients treated at hospitals in the lowest quartile, those at the highest quartile had significantly lower risk-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99), failure to rescue (odds ratio = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96), and minor complication (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99). This translated to relative risk reductions of 11.1% (P = .04), 12.6% (P = .02), and 11.5% (P = .04), respectively. No significant relationship was noted between patient satisfaction

  9. Borderline personality symptoms and work performance: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juurlink, Trees T; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Femke; van Marle, Hein J F; Anema, Johannes R; de Graaf, Ron; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2018-06-19

    This study aims to elucidate the interplay between borderline personality symptoms and working conditions as a pathway for impaired work performance among workers in the general population. Cross-sectional data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2) were used, including 3672 workers. Borderline personality symptoms were measured with the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) questionnaire. Working conditions (decision latitude, psychological job demands, job security and co-worker support) were assessed with the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Impaired work performance was assessed as total work loss days per month, defined as the sum of days of three types of impaired work performance (inability to work, cut-down to work, and diminished quality at work). These were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Common mental disorders (CMD) were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Number of borderline personality symptoms was consistently associated with impaired work performance, even after controlling for type or number of adverse working conditions and co-occurrence of CMD. Borderline personality symptoms were associated with low decision latitude, job insecurity and low co-worker support. The relationship between borderline personality symptoms and work performance diminished slightly after controlling for type or number of working conditions. The current study shows that having borderline personality symptoms is a unique determinant of work performance. This association seems partially explained through the impact of borderline personality symptoms on working conditions. Future studies are warranted to study causality and should aim at diminishing borderline personality symptoms and coping with working conditions.

  10. Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Sala

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE, trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%. The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius and surmullet (Mullus spp and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus. The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus, even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.

  11. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article investigates the formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. The relevance of this article due to the need to systematize the individual areas of water law, including the protection of water and sanitation of the twentieth century. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The article devoted to the study of formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. Paper objective. The relevance of this article due to the need to identify viable methods and instruments of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water during the formation of the main areas of water legislation of Ukraine in the twentieth century. Terms used in the legal protection of water, sanitary water use rules, the bodies of sanitary supervision, the state sanitary inspection. Conclusions. Research in the field of water legislation, and therefore the individual concerned and its protection issues, many scientists were engaged as ecologists and environmentalists. However, the special historical and legal work in a range twentieth century. no. This gap makes it difficult to analyze the current state of affairs in the field of sanitary protection of water. Detection of historical stages of development of water legislation in this area, identifying the main patterns and dynamics of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water in specific historical circumstances will improve the current regime of water protection. The author analyzes the main laws and regulations in the field of materials of

  12. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 2. COUNTIES: BROWARD, CALHOUN, CHARLOTTE, CITRUS, CLAY, COLLIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  13. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  14. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Nash

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  15. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith; Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  16. Frameworks for Performing on Cloud Automated Software Testing Using Swarm Intelligence Algorithm: Brief Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys on Cloud Based Automated Testing Software that is able to perform Black-box testing, White-box testing, as well as Unit and Integration Testing as a whole. In this paper, we discuss few of the available automated software testing frameworks on the cloud. These frameworks are found to be more efficient and cost effective because they execute test suites over a distributed cloud infrastructure. One of the framework effectiveness was attributed to having a module that accepts manual test cases from users and it prioritize them accordingly. Software testing, in general, accounts for as much as 50% of the total efforts of the software development project. To lessen the efforts, one the frameworks discussed in this paper used swarm intelligence algorithms. It uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for complete path coverage to minimize time and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO for regression testing to ensure backward compatibility.

  17. Practical and theoretical basis for performing redox-measurements in compacted bentonite. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A.

    2008-12-01

    This report reviews the state-of-the-art with regard to redox measurements, especially in compacted water saturated bentonite, but also in natural systems like sediments and ground waters. Both theoretical and practical aspects of redox measurements are discussed, as well as some basic concepts like terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) and oxidative capacity (OXC). The problems associated with the interpretation of measured electrode potentials are treated. Despite many practical and theoretical difficulties, redox measurements continue to be carried out by researchers all over the world. The over-all conclusion from the literature survey is that fruitful redox-measurements can be performed in compacted bentonite. Irrespective of whether the measured redox potentials are absolute or not, the use of electrodes provide a valuable tool for studying, e.g., long-term changes in the pore water of compacted bentonite and/or the diffusion of oxygen into a bentonite. (orig.)

  18. Training Family Medicine Residents to Perform Home Visits: A CERA Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairenji, Tomoko; Wilson, Stephen A; D'Amico, Frank; Peterson, Lars E

    2017-02-01

    Home visits have been shown to improve quality of care, save money, and improve outcomes. Primary care physicians are in an ideal position to provide these visits; of note, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education no longer requires home visits as a component of family medicine residency training. To investigate changes in home visit numbers and expectations, attitudes, and approaches to training among family medicine residency program directors. This research used the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) national survey of family medicine program directors in 2015. Questions addressed home visit practices, teaching and evaluation methods, common types of patient and visit categories, and barriers. There were 252 responses from 455 possible respondents, representing a response rate of 55%. At most programs, residents performed 2 to 5 home visits by graduation in both 2014 (69% of programs, 174 of 252) and 2015 (68%, 172 of 252). The vast majority (68%, 172 of 252) of program directors expect less than one-third of their graduates to provide home visits after graduation. Scheduling difficulties, lack of faculty time, and lack of resident time were the top 3 barriers to residents performing home visits. There appeared to be no decline in resident-performed home visits in family medicine residencies 1 year after they were no longer required. Family medicine program directors may recognize the value of home visits despite a lack of few formal curricula.

  19. Survey of mammography practice in Croatia: Equipment performance, image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, D.; Stimac, D.; Ivezic, Z.; Kasabasic, M.; Ivkovic, A.; Posedel, D.; Kubelka, D.; Ilakovac, V.; Brnic, Z.; Bjelac, O.C.

    2008-01-01

    A national audit of mammography equipment performance, image quality and dose has been conducted in Croatia. Film-processing parameters, optical density (OD), average glandular dose (AGD) to the standard breast, viewing conditions and image quality were examined using TOR(MAM) test object. Average film gradient ranged from 2.6 to 3.7, with a mean of 3.1. Tube voltage used for imaging of the standard 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate phantom ranged from 24 to 34 kV, and OD ranged from 0.75 to 1.94 with a mean of 1.26. AGD to the standard breast ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 mGy with a mean of 1.1 mGy. Besides clinical conditions, the authors have imaged the standard phantom in the referent conditions with 28 kV and OD as close as possible to 1.5. Then, AGD ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 mGy with a mean of 1.3 mGy. Image viewing conditions were generally unsatisfying with ambient light up to 500 lx and most of the viewing boxes with luminance between 1000 and 2000 cd per m 2 . TOR(MAM) scoring of images taken in clinical and referent conditions was done by local radiologists in local image viewing conditions and by the referent radiologist in good image viewing conditions. Importance of OD and image viewing conditions for diagnostic information were analysed. The survey showed that the main problem in Croatia is the lack of written quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Consequently, equipment performance, image quality and dose are unstable and activities to improve image quality or to reduce the dose are not evidence-based. This survey also had an educational purpose, introducing in Croatia the QC based on European Commission Guidelines. (authors)

  20. What Do K-12 Teachers Think about Including Student Surveys in Their Performance Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Sheldon, Timothy D.; Lim, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated K-12 teachers' opinions about the use of student surveys as a component of a teacher evaluation system. Surveys were administered to teachers at the beginning of the school year and again in the spring. Analyses of teachers' responses on the fall survey indicated tentative support for the inclusion of student feedback in…

  1. Survey of image quality and radiographic technique of pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.; Mora, P.; Defaz, M.Y.; Blanco, S.; Leyton, F.; Benavente, T.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Ramirez, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of a survey of entrance surface air kerma values (K e ), image quality and radiographic exposure parameters used in pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America. This study is part of the activities of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/057 whose objective is to optimize the radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The survey was performed in nine hospitals in Argentina (1), Brazil (4), Chile (1), Costa Rica (1), Peru (1) and Ecuador (1). The study group consisted of 462 pediatric patients (Group I- from two days to one year, Group II- from four to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination the exposure parameters (kVp, mAs, focal-spot-to-film distance, etc.) and patient information (gender, height, weight and age) were recorded. The radiographic image quality was evaluated by the local radiologist based on the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images in Pediatrics. The results showed that the exposure parameters used on newborn patients were in the majority outside the 60-65kV range recommended by the European Guidelines for a good radiographic practice. In the case of examinations of patients with age between 4 to 6 years, 80% were performed with a peak tube voltage within the 60-80 kV range, as recommended by the European Guidelines. It was found that none of countries fully comply with the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria and those criteria No. 2 and No. 3 (reproduction of the chest without rotation) received the lowest scores. Probably this occurs because there are no proper patient immobilization devices. The Ke values, for both patient groups, showed a wide dispersion, ranged from 10 μGy to 160μGy for the newborn patients and from 20μGy to 240μGy for infant patients. It is possible to conclude that, in the participating Latin American countries on this project

  2. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  3. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  4. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  5. The anticipated costs analysis and benefit items survey against performing the maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we surveyed the cost and benefit items and evaluated the costs against performing the Maintenance Rule. In the past, only one electric power company had provided the electricity without free competition in Korea. In these days, however, the electric power company was divided into two parts by the sources: atomic and hydraulic generation and thermal-power generation. Therefore, the generation sources that done have competitiveness at the price will be weeded out in the electric power market. Although the preferential goal is on the safe operation at the Nuclear power Plants (NPPs), if too much money is required to maintain or improve the safety of the NPP, the licensee could hesitate to adopt the program related to the safety even though it is a good one. Since the Risk-Informed Applications (RIA) have been using for a plant operation in recent, the condition of a plant might be changed. Therefore, considering the affects of the RIA, a method to keep the capability through the monitoring the maintenance effectiveness has been proposed. However, to perform this, a number of works, continuous collecting data and monitoring the maintenance effectiveness and understanding the reason of degrading capability, should be preceded. Therefore, a lot of man-hour is needed to develop and to manage the application method, and the licensee should pay the costs. Therefore, in the domestic circumstance, it is necessary to evaluate the cost to monitor the maintenance effectiveness. Hence, we are going to examine the cost to perform the MR and its anticipated benefit lists

  6. Schoolgirls' experience and appraisal of menstrual absorbents in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional evaluation of reusable sanitary pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-12-07

    Governments, multinational organisations, and charities have commenced the distribution of sanitary products to address current deficits in girls' menstrual management. The few effectiveness studies conducted have focused on health and education outcomes but have failed to provide quantitative assessment of girls' preferences, experiences of absorbents, and comfort. Objectives of the study were, first, to quantitatively describe girls' experiences with, and ratings of reliability and acceptability of different menstrual absorbents. Second, to compare ratings of freely-provided reusable pads (AFRIpads) to other existing methods of menstrual management. Finally, to assess differences in self-reported freedom of activity during menses according to menstrual absorbent. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from the final survey of a controlled trial of reusable sanitary padand puberty education provision was undertaken. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls from eight schools in rural Uganda. 72 girls who reported using the intervention-provided reusable pads were compared to those using existing improvised methods (predominately new or old cloth). Schoolgirls using reusable pads provided significantly higher ratings of perceived absorbent reliability across activities, less difficulties changing absorbents, and less disgust with cleaning absorbents. There were no significant differences in reports of outside garment soiling (OR 1.00 95%CI 0.51-1.99), or odour (0.84 95%CI 0.40-1.74) during the last menstrual period. When girls were asked if menstruation caused them to miss daily activities there were no differences between those using reusable pads and those using other existing methods. However, when asked about activities avoided during menstruation, those using reusable pads participated less in physical sports, working in the field, fetching water, and cooking. Reusable pads were rated favourably. This translated into some benefits for self

  7. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  8. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places

  9. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  10. [Evaluation of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in public and philanthropic daycare centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana de Novaes; Brasil, Anne Lise Dias; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo using a tool of easy application. Information on the hygienic-sanitary conditions was gathered observing the operational conditions of five public and philanthropic daycare centers in the city of São Paulo. A score was developed for classifying the risks of food contamination. The operational conditions in the kitchens of the studied philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo can result in contamination of the prepared food. Among the most important risk factors for food contamination is the behavior of the workers who handle the food. Training and continuous supervision of the involved personnel are the best and easiest alternatives for assuring the appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions and quality of the food offered to the children in these daycare centers.

  11. The Effect of Marketing Strategies Construct on Firm Performance: Results from Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Akbar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties that face small and medium organization in any field are severe nowadays. The importance of SMEs is vital. Different researchers have proposed different success factors for small and medium organization, like finance, skilled workforce, technology, innovation and most importantly marketing. Marketing is the spine of any organization, through marketing firms bring innovation, awareness of competitors, awareness of products, building relation with customers. A good marketing strategy increases the sale of product for sure. The small and medium organization face difficulties in doing marketing, because of limited finance, limited or unskilled staff, unawareness of marketing strategies, no or less use of media. This paper presents the pilot survey result for the study of effect of marketing strategies construct (entrepreneurial, guerrilla, relationship, ambush, viral and niche marketing, on firm performance. Descriptive statistics, normality, reliability and preliminary factor analysis (EFA test were run, all the data were presented in tables below. The result shows that all the questionnaire were normally distributed, and the outcomes are all normal.

  12. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  13. Availability, Indications, and Technical Performance of Computed Tomographic Colonography: A National Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, V.; Hellstroem, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the availability, indications, and technique of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in Sweden and to investigate opinions on its future role in colon imaging. Material and Methods: In May 2004, a questionnaire on CTC was mailed to all Departments of Radiology in Sweden, and one year later a telephone interview was conducted with the departments that intended to start a CTC service. Results: Ninety-nine departments (83%) answered the questionnaire, indicating that 23/99 (23.2%) offered a CTC service. Reasons for non-implementation of CTC were lack of CTC training in 34/73 (46.6%) and non-availability of multi-detector row CT scanners in 33/73 (45.2%), while 26% were awaiting further scientific documentation on CTC. Incomplete colonoscopy was the main indication for CTC in 21/23 (91.3%) departments performing CTC. Dual positioning, room air insufflation, and thin-slice collimation were used in all the responding departments. The number of CTC studies performed varied from 1-5 (26.1%) to more than 200 (17.4%). Intravenous contrast material was routinely administered by 9/23 (39.1%) departments. Out of 30 (39.5%) departments that in 2004 intended to start CTC, 9 (30%) had done so by June 2005. A total of 32/99 (32.3%) departments had therefore started CTC by June 2005. Half of the departments that replied believed that CTC would absolutely or probably replace barium enema in the future. Conclusion: The survey shows relatively limited diffusion of CTC practice in Sweden, with approximately one-third of radiology departments offering a CTC service, mostly on a small scale. A wider dissemination of CTC requires further scientific documentation of its capability, intensified educational efforts, and additional funding

  14. A Survey of Cultural Infrastructure and Performance in Medical Sciences Universities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives: Recently, the role of universities in developing and education of culture is considered increasingly but Iranian universities have great distance in achieving the desired objectives in this context. So, this study aimed to survey the cultural infrastructure and performance in medical sciences universities of Iran. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was done using researcher-made checklist which its face and content validity were approved by the cultural experts' opinion via statistical indicators. The study was conducted in census method by responses of 25 managers of cultural affairs in medical sciences universities of Iran. The obtained data were analyzed descriptively and results were reported as frequency (percentages for qualitative and mean (standard deviation for quantitative variable. Results: The study results were presented in four areas: “the general status of universities in cultural affairs”, “cultural facilities of the universities”, “the activity of cultural organizations and publications in universities” and “performance of cultural deputies”. The results showed that although there are considerable strengths, the significant weaknesses are evident in all areas. The results of the present study were focused solely on the quantity of functions, and quality evaluation of each activity requires special attention and further investigations and interventions. Conclusion: Researchers hope that the authorities and planners use the results of this study and similar studies especially in quality of cultural practices of universities and move towards improving the status of culture in medical sciences universities in developing Iranian-Islamic culture.

  15. Sanitary services in the perm region during the Great Patriotic war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Horoshavin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the formation of the Medical Service of the (Molotov region during the war. We describe the problems encountered sanitary doctors in the war years, the direction of the main measures to address these problems. It is shown that the organizers of the health service – A.V. Kostina, V.A. Ryazanov, their colleagues have made every effort to prevent epidemics and save health of both local and evacuees. It is showed the role of volunteers, doctors of medical units at the plants, the Department of Health Medical Institute to improve the sanitary conditions in the region.

  16. Cost and performance tradeoffs between mail and internet survey modes in a nonmarket valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2018-01-01

    Using the results of a choice modeling survey, internet, mail-only and mixed internet and mail survey modes were examined with regards to their cost-effectiveness, representativeness, and willingness to pay (WTP). The topical focus of the study was biomass energy generation preferences of the residents of Montana, Colorado and Arizona, USA. Compared to the mail and...

