WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary sewers

  1. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  2. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  3. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Post-rehabilitation flow monitoring and analysis of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.

    1996-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.

  6. An analysis of the Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) subproject of the sanitary sewer rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, W.; Siemiatkoski, S.

    1994-01-25

    The comprehensive rehabilitation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sanitary Sewer System centers around a Cured-in-Place Pipe project. Driven by regulatory requirements to eliminate the potential for exfiltration, a careful condition assessment of the existing infrastructure was conducted. Under programmatic constraints to maintain continuous operations, the INLINER USA cured-in-place pipe system was selected as the appropriate technology, and the project is currently under contract.

  7. A potential sanitary sewer overflow treatment technology: fixed-media bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2011-08-01

    Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BODs/m2 x h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information about this notice, contact... or e-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Properly designed..., line breaks, sewer defects that allow storm water and groundwater to overload the system, lapses in...

  12. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Lin, Cynthia J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J

    2017-11-28

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources before reaching the treatment facility, potentially contaminating the water source with gastrointestinal pathogens. The objective of this paper is to assess associations between SSO events and rates of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in Massachusetts. A case-crossover study design was used to investigate association between SSO events and emergency room (ER) visits with a primary diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in Massachusetts for 2006-2007. ER visits for GI were considered exposed if an SSO event occurred in the county of residence within three hazard periods, 0-4 d, 5-9 d, or 10-14 d, before the visit. A time-stratified bidirectional design was used to select control days for each ER visit on the same day of the week during the same month. Fixed effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of ER visits following the SSO event. During the study period, there were 270 SSO events for northeastern Massachusetts and 66,460 ER admissions with GI illness listed as the primary diagnostic code. The overall odds ratio (OR) for ER visits for GI illness was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.16] in the 10-14 d period following an SSO event, with positive ORs for all age groups and for three of the four counties. The 0-4 d and 5-9 d periods following an SSO event were not associated with ER visits for GI illness overall, and associations by county or age were inconsistent. We demonstrated an association between SSO events and ER visits for GI illness using a case-crossover study design. In light of the aging water infrastructure in the United States and the expected increase in heavy rainfall events, our findings suggest a potential health impact associated with sewage overflows. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2048.

  13. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Sewerage Collection Lines, City of Emporia Sanitary Sewer System. The data contains points and lines. Data includes some depth information and manholes. We are in process for GPSing manhole locations., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Collection Lines dataset current as of 2011. City of Emporia Sanitary Sewer System. The data contains points and lines. Data includes some depth information...

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  20. Workshops and Training | Eliminating Sanitary Sewer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    EPA New England is working with partners to develop outreach, workshops and tools to assist those working to prevent sewage overflows and improve the management of water/wastewater systems. We have ongoing efforts on CMOM (Capacity, Management, Operation and Maintenance), Asset Management and energy management.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  2. Energy Efficiency Study, Steam, Water, and Sewer Systems, Fort Greely, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This energy efficiency study of steam, potable water, and sanitary sewer systems was conducted and this report prepared under the Indefinite Delivery Architect-Engineer Contract for Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP...

  3. Sewer Main Pipe Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the sewer mains that carry refuse to the sewer plants for processing and...

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sanitary Sewer Interim Response Action, Construction Documents for New Sanitary Sewer Construction. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Reproducibles shall be brownline diazo or sepia and shall be of such quality that prints made therefrom are sufficiently clear for microfilm copying. All...700-88 Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength, and Perforated 0 2412-87 External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel... CHARACTERISTIC CURVES 5. ELECTRICAL WORK 13. OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE 6. SEWAGE PUMPS INSTRUCTIONS AND SPARE- 7. PUMP CONSTRUCTION PARTS DATA 8. MISCELLANEOUS

  5. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  6. A Bayesian network model to assess the public health risk associated with wet weather sewer overflows discharging into waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R; Jayasuriya, N; Horan, E

    2012-10-15

    Overflows from sanitary sewers during wet weather, which occur when the hydraulic capacity of the sewer system is exceeded, are considered a potential threat to the ecological and public health of the waterways which receive these overflows. As a result, water retailers in Australia and internationally commit significant resources to manage and abate sewer overflows. However, whilst some studies have contributed to an increased understanding of the impacts and risks associated with these events, they are relatively few in number and there still is a general lack of knowledge in this area. A Bayesian network model to assess the public health risk associated with wet weather sewer overflows is presented in this paper. The Bayesian network approach is shown to provide significant benefits in the assessment of public health risks associated with wet weather sewer overflows. In particular, the ability for the model to account for the uncertainty inherent in sewer overflow events and subsequent impacts through the use of probabilities is a valuable function. In addition, the paper highlights the benefits of the probabilistic inference function of the Bayesian network in prioritising management options to minimise public health risks associated with sewer overflows. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m(3) and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an "Imminent Hazard" condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

  8. HANDBOOK: SEWER SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of our Nation's sewer systems date back to the 19th Century when brick sewers were common. hese and more recent sewer systems can be expected to fail in time, but because they are placed underground, signs of accelerated deterioration and capacity limitations are not readily...

  9. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  10. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  11. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  12. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  13. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  14. Loads of Sewer Manholes within Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zięba

    2014-01-01

    Originality/Value: The presented method is an original concept. It enables the determination of additional external horizontal loads acting on sewer manholes within mining areas, in particular the flexible manholes made of thermoplastics. It also enables the determination of dependencies of changes in the cross-sections of risers of flexible sewer manholes (with different circumferential stiffness on the horizontal soil strains.

  15. Boston Water & Sewer Commission (BWSC) | Stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) was issued National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit MAS010001, which became effective on October 29, 1999, authorizing stormwater and allowable non-stormwater discharges from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4).

  16. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  17. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  18. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    H, alkalinity and sewer-air CO2 concentrations. An intercepting sewer was studied and an average sewer-air retention time of approximately 1.5-2.5 hours was found at CO2 levels around 4-6 times the natural background. Also an upstream sub-catchment was studied. In this part of the sewer system the level of CO2...

  19. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    , sulfide emission and thereby potential hydrogen sulfide buildup in the sewer atmosphere is of particular importance in sewers constructed with large diameter pipes, in sewers constructed with steep slopes and in sewers conveying low pH wastewater. Precipitation of metal sulfides is only important when......Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...

  20. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flows and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems....... The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by through a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow, given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied...

  1. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  2. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and cont...... benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control....

  3. Research note: Mapping spatial patterns in sewer age, material, and proximity to surface waterways to infer sewer leakage hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Bain, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying areas where deteriorating sewer infrastructure is in close proximity to surface waterways is needed to map likely connections between sewers and streams. We present a method to estimate sewer installation year and deterioration status using historical maps of the sewer network, parcel-scale property assessment data, and pipe material. Areas where streams were likely buried into the sewer system were mapped by intersecting the historical stream network derived from a 10-m resolution digital elevation model with sewer pipe locations. Potential sewer leakage hotspots were mapped by identifying where aging sewer pipes are in close proximity (50-m) to surface waterways. Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), indicated 41% of the historical stream length was lost or buried and the potential interface between sewers and streams is great. The co-location of aging sewer infrastructure (>75 years old) near stream channels suggests that 42% of existing streams are located in areas with a high potential for sewer leakage if sewer infrastructure fails. Mapping the sewer-stream interface provides an approach to better understand areas were failing sewers may contribute a disproportional amount of nutrients and other pathogens to surface waterways.

  4. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    occasional moose and bear. Amphibian State Species of Concern include the Northern Leopard Frog. Mammal State Species of Concern include the bobcat...1808 15th Ave NE, Grand ’J:or11s, NO 58201 IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my. hand and seal this ~ day of July, 2010 Oan.l:llll/ss...Program 319 CES/CEV A 525 Tuskegee Airmen Blvd. Grand Forks AFB, ND 58205-6434 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SECTION Gold Seal Center, 918 E. Divide Ave

  6. Oahu Sewer Lateral Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inventory of sewer laterals, used for tracking, monitoring, and flow analysis as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. The base sewer...

  7. Sewer Mains, Guam, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the sewer mains that carry refuse to the sewer plants for processing and...

  8. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, I.; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2013-01-01

    Self-optimising control is a useful concept to select optimal controlled variables from a set of candidate measurements in a systematic manner. In this study, use self-optimizing control tools and apply them to the specific features of sewer systems, e.g. the continuously transient dynamics......, the availability of a large number of measurements, the stochastic and unforeseeable character of the disturbances (rainfall). Using a subcatchment area in the Copenhagen sewer system as a case study we demonstrate, step by step, the formulation of the self-optimising control problem. The final result...... is an improved control structure aimed at optimizing the losses for a given control objective, here the minimization of the combined sewer overflows despite rainfall variations....

  9. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...... receiving waters when detention ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. It is concluded that consequences can be fatal for receiving waters, if no retention of pollutants is integrated into the system....

  10. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  11. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  12. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Causanilles Llanes, Ana

    2017-01-01

    In-sewer transformation of drug biomarkers (excreted parent drugs and metabolites) can be influenced by the presence of biomass in suspended form as well as attached to sewer walls (biofilms). Biofilms are likely the most abundant and biologically active biomass fraction in sewers. In this study...

  14. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  15. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  16. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2016-01-01

    weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  17. Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies for sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, Manfred; Möderl, Michael; Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz; Hammerer, Max; Kinzel, Heiko; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Building measures in sewer systems are increasingly driven by rehabilitation/retrofitting and adaptation needs. Aging infrastructure together with changing boundary conditions (due to climate change, land-use change, demographic change) and also changing design standards and legislation require a prospective design to preserve the functionality of urban drainage systems not only today, but also in a long-term perspective. To improve a prospective design of urban water infrastructure, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency funded the research project 'REHAB - Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies of urban infrastructure systems'. Therein a novel strategic planning tool which considers these external drivers of rehabilitation strategies is developed. In this study the scope of the project is described and, as well as first results regarding sewer pipe conditions, future development and vulnerability assessment are also discussed.

  18. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Michael J.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Mayer, Paul M.; Utz, Ryan M.; Cooper, Curtis A.

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water, carbon, and nutrient fluxes associated with urban infrastructure and stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management globally. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in urban stream restoration and sewer infrastructure. We compared an urban restored stream with two urban degraded streams draining varying levels of urban development and one stream with upland stormwater management systems over a 3-year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower (p management systems and less impervious surface cover in its watershed (13.2 ± 1.9 mm day-1). The restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at relatively lower streamflow than the two more urban catchments, which exported most carbon and nutrients at higher streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 kg ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban degraded streams (p management systems, for N exports. However, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the urban restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), statistically similar to the urban degraded streams. These isotopic results as well as additional tracers, including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt), suggested that groundwater contamination was a major source of urban nutrient fluxes, which has been less considered compared to upland sources. Overall, leaking sewer pipes are a problem globally and our results suggest that combining stream restoration with restoration of aging sewer

  19. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over a century ago, the City of Lynchburg constructed a sanitary sewer system to deal with the increasing need for waste water treatment. State and federal environmental mandates require cities to eliminate sewer overflows, so in the 1990s, the City of Lynchburg devised a plan to fix the problem of combined sewer overflow. Since Lynchburg's Combined Sewer Separation (CSS) work began approximately twenty years ago, many of the overflow points have been eliminated, leaving 30 points to be closed in the future. It remains unclear, however, whether Blackwater Creek's freshwater ecosystems have begun to show improvement as a result of the City's CSS separation project. As recently as 2012, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality characterized Blackwater Creek as a Category 5 Impaired Waterway, as assessed by benthic rapid bioassessment methods. Since 2003, the intro environmental science class at Randolph College has conducted stream assessment and water quality monitoring at two sites in Blackwater Creek, as a required field project. This work has involved nearly 300 students over that time, and includes rapid bioassessment (RBA) of aquatic macroinvertebrates, chemical and physical analysis, and riparian and channel vegetation assessment. Over this same period, the City has progressed through separation of the CSS system in a significant portion of Blackwater Creek's subwatershed, including our study area. We analyzed ten years of stream monitoring data in tandem with a geographic analysis of the progression of the CSS project to determine whether there has been resultant improvement in water quality. When analyzed in conjunction with the progress of the CSS project, the data did not exhibit a detectable difference between data collected before and after 2006. However, a simple linear regression of the data did show improvement in chemical and biological indicators of stream health, with a greater increase in results pertaining to the RBA. Further sampling is

  20. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501... COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. Sanitary toilets provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.500...

  1. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...... is being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation....

  2. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...