  17. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research performed from earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is one of research facilities on deep underground shown its importance in LPNE, and carries out some researches on the deep underground at a target of the sedimentary rocks. And also The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory confirms some technical reliability and support on stratum disposal shown in the 'Technical reliability on stratum disposal of the high level radioactive wastes. The Second Progress Report of R and D on geological disposal' summarized on November, 1999 by JNC through actual tests and researches at the deep stratum. The obtained results are intended to reflect to disposal business of The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and safety regulation and so on performed by the government, together with results of stratum science research, at the Tono Geoscience Center, of geological disposal R and D at the Tokai Works, or of international collaborations. For R and D at the The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory after 2000, following subjects are shown: 1) Survey technique on long-term stability of geological environment, 2) Survey technique on geological environment, 3) Engineering technique on engineered barrier and

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... steady sound level which in 8 hours would contain the same acoustic energy as the time-varying sound... changed regularly. 7. Lavatories. (a) Lavatories should be made available to all rail employees housed in... sanitary condition. (e) Sanitary storage. No food or beverages should be stored in toilet rooms or in an...

  19. Law no. 2001-398 of the 9 may 2001 creating a french Agency of sanitary and environmental safety (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This law text indicates the goal and the missions of the french sanitary and environmental safety Agency, defined by the law no.2001-398: to assure the public health the Agency has to contribute to the the sanitary safety in the environment domain and to evaluate the risk bonded to the environment. (A.L.B)

  20. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  1. Characterization and anaerobic treatment of the sanitary landfill leachate in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, B; Calli, B; Saatci, A

    2000-01-01

    In this study, characterization and anaerobic treatability of leachate from Komurcuoda Sanitary Landfill located on the Asian part of Istanbul were investigated. Time based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored for an 8 month period. Samples were taken from a 200 m3 holding tank located at the lowest elevation of the landfill. COD concentrations have ranged between 18,800 and 47,800 mg/l while BOD5 between 6820 and 38,500 mg/L. COD and BOD5 values were higher in summer and lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. On the other hand, it was quite interesting that such a dilution effect was not observed for ammonia. The highest ammonia concentration, 2690 mg/L was in November 1998. BOD5/COD ratio was larger than 0.7 for most samples indicating high biodegradability, and acidic phase of decomposition in the landfill. For anaerobic treatability, three different reactors, namely an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor, an anaerobic upflow filter and a hybrid bed reactor, were used. The anaerobic reactors were operated for more than 230 days and were continuing operation when this paper was prepared. Organic loading was increased gradually from 1.3 kg COD/m3.day to 8.2 kg COD/m3.day while hydraulic retention time was reduced from 2.4 days to 2.0 days. All the reactors showed similar performances against organic loadings with efficiencies between 80% and 90%. However the reactors have experienced high ammonia concentrations several times throughout the experimental period, and showed different inhibition levels. Anaerobic filter was the least affected reactor while UASB was the most. Hybrid bed reactor has exhibited a similar performance to anaerobic filter although not to the same degree.

  2. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  3. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  4. The relationships between pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20 to 59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 12 pesticide metabolites included 2 naphthols, 8 phenols, a phenoxyacetic acid, and a pyridinol. The 3 neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. As the 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and the pentachlorophenol concentrations increased, performance on the serial digit learning test improved. As the 2,5-dichlorophenol concentration increased, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test improved. At low concentrations, the parent compounds of these metabolites may act at acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid synapses in the central nervous system to improve neurobehavioral test performance.

  5. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. 141.401 Section 141.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... an evaluation of the applicable components listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (8) of this section... facilities, and controls, (6) Monitoring, reporting, and data verification, (7) System management and...

  6. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    with the algae area A6. For editorial reasons, the production areas are regarded under one term “Løgstør Broads’, knowing that the production areas also include other bordering geographical areas. The covered production areas within Løgstør Broads are marked as A6 The report recommends a microbiological sampling...

  7. Market attractiveness Energy Performance Certificate for Buildings. Analysis of the survey results. Country report for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobben, M.M.H.; Hoogelander, K.J.; Schorel, J.S.; Corpeleijn, M.F.; Hezelmans, A.; Verhoef, L.A.

    2006-09-01

    The STABLE project aims at launching a collaborative effort of national energy agencies and federations of building owners in order to establish a firm basis for market acceptance of building energy certification as defined in the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. This report presents the results of a survey for the Netherlands. [nl

  8. Mini Survey Data for the Advancing National Integration in Georgia Activity Mid-term Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — During the course of an evaluation, the Evaluation Team conducted a mini-survey among the members of the 13 youth centers supported under a program to promote...

  9. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of GPR performance at various frequencies - a guide to improved survey design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, Thabang E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate, through practical examples and numerical modelling, the trade-off between range and resolution in ground penetrating radar (GPR) prospecting. GPR surveys can easily fail when the target and host rock properties...

  11. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  12. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Grabowski

    2017-11-01

    The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document “Health for All in the 21st Century” and the reduction of “health inequalities”.

  13. Extra environmental impact assessment and recommendable measures for their minimization in arranging sanitary inspection room site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Paskevich, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments during the works for preparation of sanitary inspection room site are presented. A range of measures to minimize environmental impact from the works to be implemented,is offered. Impacts on such environmental components as soil,air and aqueous medium,are considered

  14. Design of manuals sanitary landfills (II). Diseo de rellenos sanitarios manuales (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This period includes engineering projects, landscape and details of building; taking into account the circumstances that govern them, it must be made looking at the simplicity and quickness required to these type of works and trying to respect sanitary requirements. (Author)

  15. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  17. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  18. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  19. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from

  20. Innovative in situ treatment approach for DOE Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.; Suer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to a settlement agreement reached between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site will be closed. This paper addresses the approach used to select the innovative in situ treatment alternative for the groundwater and the vadose zone associated with the landfill

  1. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY.... Construction on Barrier IIB has been completed. Operational and safety testing was conducted in February 2011... dispersal barrier IIA and IIB. This safety zone will be enforced daily from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. and from 1 p.m...

  2. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... installations and at the surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of...

  3. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements. 71.500 Section 71.500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  4. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  5. French people and renewable energies. Results of the survey performed by IPSOS for the SER - January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Power Point document presents, under the form of tables, graphs and figures, the results of a survey performed in December 2012 on a representative sample of 1012 persons over 18 year old. This survey addressed the energy issue within the public debate and action (knowledge of the issue and debate on energy transition, opinion on the importance of the issue of energy in the government's action), the perception of the various renewable energies, the development of renewable energies, and the knowledge and use of the different renewable energies

  6. Perception survey on the introduction of clinical performance examination as part of the national nursing licensing examination in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze opinions about the action plan for implementation of clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing examination and presents the expected effects of the performance exam and aspects to consider regarding its implementation. Methods This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire survey, while qualitative data were collected by focus group interviews with experts. The survey targeted 200 nursing professors and clinical nurses with more than 5 years of work experience, and the focus group interviews were conducted with 28 of professors, clinical instructors, and nurses at hospitals. Results First, nursing professors and clinical specialists agreed that the current written tests have limitations in evaluating examinees’ ability, and that the introduction of a clinical performance exam will yield positive results. Clinical performance exam is necessary to evaluate and improve nurses’ work ability, which means that the implementation of a performance exam is advisable if its credibility and validity can be verified. Second, most respondents chose direct performance exams using simulators or standardized patients as the most suitable format of the test. Conclusion In conclusion, the current national nursing licensing exam is somewhat limited in its ability to identify competent nurses. Thus, the time has come for us to seriously consider the introduction of a performance exam. The prerequisites for successfully implementing clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing exam are a professional training process and forming a consortium to standardize practical training.

  7. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  8. Using iMCFA to Perform the CFA, Multilevel CFA, and Maximum Model for Analyzing Complex Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Lin, John J H

    2018-01-01

    To construct CFA, MCFA, and maximum MCFA with LISREL v.8 and below, we provide iMCFA (integrated Multilevel Confirmatory Analysis) to examine the potential multilevel factorial structure in the complex survey data. Modeling multilevel structure for complex survey data is complicated because building a multilevel model is not an infallible statistical strategy unless the hypothesized model is close to the real data structure. Methodologists have suggested using different modeling techniques to investigate potential multilevel structure of survey data. Using iMCFA, researchers can visually set the between- and within-level factorial structure to fit MCFA, CFA and/or MAX MCFA models for complex survey data. iMCFA can then yield between- and within-level variance-covariance matrices, calculate intraclass correlations, perform the analyses and generate the outputs for respective models. The summary of the analytical outputs from LISREL is gathered and tabulated for further model comparison and interpretation. iMCFA also provides LISREL syntax of different models for researchers' future use. An empirical and a simulated multilevel dataset with complex and simple structures in the within or between level was used to illustrate the usability and the effectiveness of the iMCFA procedure on analyzing complex survey data. The analytic results of iMCFA using Muthen's limited information estimator were compared with those of Mplus using Full Information Maximum Likelihood regarding the effectiveness of different estimation methods.

  9. Performance testing of an air/water heat pump using CO{sub 2} (R744) as refrigerant for the preparation of sanitary hot water in a hospital; Mesures des donnees energetiques d'une pompe a chaleur air/eau au CO{sub 2} (R744) pour preparation d'eau chaude sanitaire dans un hopital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the monitoring equipment and the results of performance tests made on a prototype heat pump of 60 kW power output used for hot water production at the hospital of Le Locle, Switzerland. The heat pump uses carbon dioxide (R744) as the working fluid and ambient air as the heat source. The heat output and the coefficient of performance for various values of cold water temperature and air temperature have been measured. The practically measured values of heat output and COP showed a low reproducibility and remained far behind the theoretical values given by the manufacturer. Instead of producing hot water at 80 {sup o}C as intended originally the authors recommend to use the heat pump only for preheating the water to 60 {sup o}C.

  10. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  11. A Proposal to Increase Employee Performance Through Employee Engagement Survey in PT KBI

    OpenAIRE

    Harvid, Albertus; Gustomo, Aurik

    2013-01-01

    PT. Karunia Berca Indonesia (KBI) is one of the best steel galvanizing factory in Indonesia. KBI have some problems like lack of willingness to train, lack of employee development program, and lack of facilities. That 3 factors are performance indicator. Low on employee performance will decrease the revenue. With root cause analysis can be found the main problem in PT KBI is lack of performance. To increase employee performance, KBI must determine the engagement for the employee using employe...

  12. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined

  13. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  14. [Malaria in the southern sanitary district of Dakar (Senegal). 2. Entomologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Konate, L; Faye, O; Ndir, O; Faye, M; Gueye, A; Diouf, M

    1998-01-01

    To complete a parasitological survey, entomological prospections were carried out in the southern sanitary District of Dakar, the most urbanized of the city and which includes the city centre and the oldest administrative districts. The prospections took place between June 1994 and May 1995 in sites 1.5 km apart, and distributed in such a manner that they covered the entire area. On a monthly basis, female Culicidae were collected in each site at night on human volunteers, followed the next day by the collection of early morning residual fauna in 10 bedrooms located in district concessions. For a total of 308 collections at night on human volunteers and from 1,510 rooms for the residual fauna, 22,901 female Culicidae were caught of which 167 anopheles, corresponding to 0.7%, the remaining 98.5% being Culex quinquefasciatus. This was the species that thus explained the mosquito-nuisance of which the inhabitants of the southern District complained during the period of survey. The female anopheles collected belonged to 2 species, An. arabiensis for 97.6% of those caught and An. pharoensis for 2.4%. An. arabiensis were very slightly represented in the southern District with a density of aggressive females of 0.26 bite/man/night (B/M/N) and a density per room of 0.05 female. The aggressive populations appeared to be relatively important only at the end of the rainy season (September-October) with an average of 0.65 B/M/N in sites located at the periphery of the district with a maximum of 1.33 B/M/N. The highest density of endophilic females registered at the end of the rainy season was 0.1 and its highest value in a given site was 0.36 female/room. The parturity rate of aggressive females was 43.5% and those collected in houses of 84% with an anthropophilic index of 0.98. None of the dissected An. arabiensis females (77.3% of those collected) was a carrier of Plasmodium sporozoites and the circum-sporozoite antigen was not found. A very weak density of An. arabiensis

  15. A Survey of U.S. Atlanta and Nagano Olympians: Variables Perceived to Influence Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel; Greenleaf, Christy; Chung, Yongchul; Guinan, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Examined the frequency and magnitude of specific variables perceived to have affected U.S. Olympic athletes' performance. Respondents perceived that performance was influenced by: performance variables (e.g., preparation for distraction); team variables (e.g., strong cohesion); coaching variables (e.g., coaching expectations); family-friend…

  16. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  17. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

  18. [Burnout syndrome among medical residents during the influenza A H1N1 sanitary contigency in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austria-Corrales, Fernando; Cruz-Valdés, Beatriz; Herrera-Kiengelher, Loredmy; Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    To measure the degree of stress among medical residents at a Third Level Hospital in Mexico City during the sanitary contingency caused by the AH1N1 influenza virus. A transversal descriptive study with a non-probabilistic sample of 99 medical residents with different fields of specialization related to respiratory medicine. Researchers applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire to evaluate three dimensions: emotional fatigue, depersonalization, and personal fulfillment. The survey was self-administered and anonymous, and the study was conducted during the first AH1N1 influenza virus outbreak (April 23 to May 10, 2009). During that period, the hospital underwent a process of reorganization that included cancelling vacation periods for all medical residents and adjusting duty rosters. The highest proportion of medical residents with burnout syndrome was those in their second year of specialization in the area of pneumology. Results also showed that medical residents under 30 years of age had a higher probability of presenting burnout syndrome. No significant differences were found regarding the residents’ place of origin.

  19. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  1. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  2. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  3. Frequency of anti hepatitis C virus antibodies amongst sanitary workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.Z.; Razzaq, K.; Ansari, J.K.; Niazzi, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti Hepatitis C Virus antibodies in sanitary workers at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to identify additional risk factors in them for hepatitis C infection. Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Department of medicine, Military Hospital (M.H.), Rawalpindi, Pakistan over six months. Patients and Methods: All sanitary workers working at Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA. Results: Six percent of the study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: The frequency of anti HCV antibodies is fairly high in sanitary workers, working in this tertiary care hospital studied. HCV infection is more frequent in those sanitary workers who have longer duration of service. (author)

  4. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY-HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTILAYER POLYMER FILMS USED FOR VACUUM PACKAGING MODIFIED BY NATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research works related to investigation of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of multilayer polymer film materials where the inner layer contacting directly with food product is modified by native antimicrobial components.

  6. Veterinary-sanitary supervision of food from radiation-hygienic aspect in border crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Kljajic, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we presented the result of radiation control for imported food under the veterinary-sanitary supervision with radiation-hygienic aspect. The activity level of 137 Cs was from background to 18,8 Bq/kg and determined by gamma spectrometry. We discussed about results because 137 Cs relevance for radiation-hygienic certification and some samples of food was not satisfied maximum permitted levels. (author)

  7. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; José Imanã Encinas; Rodrigo Studart Corrêa; Antônio Felipe Couto Júnior

    2008-01-01

    This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB) on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrat...

  8. Biogas recuperation in sanitary landfills; Recuperacao de biogas em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luiz Mario Queiroz [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work shoes a retrospective about recovering biogas activity in sanitary landfill, where in the genesis of methane is emphasized. Also, a conceptual review was made and discussed focusing the technological aspects of the landfill methods. Further, two important aspects of the genesis of methane were discussed: the enhancement mechanisms for acceleration of the formation of methane and the production of biological input from leachate in landfill. (author) 36 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from public space through their redirection into large underground networks. Currently, the first attempt by the city government to construct a citywide sewerage network since the colonial period is taking p...

  10. Discussion of 10 CRF 20 rules for waste of effluents in sanitary sewerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.