  3. Conceptual framework for sewer pump problems allowing for fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... system components and the ultimate application in sewer system decision support tools. ... systems. This is the first publication pertaining to sewer pumps pre- sented in Water SA since the inception of the journal in 1975. This paper adopts ... The research team based the methodology of this study on.

  4. Conceptual framework for sewer pump problems allowing for fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of the framework is illustrated by means of a fuzzy logic approach to one of the problem classes identified. This study sets the scene for further research into fuzzy-based efficiency indices pertaining to different sewer system components and the ultimate application in sewer system decision support tools.

  5. Hammond Sanitary District Clean Water Act Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hammond Sanitary District (HSD), located in Hammond, Indiana, serves over 170,000 customers in the City of Hammond and Town of Munster, and also provides wastewater treatment to the customer communities of Highland, and Griffith.

  6. Prediction of sulphide build-up in filled sewer pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Tee, Kong Fah

    2014-08-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent worldwide on the repair and maintenance of sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants. The production and emission of hydrogen sulphide has been identified as a major cause of corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. Accurate prediction of sulphide build-up in a sewer system helps engineers and asset managers to appropriately formulate strategies for optimal sewer management and reliability analysis. This paper presents a novel methodology to model and predict the sulphide build-up for steady state condition in filled sewer pipes. The proposed model is developed using a novel data-driven technique called evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) and it involves the most effective parameters in the sulphide build-up problem. EPR is a hybrid technique, combining genetic algorithm and least square. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a better prediction for the sulphide build-up as compared with conventional models.

  7. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    When designing sewer system control, there is a lack of methodology and tools that can aid in the design process. In 2004 the PASST1 framework was presented that focuses on determining the potential for control in sewer sys-tem operation. However, for the actual design of control systems urban......, 2) the coordinating control layer, 3) the optimisation layer and 4) the management of objectives layer. The time-scale dependent hierarchy for sewer system control is put into a framework that also contains a terminology related to control. In this way the1 Planning aid for sewer system real time...... sewer system control was proposed and followed. The individual layers of the hierarchy were designed one by one for a case study in Copenhagen, with the methods and tools taken from both clas-sical and modern control theory. The tools of classical control theory are developed for systems that can...

  8. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service)

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Kostarev; V.А. Khoroshavin; А.V. Brazhkin

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rosp...

  9. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  10. Monitoring the Startup of a Sacrificial Concrete Sewer for Odor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The use of a sacrificial concrete sewer for controlling sulphide-related odour downstream of a pressure sewer was investigated in this study. The investigated sewer is located in a rural catchment and is intended to alleviate odour problems downstream of a small diameter pressure sewer with exten...

  11. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  12. Sewer service junction point locations at residential sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset with points across the island of Guam. These points represent the junction that the sewer company provides for home owners to connect...

  13. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  14. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    Whenever wastewater is transported in sewer networks, it is likely that anaerobic conditions in the wastewater arise as a result of physical, microbial and chemical reactions. Anaerobic conditions in wastewater of sewer networks are often associated with a number of problems like malodors, health...... risks and corrosion of concrete and metals. Most of the problems relate to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of sewer networks. In this respect, the processes of the sulfur cycle are of fundamental importance in ultimately determining the extent of such problems. This study focused...... wastewater and biofilms of sewer networks was studied in detail with emphasis on determination of process kinetics and stoichiometry. In the water phase, sulfide oxidation may be both chemical and biological and the investigations showed that both processes were of significant importance in the sulfur cycle...

  15. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  16. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  17. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) units...

  18. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  19. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  20. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  1. [Toxicological and sanitary characterization of bentonite nanoclay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, V V; Tananova, O N; Shumakova, A A; Trushina, E N; Avren'eva, L I; Bykova, I B; Minaeva, L P; Soto, S Kh; Lashneva, N V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchnko, S A

    2012-01-01

    Intragastric administration of nanoclay to rats during 28 days led to reductions in the relative weight of the liver, the activity of its conjugating enzymes, the antagonistic activity of bifidoflora, and the hyperproduction of colonic yeast microflora. The findings lead to the conclusion that nanoclays that may be present in foods must be the object of sanitary regulation.

  2. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Assessing the Role of Sewers and Atmospheric Deposition as Nitrate Contamination Sources to Urban Surface Waters using Stable Nitrate Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Excess nitrate (NO3-) contributes to the overall degraded quality of streams in many urban areas. These systems are often dominated by impervious surfaces and storm sewers that can route atmospherically deposited nitrogen, from both wet and dry deposition, to waterways. Moreover, in densely populated watersheds there is the potential for interaction between urban waterways and sewer systems. The affects of accumulated nitrate in riverine and estuary systems include low dissolved oxygen, loss of species diversity, increased mortality of aquatic species, and general eutrophication of the waterbody. However, the dynamics of nitrate pollution from each source and it’s affect on urban waterways is poorly constrained. The isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate have been proven effective in helping to distinguish contamination sources to ground and surface waters. In order to improve our understanding of urban nitrate pollution sources and dynamics, we examined nitrate isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) in base- and stormflow samples collected over a two-year period from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Nine Mile Run drains a 1,600 hectare urban watershed characterized by 38% impervious surface cover. Prior work has documented high nitrate export from the watershed (~19 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). Potential nitrate sources to the watershed include observed sewer overflows draining directly to the stream, as well as atmospheric deposition (~23 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). In this and other urban systems with high percentages of impervious surfaces, there is likely minimal input from nitrate derived from soil or fertilizer. In this presentation, we examine spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate isotopic composition collected at five locations along Nine Mile Run characterized by both sanitary and combined-sewer cross-connections. Preliminary isotopic analysis of low-flow winter streamwater samples suggest nitrate export from Nine Mile Run is primarily influenced by

  4. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-16

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  5. Nitrite production from urine for sulfide control in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Zuo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yizhen; Cui, Yujia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yanchen; Huang, Xia; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Most commonly used methods for sewer sulfide control involves dosing chemical agents to wastewater, which incurs high operational costs. Here, we propose and demonstrate a cost-effective and environmentally attractive approach to sewer sulfide control through urine separation and its subsequent conversion to nitrite prior to intermittent dosage to sewers. Urine collected from a male toilet urinal was fed to laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. The reactors stably converted roughly 50% of the nitrogen in urine to nitrite, with high abundance (at 17.46%) of known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of the genus Nitrosomonas, and absence (below detection level) of typical nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira, according to 454 pyrosequencing analysis. The stable nitrite production was achieved at both relatively high (1.0-2.0 mg/L) and low (0.2-0.3 mg/L) dissolved oxygen concentrations. Dosing tests in laboratory-scale sewer systems confirmed the sulfide control effectiveness of free nitrous acid generated from urine. Life cycle assessment indicated that, compared with commodity chemicals, nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) production from urine for sulfide control in sewers would lower the operational costs by approximately 2/3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1/3 in 20 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  7. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Control of rats in sewers is, though of varying intensity, common practice in a majority of Danish municipalities and bromadiolone is the most preferred active ingredient. The results of sewer rat control is very difficult to register and very little is known about resistance among sewer rats. Th...

  8. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such si...

  9. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  10. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of sewer pipe condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Haan, C.; Tirion, M.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection (CCTV) and core sampling are

  11. A statistical approach to guide the management of the anterior part of the sewer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The anterior part of the sewer system consists of a system of gully pots and lateral (house) connections that drain to main sewers. The total length of lateral house connections can be similar to the total length of the sewers they drain to. In addition, there are 7 million gully pots with

  12. Migrating Storms and Optimal Control of Urban Sewer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upaka Rathnayake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Uniform storms are generally applied in most of the research on sewer systems. This is for modeling simplicity. However, in the real world, these conditions may not be applicable. It is very important to consider the migration behavior of storms not only in the design of combined sewers, but also in controlling them. Therefore, this research was carried out to improve Rathnayake and Tanyimboh’s optimal control algorithm for migrating storms. Promising results were found from the model improvement. Feasible solutions were obtained from the multi-objective optimization and, in addition, the role of on-line storage tanks was well placed.

  13. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  14. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  15. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of the...

  16. Eco-technique of sewer renovation using composite shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the ...

  17. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  18. Conceptual framework for sewer pump problems allowing for fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... work encompassing a wider range of pump station problems .... The work pertains to combined storm sewers. A genetic algorithm search technique was derived to adjust the parameters that define the membership functions in the fuzzy ... Fuzzy sets are described domains of the inputs, each of which is.

  19. Dynamic replanning in uncertain environments for a sewer inspection robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Adria

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The sewer inspection robot MAKRO is an autonomous multi-segment robot with worm-like shape driven by wheels. It is currently under development in the project MAKRO-PLUS. The robot has to navigate autonomously within sewer systems. Its first tasks will be to take water probes, analyze it onboard, and measure positions of manholes and pipes to detect polluted-loaded sewage and to improve current maps of sewer systems. One of the challenging problems is the controller software, which should enable the robot to navigate in the sewer system and perform the inspection tasks autonomously, not inflicting any self-damage. This paper focuses on the route planning and replanning aspect of the robot. The robot�s software has four different levels, of which the planning system is the highest level, and the remaining three are controller levels each with a different degree of abstraction. The planner coordinates the sequence of actions that are to be successively executed by the robot.

  20. Dynamic Replanning in Uncertain Environments for a Sewer Inspection Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Adria

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewer inspection robot MAKRO is an autonomous multi-segment robot with worm-like shape driven by wheels. It is currently under development in the project MAKRO-PLUS. The robot has to navigate autonomously within sewer systems. Its first tasks will be to take water probes, analyze it onboard, and measure positions of manholes and pipes to detect polluted-loaded sewage and to improve current maps of sewer systems. One of the challenging problems is the controller software, which should enable the robot to navigate in the sewer system and perform the inspection tasks autonomously, not inflicting any self-damage. This paper focuses on the route planning and replanning aspect of the robot. The robot's software has four different levels, of which the planning system is the highest level, and the remaining three are controller levels each with a different degree of abstraction. The planner coordinates the sequence of actions that are to be successively executed by the robot.

  1. Measurements and Computations of Transients in Pumped Sewer Plastic Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of pressure and flow in a number of pumped plastic sewer mains have been carried out in order to compare the actual observed transients with computations. Primarily the situation following pump run-down has been studied. The investigation covered pipelines with steadily rising length...

  2. Incorporating Storm Sewer Exfiltration into SWMM: Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the peak flow and volume reduction achieved by exfiltration from a perforated storm sewer in an urban catchment. There are three related objectives: [1] quantify peak flow and volume reduction; [2] demonstrate adaptability to climate change; and [3] evaluate ...

  3. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... ABSTRACT. An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high ...

  4. [Frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Turan, Ayşe; Depecik, Fehime; Geçit, Ilhan; Ozer, Ali; Karcı, Erdal; Karadan, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of parasites generally occurs through fecal-oral means directly from human to human or through receiving eggs and cysts by means of nourishment. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions. Stool specimens were examined using native-lugol, Trichrome and acid-fast stains methods. 23.7% of the 2443 fecal specimens were found to be positive. The frequencies of parasites were found to be 9.8% for Entamoeba coli, 7.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 7.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii, 3.4% for Giardia intestinalis, 0.9% for Dientamoeba fragilis, 0.13% for Entamoeba histolytica, 0.08% for Chilomastix mesnilii, 0.04% for Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.04% for Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.04% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.04% for Taenia spp. and 0.04% for Enterobius vermicularis. This rate of parasite positivity among healthy subjects visiting hospital for porter examination suggests that intestinal parasites still constitute a public health problem in the region. Moreover, it can be considered that one important factor in the frequency of the parasite can be both the nature of the jobs of administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions and their interaction with people during sales.

  5. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  6. Damage estimation of sewer pipe using subtitles of CCTV inspection video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kitae; Kim, Byeongcheol; Kim, Taeheon; Seo, Dongwoo

    2017-04-01

    Recent frequent occurrence of urban sinkhole serves as a momentum of the periodic inspection of sewer pipelines. Sewer inspection using a CCTV device needs a lot of time and efforts. Many of previous studies which reduce the laborious tasks are mainly interested in the developments of image processing S/W and exploring H/W. And there has been no attempt to find meaningful information from the existing CCTV images stored by the sewer maintenance manager. This study adopts a cross-correlation based image processing method and extracts sewer inspection device's location data from CCTV images. As a result of the analysis of location-time relation, it show strong correlation between device stand time and the sewer damages. In case of using this method to investigate sewer inspection CCTV images, it will save the investigator's efforts and improve sewer maintenance efficiency and reliability.