    1986-12-01

    An interpretation of the Code of Federal Regulations, volume 10 part 20 (10 CFR 20) from Nuclear Regulatory Commission is proposed, aiming at his easier use in waste of radioactive liquid effluents to the environment, by sanitary sewerage. The study is based on recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICPR 2) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection). (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Kênia Machado de; André,Maria Cláudia Porfirio; Campos,Maria Raquel Hidalgo; Díaz,Mário Ernesto Piscoya

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  12. Using the Malcolm Baldrige "are we making progress" survey for organizational self-assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Judith A; Jennings, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    A national healthcare company applied the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and its "Are We Making Progress?" survey as an annual organizational self-assessment to identify areas for improvement. For 6 years, Liberty Healthcare Corporation reviewed the survey results on an annual basis to analyze positive and negative trends, monitor company progress toward targeted goals and develop new initiatives to address emerging areas for improvement. As such, the survey provided a simple and inexpensive methodology to gain useful information from employees at all levels and from multiple service sites and business sectors. In particular, it provided a valuable framework for assessing and improving the employees' commitment to the company's mission and values, high standards and ethics, quality of work, and customer satisfaction. The methodology also helped the company to incorporate the philosophy and principles of continuous quality improvement in a unified fashion. Corporate and local leadership used the same measure to evaluate the performance of individual programs relative to each other, to the company as a whole, and to the "best practices" standard of highly successful companies that received the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  13. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O; Aschieri, A [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  14. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  15. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  16. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  17. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  18. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  19. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  20. The Development of a Novel, Validated, Rapid and Simple Method for the Detection of Sarcocystis fayeri in Horse Meat in the Sanitary Control Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masato; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yagita, Kenji; Mori, Hideto; Uemura, Taku; Etoh, Yoshiki; Maeda, Eriko; Sasaki, Mari; Ichinose, Kazuya; Harada, Seiya; Kamata, Yoichi; Otagiri, Masaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis fayeri (S. fayeri) is a newly identified causative agent of foodborne disease that is associated with the consumption of raw horse meat. The testing methods prescribed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan are time consuming and require the use of expensive equipment and a high level of technical expertise. Accordingly, these methods are not suitable for use in the routine sanitary control setting to prevent outbreaks of foodborne disease. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new, rapid and simple testing method using LAMP, which takes only 1 hour to perform and which does not involve the use of any expensive equipment or expert techniques. For the validation of this method, an inter-laboratory study was performed among 5 institutes using 10 samples infected with various concentrations of S. fayeri. The results of the inter-laboratory study demonstrated that our LAMP method could detect S. fayeri at concentrations greater than 10(4) copies/g. Thus, this new method could be useful in screening for S. fayeri as a routine sanitary control procedure.

  1. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Riera-Montes, Margarita; Nackers, Fabienne; Roederer, Thomas; Koudika, Marie Hortense; Sekkenes, Johanne; Taconet, Aurore; Fermon, Florence; Touré, Albouhary; Grais, Rebecca F; Checchi, Francesco

    2012-10-12

    Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS) approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. We explored (i) the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii) the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i) health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii) health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii) health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3), standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15) are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  2. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. Methods We explored (i the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. Results VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3, standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Conclusions Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15 are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  3. A survey on impact of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction on employees’ performance in Iranian hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of employees’ Emotional Intelligence (EI, Job Satisfaction (JS and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB on Employee's Performance (EP in Iranian hotel industry. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 225 employees who have a high interaction with customers in hotel industry. In order to describe the data, the frequency distribution tables have been used and the structural equations model (SEM has been used to describe the data. The results of this survey have confirmed all the proposed hypotheses of this survey except the one, which was associated with the relationship between OCB on EP. Therefore, EI have positive impacts on JS, OCB and EP in Iranian hotel industry. Conclusion and Managerial implications have been offers.

  4. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-10-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO 2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha -1 exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha -1 . Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  5. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  6. A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Johann F; Nutsch, Abbey L; Barbur, Laura A; Bradburn, Ryan M

    2010-03-03

    Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond to these challenges there is a need for more data on management practices that are commonly used in cattle production systems. The objective of this survey was to describe castration methods, adverse events and husbandry procedures performed by U.S. veterinarians at the time of castration. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to email addresses of 1,669 members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and 303 members of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants. After partially completed surveys and missing data were omitted, 189 responses were included in the analysis. Surgical castration with a scalpel followed by testicular removal by twisting (calves 90 kg) was the most common method of castration used. The potential risk of injury to the operator, size of the calf, handling facilities and experience with the technique were the most important considerations used to determine the method of castration used. Swelling, stiffness and increased lying time were the most prevalent adverse events observed following castration. One in five practitioners report using an analgesic or local anesthetic at the time of castration. Approximately 90% of respondents indicated that they vaccinate and dehorn calves at the time of castration. Over half the respondents use disinfectants, prophylactic antimicrobials and tetanus toxoid to reduce complications following castration. The results of this survey describe current methods of castration and associated management practices employed by

  7. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. III. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Sugiyama, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D.; Zahid, J.; Kewley, L. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova, Italy, EU (Italy); Rodighiero, G.; Baronchelli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Juneau, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Hα emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6–1.8 μm) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with 1.4 < z < 1.7 and M{sub stellar} ≳ 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. With the high multiplex capability of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over 1000 galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R ∼ 2600) effectively separates Hα and [N ii]λ6585, thus enabling studies of the gas-phase metallicity and photoionization state of the interstellar medium. The primary aim of our program is to establish how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection places priority on those detected in the far-infrared by Herschel/PACS to assess the level of obscured star formation and investigate, in detail, outliers from the star formation rate (SFR)—stellar mass relation. Galaxies with Hα detections are followed up with FMOS observations at shorter wavelengths using the J-long (1.11–1.35 μm) grating to detect Hβ and [O iii]λ5008 which provides an assessment of the extinction required to measure SFRs not hampered by dust, and an indication of embedded active galactic nuclei. With 460 redshifts measured from 1153 spectra, we assess the performance of the instrument with respect to achieving our goals, discuss inherent biases in the sample, and detail the emission-line properties. Our higher-level data products, including catalogs and spectra, are available to the community.

  8. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  9. A survey on existing challenges of BSC implementation for performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Gitinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The balanced scorecard (BSC is a strategic oriented tool used comprehensively in profit and nonprofit organizations all over the world to synchronize routine processes of organizations to the mission and strategy, improve inner and outter communications, control organization performance toward strategic targets. BSC has emerged from a simple performance measurement framework to a comprehensive strategic management system. It changes an organization’s strategic plan from a passive document to an active guideline for the organization on a daily basis and provides a helpful assistance that not only enables performance measurements, but also helps planners identify what should be accomplished and measured. This study focuses on how BSC is adopted as a tool for measuring effectiveness of strategy implementation in these organizations. This study adapts the BSC as a powerful tool for reaching an organization’s performance in four significant areas: Financial perspective, Customer-Market perspective, Internal Processes perspective and Learning & Growth perspective. The results suggest that governmental organizations are somehow successful in achieving their objectives in various degrees.

  10. Internal and external use of performance information in public organisations: Results from an international executive survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); V. Štimac (Vid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This paper analyses determinants of public managers´ internal and external use of performance information. Using a sample of over 3100 top public sector executives in six European countries, we find evidence for significant country variations, with a more limited use of

  11. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  12. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. The impact of energy performance certificates: A survey of German home owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amecke, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The building sector accounts for about 40% of the final energy consumption in Germany. At the same time, the sector is regarded as one of the most cost-effective options for saving CO 2 emissions. To target this potential, the European Union introduced energy performance certificates (EPC). EPCs should provide clear information about the energy performance of buildings to building purchasers, owners and tenants. This study analyses, in how far EPCs have helped purchasers of owner-occupied dwellings in Germany to incorporate energy efficiency in their purchasing decisions. The results suggest that the effectiveness of EPCs is limited. Main reasons are first, that the certificates are not helpful for understanding the financial implications of energy efficiency. Second, EPCs are not viewed for most buildings due to their legal status. Third, energy efficiency is only a minor purchasing criterion for dwelling purchases. The results of the study however also point to the potential of EPCs, as these barriers can be removed. From 2013 onwards the use of the EPC will be increased due to the new EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Changes to the design of the EPC could further increase the importance of energy performance certificates and of energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► Study examines impact of EU energy performance certificate on German housing market. ► Low impact of EPC on purchasing decisions found. ► Reasons are limitations in design, legal status, importance of energy efficiency. ► Study is relevant because of low previous coverage and because of update of directive.

  14. Sanitary and hygienic assessment of polyurethane foam compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N. (Donetskii NII Gigieny Truda i Professional' nykh Zabolevanii (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Describes and presents the results of a long-term study performed by the Skochinski Institute and DonUGI into the suitability of various Soviet and foreign polyurethane foams as rock strengtheners in coal mines. Concludes that although further research is needed to clarify the effect of polyurethane absorbed by coal particles and on pneumoconioses, the industrial use of injectable polyisocyanite-based polyurethanes in amounts of up to 1 t/shift and with a minimum air exchange rate of 300 m{sup 3}/min is feasible as long as the safety laws are strictly observed. Those working with this material should be given a medical examination at least once a year. If the substance comes into contact with the skin or eyes, they should be washed with a 1-3% solution of sodium bicarbonate and then pure water; if it contaminates protective clothing this should be degassed in a 5-10% solution of ammonia for 24 hours and then washed. Due to the risk of toxic substances being released from the components of the polyurethane in the event of an endogenic fire, all workers should be equipped with their own personal breathing apparatus.

  15. Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routine and supplemental immunization activities is usually measured by the administrative method: dividing the number of doses distributed by the size of the target population. This method leads to coverage estimates that are sometimes impossible (e.g., vaccination of 102% of the target population, and are generally inconsistent with the proportion found to be vaccinated in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. We describe a method that estimates the fraction of the population accessible to vaccination activities, as well as within-campaign inefficiencies, thus providing a consistent estimate of vaccination coverage.We developed a likelihood framework for estimating the effective coverage of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys of vaccine coverage combined with administrative data. We applied our method to measles vaccination in three African countries: Ghana, Madagascar, and Sierra Leone, using data from each country's most recent DHS survey and administrative coverage data reported to the World Health Organization. We estimate that 93% (95% CI: 91, 94 of the population in Ghana was ever covered by any measles vaccination activity, 77% (95% CI: 78, 81 in Madagascar, and 69% (95% CI: 67, 70 in Sierra Leone. "Within-activity" inefficiencies were estimated to be low in Ghana, and higher in Sierra Leone and Madagascar. Our model successfully fits age-specific vaccination coverage levels seen in DHS data, which differ markedly from those predicted by naïve extrapolation from country-reported and World Health Organization-adjusted vaccination coverage.Combining administrative data with survey data substantially improves estimates of vaccination coverage. Estimates of the inefficiency of past vaccination activities and the proportion not covered by any activity allow us to more accurately predict the results of future activities and provide insight into the ways in which vaccination programs are failing to meet their

  16. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  17. Survey: technique of performing intravitreal injection among members of the Brazilian Retina and Vitreous Society (SBRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio F. Shiroma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and describe the precautions involved in the technique of intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs adopted by the ophthalmologists who are members of the Brazilian Society of Retina and Vitreous (SBRV. Methods: A questionnaire containing 22 questions related to precautions taken before, during, and after intravitreal injection was sent electronically to 920 members of SBRV between November 15, 2013 and April 31, 2014. Results: 352 responses (38% were obtained. There was a predominance of men (76% from the southwest region of Brazil (51%. The professional experience varied between 6 and 15 years after medical specialization (50%. Most professionals (76% performed an average of 1 to 10 intravitreal injections a week, and 88% of the procedures were performed in the operating room using povidone iodine (99%, sterile gloves, and blepharostat (94%. For inducing topical anesthesia, usage of anesthetic eye drops was the most used technique (65%. Ranibizumab (Lucentis® was the most common drug (55%, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD was the most treated disease (57%. Regarding the complications treated, 6% of the ophthalmologists had treated at least one case of retinal detachment, 20% had treated cases of endophthalmitis, 9% had treated cases of vitreous hemorrhage, and 12% had encountered cases of crystalline lens touch. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection is a procedure routinely performed by retina specialists and has a low incidence of complications. Performing the procedure in the operating room using an aseptic technique was preferred by most of the respondents. Ranibizumab was the most used drug, and AMD was the most treated disease.

  18. Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Fairlie; Alicia Robb

    2008-01-01

    Using confidential microdata from the U.S. Census Bureau, we investigate the performance of female-owned businesses, making comparisons to male-owned businesses. Using regression estimates and a decomposition technique, we explore the role that human capital, especially through prior work experience, and financial capital play in contributing to why female-owned businesses have lower survival rates, profits, employment and sales. We find that female-owned businesses are less successful...

  19. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron radiation field of the Northern Hemisphere sky. The design follows the digital processing trends in radio astronomy and implements a large bandwidth (1 GHz) digital complex cross-correlator to extract the Stokes parameters of the incoming synchrotron radiation field. The hardware constraints cover the implemented VLSI hardware description language code and the preliminary results. The implementation is based on the simultaneous digitized acquisition of the Cartesian components of the two linear receiver polarization channels. The design strategy involves a double data rate acquisition of the ADC interleaved parallel bus, and field programmable gate array device programming at the register transfer mode. The digital core of the back-end is capable of processing 32 Gbps and is built around an Altera field programmable gate array clocked at 250 MHz, 1 GSps analog to digital converters and a clock generator. The control of the field programmable gate array internal signal delays and a convenient use of its phase locked loops provide the timing requirements to achieve the target bandwidths and sensitivity. This solution is convenient for radio astronomy experiments requiring large bandwidth, high functionality, high volume availability and low cost. Of particular interest, this correlator was developed for the Galactic Emission Mapping project and is suitable for large sky area polarization continuum surveys. The solutions may also be adapted to be used at signal processing

  20. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Evans, Sophie; Ponsar, Frederique; Reid, Tony; Bachy, Catherine; Van Herp, Michel; Philips, Mit

    2009-10-24

    In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.

  1. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fagiolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During an oestrus synchronization trial on heifer and mixed-parity Mediterranean Italian buffaloes, some analyses on health parameters were performed to correlate them to reproductive performances (pregnancy rate and birth rate. Serum sampling were performed every year for two years to be used in serological techniques for the diagnosis of Chlamydia spp. (ELISA, Neospora (ELISA, BHV1 (ELISA gE glycoprotein and BVDV (ELISA. On the total number of 465 observed buffaloes, the seroprevalence obtained for each disease has respectively been: 24 %, 25 %, 25 % and 22 %. Specific antibodies were not spread over the 13 farms in an homogeneous manner, farm prevalence differences are evidenced by high standard deviations in the mean farm seroprevalence: 42 ± 27.8, 26 ± 26.9, 20 ± 13.8, 9.8 ± 21.1. Among the buffaloes which resulted seropositive to Chlamydia, 33 % were pregnant, 32 % were those with Neospora, 32 % those with BHV1 and finally 29 % of the animals positive to BVDV resulted pregnant. Taking into account the animals that delivered normally, 41 % were positive to Chlamydia, 18 % to Neospora, 18 % to BHV1 and 19 % to BVDV.

  2. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  3. Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita C. Bragança de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira T.C.B., Curci V.C.L.M, Alves A.J.S., Morelli F.C.G., Buso D.S. & Queiroz L.H. [Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State.] Características higiênicas e sanitárias em propriedades produtoras de leite de assentamento da Região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:321- 326, 2015. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana, 793, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brasil. E-mail: lhqueiroz@fmva.unesp.br In order to check the hygienic and sanitary conditions of milk-producing farms from a settlement located at the northwestern region of São Paulo State, 62 of the resident families (246 people were interviewed by using a questionnaire which addressed since issues concerning to general infrastructure until animal health management. The results showed that: in all the farms water comes from wells and the sewage is disposed in septic tanks; the burning of domestic waste is a common practice in 90.3% of the farms; the average dairy herd cattle is 30.6 and the purchase of new animals is done from other farms within the same settlement; in all properties veterinary care is provided by ITESP’s (Land Institute of São Paulo State technicians and mastitis was the main disease of the herds occurring in 59,7% of the farms. Milk is collected in buckets or drums that are daily cleaned and stored in communal tanks distributed by the settlement. Alizarol is the only test performed every day. 100% of the farmers vaccinate their animals against foot and mouse disease and brucellosis, according to Official vaccination program. 62.9% of the interviewed owners do not eliminate correctly the carcasses. This study shows that properties needs infrastructure improvements, training of settlers to implementing measures of general and health

  4. The environmental impact of informal and home productive arrangement in the jewelry and fashion jewelry chain on sanitary sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Luz, Maciel Santos; Fávaro, Déborah Inês Teixeira; Ferreira, Francisco Jorge; da Silva Paganini, Wanderley; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-04-01

    The outsourcing informal home practices adopted in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain can cause toxic substance elimination in the effluents and raise a concern for its environmental impact. This study evaluates if this informal work alters the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs: As, Cd, Cr total and Cr-VI, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in the sewage network. The sanitary sewage samples (n = 540) were collected in 15 manholes during two campaigns in three different areas of Limeira-SP, Brazil (industrial area, with informal work and without known industrial/informal activity). The sewage sludge (n = 12), raw (n = 12), and treated sewage (n = 12) were collected in two wastewater treatment plants (WWT: AS and TATU) operating with different treatment process. The PTE determination was performed by ICP-OES, direct mercury analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Cr-VI, Cu, Ni, and Zn were the only elements above the quantification limit. Four samples exceeded Cu or Zn values permitted to be discharged into sewage system; however, the concentration average was lower than that established by Brazilian legislation. A difference was found between values above and below the 75th percentile for campaign and total organic carbon values (p < 0.015). The AS-treated sewage presented low concentrations of Cu (p < 0.05), Zn (p = 0.02), and Ni (p = 0.01) compared to treated sewage from TATU. In the sludge samples, the Cu means exceeded the limits of the Brazilian legislation (1500 mg kg -1 ) and the Zn results were very close to the limits (2800 mg kg -1 ). The heterogeneity of the results can indicate the sporadic nature of the PTE's sanitary disposal. PTEs used in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain may precipitate on the sludge, where presented high concentrations of Cu and Zn which require controlled destination.