  7. Network condition simulator for benchmarking sewer deterioration models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A; Hug, T; Rieckermann, J; Maurer, M

    2011-10-15

    An accurate description of aging and deterioration of urban drainage systems is necessary for optimal investment and rehabilitation planning. Due to a general lack of suitable datasets, network condition models are rarely validated, and if so with varying levels of success. We therefore propose a novel network condition simulator (NetCoS) that produces a synthetic population of sewer sections with a given condition-class distribution. NetCoS can be used to benchmark deterioration models and guide utilities in the selection of appropriate models and data management strategies. The underlying probabilistic model considers three main processes: a) deterioration, b) replacement policy, and c) expansions of the sewer network. The deterioration model features a semi-Markov chain that uses transition probabilities based on user-defined survival functions. The replacement policy is approximated with a condition-class dependent probability of replacing a sewer pipe. The model then simulates the course of the sewer sections from the installation of the first line to the present, adding new pipes based on the defined replacement and expansion program. We demonstrate the usefulness of NetCoS in two examples where we quantify the influence of incomplete data and inspection frequency on the parameter estimation of a cohort survival model and a Markov deterioration model. Our results show that typical available sewer inventory data with discarded historical data overestimate the average life expectancy by up to 200 years. Although NetCoS cannot prove the validity of a particular deterioration model, it is useful to reveal its possible limitations and shortcomings and quantifies the effects of missing or uncertain data. Future developments should include additional processes, for example to investigate the long-term effect of pipe rehabilitation measures, such as inliners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary operations in slaughterhouses in ... and sanitary practices for control strategies of slaughterhouse-related health problems. This has ..... infections with the meat and the environment. The educated individuals have more chances to get.

  9. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  10. Study for Reliability Assessment considering the Sedimentation in Urban Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Park, Moojong; Lee, Jungho

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis of reliability of sewer network was progressed with the number of overflow nodes and overflow volume simultaneously for urban areas considering sedimentation. Reliability analysis shows that it is possible to quantify the difference in the phenomenon of the destruction of sedimentation in urban sewer system under the same design frequency. This study focuses on the release to bed of sedimentations having being accumulated inside a urban sewer network. It is proposed as one of the indicators evaluated as full reliability for sewer system. To analyze detailed changes in conduit designs in urban sewer networks, tried to reduction of sedimentation in sewer networks using modified pipe slope in Bujeon-dong catchment, Busan. The various sewer designs were applied and then, the most effective improvement of reliability over 10%. Suggested reliability process can produce the quantitative evaluations about sewer systems using the results of the system simulations and use of possible the objective function for the sewer network designed with a relative evaluation. Sewer network is designed to pass the inflow rate depending on the design frequency smoothly. However, taking a look at the example of flooding generated in urban area shows that an increase in the generation and damage of flooding can be often caused by the deposition of sediment in the sewer. This is a problem in the maintenance of sewers, but this implies that the effect of sediment deposition should be considered to some degree for the design of a conduit itself in another aspect. Thus, it is necessary to realize design in a direction to reduce flood damage pursuant to it by considering the deposition aspect of sediment in a conduit when designing a storm sewer.

  11. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of one of the most disease inducing species of Leptospira, L. icterohaemorrhagiae. In Denmark there are only a few yearly registered cases of L. icterohaemorrhagiae derived leptospirosis in man, but in general the disease is believed to much...... more abundant. Previous research programs have focused on monitoring Leptospira sp. in rural rats and dates back to the 1980ties. To determine the prevalence of leptospires in sewer rats, we therefore initiated a study ultimo 2006. Up to 80 % of rat incidences in urban areas may be related to sewer......, L. santarosai, L. meyeri, L. interrogans, L. weilii and L. borgpetersenii by PCR. PCR was performed on DNA extracted from kidneys with primer G1/G2 which amplifies a leptospira DNA fragment of 285 bp. For determination of leptospira serovar types, PCR was combined with MAT (Microscopic Agglutination...

  12. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    main. H2S related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed at such locations. The experiments showed that the rate of H2S oxidation was significantly faster on concrete pipe surfaces than on plastic pipe surfaces. Steady state calculations based on the kinetic data demonstrated that the gas phase......, the paper demonstrates how the kinetic data can be used for prediction of concrete corrosion in real sewer systems based on H2S measurements from a conventional gas detector....

  13. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  14. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only...... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified...

  15. Developments in sanitary techniques 2011-2012. Important progress through studies in 2011; Ontwikkelingen sanitaire technieken 2011-2012. Belangrijke vorderingen door studies in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-12-15

    In 2011, new laws and regulations were the main theme in sanitary techniques (ST). Libraries have been updated in the areas of tap water installations and sewer systems of buildings. Some important progress was made in the framework of several ST preliminary studies conducted by TVVL and Uneto-VNI. Still, the start-up of new ST studies and projects in 2012 is lagging behind compared to previous years. [Dutch] Het vakgebied van sanitaire technieken (ST) stond in 2011 vooral in het teken van nieuwe wet- en regelgeving. Zowel op het gebied van leidingwaterinstallaties als riolering van bouwwerken zijn de bibliotheken geactualiseerd. In het kader van enkele ST-voorstudies, uitgevoerd door TVVL en Uneto-VNI zijn belangrijke vorderingen gemaakt. De opstart van nieuwe ST-studies en -projecten in 2012 blijft echter achter ten opzichte van voorgaande jaren.

  16. SANITARY AND HYGIENIC PRECONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Turuchko, Ivan Ivanovych; Korshun, M.M.; Hubar, Inna Volodymyrivna

    2017-01-01

    The sanitary and hygienic characteristics of industrial explosives and their components are considered, the types of combinations of harmful substances in the air of the working zone at different technological stages of manufacturing explosives

  17. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the ...

  18. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the most...

  19. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  20. Combined Treatment of Old Sanitary Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Orescanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate presents hardly treatable, highly complex and very toxic environmental effluent originated in the municipal solid waste degradation process. Although, numerous treatment methods were developed so far, none of them alone could achieve permissible limits of the primary pollutants to discharge into natural recipients. The current study aimed to develop and apply the process to treat landfill leachate by simultaneous application of electrochemical methods, ultrasound, electromagnetic field and ozonation to achieve the legal criteria for its discharge into natural recipient and minimize its adverse environmental impacts. For this purpose, old landfill leachate was taken from the Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia sanitary landfill. Prior to the treatment, the leachate was supplemented with NaCl (2 g/L and subjected to simultaneous treatment with stainless steel electrode plates, ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field. After 45 minutes, stainless steel electrode plates were replaced by iron electrodes and treated for another 10 minutes followed by 15 minutes of the treatment with aluminum electrode plates. Ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field were also applied during Fe and Al electrode treatment. Finally, the electrodes were removed and the suspension was mixed with ozone for another 30 minutes and allowed to settle for an hour. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiency for the turbidity, color, suspended solids, ammonium, phosphates and heavy metals was 99% or higher, while the removal of COD was 97%. All the measured parameters in the treated leachate were lower compared to upper permissible limit for discharge into natural recipient.

  1. [Sanitary and epidemiological examination of foods under carrying sanitary and epidemiological surveillance on the customer border and at in the territory of the Customers Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V; Chigireva, É I

    2011-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic examination of foods under carrying of sanitary-epidemiologic surveillance on the customer border and of the custom territory of the Customers Union of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Byelorussia.

  2. The Characteristics of Waste Water Flow in a Danish Combined Sewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    have been analysed in order to extract some of their characteristics. Furthermore it is emphasised that the presence of a self-cleansing capacity of a combined sewer system is of vital importance in order to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. Whether or not the pipelines...

  3. Reconsidering Urban Sewer and Treatment Facilities in East Africa as Interplay of Flows, Networks and Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization has brought about concentrations of people in densely populated settlements, resulting in the generation of waste water that needs to be disposed off in a hygienic way to avoid the outbreak of diseases. Decisions on what area to sewer, the nature of sewer schemes and treatment works to

  4. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  5. Leveraging existing infrastructure for central automatic control of multiple sewer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, A.; Van Heeringen, K.J.; Van Nooyen, R.R.P.; Van Velzen, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are gained by upgrading locally controlled sewer systems. The paper focuses on the reuse and extension of existing sewer systems and hardware and software infrastructure in an experimental integrated automatic

  6. Flood Grouting for Infiltration Reduction on Private Side Sewers (WERF Report INFR5R11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sewers in Seattle’s Broadview neighborhood, built in the 1950s, experience significant inflow and infiltration. Intense wet weather events have resulted in sewer overflows into private residences and the environment and previous work indicates that the majority of this excess...

  7. Sewer-system analysis with the aid of a geographical information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical information system (GIS)-supported sewer-system analysis has major advantages over the use of traditional standalone sewer programs, especially with regard to establishing network topology, input of sewage contribution data, querying, displaying and mapping of results. This paper reports on the ...

  8. SEWER-SEDIMENT CONTROL: OVERVIEW OF AN EPA WET-WEATHER FLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a historical overview of the sewer sediment control projects conducted by the Wet-Weather Flow Research Program of the USEPA. Research presented includes studies of the causes of sewer solids deposition and development/evaluation of control methods that can pr...

  9. Measurement of sewer sediments with acoustic technology : From laboratory to field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Pouzol, Tanguy; Aldea Borruel, Xavier; Suner, David; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean Luc

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring sewer sediments is necessary to better understand sedimentation and erosion processes. Sonar is one of the available techniques to proceed to sewer sediment measurements. Extraction of numerical data, implementation of a new algorithm to identify the water-sediment interface,

  10. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramin, P.; Libonati Brock, A.; Polesel, F.; Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; de Voogt, P.; Plósz, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Sewer pipelines, although primarily designed for sewage transport, can also be considered as bioreactors. In-sewer processes may lead to significant variations of chemical loadings from source release points to the treatment plant influent. In this study, we assessed in-sewer utilization of growth

  11. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Sewer pipelines, although primarily designed for sewage transport, can also be considered as bioreactors. In-sewer processes may lead to significant variations of chemical loadings from source release points to the treatment plant influent. In this study, we assessed in-sewer utilization of growt...

  12. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis.

  13. Greedy Algorithms for Sensor Location in Sewer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit K. Banik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater quality monitoring is receiving growing interest with the necessity of developing new strategies for controlling accidental and intentional illicit intrusions. In designing a monitoring network, a crucial aspect is represented by the sensors’ location. In this study, a methodology for the optimal placement of wastewater monitoring sensors in sewer systems is presented. The sensor location is formulated as an optimization problem solved using greedy algorithms (GRs. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was used to perform hydraulic and water-quality simulations. Six different procedures characterized by different fitness functions are presented and compared. The performances of the procedures are tested on a real sewer system, demonstrating the suitability of GRs for the sensor-placement problem. The results show a robustness of the methodology with respect to the detection concentration parameter, and they suggest that procedures with multiple objectives into a single fitness function give better results. A further comparison is performed using previously developed multi-objective procedures with multiple fitness functions solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, indicating better performances of the GR. The existing monitoring network, realized without the application of any sensor design, is always suboptimal.

  14. Sanitary engineering in fitness centres. Sanitaertechnik in Fitnesszentren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F. (Bundesinstitut fuer Sportwissenschaft, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Sport- und Freizeitanlagen); Broecker, H. (Ingenieurbuero R. Krawinkel, Krefeld (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-09-01

    The article gives important criteria for the planning and fitting-out of fitness centres. The space composition of the total facilities has to be carefully drawn up, organisation of groups of rooms has to be correct and design and material components have to fulfil great demands which are necessary for fitness centres. Aspects of water engineering of sanitary equipment such as water treatment rooms, sauna, whirl pool as well as conventional changing rooms, shower and sanitary appliances are described in detail. Partly also factors which influence room climate and building physics are mentioned. Plans of fitness centres as well as pictures of the described sanitary appliances are to round of the article and give information for own planning. (BR).