  5. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  6. Exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant: A comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, Majid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mojarab Soufiyan, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant was conducted in order to pinpoint the locations of thermodynamic inefficiencies. Exergetic performance parameters of each subunit of the plant were determined and illustrated individually through writing and solving energy and exergy balance equations on the basis of real operational data. The required data were acquired from a local ice-cream factory located in Tehran, Iran. The plant included three main subsystems including water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line. An attempt was also made to quantify the specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing process. The functional exergetic efficiency of the water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line was determined at 17.45%, 25.52%, and 5.71%, respectively. The overall functional exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%, while the specific exergy destruction was calculated as 719.80 kJ/kg. In general, exergy analysis and its derivatives could provide invaluable information over the conventional energy analysis, suggesting potential locations for the plant performance improvement. - Highlights: • An ice-cream manufacturing plant was exergetically analyzed using the actual data. • Water steaming unit had the highest irreversibility rate among the plant subunits. • The specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing was 719.80 kJ/kg. • The overall process exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%.

  7. Non-Financial Performance Measurement for Shariah Banks : a Survey to Masyarakat Ekonomi Syariah (MES) Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Septin Puji; Astika, Hari

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of non-financial performance in shariah banks is needed to enhance their market share and to maintain their long-term sustainability. The main aim of this research is to show the position of shariah banks in Surakarta in respect with their non-financial aspects (i.e. product, service, human resource and image) based on opinions given by members of Shariah Economic Society (MES) of Surakarta. Extent analysis for Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to measure the non-financ...

  8. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  9. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chen, Kang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced “My health bank,” a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. Objective This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 (“disagree strongly”) to 5 (“Agree strongly”). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. Results This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65

  10. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Fu-Chung; Hsu, Min-Huei; Chang, Chi-Wen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Lee, Yen-Liang; Kao, Senyeong; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Wen, Hsyien-Chia; Fuad, Anis; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2017-04-27

    Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced "My health bank," a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 ("disagree strongly") to 5 ("Agree strongly"). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65.1%). They were still students (195 out of 350

  11. [A national survey on the activities performed by nurses and aids in Italian outpatients' services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrebecq, A; Lusignani, M; Terzoni, S

    2009-01-01

    not busy with activities that could be assigned to others. Our study sample included only of manager nurses, who were responsible of nursing offices in ASLs which included outpatients. facilities on the whole territory ofl Italy. We choose to make a convenience sampling, choosing a manager nurse for each regional chief town. Our study is an observational, non-experimental quantitative research. To collect our data we used an anonymous questionnaire, based on a reference model, which had already been used in older studies. The model allowed a classification of the tasks performed by nurses in three categories: Nursing activities without chances of delegation; Nursing activities that could be assigned to aids; Activities beyond the competence of nurses. The questionnaire was articulated in 7 categories (general situation, booking, acceptation, preparation of patients' units, nursing care, tasks usually performed in outpatients' services, rearrangement of patients' units). We made a comparison between our data and the reference model. In the studied outpatients' services, nurses take in charge a high percentage of tasks (39%) that should be performed by others. More precisely, there are activities that should be carried out by aids (17%) or employees (22%). For example, in the category "Rearrangement of the patient's units", nurses perform approximately 70% of the tasks. Our study revealed that not employing aids at their fullest affects the problem; overall, our data show that 45% of nurses' everyday working time could be regained, if it were possible to assign to aids and employees all the activities that are not nurses' competence. This would produce a series of positive consequences, such as bringing out of the competences acquired by nurses, a better qualification and a real identification of the contribution given by nurses to the citizenship, other than an adequate employment and usage of human resources.

  12. The Selected Method and Tools for Performance Measurement in the Green Supply Chain—Survey Analysis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Tundys

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods and tools for the performance measurement and evaluation of the green supply chain management are very important elements for the construction and function of this type of supply chain. The result is a presentation of the considerations underlying a very general model, which presents some selected tools, but no breakdown of individual industries. The considerations undertaken are important and have scientific added value as usually in practice, a very large number of tools are used to assess the supply chain, which are not always correlated or adapted to the specificity of the chain. It is worth pointing out which of the already used or completely new tools and methods will be most useful for assessing the green supply chain. The structure of the paper covers the theoretical and empirical. It includes an introduction, our goals and hypotheses, state of the art, methodology, empirical findings, and discussion. We present the definitional differences between green and sustainable supply chains and focus on the selection and identification of methods for the framework model for evaluating the green supply chain. In the next step, the theoretical and selected method and tools were compared to a survey of Poland. On the basis of the survey, we present the findings and discussions found in this area. The main methodology used includes a literature review, a survey analysis using a questionnaire and statistical tools. The survey was carried out in 2015 in sample organizations in Poland. The research results showed that organizations were aware of the environmental elements of measuring and assessing the supply chain from an environmental point of view, but their use depended on many factors: the area, size of the organization, or the industry. If certain boundary conditions are met and the organizations are aware of the essence of environmental aspects in the chain, then they are applying green measures to the supply chain. These findings

  13. A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradburn Ryan M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond to these challenges there is a need for more data on management practices that are commonly used in cattle production systems. The objective of this survey was to describe castration methods, adverse events and husbandry procedures performed by U.S. veterinarians at the time of castration. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to email addresses of 1,669 members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and 303 members of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants. Results After partially completed surveys and missing data were omitted, 189 responses were included in the analysis. Surgical castration with a scalpel followed by testicular removal by twisting (calves 90 kg was the most common method of castration used. The potential risk of injury to the operator, size of the calf, handling facilities and experience with the technique were the most important considerations used to determine the method of castration used. Swelling, stiffness and increased lying time were the most prevalent adverse events observed following castration. One in five practitioners report using an analgesic or local anesthetic at the time of castration. Approximately 90% of respondents indicated that they vaccinate and dehorn calves at the time of castration. Over half the respondents use disinfectants, prophylactic antimicrobials and tetanus toxoid to reduce complications following castration. Conclusions The results of this survey describe current methods of

  14. Municipal solid wastes (RSU) treatment in land filled controlled: Of its sanitary problems to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urzola C, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excessive world wastes production generates constant preoccupations with relation to its management. The methods of classic elimination as sanitary landfill controlled as compared to controvertible incineration and gasification plants as well as expectations created in connection with practices of recycling, its are intensive discussions motive between town halls, technical specialists, ecologists and general public. What is certain is that wastes in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today the wastes are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the recycling line because they see an excellent business. All methods of residues elimination produce at same time other wastes. Solid nature wastes generally end in the landfill and semi-liquid waste are dehydrated with same objective. In the present Thesis, without intending to say that the landfill processing will be the better option, is outlined the form of optimizing the utilization of same. It's demonstrated that landfill, furthermore to fulfil its sanitary function, are converted into an energetic alternative with utilization of flammable gas generated in them, something which represents an interesting value added if is converted into source of welfare for social and economically kernels, as happens in peripheries of the sanitary landfill at large Latin American cities. Of other side are considered principal aspects that intervene in methane gas generation and quality and utilization alternatives. Finally it is made emphasis in environmental situation at European and international level about the landfill gases, how is outlined greenhouse effect topic, what are environmental actions for year 2000 and are related some biogas utilization experiences at Europe

  15. Association of childhood and teen school performance and obesity in young adulthood in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol-Goldberg, Shira; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The literature suggests an association between poor school performance and obesity. However, little is known about academic achievement and behavior as possible risk factors for future obesity. The analysis was based on data from 3172 participants aged 6 to 25years from the US National Longitudinal Survey conducted 1986 to 2010. Academic achievement, behavior problems and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at childhood (6-9) and teenhood (10-14). Height and weight were self-reported at pre-young adulthood (15-18) and young adulthood (19-25). Based on logistic regression stratified by sex and race/ethnicity, academic and behavioral deficiencies during childhood and teenhood were risk factors for young adult obesity with some sex and ethnic/racial differences. The highest prevalence rates of obesity by race/ethnicity and sex are as follows: black/Hispanic females, those in the lowest quartile of teen reading and math (32.8%); black/Hispanic males, those in lowest quartile of teen reading (26.1%); white males, those in the highest quartile of behavioral problems (21.9%); and white females, those in the lowest quartile teen math (23.2%). Poor school performance in childhood and teenhood is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity. Prospective studies should further examine the association of school performance and adult obesity and whether programs directed at improving school performance may have secondary gains in preventing obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  17. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  18. [The primary medical sanitary care and characteristics of drinking water supply of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, V S; Saurina, O S

    2016-01-01

    The article considers characteristics of organization ofprimary medical sanitary care on territory with carcinogenic risks related to drinking water supply as exemplified by the Orlovskaia oblast. The importance of registration by local health authorities the sources of permanent chemical pollution of drinking water. The analysis of the State program of the Orlovskaia oblast “The development of health care in the Orlovskaia oblast in 2013-2020". The necessity of additional inclusion of issue related to healthy drinking water supply of population to prevent development of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of oncologic morbidity on oblast territory.

  19. Realization of sanitary requirements concerning standardization of rare radioactive gas effluents at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, G.G.; Panchenko, S.V.; Chudajkin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of ways for practical realization of main sanitary requirements concerning environment and population protection under NPP operation. The idea of the requirements is reduced to not increasing permissible limits for radiation doses, minimum irradiation of population and decrease of unjustified irradiation of personnel. The given problem may be fully solved only in case of studying real chacteristics of operating reactors, taking into account statistic nature of effluents of inert radioactive gases (IRG). Methods of developing a system of working and reference standards of IRG effluents at NPPs are suggested. The considered approach may be realized in practice as the All-Union state on branch standards

  20. Project of law relative to the sanitary consequences of French nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    In order to make easy the indemnifications and to include the persons having participate to nuclear weapons tests (Sahara and French Polynesia) and populations leaving in the concerned areas, the project of law relative to the repair of sanitary consequences of nuclear weapons tests proposes to create a right to integral repair of prejudices for the persons suffering of a radioinduced disease coming from these tests. The American example and the British example are given for comparison. The modalities of financing are detailed as well as the social economic and administrative impacts. (N.C.)

  1. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State's recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN

  2. Environmental and sanitary evaluation of electro-nuclear sites: methodological research and application to prospective scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the radioactive wastes disposal of the law of 1991, an exchange forum constituted by ANDRA, CEA, COGEMA, EdF, Framatome-ANP and IRSN implemented an environmental and sanitary evaluation of the different methods of radioactive wastes management. This report presents the six studies scenarios, the proposed methodology, the application to the six scenarios and the analysis of the results which showed the efficiency of the different recycling options towards the electronuclear cycle impacts limitation, and a technical conclusion illustrated by improvement possibilities of the methodology. (A.L.B.)

  3. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  4. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  5. A survey of nurses' perceived competence and educational needs in performing resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kim, So Sun; Lim, Tae Ho

    2013-05-01

    Effective training is needed for high-quality performance of staff nurses, who are often the first responders in initiating resuscitation. There is insufficient evidence to identify specific educational strategies that improve outcomes, including early recognition and rescue of the critical patient. This study was conducted to identify perceived competence and educational needs as well as to examine factors influencing perceived competence in resuscitation among staff nurses to build a resuscitation training curriculum. A convenience sample of 502 staff nurses was recruited from 11 hospitals in a single city. Staff nurses were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. On a five-point scale, chest compression was the lowest-rated technical skill (M = 3.33, SD = 0.80), whereas staying calm and focusing on required tasks was the lowest-rated non-technical skill (M = 3.30, SD = 0.80). Work duration, the usefulness of simulation, recent code experience, and recent simulation-based training were significant factors in perceived competence, F(4, 496) = 45.94, p < .001. Simulation-based resuscitation training was the most preferred training modality, and cardiac arrest was the most preferred training topic. Based on this needs assessment, a simulation-based resuscitation training curriculum with cardiac arrest scenarios is suggested to improve the resuscitation skills of staff nurses. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Survey of the power ramp performance testing of KWU'S PWR UO 2, fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga¨rtner, M.; Fischer, G.

    1987-06-01

    To determine the power ramp performance of KWU's PWR UO 2 fuel, 134 fuel rodlets with burnups of up to 46 GWd/ t (U) and several fuel assemblies with 19 to 30 GWd/t (U) burnup were ramped in power in the research reactors HFR Petten/The Netherlands and R2 Studsvik/Sweden and in the power plants KWO and KWB-A/Germany, respectively. The power ramp tests demonstrate decreasing resistance of the PWR fuel rods to PCI (pellet-to-clad interaction) up to fuel burnups of 35 GWd/t (U) and a reversal effect at higher burnups. The fuel rods can be operated free of defects at fast power transients to linear heat generation rates of up to 400 W/cm, at least.Power levels of up to 490 W/cm can be reached without defects by reducing the ramp rate. After reshuffling according to an out-in scheme, 1-cycle fuel assemblies may return to rod powers of up to 480 W/cm with a power increase rate of up to 10 W/(cm min) without fuel rod damage. Set points basing on these test results and incorporated into the power distribution control and power density limitation system of KWU's advanced power plants guarantee safe plant operation under normal and load follow operating conditions.

  7. Aspects regarding the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of certain dental medicine cabinets in Iasi County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Indrei, L L

    2013-01-01

    This baseline study aims to find out the evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets through the verification of certain hygienic aspects. The study conducted consists in monitoring the hygienic/sanitary conditions at the level of 68 dental medicine cabinets (40 private cabinets and 28 school/university dental cabinets in Iasi county), using sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions adapted from the control sheets of existing dental medicine cabinets at the level of DSP (Public Health Department) Iasi. The sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions were evaluated by a specialized team and the results were i llustrated in the specific charts. At the level of all the dental cabinets the study revealed nonconformities regarding the means to carry out cleaning, disinfection operations, including the management of perilous waste, the control of medical personnel. An optimization of the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets is still necessary, through participation to the activity of personnel training, who is directly involved in dental medical assistance.

  8. [Injuries in Karate Sports: A Survey Performed During the World Championship 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, T; Lembcke, B; Ellenrieder, M; Glass, Ä; Weigert, W; Mittelmeier, W

    2016-12-01

    Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24.1 years; 176 male, 124 female) participating in the Karate World Cup 2014. Seven participants competed in both disciplines, 87 only in the Kata discipline, and 206 only in Kumite (the discipline involving physical contact with opponents). The statistical analysis was performed using a two-sided Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. Results : Recurrent medical treatment was most commonly required for the knee region (Kata 28.7 %, Kumite 26.7 %). In Kata the shoulder region came second (22.9 %), in Kumite the ankle region (21.8 %), followed by hand and foot in both groups. Medical treatment of the elbow area was more frequent in the Kata Group (p = 0.033), while in Kumite athletes' hand (p = 0.002) and foot injuries (p = 0.007) prevailed. Prior surgeries of athletes of both disciplines most commonly concerned the knee, followed by the ankle region in the Kata group and by the hand and head region in the Kumite group. Statistically significant differences between the two disciplines were found in head injuries (p = 0.004), which commonly do not occur in the Kata discipline. During the World Cup, 56.0 % of the athletes had no individual medical care and 24.6 % received no sports-related medical care in their home countries. Conclusion: Although the risk of injuries in Kumite Karate has been reduced by the introduction of gumshields, hand and foot protectors as well as a reform of

  9. Seismic data collection from water gun and industrial background sources in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal area, Illinois, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William S.; Carpenter, Phillip J.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The water gun is a tool adapted from deep marine geophysical surveys that is being evaluated for use as an acoustic fish deterrent to control the movement of invasive marine species. The water gun creates a seismic signal by using a compressed air discharge to move a piston rapidly within the water, resulting in an implosion. This energy pulse may be able to modify fish behavior or destroy marine life, such as the Asian carp, at some distance. The effects of this energy pulse on structures in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), such as canal walls, shore lines, and lock structures, are not known. The potential effects of the use of a water gun on structures was identified as a concern in the CSSC and was assessed relative to existing background sources during this study. During September 2011, two water guns with piston sizes of 80 and 343 cubic inches, respectively, were tested in the CSSC at varying pressures and distances from a canal wall consisting of dolomite and dolomite setblock. Seismic data were collected during these water gun firings using geophones on land, in boreholes, and at the canal wall interface. Data were collected at varying depths in the canal water using hydrophones. Seismic data were also collected during the occurrences of barge traffic, railroad traffic located near the electric fish barrier in Lemont, and coal-loading operations at a coal power plant near the electric fish barrier. In general, energy produced by barge and railroad sources was less than energy created by the water gun. Energy levels produced by coal-loading operations at least 200 feet from geophones were approximately four times lower than energy levels measured during water gun operations.

  10. Green supply chain management and environmental performance of firms in the bioenergy sector in Brazil: An exploratory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanelli, Nelson Oliveira; Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. In this context, the importance of green supply chain management (GSCM) increases because it can contribute to improving firms’ environmental performance (EP). However, little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production in Brazil). Thus, the objective of this work is to present the results of a survey conducted on 80 micro-, small-, and medium-sized firms that are suppliers in the Brazilian bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). These results indicate that GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature because it addresses the relationship between GSCM and EP in an understudied sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). - Highlights: • To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. • Little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector. • This research is based on an exploratory survey. • GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  12. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  13. A survey of college-bound high school graduates regarding circadian preference, caffeine use, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the relationships between circadian preference and caffeine use with academic performance and hours spent studying for recent high school graduates entering their first year of college. Entering first-year college students enrolled at 90 baccalaureate-level institutions across the USA were invited to complete the Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement (BCSSE) and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) as well as answer questions regarding caffeine consumption. Surveys were administered on each campus during the summer months of 2013. Only those that graduated from a US high school in the spring of 2013 were included in this study. The final sample for this study included 25,200 students that completed the BCSSE, CSM, and questions regarding caffeine consumption. Evening types (E-types) were significantly less likely to report earning A/A-'s in high school and less likely to study 16 or more hours per week compared to intermediate or morning types (M-types) (p students reported an average of 1.1 servings of caffeine per day, with 39 % reporting no caffeine consumption. M-types were more likely to consume no caffeine (54 %) compared to E-types that also indicated no daily caffeine (31 %) (p amount (7 %) (p high school. However, the apparent advantage that morning types had over evening types regarding high school grades was completely ameliorated once three or more servings of caffeine were consumed per day. This study provides additional information to educators and health professionals to create programs and provide resource to help adolescents better understand the impact of their sleep behaviors and use of caffeine on their academic performance.

  14. About the tasks of the state sanitary-epidemiological service in public health protection and sanitary-epidemiological well-being of population and environment in case of radiation emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perminova, G.S.; Tuchkevich, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper has stated the role of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service in the controlled radiation-emergency process on large, medium and small scale. The study reviews the phase character of radiation-emergency process, some typical features of their contents and the actions of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service, including non-radiation hygienic aspects; the characteristic features of supervision in case of small accidents are pointed out. Several scientific and practical problems on the raised subject which regarded to be urgent in the opinion of the authors are offered for consideration. 13 refs

  15. Competitive Advantage and Marketing Performance (A Descriptive Survey on Oil Palm Plantation Industries in West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmala Nurmala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the competitive advantage in order to enhance the marketing performance of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, which aims to: (1 find out the implementation of competitive advantage of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, (2 find out the achievement of marketing performance of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, and (3 find out the influence of competitive advantage on the marketing performance of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province. This is a descriptive and verification research that uses a descriptive and explanatory survey on the analysis unit of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province. The period of research implementation of two (2 years, divided into two stages; First Stage (2013 and Second Stage (2014. The data are collected using questionnaires as well as interviews and observations. The collected data are further processed using path analysis. The results of the First Stage (2013 research find that only few of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province are able to achieve the marketing performance in high category or above their expected target. This is presumed to be related to the weak competitiveness or competitive advantage of the companies as found in the results of descriptive analysis of this research. In order to understand more of such relatedness, it is necessary to conduct further research of the Second Stage (2014 focusing on investigating the influence of competitive advantage on the marketing performance of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province.

  16. [Pesticide exposure and its repercussion in the health of sanitary agents in the State of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estelita Pereira; Lopes, Suziy de Matos Bandeira; Amorim, Maria Iracema Mariano de; Araújo, Laura Helena Silva; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Maia, Evanira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Sanitary agents are the most exposed ones to the effects of insecticides in eradication campaigns since its preparation until its application inside and outside houses. The lack of protection equipment and misinformation on how to use the material properly increase the risk of intoxication. The aim of this work was to analyze the occupational history of vector control sanitary agents in Ceará State, Brazil and its effects on their health. Individual recorded interviews were done with 10 agents who verbally described their life history. The content of these interviews were analyzed through the following categories: agent profile, endemic controls, work conditions, risks and health changes. Health risk situations were described from acute and chronic intoxication to problems with alcoholism. The research showed that sanitary agents have been disrespected as human beings as well as their labor rights, showing negligence by their employers.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  18. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  19. Analysis of glycerin waste in A-Area sanitary treatment facility material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    TNX has a large supply of 55 gallon drums containing pure glycerin and glycerin with additives. The glycerin drums were procured to simulate the glass stream in a pilot-scale melter process at TNX. Since the glycerin was not used for this process, TNX is looking at disposing the material in a sanitary waste treatment facility onsite. The effect of adding the contents of the drums to sewage bacteria was tested. A drum of pure glycerin and a drum of glycerin mixed with lithium chloride were tested. The test consisted of mixing sanitary sludge material with the glycerin material. The purpose of the test was to determine if the glycerin impacted the aerobic bacterial population. The bacterial densities were determined by taking samples from the sludge/glycerin mixtures and using aerobic plate count methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) levels were measured before and after testing. The results indicate that the cell density of the aerobic bacteria increased with the addition of glycerin and the glycerin mixture and the TOC removal rate was different for all tests. Disposal of glycerin in the wastewater treatment facilities should pose no problems. Additional testing and analysis of the mixed samples should be done before its disposal in a waste water treatment facility

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  1. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Machado de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. The study variables were classified as compliant or noncompliant with the regulations passed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: Noncompliances were found in all study food services, especially with respect to food service conditions, and the wiring and plumbing in the food preparation area. In this section, 62.7 to 95.9% of the food services did not comply with nine out of the thirteen study items. The main problems were: poorly cleaned external areas, deteriorated walls, floors, ceilings, roofs, drains, and roof gutters; and unscreened doors and windows, allowing the entrance of insects; among others. The main noncompliance regarding processes and procedures was the uncontrolled temperature of the ready-to-eat foods. CONCLUSION: The conditions of the study food services are unsatisfactory for the production of safe meals, possibly compromising meal quality, food safety, and the effectiveness of the School Food Program.

  2. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  3. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  4. Sanitary landfill leachate as a source of nutrients on the initial growth of sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. Nunes Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under different concentrations of sanitary landfill leachate, considering the feasibility of its use as source of nutrients for agricultural production. Biometric and vigor variables were analyzed through the measurements of collar diameter, shoot height, number of leaves and shoot and root fresh and dry matters, from January to February 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme: five leachate concentrations (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg N ha-1 x four harvest periods (14, 21, 25 and 29 days after sowing, with five replicates each containing two plants. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression, and the results of the last harvest (29 DAS were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The use of sanitary landfill leachate increased all analyzed variables in sunflower plants when compared to the control plants (without leachate, especially in the treatment of 100 kg N ha-1. There was no inhibitory effect of the leachate on the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under adopted experimental conditions.

  5. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  6. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  7. The health of hospitals and lessons from history: public health and sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  10. Development of a fibre-optic sensor system for the continuous monitoring of a sanitary landfill for low-halogenated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Baumann, T.; Gahr, A.; Mueller-Ackermann, E.; Panne, U.; Niessner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a mobile fibre-optic sensor system for monitoring the ground water aquifer in the area of a landfill. Not only are the analytical methods to be developed further; but the system's performance in the field is to be tested as well. As a large part of knowledge on the long-time safety of mineral sealing systems of sanitary landfills derives from damage events, a measuring area was additionally established at the Augsburg-Nord landfill. This measuring area is to permit monitoring of the sealing also during operation and reclamation. Within the measuring area and in the environs of the landfill, both conventional sensors for temperature, conductibility, etc., and the specially developed fibre-optic sensors for on-line in-situ monitoring will be used. (orig.) [de

  11. The Effect of Family Capital on the Academic Performance of College Students--A Survey at 20 Higher Education Institutions in Jiangsu Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gao; Zhimin, Liu; Peng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Based on survey data on college students from 20 higher education institutions in Jiangsu Province, the effects of family capital on the academic performances of college students is analyzed. The study finds that family capital, place of origin, and birthplace clearly affect the academic performance, the chances of being appointed student cadres,…

  12. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  13. National turnaround time survey: professional consensus standards for optimal performance and thresholds considered to compromise efficient and effective clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Derek J; Auld, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Turnaround time can be defined as the time from receipt of a sample by the laboratory to the validation of the result. The Royal College of Pathologists recommends that a number of performance indicators for turnaround time should be agreed with stakeholders. The difficulty is in arriving at a goal which has some evidence base to support it other than what may simply be currently achievable technically. This survey sought to establish a professional consensus on the goals and meaning of targets for laboratory turnaround time. Methods A questionnaire was circulated by the National Audit Committee to 173 lead consultants for biochemistry in the UK. The survey asked each participant to state their current target turnaround time for core investigations in a broad group of clinical settings. Each participant was also asked to provide a professional opinion on what turnaround time would pose an unacceptable risk to patient safety for each departmental category. A super majority (2/3) was selected as the threshold for consensus. Results The overall response rate was 58% ( n = 100) with a range of 49-72% across the individual Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine regions. The consensus optimal turnaround time for the emergency department was 2 h considered unacceptable. The times for general practice and outpatient department were 48 h and for Wards 12 h, respectively. Conclusions We consider that the figures provide a useful benchmark of current opinion, but clearly more empirical standards will have to develop alongside other aspects of healthcare delivery.

  14. Sanitary quality of surface water during base-flow conditions in the Municipality of Caguas, Puerto Rico, 2014–15: A comparison with results from a similar 1997–99 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Guzmán-Ríos, Senén

    2017-06-26

    A study was conducted in 2014–15 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Municipality of Caguas, to determine if changes in the stream sanitary quality during base-flow conditions have occurred since 1997–99, when a similar study was completed by the USGS. Water samples were collected for the current study during two synoptic surveys in 2014 and 2015. Water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliform bacteria, nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, and human health and pharmaceutical products. Water sampling occurred at 39 stream locations used during the 1997–99 study by the USGS and at 11 additional sites. A total of 151 stream miles were classified on the basis of fecal and total coliform bacteria results.The overall spatial pattern of the sanitary quality of surface water during 2014–15 is similar to the pattern observed in 1997–99 in relation to the standards adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 1990. Surface water at most of the water-sampling sites exceeded the current standard for fecal coliform of 200 colonies per 100 milliliters adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 2010. The poorest sanitary quality was within the urban area of the Municipality of Caguas, particularly in urban stream reaches of Río Caguitas and in rural and suburban reaches bordered by houses in high density that either have inadequate septic tanks or discharge domestic wastewater directly into the stream channels. The best sanitary quality occurred in areas having little or no human development, such as in the wards of San Salvador and Beatriz to the south and southwest of Caguas, respectively. The concentration of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen ranged from 0.02 to 9.0 milligrams per liter, and did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter. The composition of nitrogen and oxygen

  15. Organization of radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, V.N.; Mazanov, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The main organizing principles which guarantee efficient activities of medical-sanitary teams of disaster medicine in emergency situations connected with radiation injuries are studied in this paper. The study has demonstrated the priority measures being carried out by radiological team of the Russian Center on Disaster Medicine Zashchita during the current and preparatory periods and in the course of emergency situation, as well as the equipping of the teams. When arranging radiation survey the main emphasis should be placed on the detection of the injured, ascertaining the place and time of location of the personnel and population starting from the moment of the accident, as well as to determine the dynamics of the power of photon radiation in this place in the same period. Special attention is paid to the necessity of coordination on interaction of radiological team of the Russian Center of Disaster Medicine Zashchita with other similar departmental services. 5 refs

  16. Socio-sanitary profile and information for living kidney donors and recipients in three Andalusian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Ángel Calvo-Calvo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information provided by health professionals to potential donors and recipients is essential for an autonomous and objective decision to make a living kidney donation. Objectives: To determine the characteristics of the information received by living kidney donors and recipients, to find out their socio-sanitary profile, their socio-demographics, financial and labor characteristics, health and the caregiving activity of these donors and recipients. Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of the population of living kidney donors and recipients from the University Hospitals Puerta del Mar (Cádiz, Virgen del Rocío (Seville, and the University Hospital Complex of Granada, between 08/04/2014 and 08/06/2015. Results and conclusions: According to the 40 living kidney donors and their 40 recipients surveyed, it is mainly nephrologists who make people aware and provide information about living kidney donation. Almost half of recipients require more information so the evaluation processes and pre-donation information should be updated. In general, the living kidney donor is female, aged 50, with primary/secondary education, lives with a partner and is related to the kidney recipient. Also, the living kidney donor is in paid employment, is overweight, perceives her health as very good or good, and does not smoke or drink alcohol. However, the typical living kidney recipient is male, aged 44 and has completed secondary school studies and vocational training. Furthermore, he does not work, perceives his health as good or regular, and he is an independent person for activities of daily living. Resumen: Antecedentes: La información suministrada por profesionales sanitarios a posibles donantes y receptores es fundamental para una decisión autónoma y objetiva de donar un riñón en vida. Objetivos: Conocer las características de la información que reciben los donantes y receptores renales de vivo, averiguando su perfil

  17. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  18. Characteristic dosimetric as of the material thermoluminescent LIF:Mg, Cu, and P for their use in sanitary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Duch, M.A.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the characteristics dosimetric of the LiF:Mg, Cu, P obtained for its use in the sanitary field, fundamentally in radiotherapy. The analyzed parameters are sensitivity, reproducibility of the measures, limit inferior of detection, answer energy, linearity of the answer in function of the received dose and the influence of the temperature in the material

  19. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicolella, A.

    2000-03-01

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  20. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.T09-1080 Section 165.T09-1080 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  1. 75 FR 36288 - Amended Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Coast Guard is revising its safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This revised temporary interim rule reduces the areas covered by the safety zone and RNA, and places additional restrictions on vessels that may transit the RNA.

  2. 77 FR 65760 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the Reports on Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Technical Barriers to Trade (2012 TBT Report) respectively. The TPSC invites written comments from the public on issues that USTR should examine in preparing the SPS and TBT Reports. DATES: Public comments..., Director of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Affairs, USTR (202-395-6127). Questions regarding the TBT Report or...

  3. Radioisotope devices and sanitary control over its application in the units and institutions of Army and Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, E.V.; Rymarchuk, A.A.; Shishkanov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Sanitary control over the use of radioisotope devices (RID) is considered. To avoid losses of radioactive sources, an attention is paid to the order of RID account, their storage and issue, writing off unfit devices and sources and their burial. The role of military medical personnel grows. They must provide efficiency of safety of radioactive substance use in the units of Army and Navy

  4. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  5. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106 Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137 Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 -5 ) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26 [fr

  6. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

  7. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  8. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  9. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  10. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  11. Use of Nuclear Techniques to Plan Sanitary Strategies in the Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Hernandez Garces, Anel; Santiago, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The Almendares river, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the management of wastewater contamination to predict the effectiveness of control options to improve water quality to desired levels. In the present work, the advective, steady- state, one-dimensional Streeter and Phelps model, calibrated and validated was used to elaborate environment strategies to improve the water quality of the Almendares river. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamina WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modelling purposes. (Author)

  12. Problems of optimization of activities of sanitary and epidemiological stations on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of activity optimization of the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES) concerning state inspection of for radiation source application are considered to improve the effort efficiency of the radiological subdivisions. The necessity to specify the inspection objects is shown. Inspection of all the stages of creation, introduction and application of radioactive substances and other sources, as well as, of radioactive waste utilization remains urgent problem. Determination of internal and external radiation doses to population in different regions as well as, radiation protection of personnel and patients in nuclear medicine are vital problems as well. Justification of the necessity to enlist specialists in different fields, to determine rationally their functional duties presents sufficient component of the SES activity optimization. Usage optimization of dosimetric and radiometric devices, laboratory equipment and instruments is a vital problem

  13. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  14. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, A.; Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.

    2010-01-01

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  15. [Legal and sanitary aspects conditioning access to medicines in Brazilian courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Mércia; Delduque, Maria Célia; Amaral, Rita Goreti

    2012-01-01

    The search for having access to health care and medicines right granted through Judicial Courts has increased in Brazil. What has been nominated "health judicialization" is a multidimensional phenomenon, a need for dealing with it in a multidisciplinary way involving legal-judicial, political-institutional and sanitary approaches has raised. The Health is recognized as a fundamental human right in the Brazilian Constitution giving it a different legal protection under the legal-constitutional order and the country guarantees the right to health are not only the Constitution and the law strictly, but mainly in an normative infralegal arc that define the goals and outcomes to be achieved by public policy. The lawsuits by drugs may be a reflection of the difficulty of access to health services, to empty and downgrading of health care. Therefore, this turns out to affect the judicialization of pharmaceutical care in Brazil.