  15. The Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms in the Corroding Concrete Sewer Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Kappler, Ulrike; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L

    2017-01-01

    Concrete corrosion is one of the most significant problems affecting valuable sewer infrastructure on a global scale. This problem occurs in the aerobic zone of the sewer, where a layer of surface corrosion develops on the exposed concrete and the surface pH is typically lowered from around 11-10 (pristine concrete) to pH 2-4. Acidophilic microorganisms become established as biofilms within the concrete corrosion layer and enhance the loss of concrete mass. Until recently, the acidophilic community was considered to comprise relatively few species of microorganisms, however, the biodiversity of the corrosion community is now recognized as being extensive and varying from different sewer environmental conditions. The diversity of acidophiles in the corrosion communities includes chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs. The activity of these microorganisms is strongly affected by H2S levels in the sewer gas phase, although CO2, organic matter, and iron in the corrosion layer influence this acidic ecosystem. This paper briefly presents the conditions within the sewer that lead to the development of concrete corrosion in that environment. The review focuses on the acidophilic microorganisms detected in sewer corrosion environments, and then summarizes their proposed functions and physiology, especially in relation to the corrosion process. To our knowledge, this is the first review of acidophilic corrosion microbial communities, in which, the ecology and the environmental conditions (when available) are considered. Ecological studies of sewer corrosion are limited, however, where possible, we summarize the important metabolic functions of the different acidophilic species detected in sewer concrete corrosion layers. It is evident that microbial functions in the acidic sewer corrosion environment can be linked to those occurring in the analogous acidic environments of acid mine drainage and bioleaching.

  16. The Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms in the Corroding Concrete Sewer Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete corrosion is one of the most significant problems affecting valuable sewer infrastructure on a global scale. This problem occurs in the aerobic zone of the sewer, where a layer of surface corrosion develops on the exposed concrete and the surface pH is typically lowered from around 11–10 (pristine concrete to pH 2–4. Acidophilic microorganisms become established as biofilms within the concrete corrosion layer and enhance the loss of concrete mass. Until recently, the acidophilic community was considered to comprise relatively few species of microorganisms, however, the biodiversity of the corrosion community is now recognized as being extensive and varying from different sewer environmental conditions. The diversity of acidophiles in the corrosion communities includes chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs. The activity of these microorganisms is strongly affected by H2S levels in the sewer gas phase, although CO2, organic matter, and iron in the corrosion layer influence this acidic ecosystem. This paper briefly presents the conditions within the sewer that lead to the development of concrete corrosion in that environment. The review focuses on the acidophilic microorganisms detected in sewer corrosion environments, and then summarizes their proposed functions and physiology, especially in relation to the corrosion process. To our knowledge, this is the first review of acidophilic corrosion microbial communities, in which, the ecology and the environmental conditions (when available are considered. Ecological studies of sewer corrosion are limited, however, where possible, we summarize the important metabolic functions of the different acidophilic species detected in sewer concrete corrosion layers. It is evident that microbial functions in the acidic sewer corrosion environment can be linked to those occurring in the analogous acidic environments of acid mine drainage and bioleaching.

  17. International perspectives on municipal solid wastes and sanitary landfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carra, J.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (US)); Cossu, R. (Universita di Cagliari (IT))

    1990-01-01

    This book provides a perspective on how different countries cope with the municipal solid waste problem politically, administratively, and technically with a particular focus on sanitary landfilling. Fifteen countries report on the quantities of such waste generated, its composition, and on various management methods used. In addition, they report on sanitary landfilling, the impacts of past practices, current practices for leachate control, and landfill gas management. Finally the role of government, new handling strategies, and likely future directions in waste management are also discussed.

  18. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  1. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  3. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  4. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    . Sewer systems can be considered as biological reactors, in which the concentration of organic chemicals present in wastewater can be impacted by in-sewer processes during hydraulic residence time. Illicit drug biomarkers, as trace organic chemicals in the range of nanograms to micrograms per liter......, are subject to physical, chemical or biological processes in sewers (fate processes). The occurrence of these processes may lead to significant change of drug loads at WWTP influent compared to source release points. Therefore, not accounting for these variations may negatively affect drug use estimates...

  6. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia

    1994-01-01

    A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical...... model MOUSE ST which describes the sediment transport in sewers. This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in MOUSE ST. The study was founded by the Swedish Water and Waste Works Association and the Nordic Industrial...

  7. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.500 Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements. (a...

  8. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  9. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  10. On-site assessment of environmental and sanitary qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-site assessment of the sanitary location of the RWH system showed that 5% were located near a septic tank and another 5% in flooded area. The harvested rainwater was used for several domestic purposes including drinking. All respondent agreed that they use rainwater for washing while 10% of the respondent ...

  11. Sanitary Inspection of Wells in Enugu, Nigeria | Aghaji | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate health education of well constructors/users is highly recommended so as to minimize the health hazzards posed by the present uninformed practice. The government should set up a water supply surveillance agency within the health ministry. Key words: Sanitary inspection, wells, water supply. [Jnl College of ...

  12. Sanitary survey of residential areas using Ascaris lumbricoides ova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high in temperate and tropical environments. Objective: To assess the sanitary conditions of soil using the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides ova as an indicator. ... an environmental health indicator could contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this area. A large scale study on ...

  13. Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey assesses the levels of knowledge and preventive practices of workers on the hygienic and sanitary operations in slaughterhouses in Niger State, north-central Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 385 workers aged 20 years and above between January 2013 and April 2013 using structured ...

  14. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  15. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service ...

  16. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  17. Sewer Laterals between Mains and Residential Housing, Guam, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the pipe segment running from the sewer main to the residential connection...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS BEYOND DIRECT EXCRETION TO SEWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondar...

  19. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    the resistant rats, had resistance-related mutations in the VKORC1 gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the genetic background of anticoagulant resistance may have to be redefined in respect of resistance-related changes in the VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......BACKGROUND: The majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control. Knowledge pertaining to the resistance status of sewer rat populations is non......-existent, which may be leading to control problems in cities. It has become crucial to provide knowledge on the prevalence of resistance and how different control strategies have affected its prevalence among sewer rat populations. The prevalence of resistance was investigated in six sewer locations in Copenhagen...

  20. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  1. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  2. Indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide contributes to serious odor problem in a sewer receiving nitrate dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Nitrate dosing is commonly used to control hydrogen sulfide production in sewer systems. However, quick rebound of the sulfide concentration after nitrate depletion has been observed and results in more serious odor and corrosion problem. To investigate the mechanism of sulfide regeneration in the nitrate-free period, a laboratory-scale sewer reactor was run for 30 days to simulate sulfide production and oxidation with intermittent nitrate addition. The results show that nitrate addition substantially reduced the sulfide concentration, but the produced elemental sulfur was then quickly reduced back to sulfide in nitrate-free periods. This induced more and more sulfide production in the sewer reactor. Elemental sulfur and polysulfide reductions were found in the sewage in nitrate-free periods, showing their contributions to the sulfide regeneration. Through batch tests, polysulfide was confirmed as the key intermediate for accelerating sulfur reduction during the nitrate-free period in the sewer. Sulfide production rates significantly increased by 65% and 59% in the presences of tetrasulfide and sulfur with sulfide, respectively, at the beginning of the test. While polysulfide formation was prevented by the ferrous chloride addition, the sulfur reduction rate remarkably decreased from 12.8 mgS/L-h to 1.8 mgS/L-h. This indicates that direct sulfur reduction was significantly slower than the indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide; the latter process could be the cause for the quick rebound of the sulfide concentration in the sewer with intermittent nitrate dosing. Thus, the pathways of sulfur transformations in a sewer, both in the presence and absence of nitrate, were proposed. Microbial community analysis results reveal that some common sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera in sewer sediment were possible sulfur reducers. According to this finding, the effect and strategy of nitrate dosing for hydrogen sulfide control in sewers should be re-evaluated and re

  3. Multivariate probability distribution for sewer system vulnerability assessment under data-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, G; Padulano, R; Siciliano, D

    2016-01-01

    The lack of geometrical and hydraulic information about sewer networks often excludes the adoption of in-deep modeling tools to obtain prioritization strategies for funds management. The present paper describes a novel statistical procedure for defining the prioritization scheme for preventive maintenance strategies based on a small sample of failure data collected by the Sewer Office of the Municipality of Naples (IT). Novelty issues involve, among others, considering sewer parameters as continuous statistical variables and accounting for their interdependences. After a statistical analysis of maintenance interventions, the most important available factors affecting the process are selected and their mutual correlations identified. Then, after a Box-Cox transformation of the original variables, a methodology is provided for the evaluation of a vulnerability map of the sewer network by adopting a joint multivariate normal distribution with different parameter sets. The goodness-of-fit is eventually tested for each distribution by means of a multivariate plotting position. The developed methodology is expected to assist municipal engineers in identifying critical sewers, prioritizing sewer inspections in order to fulfill rehabilitation requirements.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall mea...

  8. Aerobic Heterotrophic Biodégradation in Polluted Drains and Sewers: The drain and sewer as dual-phase biological reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Wastewater collection systems such as sewers, sewage drains, and polluted shallow aquatic systems such as rivers, streams, and lagoons are characterized by the fact that both suspended and attached biomass exist and function. They are dual-phase systems. Contrary to biofilm dominated systems such as

  9. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions. Copyright © 2013

  10. Identification of potential sewer mining locations: a Monte-Carlo based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, I K; Makropoulos, C K; Michas, S N

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urbanization affecting demand patterns, coupled with potential water shortages due to supply side impacts of climatic changes, has led to the emergence of new technologies for water and wastewater reuse. Sewer mining (SM) is a novel decentralized option that could potentially provide non-potable water for urban uses, including for example the irrigation of urban green spaces, providing a mid-scale solution to effective wastewater reuse. SM is based on extracting wastewater from local sewers and treatment at the point of demand and entails in some cases the return of treatment residuals back to the sewer system. Several challenges are currently in the way of such applications in Europe, including public perception, inadequate regulatory frameworks and engineering issues. In this paper we consider some of these engineering challenges, looking at the sewer network as a system where multiple physical, biological and chemical processes take place. We argue that prior to implementing SM, the dynamics of the sewer system should be investigated in order to identify optimum ways of deploying SM without endangering the reliability of the system. Specifically, both wastewater extraction and sludge return could result in altering the biochemical process of the network, thus unintentionally leading to degradation of the sewer infrastructure. We propose a novel Monte-Carlo based method that takes into account both spatial properties and water demand characteristics of a given area of SM deployment while simultaneously accounting for the variability of sewer network dynamics in order to identify potential locations for SM implementation. The outcomes of this study suggest that the method can provide rational results and useful guidelines for upscale SM technologies at a city level.

  11. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  12. Policing hearts of darkness: aspects of the international sanitary conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, W F

    1993-01-01

    Internationalism became an important feature of medicine and medical science during the second half of the nineteenth century. Internationalism emerged in a climate of nationalism and the latter sometimes affected cooperation, especially after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, and the increased imperialism of the last third of the century. Against this backdrop, the International Sanitary Conferences, beginning with the first one in Paris in 1851, attempted to provide guidelines to control the spread of disease, especially cholera and plague. Quarantine was seen as a central feature of disease control, but it remained a controversial measure, since it disrupted trade and inhibited freedom of movement. Most of the early Sanitary Conferences failed to reach agreement, but by the early twentieth century, a broader series of control measures began to be effected, as knowledge of the mode of spread of infectious diseases was achieved.

  13. Sanitary Landfill Simulation - Test Parameters and a Simulator Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    ACSM -1~ for Nils ........... By L:R-yo/VAILaiL;1I CODES Library card Civil Engineering Laboratory SANITARY LANDFILL SIMULATION - TEST PARAMETERS AND...these landfills comply only marginally with Navy mandatory guidelines [2]. In a FY-74 report on this project [3], CEL presented the results of a...landfills are presently designed for burying solid waste in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) operational guidelines . These

  14. Sanitary/Storm Drainage Characterization Survey, Hurlburt Field, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Volatile Halocarbons (601) From the data, it seems that most of the storm drains contained volatiles that are major components of solvents. 4 b. Metals...period of the survey. The storm drains were evaluated with the flow that they had in them at the time of the survey. If the site did not contain flow...analytical results from the sites should prove or disprove this theory. Some oil was seen in the sanitary and storm drains . The oil/water separators

  15. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  17. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  18. [Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Sun, Zhenqiu; Shi, Jingcheng; Shen, Minxue; Hu, Jingxuan; Lei, Shiyue; Hu, Ming

    2012-05-01

    To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010. According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances). The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples; specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethyl phthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels. The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.

  19. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  20. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  1. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of five odor reducing agents for sewer system odors using an on-line total reduced sulfur analyzer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Il; Lee, Hyunjoo; Shin, Joungdu; Kim, Hyunook

    2012-01-01

    .... A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer...

  4. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    and behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering......Context.: In many parts of the world, brown rats have colonised sewer systems and the rat populations in sewers are often thought to be a source of problems with rats on the surface. The management of sewer rat populations is usually performed with little, if any, knowledge of the dynamics......, half of these were juveniles. The median time an individual was present in the sewers was 4 months with maxima up to 22 months. Abundance ranged from 2 to 44 animals per sewer system and the dynamics showed no regular fluctuations. Rats were distributed throughout the study area, regardless of sewer...

  5. Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Nesaian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developed

  6. The search for an alternative to piped water and sewer systems in the Alaskan Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, Korie A; Dotson, Aaron; Thomas, Timothy K; Heavener, Mia; Hébert, Jack; Warren, John A

    2017-03-29

    Forty-two communities in rural Alaska are considered unserved or underserved with water and sewer infrastructure. Many challenges exist to provide centralized piped water and sewer infrastructure to the homes, and they are exacerbated by decreasing capital funding. Unserved communities in rural Alaska experience higher rates of disease, supporting the recommendation that sanitation infrastructure should be provided. Organizations are pursuing alternative solutions to conventional piped water and sewer in order to maximize water use and reuse for public health. This paper reviews initiatives led by the State of Alaska, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, and the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation to identify and develop potential long-term solutions appropriate and acceptable to rural communities. Future developments will likely evolve based on the lessons learned from the initiatives. Recommendations include Alaska-specific research needs, increased end-user participation in the design process, and integrated monitoring, evaluation, and information dissemination in future efforts.

  7. Application of Morphological Segmentation to Leaking Defect Detection in Sewer Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED, to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO, were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  8. Application of morphological segmentation to leaking defect detection in sewer pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ching; Yang, Ming-Der

    2014-05-16

    As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV) inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED), to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO) and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO), were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  9. A methodological approach to the design of optimising control strategies for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters. Accordin......This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters....... Accordingly, two novel optimisation configurations are developed, where the optimisation either acts on the actuators or acts on the regulatory control layer. These two optimisation designs are evaluated on a sub-catchment of the sewer system in Copenhagen, and found to perform better than the existing...

  10. Controlling sewer systems – a critical review based on systems in three EU cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, D.

    2017-01-01

    as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified......The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well....... With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs....

  11. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Methodical approaches to studies of the efficiency and quality of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, G I; Manvel'ian, L V; Petruchuk, O E; Chigireva, E I; Berglezova, L N; Mosov, A V

    1999-01-01

    Current methodology and organization of evaluations of the efficiency of specialists and subdivisions of sanitary epidemiological institutions of the first level of managing are presented. The authors propose a method for quantitative evaluation of the efficiency for comparison of compatible and equivalent values. Definitions essential for evaluation of the efficiency the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance are formulated. A demonstration model of computer processing of the data for estimations of efficiency of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance has been developed.

  13. Shape Measurement of a Sewer Pipe Using a Mobile Robot with Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuhito Kawasue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile robot equipped with two lasers and a CCD camera for pipe inspection is proposed. Circular laser streaks that appeared on the inner surface of the pipe reveal the shape of the pipe. The 3D shape of a sewer pipe can be reconstructed considering the movement of the mobile robot along the pipe. Since the tilt of the mobile robot with respect to the axis of the pipe appears as the deformation between two circular streaks, the shape of a sewer pipe can be measured accurately, regardless of the tilt of the robot.

  14. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS......-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order...

  15. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    explaining possible applications of the proposed model for evaluation of: 1) Control strategies; and, 2) System modifications, are provided. The proposed framework is specifically designed to allow for easy development and comparison of multiple control possibilities and integration with existing......This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...

  16. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  17. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  18. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  19. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  20. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  1. [Radio diagnostic risks control: an approach of sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marcus Vinícius Teixeira; Costa, Ediná Alves; Drexler, Günter Gustav

    2010-11-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is one of the main diagnosis tools in medicine and its role, in public health, depends on the quality of the exams, the regulatory responsibility fits, mainly, in the National System of Sanitary Surveillance. With this perspective, it was developed a mathematical evaluation model of potential risks in radiodiagnostic and, through its use in the Brazilian health services of Bahia state, with the analysis of the situation found and its determinants. With that model, 94 procedures were evaluated in 38 Bahia state radiodiagnostic services. The study showed that 5.3% of the services had all of the procedures in level of acceptable potential risk. 23.7% showed, at least, one procedure with level of tolerable potential risk and 71% showed, at least, one procedure with a level of unacceptable potential risk. The analyses shows that the main determinants of the encountered situation are the deficient inspection by the sanitary surveillance system of the health services and of the industrial sector, the absence of basics of radiological protection in the curriculum of medicine courses and the fragility of practices control, by the respective professional council.

  2. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  3. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This project seeks to replace the traditional methods currently used in Kikuyu Town with a sewerage system. .... determining the optimal route for oil pipeline, sewer-line extension and water utility are applicable in the ... AHP is one of the Multi Criteria Decision making methods that uses a quantitative technique for decision ...

  4. Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, O; Backhaus, A; Birch, H; Fratini, C F; Ingvertsen, S T; Jeppesen, J; Panduro, T E; Roldin, M; Jensen, M B

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  5. Acoustic measurement and morphological features of organic sediment deposits in combined sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnacina, Iacopo; Larrarte, Frédérique; Leonardi, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    The performance of sewer networks has important consequences from an environmental and social point of view. Poor functioning can result in flood risk and pollution at a large scale. Sediment deposits forming in sewer trunks might severely compromise the sewer line by affecting the flow field, reducing cross-sectional areas, and increasing roughness coefficients. In spite of numerous efforts, the morphological features of these depositional environments remain poorly understood. The interface between water and sediment remains inefficiently identified and the estimation of the stock of deposit is frequently inaccurate. In part, this is due to technical issues connected to difficulties in collecting accurate field measurements without disrupting existing morphologies. In this paper, results from an extensive field campaign are presented; during the campaign a new survey methodology based on acoustic techniques has been tested. Furthermore, a new algorithm for the detection of the soil-water interface, and therefore for the correct esteem of sediment stocks is proposed. Finally, results in regard to bed topography, and morphological features at two different field sites are presented and reveal that a large variability in bed forms is present along sewer networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Position on the quality of discharges to municipal sewer systems from petroleum marketing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Municipalities have by-laws that control the quality and quantity of liquid effluents discharged into sewer systems in an effort to prevent shock loading to sewage treatment plants, to protect sewers from corrosion, and to protect public and environmental health. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) has produced a set of best management practices (BMP) to help control discharge quality and quantity from petroleum marketing facilities such as gasoline service stations, automobile service and repair stations, car washes, and fuel storage facilities. Once incorporated, municipalities will be able to audit these facilities against the BMPs. The principles for developing by-laws for municipal sewer use include a level playing field for all facilities, effective consultation regarding public policy development, consistency among jurisdictions, and achievable effluent criteria. The CPPI notes that in some by-laws, effluent criteria is not practically achievable as some parameters have been set at levels more stringent than drinking water standards. The CPPI believes the BMPs will encourage operators to do whatever is economically practical to reduce substances of concern that are discharged into sewers.

  7. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1,

  8. Identification of the information needs for sewer asset management by assessing failure mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Asset management is a prerequisite for maintaining the required level of serviceability of urban drainage systems. The required asset management effort to achieve a certain level of service is unclear due to sewer systems process and structure complexity. One of the main questions of asset

  9. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee...

  10. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of sewer pipes to be cleaned for reduction of CSO pollutant load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Akihiro; Settsu, Katsushi; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow) pollutant discharge, one of the effective options is cleaning of sewer pipes before rainfall events. To maximize the efficiency, identification of pipes to be cleaned is necessary. In this study, we discussed the location of pipe deposit in dry weather in a combined sewer system using a distributed model and investigated the effect of pipe cleaning to reduce the pollutant load from the CSO. First we simulated the dry weather flow in a combined sewer system. The pipe deposit distribution in the network was estimated after 3 days of dry weather period. Several specific pipes with structural defect and upper end pipes tend to have an accumulation of deposit. Wet weather simulations were conducted with and without pipe cleaning in rainfall events with different patterns. The SS loads in CSO with and without the pipe cleaning were compared. The difference in the estimated loads was interpreted as the contribution of wash-off in the cleaned pipe. The effect of pipe cleaning on reduction of the CSO pollutant load was quantitatively evaluated (e.g. the cleaning of one specific pipe could reduce 22% of total CSO load). The CSO simulations containing pipe cleaning options revealed that identification of pipes with accumulated deposit using the distributed model is very useful and informative to evaluate the applicability of pipe cleaning option for CSO pollutant reduction.

  12. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  13. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  14. Water Tanks, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Tanks dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer...

  15. Sewerage Collection Lines, StormSewerPipes-The data set is a line feature consisting of more than 74,000 segments representing storm sewer pipes. It was created to track the flow of surface water., Published in 2003, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Collection Lines dataset current as of 2003. StormSewerPipes-The data set is a line feature consisting of more than 74,000 segments representing storm sewer...

  16. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  17. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... sanitary flush toilet facilities, as hereinafter prescribed, for the use of miners employed in the surface...

  18. A Novel SWMM Based Algorithm Application to Storm Sewer Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Shao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An automated algorithm based on the dynamic hydrological and hydraulic simulation modules in Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was developed to aid the design of storm sewer networks, provided that a layout is given. Numerical performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with the existing design methods with two application cases. The automated computation process of the sewer network design was divided into two stages and solved iteratively, determining pipe diameter and pipe slope, respectively. In the first stage, starting with a set of initial values including pipe diameter, pipe cover depth, and ground elevation at manholes, the iteration was carried out from the downstream to the upstream while the pipe slopes of the network were assumed to be fixed and the diameter of each pipe segment was calculated. In the second stage, pipe diameters calculated from the first stage were fixed and the pipe slopes were calculated successively from the downstream pipe segment to the upstream pipe segment. Every time the diameter or slope of a pipe segment was adjusted, the pipe flow rate, velocity, and flow depth were obtained by running SWMM hydrological and hydraulic simulation modules. The iteration terminated once the combination scheme of pipe diameters and slopes met the design ordinance which requires the pipe flows full under gravity in a design return period. A real urban sewer system in a hilly city and a benchmark sewer network from the literature were tested to validate the proposed automated algorithm, and good performance was shown. The automated design results explicitly show that the proposed storm sewer design approach leads to a quality solution with reduced computational effort.

  19. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2015-01-01

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems....... Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current...

  20. PRIORITIZATION OF SANITARY RESTRICATIONS FACING U.S. EXPORTS OF BOVINE, PORCINE, AND OVINE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURVEILLANCE NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Philip L. Paarlberg; John G. Lee; Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Mildred M.Haley

    2010-01-01

    This research uses databases of sanitary regulations facing U.S. livestock exports to examine the frequency and cost of sanitary barriers. Many sanitary regulations potentially face livestock exports; however, relatively few apply to most animals. As a share of the export unit value, regulations costs for cattle and bovine semen exports are smaller than those for swine and sheep. Most of the sanitary regulations appear justified from an animal health standpoint. While the cost savings from re...

  1. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities, change...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. 75.1712-3 Section 75.1712-3 Mineral Resources MINE... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided with adequate light, heat, and ventilation so as to maintain a...

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  4. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed.

  5. [Sanitary quality of ham eaten in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, M C; Saldate-Castañeda, O; Rodríguez-Peralta, M C

    1989-01-01

    Microbiological results of 2,539 hams were analyzed (counts of mesophilic aerobes, Salmonella sp. and S. aureus) at the National Public health Laboratory from 1979 to 1987. In 58.7 percent of the cases the hams were not acceptable for human consumption, due to any of the above mentioned microbiological determinations. The main cause was the finding of high levels of mesophilic aerobes (57.5%), followed by Salmonella sp (4.4%) and S. aureus (0.43%). Raw, cooked and smoked hams presented the highest counts of mesophilic aerobes. Virginia, american style and blade hams presented the most elevated frequencies of Salmonella sp. Baked ham was the one in better sanitary conditions. The conclusion is that the quality of hams in Mexico City is bad.

  6. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The

  8. 78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... sewer systems in municipalities such as systems at military bases, large hospital or prison complexes... to the RFA) on tribal, state, and local governments and the private sector. However, general NPDES...

  9. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  10. [Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

    2010-08-01

    The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force.

  11. [Lation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being under the present conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, N N; Ivanenko, A V; Khizgiiaev, V I; Safonkina, S G; Beliavskiĭ, A R; Kicha, D I

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the basic principles in and approaches to the state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being. The necessity of enhancing the role of state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being stems from the intensive development of marketing relations and the complicated realization of the state role in the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The investigations provide evidence for the basic tasks of the sanitary-and-epidemiological service of Moscow under the specific conditions of the megalopolis.