  16. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  17. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart sensors that today’s cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher’s interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  18. The relationship between job performance and perceived organizational support in faculty members at Chinese universities: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. Results The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. Conclusions The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities. PMID:24624932

  19. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  20. Association between public cardiopulmonary resuscitation education and the willingness to perform bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a metropolitan citywide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeong Woo; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Moon, Sungbae; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jeong Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Kim, Jong Kun; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2017-06-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor associated with improved survival rates and neurologic prognoses in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We assessed how factors related to CPR education including timing of education, period from the most recent education session, and content, affected CPR willingness. In February 2012, trained interviewers conducted an interview survey of 1,000 Daegu citizens through an organized questionnaire. The subjects were aged ≥19 years and were selected by quota sampling. Their social and demographic characteristics, as well as CPR and factors related to CPR education, were investigated. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate how education-related factors affected the willingness to perform CPR. Of total 1,000 cases, 48.0% were male. The multivariate analyses revealed several factors significantly associated with CPR willingness: didactic plus practice group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 5.0), group with more than four CPR education session (AOR, 7.68; 95% CI, 3.21 to 18.35), interval of less than 6 months from the last CPR education (AOR, 4.47; 95% CI 1.29 to 15.52), and education with automated external defibrillator (AOR, 5.98; 95% CI 2.30 to 15.53). The following were associated with increased willingness to perform CPR: practice sessions and automated electrical defibrillator training in public CPR education, more frequent CPR training, and shorter time period from the most recent CPR education sessions.

  1. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASPECTS IN COMMERCIALIZATION IN FISH MARKET IGARAPÉ DAS MULHERES, MACAPÁ-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Souza Silva Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being highly perishable, the fish requires special care from capture to arrival at the consumer's home. However, after the capture, the microbiota is altered at all stages. This study aimed to assess the sanitary conditions of marketing of fish in the Fish Friday, Macapá-AP, in order to identify critical points of the process. We used the direct observational method with the application of a checklist, based on the RDC nº216, items for building, equipment / instruments, utensils and hygiene, clothing, hygienic habits, personal protective equipment and quality raw material. The fair in question was rated in Group 2, failing to meet the requirements of industry topics Organization (marketing space extremely limited, national manager indefinite absence of good practice manual, along with the standard operating procedures; hygiene observation site (fish is exposed without ice, ice used only for storage, water use without treatment, and cleaned the handler (clothing unsatisfactory, tobacco consumption during marketing, simultaneous manipulation of money and food, no clean hands when handling food thus does not meet the provisions of the legislation. Such unconformities compromise the quality of products and endangers the health of the consumer, demonstrating that only the drafting of laws is not sufficient to ensure food safety without intense scrutiny in conjunction with the drafting resolutions appropriate to the reality of each region and training programs aimed at promoting recycling and the production of safe food hygiene and sanitary conditions in the question that reality cannot be changed. Keywords: marketing of fish; conditions of merchantability; market.

  3. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  4. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  5. Literature survey 'Impact of the Cadarache Centre activity on the environment'. Survey performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory for the Cadarache's CLI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the Cadarache Centre installations and activities, this document reports a literature survey based on the documents provided by the Centre and related to dismissals and incidents since the beginning of the Centre activity, and to environment control during some critical periods. Several issues are discussed: the radioactive atmospheric effluents and their impact, the control of underground waters, the control of surface water environment (impact of liquid radioactive effluents and monitoring of run-off waters), soil and food chain monitoring. For each of these themes, control and monitoring data are analysed

  6. Technical basis for the performance of radiological surveys in support of nuclear facility decommissioning/deactivation utilizing the Laser-Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.D.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the implementation of the Laser-Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS) as it applies to performing radiological surveys on facility exterior and interior surfaces. The LARADS enables the system operator to document scanning measurements, stationary radiological measurements, and sample locations of surfaces, with the radiological readings and exact coordinates (<2 cm [0.8 in.] precision) automatically logged in real-time. After the survey is completed, the information is downloaded to a geographical information system, and the radiological information is overlaid on a digital picture of the survey area or may be generated as a computer- aided drafted drawing. The final product is a track map or contour of the survey area that clearly shows the area covered by the detector and the locations of elevated readings. The exact reproducibility of data facilitates locating hot spots for remediation and provides for objective review by regulators and verifiers

  7. Pit lake lime dosing: Assessment of the performance of the treatment based on a high-spatial resolution AUV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; García-Morrondo, David; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    water quality parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox, turbidity and concentration of chlorophyll) according to prescribed trajectories at constant or variable depth. In the present study, depth was fixed at 1 m below the surface of the lake and two surveys were performed in two consecutive days. Results indicate that the efficiency of lime dosing is limited and, under windy conditions (i.e. when wind-transferred energy exceeds that of the currents associated with the liming system and others present in the lake), liming tends to preferentially concentrate at the leeward side of the lake.

  8. [Sanitary and epidemiological conditions in the Lodz region during the period of the second Polish Republic in the XIX and XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history of European agglomerations in the nineteenth and twentieth century the relation between expanding industry and worsening sanitary and epidemiological conditions was seen. These changes, having great impact on public health, were investigated in the present study. Problems related to sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz first emerged during the Russian occupation of Poland in the XIX century. The Russian Governing Council was not overseeing sanitary conditions of the city, and transferred this responsibility to the industrial bourgeoisie of Lodz. In this situation, uncontrolled development of the industry led to serious deterioration in natural environment and increase of risk for acute and chronic infectious diseases. Improvement of the sanitary situation in Lodz commenced in the period of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939). Sanitary Divisions were created at the Lodz Department of Public Health. Activities in this Department involved, among others, detailed epidemiological examination of potable water, the investigation of manufacturing processes, retail and wholesale groceries, hygienic conditions of public housing. The activity and interventions of Sanitary Divisions contributed substantially to a decrease of incidence of various diseases and improvement of living conditions of the Lodz populations. The improvement of sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz after 1918 was mainly related to the construction of water supply and sewage systems. This led to an approximation of the urban standards of this 500,000 population agglomeration to European standards.

  9. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Background Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descript...

  10. The Influence Of Business Partnership And Competitive Strategy On Business PerformanceA Survey On Footwear Industry In The Province Of Banten Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Winarjono; Sucherly; Surachman Sumawihardja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The footwear industry in Banten Province is facing the issues of low business performance in the last five years caused by an inappropriate competitive strategy and business partnership that is not close yet. This research aims to study about business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance of footwear industry in the Province of Banten. The study is conducted by descriptive and explanatory survey methods. The unit of analysis are companies of footwear indus...

  11. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li, Chin-Shang [University of California Davis Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  12. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Coulter, Kevin; Li, Chin-Shang

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Mechanisms to Improve Performance of Mobile Phone Surveys in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pariyo, George William; Wosu, Adaeze C; Greenleaf, Abigail R; Ali, Joseph; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Islam, Khaleda; Masanja, Honorati; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Mobile phone ownership and access have increased rapidly across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) within the last decade. Concomitantly, LMICs are experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transitions, where non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Mobile phone surveys could aid data collection for prevention and control of these NCDs but limited evidence of their feasibility exists. The objective of this paper is to describe a series of sub-studies aimed at optimizing the delivery of interactive voice response (IVR) and computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for NCD risk factor data collection in LMICs. These sub-studies are designed to assess the effect of factors such as airtime incentive timing, amount, and structure, survey introduction characteristics, different sampling frames, and survey modality on key survey metrics, such as survey response, completion, and attrition rates. In a series of sub-studies, participants will be randomly assigned to receive different airtime incentive amounts (eg, 10 minutes of airtime versus 20 minutes of airtime), different incentive delivery timings (airtime delivered before survey begins versus delivery upon completion of survey), different survey introductions (informational versus motivational), different narrative voices (male versus female), and different sampling frames (random digit dialing versus mobile network operator-provided numbers) to examine which study arms will yield the highest response and completion rates. Furthermore, response and completion rates and the inter-modal reliability of the IVR and CATI delivery methods will be compared. Research activities are expected to be completed in Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Uganda in 2017. This is one of the first studies to examine the feasibility of using IVR and CATI for systematic collection of NCD risk factor information in LMICs. Our findings will inform the future design and

  14. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  15. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  16. Present and prospective developments in health science and sanitary supervision relative to use of atomic energy in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyarskij, P.P.; Mojsejtsev, P.I.; Vasil'ev, G.

    1977-01-01

    The discoveries and inventions made over the last two decades have substantially enlarged the scope of contacts between man and sources of ionizing radiation. Scientific developments raising energy yield from nuclear processes have been reflected in a growing nuclear power industry as well as expanding use of radioactive substances or radiation sources in various areas of human endeavor, and have become a potent factor in technological progress, mechanization and automation. No such tempestuous expansion of applications of nuclear physics achievements would have been possible without the concurrent development and further synchronous advances in relevant fields of health science, with research achievements promptly introduced into sanitary supervision practice. The paper summarizes major results of research in radiation hygiene; outlines the impact of their application to sanitary supervision practice in principal operational sectors; identifies and motivates further lines of injury as well as prospects for developing up-to-date supervision schemes and for reasonable unification of measurement and monitoring techniques. (author)

  17. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  18. [V.P. Kravkov as a sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army (to centenary of beginning of the First World War)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, D G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents for the first time the description of life story and service of V.P. Kravkov (1859-1920)--participant of Russian-Japanese war and the First World War, doctor of medicine, sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army and author of number of books and articles on preventive medicine. During these two wars, V.P. Kravkov organized sanitary epidemiological service in fronts. He kept diary regularly reflecting conditions of sanitary epidemiological service during this period, describing one's own observations and assessing survived events. The manuscripts of diaries are stored in the Russian state library. The diaries made great input into summarizing of experience of the Russian military sanitary service and became valuable monument of military memoirs' literature.

  19. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  20. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helf, M.; Cassadou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  1. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    OpenAIRE

    S. Umamaheswari; Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retentio...

  2. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  3. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  4. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  6. Electro-Fenton oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate from sanitary landfill leachate: Evaluation of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annabel; Labiadh, Lazhar; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The electro-Fenton oxidation of a concentrate from reverse osmosis of a sanitary landfill leachate, with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 42 g L -1 , was carried out using a carbon-felt cathode and a boron doped diamond anode. The influence of the applied current intensity, initial pH and dissolved iron initial concentration on the electro-Fenton process was assessed. For the experimental conditions used, results showed that the initial pH is the parameter that more strongly influences the current efficiency of the electro-Fenton process, being this influence more pronounced on the oxidation rate than on the mineralization rate of the organic matter. The increase in iron initial concentration was found to be detrimental, since the natural amount of iron present in the effluent, 73 mg L -1 of total iron and 61 mg L -1 of dissolved iron, was sufficient to ensure the electro-Fenton process at the applied intensities - 0.2-1.4 A. For the more favourable conditions studied, initial pH of 3 and natural iron concentration, it was found an increase in the organic load and nitrogen removals with the applied current intensity. For the highest current intensity applied, a COD removal of 16.7 g L -1 was achieved after 8-h experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  8. [Sanitary service of girl guides during the 2nd World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.

  9. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  10. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  12. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  13. How to model a negligible probability under the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Since the 1997 EC--Hormones decision, World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Panels have wrestled with the question of what constitutes a negligible risk under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. More recently, the 2010 WTO Australia--Apples Panel focused considerable attention on the appropriate quantitative model for a negligible probability in a risk assessment. The 2006 Australian Import Risk Analysis for Apples from New Zealand translated narrative probability statements into quantitative ranges. The uncertainty about a "negligible" probability was characterized as a uniform distribution with a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 10(-6) . The Australia - Apples Panel found that the use of this distribution would tend to overestimate the likelihood of "negligible" events and indicated that a triangular distribution with a most probable value of zero and a maximum value of 10⁻⁶ would correct the bias. The Panel observed that the midpoint of the uniform distribution is 5 × 10⁻⁷ but did not consider that the triangular distribution has an expected value of 3.3 × 10⁻⁷. Therefore, if this triangular distribution is the appropriate correction, the magnitude of the bias found by the Panel appears modest. The Panel's detailed critique of the Australian risk assessment, and the conclusions of the WTO Appellate Body about the materiality of flaws found by the Panel, may have important implications for the standard of review for risk assessments under the WTO SPS Agreement. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  15. The occurrence and prevention of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in rainbow trout fish farms: the importance of improved sanitary practices

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM REXHEPI; KURTESH SHERIFI; PETER SCHEINERT; LINDA GRAPCI-KOTORRI

    2014-01-01

    The viral diseases of rainbow trout are of worldwide concern including infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN). On this study good sanitary practices are applied to prevent outbreaks and minimize losses caused from IPN disease. To highlight importance of improvements on sanitary practices in IPN prevention were compared results from two studies, first conducted in year 2006-2009 with results from one year later study conducted in 2010. In year 2010, samples of organs are collected from 260 fish ...

  16. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  17. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  18. An Analysis of the Sanitary and Welfare Conditions of Tourism Centers in Lorestan Province: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Saki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the rapid growth of tourism industry, appropriate management and supervision of tourism centers by improving the sanitary, welfare and security situation of these centers is essential. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sanitary and welfare status of tourism centers in Lorestan province. Material and Methods: This research is a qualitative study conducted through semi-structured Interview with tourists. Data analysis was done using content analysis. After collecting and analyzing data, findings were classified into themes and sub-themes. Results: The findings were categorized into 6 main themes and 24 sub-themes. The main themes were general sanitary conditions, welfare facilities, transportation, healthcare services, security, and management and supervision. Conclusion: According to the findings and participants’ points of view, tourists are not satisfied with health care status of tourist centers. Therefore, in order to minimize the health problems of tourism centers and maximize attracting tourists, short-term and long-term plans should be put on the agenda of tourism managers and stakeholders of the Lorestan province.

  19. Use of Lot quality assurance sampling surveys to evaluate community health worker performance in rural Zambia: a case of Luangwa district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Moses; Zulu, Japhet; Topp, Stephanie M; Musonda, Patrick; Mutale, Wilbroad; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-04-17

    The Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at reducing age-standardized mortality rates in three rural districts through involvement of Community Health Workers (CHWs), Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs), and Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs). CHWs conduct quarterly surveys on all households using a questionnaire that captures key health events occurring within their catchment population. In order to validate contact with households, we utilize the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology. In this study, we report experiences of applying the LQAS approach to monitor performance of CHWs in Luangwa District. Between April 2011 and December 2013, seven health facilities in Luangwa district were enrolled into the BHOMA project. The health facility catchment areas were divided into 33 geographic zones. Quality assurance was performed each quarter by randomly selecting zones representing about 90% of enrolled catchment areas from which 19 households per zone where also randomly identified. The surveys were conducted by CHW supervisors who had been trained on using the LQAS questionnaire. Information collected included household identity number (ID), whether the CHW visited the household, duration of the most recent visit, and what health information was discussed during the CHW visit. The threshold for success was set at 75% household outreach by CHWs in each zone. There are 4,616 total households in the 33 zones. This yielded a target of 32,212 household visits by community health workers during the 7 survey rounds. Based on the set cutoff point for passing the surveys (at least 75% households confirmed as visited), only one team of CHWs at Luangwa high school failed to reach the target during round 1 of the surveys; all the teams otherwise registered successful visits in all the surveys. We have employed the LQAS methodology for assurance that quarterly surveys were

  20. Economic and social sustainability performance of jatropha projects: results from field surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H.A.; Heijnen, S.; Rom Colthoff, J.; Jong, de B.; Eijck, van J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  1. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Henny; Heijnen, Sanne; Rom Colthoff, Jouke; de Jong, Boris; van Eijck, Janske

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  2. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and prevalence of physical performance examination assessing mobility and balance in older persons in the US: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostchega, Y; Harris, T B; Hirsch, R; Parsons, V L; Kington, R; Katzoff, M

    2000-09-01

    This report provides reliability and prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity of an observed physical performance examination (PPE) assessing mobility and balance. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994. A cross-sectional nationally representative survey. All persons aged 60 and older (n = 5,403) who performed the PPE either in the mobile examination center (MEC) or in the home during NHANES III (conducted 1988-1994). The PPE included timed chair stand, full tandem stand, and timed 8-foot walk. Timed chair stand and 8-foot timed walk were reliable measurements (Intraclass Correlations > 0.5). Women were significantly slower (P physically limited than men.

  4. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamaheswari S, Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource) managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their likelihood of leaving the company

  5. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable   influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their

  6. Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen; Lo Martire, Riccardo; Äng, Björn O; Garme, Karl

    2016-06-20

    High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  7. Association between attempted suicide and academic performance indicators among middle and high school students in Mexico: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Moneta Arce, María Fátima; Fregoso Ito, Diana; Fleiz, Clara; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth

    2018-01-01

    Students' mental health is associated to academic performance. In high income countries, higher students' grades are related to lower odds of suicidal behaviors, but studies on other indicators of academic performance are more limited, specially in middle income countries. Data from 28,519 middle and high school students selected with multistage clustered sampling in the Mexican National Survey of Student's Drug Use. Using a self-administered questionnaire, lifetime suicidal attempt and four indicators of academic performance were assessed: age inconsistency with grade level, not being a student in the last year, perceived academic performance and number of failed courses. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for sociodemographic and school characteristics. The lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide was 3.0% for middle school students and 4.2% for high school students. Among middle school students, statistically adjusted significant associations of suicide attempt with academic performance indicators were: not being a student the year before, worse self-perceived performance and a higher number of failed courses; among high school students, predictors were failed courses and self-perceived academic performance, with ORs of 1.65 and 1.96 for the categories of good and fair/poor respectively, compared to those who reported very good performance. Self-perceived academic performance was the main indicator for suicide in both school levels. Suicide prevention efforts in Mexico's schools should include asking students about the perception they have about their own academic performance.