  12. Combined Sewer Overflow pretreatment with chemical coagulation and a particle settler for improved peracetic acid disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Bonnerup, Arne; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (HydroSeparator®) and additi......Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (Hydro......Separator®) and additional coagulation with poly-aluminum-chloride. Disinfection for Enterococcus increased with the applied dose of PAA and additional improvement was achieved when it was preceded by chemical coagulation with 5 mg L−1 poly-aluminum-chloride. When Enterococcus was reduced by treatment in the Hydro...

  13. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, O.; Backhaus, Antje; Birch, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility......, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively...... easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third...

  14. PID and PLC units for the real-time control of sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2002-01-01

    Moveable gates for the real-time control (RTC) of sewer systems storage capacities are usually operated by controllers which, on the basis of local water level or flow velocity measurements, calculate the regulation errors of the monitored variables, determining the necessary regulator movements to lead the flow conditions to the desired set point. In this paper the results of an investigation on the influence of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for the RTC of moveable sluice gates positioned into sewer systems are presented. The analysis of response time, damping and regulation errors provided information on the PID parameter calibration values and on the PLC control function performances. A comparison between the two kind of controllers has also been carried out.

  15. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system--A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Burkhardt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72-95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diametersAgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag2S. Ag2S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (95%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2017-07-17

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of combined sewer overflows on a periurban stream ecosystem: Methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Breil, P.; Lafont, M.; Vivier, A.; Namour, P.; Schmitt, L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Here we develop from a long term field experiment an assessment method of interstitial fauna resilience to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) effect. We address the case of small water courses for which the ratio of CSOs to natural flow can be 1 to much more. Biotic material was collected in the benthic and hyporheic layers. Biotic material focussed mainly on oligocheates species whose diversity, species category and abundance are resumed into metrics, called functional t...

  18. Impact of dry weather discharges on annual pollution from a separate storm sewer in Toulouse, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontis, S; Breton, A; Vialle, C; Montréjaud-Vignoles, M; Vignoles, C; Sablayrolles, C

    2013-05-01

    The city of Toulouse with its separate sewer system is ideal for studying stormwater. However, during dry weather, the storm sewer also discharges water into the environment, and it is the impact of these discharges on annual pollution from storm sewer that is the object of this study. Samples have been taken from the outlets of two storm drains located in heavily and moderately urbanized areas. Sampling has been undertaken during wet weather and during dry weather between January 2010 and February 2011. Three dry weather and two wet weather samples have been taken every three months and from each outlet. The overall pollution parameters have been analyzed (chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, total phosphorus, suspended solid matter, volatile suspended matter, pH, conductivity, turbidity). Characterization has been completed by analysis of trace organic compounds: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, diethylhexylphthalate, nonylphenols, hormones (estradiol, ethinylestradiol). For certain parameters, the results obtained did not conform to legislative requirements concerning discharge into the natural environment. Correlations between these parameters have been studied, and identified between several of them using principal component analysis. The most important correlation observed was between conductivity and concentration in total phosphorus for one of the outlet. Results showed that dry weather had an impact on annual pollution load from separate storm sewer and that level of urbanization was also a factor. The effect of season has been studied but no significant impact was found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial diversity impacts as a result of combined sewer overflow in a polluted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Calderon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. At the current study, three sites were sampled one week apart during a dry period and a wet period, where indication of a combined sewage overflow event could be detected. 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing from these three sites collectively yielded over 1000 species of bacteria belonging to twenty-two classes. Based on these data, it is hypothesized that differences identified in the microbiome on wet versus dry days are as a result of combined sewage overflow, street runoff, and additional fluctuations in the creek’s environment associated with rain. It was found that after a combined sewer overflows event, the levels of Gamma Proteobacteria increased while the levels of Actinobacteria decreased. However, levels of bacteria stayed relatively unchanged at a site further away from combined sewer overflows discharge. Species found in Newtown Creek include pelagic, marine, human and animal pathogens, hydrocarbonoclastic, and other environmental microbes.

  20. Combined sewer system versus separate system--a comparison of ecological and economical performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing the cost-effectiveness of the two main types of urban drainage systems, that is, the combined sewer system and the separate sewer system, based on the analysis of simulations. The problem of which of the two systems is better was heavily discussed over the years and the answer given to the question was usually: 'it depends'. In this work, specific impacts are investigated in terms of a cause-effect analysis. The results are subsequently summarized and can help in the choice of the system to be implemented. Despite earlier reasoning, studies on river water quality strongly indicate that the separate system is not always the preferable solution because the polluted runoff from the street, containing e.g. different heavy metals, is discharged directly into the river. This analysis aims to compare the two different sewer systems on the basis of literature data and simulation of specific cases. The results are evaluated, as suggested in the EU-Water Framework Directive, on the basis of different assessment criteria: river water quality and morphology impacts, emissions and costs.

  1. A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericault, Youen; Risberg, Mikael; Vesterlund, Mattias; Viklander, Maria; Hedström, Annelie

    2017-07-01

    The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. To this end, five heat tracing temperatures were tested and the corresponding sewer and water pipe temperatures were measured. The field experiment was also simulated with a two dimensional finite volume model. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 °C allowed prevention of freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in a safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that the developed finite volume model of the sections showed a good fitting to the experimental data.

  2. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  3. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  4. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Paul Taboada-González; Sara Ojeda-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    .... The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada's sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed...

  5. Complex Sanitary and Hygienic Characteristics of the Quality of the Megacity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyazat Zh. Orakbay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex assessment of habitat factors that affect the level of sanitary-epidemiological well-being and health status of the population of Almaty city over the past 10 years is presented in this article.

  6. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek L; Kosińska, Bożena; Knap, Józef P

    2017-11-08

    This paper presents the history of sanitary-epidemiological services in the context of the health, economic and socio-political situation in Poland in the years 1944-2014, with a critical analysis of legal restraints, efficiency and achievements. Polish Sanitary Services, established in 1919, as a state service, have preserved for more than 95 years (also during World War II and the occupation) the continuity of its structures and essential objectives to enable their implementation in the field of public health protection. The unique effectiveness of actions was recorded in the years 1954-1998 and 2002-2009 in the time of central (vertical) subordination of sanitary-epidemiological services. The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU) strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document "Health for All in the 21st Century" and the reduction of "health inequalities".

  7. Sanitary survey of Malaspina Strait from Sliammon Point to Grief Point, British Columbia, 1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgs. T.W

    1976-01-01

    A sanitary survey of the area adjacent to Malaspina Strait between Sliammon Point and Grief Point was conducted by the author in conjunction with a personnel of the Environmental Protection Service, Pacific Region...

  8. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  9. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review)

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. May; E.V. Sedusova; T.M. Lebedeva

    2016-01-01

    The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandator...

  10. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Karelin; G. B. Yeremin; I. V. May; A. Yu. Lomtev; A. V. Kiselev; N. A. Mozzhukhina

    2015-01-01

    The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introductio...

  11. Design and Materials Selection: analysis of similar sanitary pads for daily use

    OpenAIRE

    M Pohlmann

    2016-01-01

    Hygiene practices have effects on vulvovaginal microbiota. Specific products for intimate female hygiene are available in the market, such as the sanitary pads. Since these pads were introduced in the market , they became the focus of research that seek to improve their shape, manufacturing processes and the properties of materials used in order to provide more benefits to users. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the fabrics used in daily sanitary pads, focusing on the development...

  12. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp: in food services

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Jozi Fagundes de; Rocha, Laura Braga da; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; Costa, Marisa da

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The ...

  13. Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    were constructed of acrylic to allow observa- tion and video recording of model fish movement mechanisms beneath the barges. Because of their large...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 2 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Co as ta l a...default. ERDC/CHL TR-16-2 February 2016 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

  14. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  15. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection.

  16. [Program of sanitary education for people with autistic spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Vizcaíno, C; Ventoso Roncero, R; Covaleda Rodrigo, A; Andériz Cebrián, D; de Oro Villora, E

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder that it is characterized by a qualitative alteration of social interaction, communication and repetitive and stereotyped behaviours, interests and activities. Recent studies about health are showing that people with autism have lower hope of life. Among other causes, difficulty to identify and to communicate uneasiness and resistance to allow medical explorations are important factors to consider. To design and to implant a specific program for people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with the objective of habituating them to the medical explorations so that they admit it and collaborate, facilitating the sanitary personnel's work. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and the maintenance of the potentials improvements. Our sample was formed by twenty-two children with ASD (mean chronological age, 9;10 years). A quasi-experimental design of interrupted temporary series was carried out. two grouping variables (clinical characteristics of the groups about QI and about linguistic abilities) as dependent variable a measure of percentage of success has been used through an observation protocol designed for this program. Improvements in all the groups. Results are not conditioned neither for the level of intellectual abilities (IQ) neither for the existence or not of linguistic abilities. Likewise, it is found that carrying out maintenance sessions in period of seven weeks allows to maintain long term achievements reached by the program. However, we found that those children which were severely impaired could obtain more benefit from more frequent maintenance sessions.

  17. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  18. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  19. Fault detection on a sewer network by a combination of a Kalman filter and a binary sequential probability ratio test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatyszek, E.; Voignier, P.; Graillot, D.

    2000-05-01

    One of the aims of sewer networks is the protection of population against floods and the reduction of pollution rejected to the receiving water during rainy events. To meet these goals, managers have to equip the sewer networks with and to set up real-time control systems. Unfortunately, a component fault (leading to intolerable behaviour of the system) or sensor fault (deteriorating the process view and disturbing the local automatism) makes the sewer network supervision delicate. In order to ensure an adequate flow management during rainy events it is essential to set up procedures capable of detecting and diagnosing these anomalies. This article introduces a real-time fault detection method, applicable to sewer networks, for the follow-up of rainy events. This method consists in comparing the sensor response with a forecast of this response. This forecast is provided by a model and more precisely by a state estimator: a Kalman filter. This Kalman filter provides not only a flow estimate but also an entity called 'innovation'. In order to detect abnormal operations within the network, this innovation is analysed with the binary sequential probability ratio test of Wald. Moreover, by crossing available information on several nodes of the network, a diagnosis of the detected anomalies is carried out. This method provided encouraging results during the analysis of several rains, on the sewer network of Seine-Saint-Denis County, France.

  20. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  1. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  2. [Preschool children's functional status in relation to the sanitary-and-hygienic well-being of a children's educational establishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, E Iu; Setko, I M; Khaliulina, F F

    2009-01-01

    The functional status of preschool children was studied in relation to the sanitary-and-hygienic well-being, by evaluating the functional status of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Under poor sanitary-and-hygienic well-being, the children were ascertained to have lower indices of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems than those under satisfactory sanitary-and-hygienic well-being.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2017-07-01

    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Use of Intelligent Relays for the Sewer Cleaning Vehicle Control and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the way in which the electrical control and automation system of the 5 mc combined sewer and gully cleaning vehicle equipped by a local company was designed, using the intelligent relay of the easy 700 type of Moeller (Eaton company. The control of all the equipments is performed locally from the control panel and some of them can also by remote controlled by means of the radio waves. The program required by the intelligent relay was created, tested and implemented with the help of the dedicated software easy-soft 6, developed by the manufacturing company.

  5. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...

  6. Modeling in-sewer transformations at catchment scale - implications on drug consumption estimates in wastewater-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Palmitessa, Rocco; Blumensaat, Frank; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Ort, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    To which extent illicit drugs are transformed during in-sewer transport, depends on a number of factors: i) substance-specific transformation rates, ii) environmental conditions, iii) point of discharge (location of drug user) and iv) sewer network properties, primarily hydraulic residence time (HRT) and the ratio of biofilm contact area to wastewater volume (A/Veq). Assessing associated uncertainties typically requires numerous simulations. Therefore, we propose a new two-step modeling framework: 1) Quantify hydrodynamic conditions. This computationally demanding step was performed once in SWMM to derive HRT and A/Veq for each potential point of discharge (node) in three catchments of different size. 2) Estimate biomarker loss. In this step, Monte Carlo simulations were performed for defined scenarios. Depending on assumptions about drug user distribution and prevalence, a number of nodes was sampled. For each node an empirical first-order transformation model was applied with flow-path-corresponding HRT and A/Veq from step 1. Biotic and abiotic transformation rates were sampled from distributions combining variability of different biofilms. In our modeling study, median losses were >30% for amphetamine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and 6-acetylcodeine in all three catchments with high uncertainty (5%-100% loss), which would imply a systematic underestimation of consumption when neglecting in-sewer processes. Median losses for 21 other investigated biomarkers were <10% with different uncertainty ranges - "no substantial transformation" was confirmed for nine substances in a real sewer segment with a 2-h residence time. Transferability of these results must be tested for other catchments. To further reduce uncertainty, mainly additional knowledge on transformation rates, particularly in biofilm, and their distribution across a sewer network is needed to update model input objectively. Our approach allows efficient testing and, furthermore, can be expanded for many other

  7. Remediation of Mercury-Contaminated Storm Sewer Sediments from the West End Mercury Area at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12061

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremaine, Diana [Science and Ecology Corporation, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37931 (United States); Douglas, Steven G. [B and W Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN has faced an ongoing challenge from mercury entrapped in soils beneath and adjacent to buildings, storm sewers, and process pipelines. Previous actions to reduce the quantity and/or mobilization of mercury-contaminated media have included plugging of building floor drains, cleaning of sediment and sludge from sumps, manholes, drain lines, and storm sewers, lining/relining of storm sewers and replacement of a portion of the storm sewer trunk line, re-routing and removal of process piping, and installation of the Central Mercury Treatment System to capture and treat contaminated sump water. Despite the success of these actions, mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls that discharge to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) continues to pose a threat to long-term water quality. A video camera survey of the storm sewer network revealed several sections of storm sewer that had large cracks, separations, swells, and accumulations of sediment/sludge and debris. The selected remedy was to clean and line the sections of storm sewer pipe that were determined to be primary contributors to the mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls. The project, referred to as the West End Mercury Area (WEMA) Storm Sewer Remediation Project, included cleaning sediment and debris from over 2,460 meters of storm sewer pipe followed by the installation of nearly 366 meters of cure-in-place pipe (CIPP) liner. One of the greatest challenges to the success of this project was the high cost of disposal associated with the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater generated from the storm sewer cleaning process. A contractor designed and operated an on-site wastewater pre-treatment system that successfully reduced mercury levels in 191 cubic meters of sludge to levels that allowed it to be disposed at Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) disposal cell as a non-hazardous, low-level waste. The system was also effective at pre-treating over 1

  8. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  9. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  10. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  11. Water Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  12. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  13. Influence of relative air/water flow velocity on oxygen mass transfer in gravity sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Problems related to hydrogen sulfide may be serious for both network stakeholders and the public in terms of health, sustainability of the sewer structure and urban comfort. H2S emission models are generally theoretical and simplified in terms of environmental conditions. Although air transport characteristics in sewers must play a role in the fate of hydrogen sulfide, only a limited number of studies have investigated this issue. The aim of this study was to better understand H2S liquid to gas transfer by highlighting the link between the mass transfer coefficient and the turbulence in the air flow and the water flow. For experimental safety reasons, O2 was taken as a model compound. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients were obtained using a mass balance in plug flow. The mass transfer coefficient was not impacted by the range of the interface air-flow velocity values tested (0.55-2.28 m·s-1) or the water velocity values (0.06-0.55 m·s-1). Using the ratio between kL,O2 to kL,H2S, the H2S mass transfer behavior in a gravity pipe in the same hydraulic conditions can be predicted.

  14. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  15. Applying global sensitivity analysis to the modelling of flow and water quality in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamerith, Valentin; Neumann, Marc B; Muschalla, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    While several approaches for global sensitivity analysis (GSA) have been proposed in literature, only few applications exist in urban drainage modelling. This contribution discusses two GSA methods applied to a sewer flow and sewer water quality model: Standardised Regression Coefficients (SRCs) using Monte-Carlo simulation as well as the Morris Screening method. For selected model variables we evaluate how the sensitivities are influenced by the choice of the rainfall event. The aims are to i) compare both methods concerning the similarity of results and their applicability, ii) discuss the implications for factor fixing (identifying non-influential parameters) and factor prioritisation (identifying important parameters) and iii) rank the important parameters for the investigated model. It was shown that both methods lead to similar results for the hydraulic model. Parameter interactions and non-linearity were identified for the water quality model and the parameter ranking differs between the methods. For the investigated model the results allow a sound choice of output variables and rainfall events in view of detailed uncertainty analysis or model calibration. We advocate the simultaneous use of both methods for a first model assessment as they allow answering both factor fixing and factor prioritisation at low computational cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain.

  17. Innovative framework to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban combined sewer catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, V. M.; Quijano, J. C.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a probabilistic model to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban watersheds. The approach implemented here extends previous studies that rely on the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph concept to include nonconservative constituents. This is implemented with a factor χ that affects the transfer functions and therefore accounts for the loss (gain) of mass associated with the constituent as it travels through the watershed. Using this framework, we developed an analytical solution for the dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in urban networks based on the Streeter and Phelps model. This model breaks down the catchment into a discreet number of possible flow paths through the system, requiring less data and implementation effort than well-established deterministic models. Application of the model to one sewer catchment in the Chicago area with available BOD information proved its ability to predict the BOD concentration observed in the measurements. In addition, comparison of the model with a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of another sewer catchment from the Chicago area showed that the model predicted the BOD concentration as well as the widely accepted SWMM. The developed model proved to be a suitable alternative to simulate the fate and transport of constituents in urban catchments with limited and uncertain input data.

  18. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  19. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Mascher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli (EC and intestinal enterococci (IE were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO, that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants, a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3% and a given mean flow rate (QM results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met.

  1. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  2. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  3. Integration of sewer system maps in topographically based sub-basin delineation in suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Due to the increase of urbanization, suburban areas experience a fast change in land use. The impact of such modifications on the watershed hydrological cycle must be quantified. To achieve this goal, distributed hydrological models offer the possibility to take into account land use change, and more particularly to consider urbanized areas and anthropogenic features such as roads or ditches and their impact on the hydrological cycle. A detailed definition of the hydrographical drainage network and a corresponding delineation of sub-basins is therefore necessary as input to distributed models. Sub-basins in natural catchments are usually delineated using standard GIS based terrain analysis. The drainage network in urbanised watersheds is often modified, due to sewer systems, ditches, retention basins, etc.. Therefore, its delineation is not only determined by topography. The simple application of terrain analysis algorithms to delineate sub-basins in suburban areas can consequently lead to erroneous sub-basin borders. This study presents an improved approach for sub-basin delineation in suburban areas. It applies to small catchments connected to a sewage plant, located outside the catchment boundary. The approach assumes that subsurface flow follows topography. The method requires a digital elevation model (DEM), maps of land use, cadastre, sewer system and the location of measurement stations and retention basins. Firstly, the topographic catchment border must be defined for the concerning flow measurement station. Standard GIS based algorithms, like the d8-flow direction algorithm (O'Callaghan and Mark, 1984) can be applied using a high resolution DEM. Secondly, the artificial catchment outlets have to be determined. Each catchment has one natural outlet - the measurement station on the river- but it can have several artificial outlets towards a sewage station. Once the outlets are determined, a first approximation of the "theoretical maximal contributing area

  4. Fort Smith, Arkansas Agrees to Upgrade Sewer System to Reduce Discharges of Raw Sewage into Local Waterways / City will also develop a program to help low income communities improve sewer infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Justice and the state of Arkansas announced that the city of Fort Smith, Ark. will upgrade its sewer collection and treatment system over the next 12 years to reduce

  5. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    ’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice......, without compromising food safety. The report is supported by public assessible data from monitoring of microbiological contamination in Løgstør Broads, where the concentration of E. coli is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at fixed sampling points. The Danish monitoring of production areas...

  6. Note on liners for containment of Leachate in sanitary landfills to enhance sustainable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGE, O.O

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from waste degradation creep to neighboring natural soil and water bodies in undersigned landfills and impairs the quality of environment expose to man. This paper deals with the selection of materials for sealing layers in sanitary landfills. This layer is the most critical component of landfills top and bottom covers. Commonly used liners in sanitary landfills are compacted natural low permeability clayey soils, geosynthetic materials or combination of the two. Geotechnical conditions for natural soils to be useful as liners are also presented.

  7. Correlations between reinfall data and insurance damage data related to sewer flooding for the case of Aarhus, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Zhou, Q.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Sewer flooding due to extreme rainfall may result in considerable damage. Damage data to quantify costs of cleaning, drying, and replacing materials and goods are rare in literature. In this study, insurance claim data related to property damages were analysed for the municipality of Aarhus,

  8. Sediment transport modeling in deposited bed sewers: unified form of May's equations using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Shirzad, Akbar; Mohammadi, Mirali

    2017-08-01

    May proposed two dimensionless parameters of transport (η) and mobility (Fs) for self-cleansing design of sewers with deposited bed condition. The relationships between those two parameters were introduced in conditional form for specific ranges of Fs, which makes it difficult to use as a practical tool for sewer design. In this study, using the same experimental data used by May and employing the particle swarm optimization algorithm, a unified equation is recommended based on η and Fs. The developed model is compared with original May relationships as well as corresponding models available in the literature. A large amount of data taken from the literature is used for the models' evaluation. The results demonstrate that the developed model in this study is superior to May and other existing models in the literature. Due to the fact that in May's dimensionless parameters more effective variables in the sediment transport process in sewers with deposited bed condition are considered, it is concluded that the revised May equation proposed in this study is a reliable model for sewer design.

  9. Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions: the Ericeira case study, in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa

    2017-01-01

    of the phenomenon. Another relevant observation was the rapid decline in dissolved sulfide contents along gravity trunk sewers following the discharge of rising mains, with loss rates as high as 40 mg S L1 h1. Air-flow velocities corresponded to 15–50% of wastewater flows, an observation which agrees with other...

  10. Evaluation of Green Alternatives for Combined Sewer Overflow Mitigation: A Proposed Economic Impact Framework and Illustration of its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a broad framework, or taxonomy, for identifying and organizing the socio-economic impacts of sewer infrastructure projects. It focuses on a green project in Cincinnati, Ohio that has adopted broader economic goals. The report then uses this example to illustr...

  11. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Five Odor Reducing Agents for Sewer System Odors Using an On-Line Total Reduced Sulfur Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunook Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewer odors have been a concern to citizens of the Metropolitan Seoul region, which has installed combined sewer systems (CSSs in 86% of its area. Although a variety of odorants are released from sewers, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs have been recognized as major ones. A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer. In this study, the effectiveness of five different commercial odor-reducing agents (i.e., an odor masking agent, an alkaline solution, two microbial agents, and a chemical oxidant was evaluated by continuously monitoring VSCs released from the sewer with an on-line total reduced sulfur (TRS analyzer before and after each agent was sprayed into CSSs at five different locations of the city. In short, when the effectiveness of odor treatment was tested in the sewer system using five commercial odor reducing treatments, only the chemical oxidant was good enough to reduce the odor in terms of TRS levels measured before and after the application (p < 0.01.

  13. Determination of VOSCs in sewer headspace air using TD-GC-SCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-05-01

    The management of odorous emissions from sewer networks has become an important issue for sewer operators resulting in the need to better understand the composition of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). In order to characterise the composition of such malodorous emissions, a method based on thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) has been developed to determine a broader range of VOSCs, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), ethanethiol (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS), 1-butanethiol (1-BuSH), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Parameters affecting the chromatographic behaviour of the target compounds were studied (e.g., temperature program, carrier gas velocity) as well as the experimental conditions affecting the adsorption/desorption process (temperature, flow and time). Optimised extraction of VOSCs samples was achieved under adsorption temperatures of less than -20°C, and a desorption flow rate of ~6 ml/min. Active collection on the cold trap enabled a small gas volume of 50-100ml to be sampled for all analytes without breakthrough. Calibration curves were derived at different TD loading volumes with determined linearity ranging between 0.09 ng and 60.1 ng. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.10-5.26 μg/m(3) with TD recoveries higher than 66% and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values) between 1.8% and 6.1% being obtained for all compounds. The VOSCs characterisation at different sewerage collection sites in Sydney, Australia (for seasonal, weekly and diurnal) showed that six of the ten targeted compounds were consistently detected at all sample events. Diurnal patterns of VOSCs investigated were clearly observed with the highest concentration occurring after 12 pm (noon) for H2S and MeSH. The consecutive 5 day analysis showed no significant difference

  14. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  15. Sampling: the weak link in the sanitary quality control system of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel

    2006-05-01

    To ensure a high level of consumer protection, the European Union has in the past years published several regulations setting very low limits for a given number of food contaminants (pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals) in many agricultural products (cereals, oilseeds, dry fruits, coffee, spices, etc). These new regulations regarding the sanitary quality of agricultural products, compel both economic operators and officials of different EU member states to set up sampling plans and rigorous analyses aimed at checking whether a product lot complies with the required standards prior to its release on the market. While the laboratory analysis management today is outstanding thanks to the validated and efficient detection methods and procedures available for quality assurance in laboratories (accreditation), this is not necessarily true of the sampling operation, which seems to be the weak link in the sanitary control system for agricultural products. The sampling operation is often the main source of error when assessing the sanitary quality of a lot of agricultural commodities, with both commercial (downgrading of the product) and sanitary (marketing of a product which poses a health risk for the consumer) consequences. Therefore, it is essential for the operators involved to be aware of the significance and difficulties of the sampling operation, which requires important equipment and human resources. Furthermore, drawing up specific standards and guidelines, as well as setting up quality assurance procedures, at the level in charge of carrying out this delicate and important operation, are necessary.