  8. Effect of preparation variables of plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Ochoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of various preparation conditions for making plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware. We investigated the relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and final properties of the plaster molds. The results showed that the rheological behavior, and hence, the time during which the plaster suspension is pourable for making the plaster molds (before an important increase in viscosity due to the precipitation of gypsum crystals were dependent on the preparation conditions. Variations in the chemical composition, pore size distribution, and microstructure explained the statistically significant effect of preparation variables (including the mixing time, water temperature, and water quality. Preparation conditions that promoted high initial viscosity of the plaster suspension (accelerative effect of the setting time developed less porous structure in the mold that principally increased the compressive strength (16%, deionized water instead of tap water and the casting rate (9%, water at 25 °C instead of 38 °C. According to the results are proposed optimum conditions to make the molds while avoiding unnecessary energy use. Resumen: Mediante un diseño factorial completo se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de preparación de moldes de yeso para colado tradicional de muebles sanitarios. Se investigó la relación entre procesamiento, microestructura y propiedades del molde. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento reológico y por lo tanto el tiempo durante el cual la suspensión de yeso se puede verter para conformar los moldes (antes de un incremento importante de viscosidad debido a la formación de cristales de yeso fueron dependientes de las condiciones de preparación. Variaciones en composición química, distribución de tamaño de poro y microestructura explicaron el efecto estadísticamente significativo de las variables de preparación (que incluyeron

  9. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  10. Long Term assessment of the dose registered by the Sanitary workers of a mutual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anies Escartin, J.; Perramon Llado, A.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a long time period of time (about 17 years) of the professional exposure to ionising radiation of the workers of an accidents Mutual, that has its own personal Dosimetry Service, allows to establish a relation between the showed global reduction of the registered doses of the people exposed and the circumstances and actions that did it possible. The fact to carry out a dosimetric control is an essential factor directed to accomplish the objective of holding the doses as low as achievable, joined with the fact of passing more strict law. Those factors that fixed a reduction of the doses inherited by the sanitary exposed workers whose relation are demonstrated in this study. The collective dose inherited by the bunch of people exposed is the parameter suitable to measure and assess the time history at medium and long term of the exposure conditions of the workers, and identify the more relevant characteristics of the risk by ionising radiation at workplace. The conclusion of the time history analysis of the quantity shows that the total collective dose for more than a thousand people group, are strongly affected by the doses corresponding to less than a 1,5 % of the users. The number of people that have a value dose higher that the average, and the high value of the dose in some periods because of their activity lead to changes of the value of the collective doses that can be higher than 100%. This great uncertainty in the measured value needs more than ten months of control to guarantee the lowering of doses received. The decreasing doses observed are strongly related with the reduction of this relative short number of cases with incidences in the doses registered. An important part of the work is related to identifying the incidences registered, noticing the evolution and checking the most suitable actions to lower it. (Author) 4 refs

  11. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  12. The Treatment Of The RSU In Controlled Drains: Their Sanitary Problem To The Production Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    The limitless world production of residuals generates constant concerns with relationship to its administration. The classic elimination methods as the drains controlled in front of the controversial incineration plants and gasification as well as the expectations created around the recycle practices, are reason of intense debates among city councils, specialist, environmentalist technicians and the public in general. The certain thing is that the residuals in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today in day the residuals are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the line of the recycle because they come them an excellent business. All the methods of elimination of residuals produce in turn others. Those of solid nature in general go to the drain, the semi-liquids becomes dehydrated for the same end. Presently work, without seeking to say that the employment of the drains is the best option, thinks about how it has more than enough they are possible to optimize its use. Showing beside their eminently sanitary vocation an energy alternative that allows the use of the combustible gas that is generated in them. An added value that is interesting if this it becomes source of well-being for social excluded nuclei and economically like it happens for example in the peripheries of the drains of the big Latin American cities. They are considered which are the main aspects that intervene in the generation, production and quality of the gas methane of the drains. Their reception methods and their use alternatives. Lastly emphasis is made in the environmental situation to European and international level about the gases of the drain, how it thinks about the topic of the greenhouse effect and which are the actions for the horizon of the year 2000. They are related some experiences in Europe on the use of the biogas

  13. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  14. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  15. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  16. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  17. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  18. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  19. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-12

    Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descriptive statistics were reported for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, level of work stress, coping strategies, and job performance. Regression analysis was conducted to test the interaction between work stress and coping strategies on job performance. Three subscales of work stress were negatively related to job performance. Positive coping strategies moderated Patient Care and job performance while negative coping strategies moderated Workload and Time and performance, and between Working Environment and Resources and performance. Positive coping strategies reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress on job performance and negative coping strategies increased the negative effects.

  20. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  1. Teacher Responses to Pay-for-Performance Policies: Survey Results from Four High-Poverty, Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects…

  2. A survey on the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and job performance of the staff at doctor Kermanshahi hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Chavoshi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the factors affecting the performance of the staff in organizations will lead to increased their efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB on job performance in Dr. Kermanshahi hospital in Kermanshah. OCB is a voluntary behavior that goes beyond formal job descriptions of the staff and improves organizational performance . Methods: This descriptive-analytical study, which was based on structural equation modeling, was conducted in 2012.The study population included 311 staff at doctor Muhammad Kermanshahi hospital that were selected by simple random sampling. To evaluate the concepts of organizational citizenship behavior, job performance and personality attributes, Podsakoff, Patterson and NEO questionnaires were used, respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS and AMOS software (version 21. Results: The results of the study revealed that 57% of respondents were women, 37.8% were in the age group 25 to 35 years, 40.7% had bachelor's degree and 30.2% had less than 5 years of experience. Also, personality characteristics of the staff affected their job performance. There was a significant relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance. Conclusions: This study confirmed the effects of OCB on promoting the performance of the staff. So, we can reinforce OCB in the hospital by taking advantage of the benefits of meta-functional behaviors in organization and consequently promoting the performance of the staff to.

  3. Impact of mental disorders on work performance in a community sample of workers in Japan: the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Fukao, Akira; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Oorui, Masashi; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kobayashi, Masayo; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko

    2012-06-30

    Most studies that investigate the impact of mental disorders on work performance have been conducted in Western countries, but this study examines the impact of common mental disorders on sick leave and on-the-job work performance in a community sample of Japanese workers. Data from the World Mental Health Japan survey were analyzed. A subsample of 530 workers aged 20-60years were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. The WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, was used to assess sick days and on-the-job work performance for the previous 30days. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of mental disorders on these indicators of work performance over 12months. Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder, and alcohol abuse/dependence were significantly associated with decreased on-the-job performance. There were no significant associations between mental disorders and sick/absent days. Consistent with previous studies, major depression has a great impact on on-the-job work performance in Japan. The lost productivity was estimated at approximately 28-30 lost days per year. A similar decrease in on-the-job work performance was found for alcohol abuse/dependence, which is stronger than that in other countries, probably attributable to greater tolerance of problematic drinking at Japanese worksites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  6. A survey on relationship between capital structure, free cash flow and diversification and firm performance of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of free cash flow, share diversification and capital structure on Tobin-Q in selected firms on Tehran Stock Exchange. The population of the survey includes 520 firms listed on this exchange until year 2012 and the survey uses a sample of 105 firms, randomly. The study uses the models originally developed by Palepu (1985 [Palepu, K. (1985. Diversification strategy, profit performance and the entropy measure. Strategic Management Journal, 6(3, 239-255.] to measure the effects of different factors on Tobin Q. The study has indicated that while capital structure and free cash flow influence positively on Tobin Q, diversification has maintained a negative and meaningful relationship with Tobin Q.

  7. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Sun

    Full Text Available The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China.A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model.We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM. The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance.It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  8. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  9. Problems and prospects for maintaining the register of sanitary and epidemiological objects of surveillance for the tasks of the transition to risk-oriented model of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the formation of regional databases of the objects of sanitary-epidemiological surveillance for the tasks of sequential evaluation of each object having the potential risk to the citizens of the affected areas of these objects, e.g. workers, consumers of products or services. The basic structure of the information system is demonstrated. The system is oriented to be used together with the DBMS MS Access. The system performs the manual quiding function for the register and implements the calculation algorithm of the health risk indicators and classification of the objects of surveillance. Approaches to the formation of the system have been tested in Perm, Lipetsk, Kaluga, Omsk regions as part of a pilot project of the Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer rights protection and human well-being. The problems of the registers’ formation are in the fact of scares operational entering of the significant amount of information, that has been accumulated in Administration offices of Rospotrebnadzor, but do not exist in the form of electronic databases. The relevant issue is the development of guidance documents to ensure unified approaches to the registers’ formation and risk calculation in relation to population census under the influence of various activities.

  10. La cuestión sanitaria en el debate modernidad-posmodernidad The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iriart

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo situa a la cuestión sanitaria en el debate modernidad-posmodernidad. Tal análisis se realiza desde una posición filosófica que plantea la crisis de la modernidad y cuestiona la torsión ideológica que a la misma le propicía la posmodernidad obturando las visiones cuestionadoras. Propiciando una vision alternativa de lo político pensada desde el plano de la potencia, recuperando el rol del sujeto en la decisión de producir transformaciones.This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  11. Performance in Measurement of Serum Cystatin C by Laboratories Participating in the College of American Pathologists 2014 CYS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeldt, John H; Karger, Amy B; Miller, W Greg; Rynders, Gregory P; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    Cystatin C is becoming an increasingly popular biomarker for estimating glomerular filtration rate, and accurate measurements of cystatin C concentrations are necessary for accurate estimates of glomerular filtration rate. To assess the accuracy of cystatin C concentration measurements in laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists CYS Survey. Two fresh frozen serum pools, the first from apparently healthy donors and the second from patients with chronic kidney disease, were prepared and distributed to laboratories participating in the CYS Survey along with the 2 usual processed human plasma samples. Target values were established for each pool by using 2 immunoassays and ERM DA471/IFCC international reference material. For the normal fresh frozen pool (ERM-DA471/IFCC-traceable target of 0.960 mg/L), the all-method mean (SD, % coefficient of variation [CV]) reported by all of the 123 reporting laboratories was 0.894 mg/L (0.128 mg/L, 14.3%). For the chronic kidney disease pool (ERM-DA471/IFCC-traceable target of 2.37 mg/L), the all-method mean (SD, %CV) was 2.258 mg/L (0.288 mg/L, 12.8%). There were substantial method-specific biases (mean milligram per liter reported for the normal pool was 0.780 for Siemens, 0.870 for Gentian, 0.967 for Roche, 1.061 for Diazyme, and 0.970 for other/not specified reagents; and mean milligram per liter reported for the chronic kidney disease pool was 2.052 for Siemens, 2.312 for Gentian, 2.247 for Roche, 2.909 for Diazyme, and 2.413 for other/not specified reagents). Manufacturers need to improve the accuracy of cystatin C measurement procedures if cystatin C is to achieve its full potential as a biomarker for estimating glomerular filtration rate.

  12. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  13. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  14. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated

  15. Environmental Assessment for the centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings

  16. EXPERIENCE SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION PROJECT OF PLACING A SOURCE OF IONIZING RADIATION (GENERATING) IN HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Rakitin; A. L. Zel’din; V. B. Karpov

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the results of long-term sanitary-epidemiological examination of projects of placing of ionizing radiation (generating) sources in health care institutions of Saint-Petersburg. The majority among the placed sources presented for examination was X-ray diagnostic units and sets – 35.7%, dentist X-rays – 39.4% and fluorography units – 10.8%. Mammography units and computer tomographs made 6.7% each, accelerants – 0.7%.The most frequent reasons of primary refusals to accept des...

  17. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...

  18. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Umamaheswari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.

  19. Dai bisogni di salute al consumo di risorse sanitarie in provincia di Bergamo: profilo degli indicatori di bisogno, domanda, offerta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zucchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la complessità interpretativa dei dati relativi ad alcuni fenomeni sanitari a livello territoriale impone la necessità di uno strumento semplice di lettura “epidemiologica”; tale lettura si fonda sull’utilizzo di una serie di “indicatori”, fondamenta di un processo dinamico di monitoraggio temporale e spaziale in grado di descrivere sinteticamente fenomeni di per sé complessi, al fine di fornire al decisore un supporto sintetico ma scientificamente solido.

    Obiettivi: istituzione di un sistema di monitoraggio sanitario community-based; definizione di indicatori sanitari comparabili tramite un esame critico dei dati esistenti; sviluppo di metodologie per la raccolta e la validazione dei dati; supporto alla creazione di un sistema efficace e affidabile di trasferimento e scambio dei dati e degli indicatori stessi con uso spinto della tecnologia telematica; elaborazione di metodi e di strumenti necessari alla produzione di analisi e relazioni.

    Materiali e metodi: gli indicatori analizzati fanno riferimento
    all’elenco definito dal decreto ministeriale n. 27 del 12 dicembre 2001 “sistema di garanzie per il monitoraggio dell’assistenza sanitaria”. A questo elenco ne sono stati aggiunti altri, per un totale di 127, divisi in grandi capitoli tematici: assistenza sanitaria, assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera, indicatori stato di salute, consumo di risorse sanitarie (cui è stato dato particolare enfasi, indicatori di domanda/accessibilità. Per definire infine un
    profilo di sintesi di questi grandi capitoli e delle relative
    eterogeneità territoriali si è successivamente applicata la tecnica statistica dello “z-score”.
    Risultati: le differenze emerse a livello distrettuale hanno permesso di disegnare una ‘mappa’ degli indicatori sanitari in provincia di Bergamo.

    Conclusioni:i risultati di

  20. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  1. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  2. Role of Community in Swachh Bharat Mission. Their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sanitary Latrine Usage in Rural Areas, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Lawrence, D; Timsi, J; Sivaprakasam, P

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the "Swachh Bharat Mission" to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  3. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  4. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  5. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to empower women, avert further health risks, and

  6. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  7. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented

  8. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H

    2005-08-15

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented.

  9. Age-related differences in the relations between individualised HRM and organisational performance: a large-scale employer survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Dorenbosch, L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individualised HRM practices and several measures of organisational performance, including the moderating role of employee age in these relationships. A large-scale representative study among 4,591 organisations in the Netherlands

  10. Day-to-day care in palliative sedation: Survey of nurses' experiences with decision-making and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arevalo, J.J.; Rietjens, J.A.; Swart, S.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; van der Heide, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Continuous palliative sedation has been the focus of extensive international debates in the field of end-of-life decision making. Although nurses may be important participants in the performance of continuous palliative sedation, research has focused primarily on the role and experience of

  11. Association of post-traumatic stress disorder and work performance: A survey from an emergency medical service, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerai, Salima; Pasha, Omrana; Khan, Uzma; Islam, Muhammad; Asad, Nargis; Razzak, Junaid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work performance of emergency medical services personnel in Karachi, Pakistan. Emergency medical service personnel were screened for potential PTSD using Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Work performance was assessed on the basis of five variables: number of late arrivals to work, number of days absent, number of days sick, adherence to protocol, and patient satisfaction over a period of 3 months. In order to model outcomes like the number of late arrivals to work, days absent and days late, negative binomial regression was applied, whereas logistic regression was applied for adherence to protocol and linear for patient satisfaction scores. Mean scores of PTSD were 24.0±12.2. No association was found between PTSD and work performance measures: number of late arrivals to work ( RR adj 0.99; 0.98-1.00), days absent ( RR adj 0.98; 0.96-0.99), days sick ( RR adj 0.99; 0.98-1.00), adherence to protocol ( OR adj 1.01; 0.99-1.04) and patient satisfaction ( β 0.001%-0.03%) after adjusting for years of formal schooling, living status, coping mechanism, social support, working hours, years of experience and anxiety or depression. No statistically significant association was found between PTSD and work performance amongst EMS personnel in Karachi, Pakistan.

  12. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Romijn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel production at this time. Plantations were found to be unviable because of insurmountable up-front capital requirements in combination with slow and unreliable crop maturation, inefficient oil pressing owing to a lack of scale and experience, inadequate utilization of by-products, and competitively-priced fossil diesel and palm oil. For smallholders, jatropha only has limited value as a hedge crop in environmentally and economically disadvantaged areas. Better prospects have to wait for the advent of improved jatropha varieties. Social impacts from the perspective of project managers were rather mixed: overall, food security perceptions were positive and no massive forced human displacements were noted so far, though some disputes over land access and compensation were reported. Labor legislation was apparently respected on plantations, and positive gender effects, regional income/employment effects and better public facilities were also reported. The projects generated considerable employment, albeit mostly of a temporary nature, as lack of economic viability had caused many projects to close down again. When introducing next-generation biofuel projects, better monitoring by various actor groups is recommended, as well as long-term investment plans that include integral exit strategies.

  13. Students’ Satisfaction with the Group Work Method and its Performance Evaluation: A survey in an Italian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zedda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group Work Learning Method is a cooperative learning technique that has positive effects in learning: students’ active participation can increase both cognitive and social skills. Our work involved three cohorts of students of different years attending the same course at the University of Torino, Department of Psychology. The contents of the course were the same in all years, students were asked to form self-selected groups to find creative solutions to two cases regarding violent behavior in workplace. Satisfaction concerning this activity and the method to evaluate the performance of the activity were investigated. Findings confirm overall students’ satisfaction related to group work learning method. This satisfaction improves the scores in course and teacher skills satisfaction. About the evaluation, findings shown that students agreed teacher’s and peers’ evaluation of the performance.

  14. Investigating the effect of entrepreneurial competencies on business performance among early stage entrepreneurs Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM 2010 survey data)

    OpenAIRE

    Barazandeh, Mahtab; Parvizian, Kourosh; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurs of this era need to be more competent and skillful compared to businessmen working in the beginning of this century. A robust body of knowledge has grown around entrepreneurs' need for superior skills and personality characteristics; the ones that enables them to effectively compete and survive. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies along with social norms and entrepreneurs' business performance. Data of GEM gathered during 2010 was uti...

  15. A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bradburn Ryan M; Barbur Laura A; Nutsch Abbey L; Coetzee Johann F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond t...

  16. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda; Metodologia para el diseno del relleno sanitario de Santa Rosa de Cabal, Risaralda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-07-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places.

  17. Similarity Digest Search: A Survey and Comparative Analysis of Strategies to Perform Known File Filtering Using Approximate Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Galhardo Moia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital forensics is a branch of Computer Science aiming at investigating and analyzing electronic devices in the search for crime evidence. There are several ways to perform this search. Known File Filter (KFF is one of them, where a list of interest objects is used to reduce/separate data for analysis. Holding a database of hashes of such objects, the examiner performs lookups for matches against the target device. However, due to limitations over hash functions (inability to detect similar objects, new methods have been designed, called approximate matching. This sort of function has interesting characteristics for KFF investigations but suffers mainly from high costs when dealing with huge data sets, as the search is usually done by brute force. To mitigate this problem, strategies have been developed to better perform lookups. In this paper, we present the state of the art of similarity digest search strategies, along with a detailed comparison involving several aspects, as time complexity, memory requirement, and search precision. Our results show that none of the approaches address at least these main aspects. Finally, we discuss future directions and present requirements for a new strategy aiming to fulfill current limitations.

  18. Public health assessment for Freeway Sanitary Landfill, Burnsville, Dakota County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND038384004. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Freeway Sanitary Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site in Burnsville, Minnesota is situated in the Lower Minnesota River Valley. Shallow groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of volatile organic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Under current conditions, no human exposures to site-related contaminants are known to occur at levels of health concern. Based on currently available information, the Minnesota Department of Health concludes that the site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions because exposure to volatile gases released to the air is possible, but cannot be evaluated from the very limited information available. There are also a few physical hazards on the site which pose a risk of accident or injury if trespassing occurs. Otherwise, there are no indications that people have been, or are being, exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that would be of health concern. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the Freeway Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up activities. The Panel has recommended that health education be considered to assist site workers in better understanding their potential for exposure to landfill gases

  19. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  20. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  2. [Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.

  3. [Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Isa Cristina Lopes; Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2010-11-01

    This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the higher vulnerability of the subjects in that age range. This study reveals complexes challenges for the control of alcohol advertisement that in turn lead to rethinking the action of the State apparatus in dealing with this major public health issue.

  4. Day-to-day care in palliative sedation: survey of nurses' experiences with decision-making and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jimmy J; Rietjens, Judith A; Swart, Siebe J; Perez, Roberto S G M; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-05-01

    Continuous palliative sedation has been the focus of extensive international debates in the field of end-of-life decision making. Although nurses may be important participants in the performance of continuous palliative sedation, research has focused primarily on the role and experience of physicians. Nurses' experiences differ from that of physicians; they more often describe that continuous palliative sedation is used with the intention of hastening death and to have experienced serious emotional burden. Therefore, it is important to understand the experience of nurses in continuous palliative sedation. To describe nurses' experiences with the decision-making and performance of continuous palliative sedation in terminally ill patients. Cross-sectional study. In 2008, a structured questionnaire was sent to 576 nurses in six professional home care organizations, ten units for palliative care in nursing homes and in-patient hospices and seven hospitals in the western region of the Netherlands. Respondents provided information about the last patient receiving continuous palliative sedation whom they had cared for. Two-hundred seventy-seven questionnaires were returned and 199 (71.84%) reported a case of continuous palliative sedation. Nurses felt involved in the decision to use sedation in 84% of cases, albeit to a lesser extent in home care (68.75%, p=0.002). They agreed with the performance of continuous palliative sedation in 95.97% of cases and they proposed the use of continuous palliative sedation in 16.16%. Nurses were present at the start of sedation in 81.40% of cases and reported physicians to be present in 45.22%. In 72.77%, arrangements had been made among caregivers about the coordination of health care regarding the sedation. Nurses seem to play an important role in the use of continuous sedation. This role is mainly supportive toward physicians and patients during the decision-making process, but shifts to an active performance of sedation

  5. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight's evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  6. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA when performing outsourced clinical studies.This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s.Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  7. PROJECTS ON AIRPORTS, AIRFIELDS, HELICOPTER AERODROMES AND LANDING GROUNDS SANITARY PROTECTION AREAS AS THE BASIS OF THEIR ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE ASSESSMENT TO ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years experience of the development of domestic airports sanitary protection zones projects in civil aviation based on Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03 requirements is analyzed, the reasons of loss of quality of project works and delaying of coordination terms at the last stage of the development are established. It is shown that among the main reasons for current negative situation with projects development and coordination are: absence of a check algorithm of settlement borders of areas and contours of aviation noise with the use of natural researches methods in Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03; absence of methods of amendment in projects and regulations of establishment of the airport sanitary protection zones final dimensions. Examples of oversized and undersized noise areas and ones of the polluting substances dispersion as well as the reasons of local authorities’ interests in it are given.Conceptional strategies which should be used in the edition of a new Russian conservancy normative document regulating the development of projects on sanitary protection areas. New document will allow to consider various factors of negative environmental impact of the airports, airfields, helicopter aerodromes and landing grounds activities.It is offered to introduce the concept of "aviation noise set index operational card", which will solve the legitimation problem of the aviation noise account in the State Immovable Property Cadaster. Suggestions on equivalent and maximum level magnitude of the sound made at the residential territory of cities and urban-type settlements by flights and aircraft ground operation are given.Standards are supposed to be harmonized with similar international rules and have to provide zone gradation by 5 dBA.Suggestions on the considerations of the revealed deficiencies are made, requirements to project sections structure of sanitary protection zones are formulated, proposals on the

  8. Measures to assess the performance of an Australian non-government charitable non-acute health service: A Delphi Survey of Organisational Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbran, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Stagnitti, Karen; Adams, Samantha

    2018-02-01

    Organisation performance measurement is relevant for non-profit charitable organisations as they strive for security in an increasingly competitive funding environment. This study aimed to identify the priority measures and indicators of organisational performance of an Australian non-government charitable organisation that delivers non-acute health services. Seventy-seven and 59 participants across nine stakeholder groups responded to a two-staged Delphi technique study of a case study organisation. The stage one questionnaire was developed using information garnered through a detailed review of literature. Data from the first round were aggregated and analysed for the stage two survey. The final data represented a group consensus. Quality of care was ranked the most important of six organisational performance measures. Service user satisfaction was ranked second followed by financial performance, internal processes, employee learning and growth and community engagement. Thirteen priority indicators were determined across the six measures. Consensus was reached on the priority organisational performance measures and indicators. Stakeholders of the case study organisation value evidence-based practice, technical strength of services and service user satisfaction over more commercially orientated indicators.

  9. Wages and salaries as a motivational tool for enhancing organizational performance. A survey of selected Nigerian workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Eniola SULE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how the organisation’s human capital was compensated and see whether the compensation even serves as a motivational tool to enhance organisational performance. Seven research questions and two hypotheses were postulated to find solutions to the problems of the study. One hundred and twenty personnel formed the sample size from six organisations. A self-designed instrument labeled Wages and Salaries as a Motivational Tool Questionnaire 2 (WASAMOTOQ2 containing seven sections was used in the collection of data. The findings of the study revealed those factors that militate against adequate compensation to include labour market conditions, the ability of the organisation to pay adequate compensation and the existing country/nation’s present cost of living; what makes up good and adequate compensation include recognition of individual performance and taking care of individual incentives and it shows the relationship between compensation and motivation. It further established the consequential effect of inadequate compensation and motivation on the organisational development. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were proffered that there should be wages/salaries scale and schedule; such should be based on identified indices in the study; that disparity between two identical workers should not be based purely on ‘paper’ qualification but the ability to ‘deliver’; and that wages/salaries should display equality, no ‘sacred cow’.

  10. Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems: State-of-the Art Survey on Evaluation and Aggregation Judgment Measures Applied to Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the experience gained in the application of multi-criteria decision making and uncertainty treatment methods to a comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and related nuclear fuel cycles. These judgment measures provide a means for comprehensive evaluation according to different conflicting criteria, such as costs, benefits and risks, which are inevitably associated with the deployment of advanced technologies. Major findings and recommendations elaborated in international and national projects and studies are reviewed and discussed. A careful analysis is performed for multi-criteria comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycles on the basis of various evaluation and screening results. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learned, to share the identified solutions, and indicate promising future directions.

  11. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-11-23

    Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower

  12. Effects of obligatory training and prior training experience on attitudes towards performing basic life support: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroki; Enami, Miki; Hirose, Keiko; Kamikura, Takahisa; Nishi, Taiki; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    To determine the effect of Japanese obligatory basic life support training for new driver's license applicants on their willingness to carry out basic life support. We distributed a questionnaire to 9,807 participants of basic life support courses in authorized driving schools from May 2007 to April 2008 after the release of the 2006 Japanese guidelines. The questionnaire explored the participants' willingness to perform basic life support in four hypothetical scenarios: cardiopulmonary resuscitation on one's own initiative; compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation following telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early emergency call; and use of an automated external defibrillator. The questionnaire was given at the beginning of the basic life support course in the first 6-month term and at the end in the second 6-month term. The 9,011 fully completed answer sheets were analyzed. The training significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to use an automated external defibrillator and to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on their own initiative in those with and without prior basic life support training experience. It significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to carry out favorable actions in all four scenarios. In multiple logistic regression analysis, basic life support training and prior training experiences within 3 years were associated with the attitude. The analysis of reasons for unwillingness suggested that the training reduced the lack of confidence in their skill but did not attenuate the lack of confidence in detection of arrest or clinical judgment to initiate a basic life support action. Obligatory basic life support training should be carried out periodically and modified to ensure that participants gain confidence in judging and detecting cardiac arrest.

  13. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  14. Proposal of law relative to the follow up of the sanitary and environmental consequences of nuclear tests; Proposition de loi relative au suivi des consequences sanitaires et environnementales des essais nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This proposal of law aims at coming up to the expectations of the people (military or civilian) who participated to the nuclear tests performed by France in Sahara (Reggane and In Eker) and in French Polynesia between February 13, 1960 and January 27, 1996, and of those who lived in the vicinity of these test-sites. Many of these people suffer from health and sanitary problems which may have a direct connection with their participation to the nuclear activities in these areas. This proposal of law foresees the creation of a fund for the indemnification of the victims of these tests and the creation of a commission for the follow up of epidemiological and environmental questions. (J.S.)

  15. Diagnóstico das condições higiênico-sanitárias e microbiológicas de lactários hospitalares Diagnosis of hygienic-sanitary and microbiological conditions of hospital human milk-banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kuerten de Salles

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Partindo-se da premissa de que os alimentos podem ser veículos de transmissão de microrganismos e metabólitos microbianos, e sendo a alimentação láctea a base alimentar e terapêutica para crianças hospitalizadas, foi avaliada a influência das condições higiênico-sanitárias dos lactários hospitalares quanto à qualidade microbiológica dos alimentos por eles fornecidos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram realizadas inspeções sanitárias e análises microbiológicas das preparações lácteas, matérias-primas utilizadas nas formulações, utensílios, condições do ambiente e manipuladores de dois lactários do Município de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os lactários hospitalares apresentaram boas condições higiênico-sanitárias, classificação esta obtida a partir dos resultados coletados das fichas de Inspeção Sanitária. As preparações lácteas apresentaram contaminação em 45,9% das amostras para contagem de coliformes totais. Os utensílios também apresentaram um elevado índice de contaminação, especialmente os bicos e jarras plásticas, com percentuais respectivamente de 75% e 58,3% para coliformes totais. Foi constatada a presença de E. coli e S. aureus nas mãos e S. aureus na região orofaríngea dos manipuladores dos lactários.INTRODUCTION: Based on the assumption that foodstulfs can be the vehicle of transmission of microorganisms and microbial metabolics and considering lacteal formulas to be a nutritional and therapeutic basis for hospitalized children, the purpose of the study is the evaluation of the effect of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital lactaries on the microbiological quality of the food served by them. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A sanitary survey and microbiological analyses of lacteal formulas were undertaken, as also of the raw materials from wich the utensils used were made, as well as of the conditions both the environment and the personnel, at two

  16. Financing Solar Energy Systems with Energy Savings Performance Contracts in the Federal Sector: Results of a Survey on Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R. C.; LaPorta, C.

    1999-08-17

    This report summarizes the findings of an investigation into financing solar energy systems for the Federal sector. The objectives of the investigation were (1) to identify the barriers that impede companies from using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) to develop solar energy projects for Federal facilities, and (2) to clarify the impacts of Federal contracting requirements on energy service companies' use of ESPCs. Twenty-four representatives of energy service companies agreed to be interviewed. Their responses indicate that these are the primary barriers to greater use of ESPCs: the relatively long payback periods for investments in solar technologies; the length of the ESPC process; the cost of certain contractual requirements regarding wages and financing; and a lack of knowledge about the actual cost and reliability of solar systems. The report proposes a number of actions the government could take to remove these barriers, including (1) streamlining and shortening the ESPC process and (2) doing more to inform both government agencies and energy service companies about the costs and benefits of solar systems.

  17. A Survey of Managers' Access to Key Performance Indicators via HIS: The Case of Iranian Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Khorrami, Farid; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Golchin, Mohammad H; Azad, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shafei

    2018-01-01

    The challenges of using health information systems in developing countries are different from developed countries for various reasons such as infrastructure and data culture of organizations. The aim of this study is to assess managers' access to key performance indicators (KPI) via Hospital Information System (HIS) in teaching hospitals of Iran. All managers (Census method) of the four teaching hospitals affiliated to Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS) were included in this study. KPIs which are linked to the strategic objectives of organizations were adopted from the strategic plan of HUMS. The questionnaire used in this study included three categories: Financial, Human Resources and clinical. One-sample t-test was used and the significant difference score was calculated for the acceptable level. We found that HIS cannot facilitate access to KPIs for managers in the main categories, but it was effective in two subcategories of income (p = 0.314) and salary (P = 0.289)). A study of barriers to the use of managers of HIS in hospitals is suggested.

  18. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Using benchmarking techniques and the 2011 maternity practices infant nutrition and care (mPINC) survey to improve performance among peer groups across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G; Shealy, Katherine R; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-02-01

    A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4-6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement.

  20. Survey the performance of the Shohada of Behshahr the wastewater treatment plant hospital in 2015-2016

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    Sakine Mollaie Tavani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hospital wastewater due to having pollutants like pharmaceuticals and antibiotics, chemical and heavy metals and … In the absence of proper treatment and its entry into the receiving waters are causing health risks. This study evaluate treatment and the quality of effluents from a single wastewater hospital Behshahr's Shohada gynecology and compare effluent with environmental standards. Materials and Methods: The study on wastewater treatment plant was to Descriptive - analytical method 2015-2016 in the hospital A single gynecologic Behshahr's Shohada. In order to determine the sewage quality and efficiency Wastewater treatment plant outlet effluent sampling was performed. Samples of BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, DO, turbidity, free chlorine, fecal coliform and total coliform were analyzed using standard methods. Results: The average daily water consumption of 33 m3 and the average hospital wastewater generated per bed is 26.4 m3/day. Average parameters BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, DO, turbidity, free chlorine, fecal coliform and total coliform in the outlet effluent treatment plant respectively is 112/25 mg /l, 157 mg / L, 1122/25 mg / L, 138/75 mg / L, 59/5 mg / L, 13 NTU, 1mg / L,4/75 MPN / 100mL, 46 MPN / 100mL. Conclusion: The results showed that all parameters are above the standard level suitable effluent disposal to receiving the waters were, therefore efficiency is unsuitable the process of and requires management and leadership is more accurate. This wastewater treatment plant also can be used for agricultural use, Discharge into surface waters and catchy wells are not  and Total coliform and fecal coliform amounts were measured only by the standards of the Iran Environmental Protection Agency were compatible.