  16. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  17. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk.

  18. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  19. Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Gichaba Misati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about the quality of rural drinking water sources can be used to manage their safety and mitigate risks to health. Sanitary surveys, which are observational checklists to assess hazards present at water sources, are simpler to conduct than microbial tests. We assessed whether sanitary survey results were associated with measured indicator bacteria levels in rural drinking water sources in Kisii Central, Kenya. Overall, thermotolerant coliform (TTC levels were high: all of the samples from the 20 tested dug wells, almost all (95% of the samples from the 25 tested springs, and 61% of the samples from the 16 tested rainwater harvesting systems were contaminated with TTC. There were no significant associations between TTC levels and overall sanitary survey scores or their individual components. Contamination by TTC was associated with source type (dug wells and springs were more contaminated than rainwater systems. While sanitary surveys cannot be substituted for microbial water quality results in this context, they could be used to identify potential hazards and contribute to a comprehensive risk management approach.

  20. Sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence seen from battered women perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sánchez Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative study whose objective is to know battered women perception regarding sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence in Madrid Community. The results were validated by a triangulation process. Women identified sanitary assistance with those given when there exist physical injuries. However, if we keep questioning about it, they do express to look for something else from the professionals who attended them, although they are not able to say it before them.Somatizations that ill-treatment produces are treated by sanitary professionals without attending to the cause that caused them, and, when it is identified ill-treatment as the cause, rarely sanitary professionals send them to psychologies or psychiatrics. However, this is not identified as a bad practice, because women establish a very defined and rigid function for each professional, where, as they understand, Primary Care doctor will not be required to worry about psychic health and wellbeing of people who attend to their offices.We think, therefore, that it would be recommended that Madrid Community should create a specific health program to attend these women in order to guarantee, this way, a proper attention to people who may be in this situation as well as a minimum quality on the attention they received.

  1. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp: in food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Fagundes de Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%. Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8% was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  2. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. PMID:25477940

  3. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-8...

  5. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. In batch scale experiment 2.5 mg·L -1 PAA removed around 4 log unit of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO with long contact time. Removal of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO were always around or above 3 log unit using 2-4 mg·L -1 PFA with short contact time in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  6. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch......-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L− 1 PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO was always around or above 3 log units using 2–4 mg L− 1 PFA; with a 20 min contact...... time in both batch-scale and pre-field experiments. There was no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA; a slight toxic effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic...

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  8. Use long short-term memory to enhance Internet of Things for combined sewer overflow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Lindholm, Geir; Ratnaweera, Harsha

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow causes severe water pollution, urban flooding and reduced treatment plant efficiency. Understanding the behavior of CSO structures is vital for urban flooding prevention and overflow control. Neural networks have been extensively applied in water resource related fields. In this study, we collect data from an Internet of Things monitoring CSO structure and build different neural network models for simulating and predicting the water level of the CSO structure. Through a comparison of four different neural networks, namely multilayer perceptron (MLP), wavelet neural network (WNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU), the LSTM and GRU present superior capabilities for multi-step-ahead time series prediction. Furthermore, GRU achieves prediction performances similar to LSTM with a quicker learning curve.

  9. Detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in free-living brown sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashida, Hinako; Sasaoka, Fumina; Suzuki, Jin; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Saori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-07-31

    The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild rodents is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood samples collected from brown sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped during rodent control around an animal hospital in Morioka, Japan. We examined nine rats using real-time PCR and end-point PCR, and found one rat (11.1%) that was positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in a wild-caught rat were amplified using PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed the presence of a hemoplasma that has not previously been described in rodents. The pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma remain unexplored.

  10. Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater...... runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from a screening campaign including more than 50 substances at four stormwater discharge locations and one CSO in Copenhagen are reported here. Heavy metal concentrations were detected at levels similar...... to earlier findings, e.g., with copper found at concentrations up to 13 times greater than the Danish standard for surface waters. The concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exceeded the EQSs by factors up to 500 times for stormwater and 2,000 times for the CSO. Glyphosate was found in all samples...

  11. Using Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Coliforms as a Tool to Investigate Combined Sewer Overflow Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Gaurav; Burns, Emma N; Morris, David W

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that fecal contamination can be determined by conducting multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) analyses. The hypothesis is if bacteria exhibit resistance, they are likely to be derived from organisms exposed to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this project seeks to apply MAR analysis to nonpoint source (NPS) and combined sewer overflow (CSO) areas along the Anacostia River in Washington, DC. Presumptive E. coli was isolated from NPS and CSO samples and tested with eight different antimicrobial agents to assess MAR indices. Isolates from CSO sources showed significantly greater resistance (p coliforms are associated with CSO overflows, indicating that pollution-derived coliform levels are strongly linked to antimicrobial resistance. The implementation of this method as an index for water quality in the remediation of the Anacostia River has the ability to serve as a model and monitoring tool for the rehabilitation of urban watersheds.

  12. Development and testing of highway storm-sewer flow measurement and recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Kaehrle, W.R.; Hardee, Jack; Cordes, E.H.; Landers, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of measuring instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic-bubbler pressure transducer head measuring systems. Tracer-dilution and acoustic flow meter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the above instruments as well as from a tipping-bucket rain gage and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer-dilution systems. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-jacobsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    A method for determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation by dissolved oxygen (DO) in wastewater is presented. The method was particularly developed to investigate chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks at low DO concentrations. The method is based...... parameters determined in a triplicate experiment. The kinetic parameters determined in 25 experiments on wastewater samples from a single site exhibited good constancy with a variation of the same order of magnitude as the precision of the method. It was found that the stoichiometry of the reaction could...... be considered constant during the course of the experiments although intermediates accumulated. This was explained by an apparent slow oxidation rate of the intermediates. The method was capable of determining kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation at DO concentrations lower than 1 g of O2 m...

  14. Reliability of adaptive multivariate software sensors for sewer water quality monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a multivariate approach, based on Principal Component Analysis PCA), as software sensor for fault detection and reconstruction of missing measurements in on-line monitoring of sewer water quality. The analysis was carried out on a 16-months dataset of five...... validation. However, the study also showed a dramatic drop in predictive capability of the software sensor when used for reconstructing missing values, with performance quickly deteriorating after 1 week since parameter estimation. The software sensor provided better results when used to estimate pollutants...... mainly originated from wastewater sources (such as ammonia) than when used for pollutants affected by several processes (such as TSS). Overall, this study provides a first insight in the application of multivariate methods for software sensors, highlighting drawback and potential development areas...

  15. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  16. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both....... It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...

  17. Cumulative effects of fecal contamination from combined sewer overflows: Management for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalliffier-Verne, Isabelle; Heniche, Mourad; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The quality of a drinking water source depends largely on upstream contaminant discharges. Sewer overflows can have a large influence on downstream drinking water intakes as they discharge untreated or partially treated wastewaters that may be contaminated with pathogens. This study focuses on the quantification of Escherichia coli discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the dispersion and diffusion in receiving waters in order to prioritize actions for source water protection. E. coli concentrations from CSOs were estimated from monitoring data at a series of overflow structures and then applied to the 42 active overflow structures between 2009 and 2012 using a simple relationship based upon the population within the drainage network. From these estimates, a transport-dispersion model was calibrated with data from a monitoring program from both overflow structures and downstream drinking water intakes. The model was validated with 15 extreme events such as a large number of overflows (n > 8) or high concentrations at drinking water intakes. Model results demonstrated the importance of the cumulative effects of CSOs on the degradation of water quality downstream. However, permits are typically issued on a discharge point basis and do not consider cumulative effects. Source water protection plans must consider the cumulative effects of discharges and their concentrations because the simultaneous discharge of multiple overflows can lead to elevated E. coli concentrations at a drinking water intake. In addition, some CSOs have a disproportionate impact on peak concentrations at drinking water intakes. As such, it is recommended that the management of CSOs move away from frequency based permitting at the discharge point to focus on the development of comprehensive strategies to reduce cumulative and peak discharges from CSOs upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  19. [Provision of armed force personnel with sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being under the current conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimkin, V G

    2010-01-01

    Health protection and provision of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in military personnel are largely determined by the efficiency of the prophylaxis unit of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, which is part of the uniform federal state sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance system of the Russian Federation. The activity of the prophylaxis unit of a medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in maintaining sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the troops (forces) of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation is accomplished in the presence of a number of unsolved problems to make sanitary-and-hygienic provision of military staff with vital activity and in that of the high epidemiological significance of acute respiratory infections, community-acquired pneumonias, streptococcal infections, childhood infections, tuberculosis, and meningococcal or HIV infections, etc. The author has defined the priority activities of the prophylaxis unit of a medical service in maintaining sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation under the present conditions, including the objectification of state sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance in its Armed Forces, by using the capabilities of a modernized laboratory base of sanitary-and-epidemiological facilities, improving the system for immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases, and organizing disinfection measures in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  20. Use of community-owned and -managed research to assess the vulnerability of water and sewer services in marginalized and underserved environmental justice communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher; Wilson, Sacoby; Wilson, Omega; Cooper, John; Bumpass, Natasha; Snipes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    In the study described in this article, the authors' objective was to use community-owned and -managed research (COMR) to assess the safety and adequacy of water and sewer services in three low-income African-American communities in Mebane, North Carolina. Community monitor (CM) training workshops, household surveys, and drinking water and surface water tests of fecal pollution were completed at private (target) and regulated public (referent) service households. CMs collected survey data showing a mixture of failing private wells and septic systems and regulated public drinking water and sewer infrastructure. Drinking water and surface water fecal pollution levels exceeded limits protecting health at target and referent households. COMR methods built community capacity to investigate private and regulated public drinking water and sewer service failures. Drinking and surface water fecal contamination levels suggest a need for provision of improved water and sewer services to protect health in these underserved and marginalized communities.

  1. [40th anniversary of the 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Defense Ministry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveĭ, È P; Berskiĭ, O V; Ian'shin, L A

    2012-11-01

    In November 2012 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation celebrates 40th anniversary. It is a multidisciplanary prevention and treatment facility of high level standing at the top of the sanitary-epidemiological institutions of the army and navy. The Main Center is included into a united, centralized system of state sanitary-epidemiological control of Russia with the main purpose--organization and conduction of surveillance and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in the army and navy. The article provides a consistent presentation of historical perspective of creation and development of the institution and its mission today.

  2. The Level of Adequacy of Sanitary Facilities for Girls in Primary Schools of Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Muthoni Wambugu; Prof Paul Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    The adequacy of sanitary facilities is a critical issue in a girl’s life. Studies have shown that most aspects of a girl’s life are affected by lack of sanitary facilities thus lowering the girl’s esteem and confidence. The study sought to establish the level of adequacy of sanitary facilities for girls in primary education in Nakuru Municipality in Nakuru County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used as the preferred research design. The study targeted the 59 public primary schools in ...

  3. The Effect of the Adequacy of Sanitary Facilities on Girls’ Participation in Primary Schools of Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Muthoni Wambugu; Paul Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    The adequacy of sanitary facilities is a critical issue in a girl’s life. Studies have shown that most aspects of a girl’s life are affected by lack of sanitary facilities thus lowering the girl’s esteem and confidence. The study sought to determine how the adequacy of sanitary facilities affects girls’ participation in primary education in Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used as the preferred research design. The study targeted the 59 public primary...

  4. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  5. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  6. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Kaiser, J.C.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2013-01-01

    and building development as well as dependence on bomb construction e.g. design and geometry. At short-term, the first rainfall is an important way of natural decontamination: deposited radionuclides are washed off from surfaces and in urban areas the resulting contaminated runoff enters the sewer system...... and is collected in a sewage plant. Up to now the potential exposure caused by this process has received little attention and is estimated here with simulation models. The commercial rainfall-runoff model for urban sewer systems KANALþþ has been extended to include transport of radionuclides from surfaces through....... The concentration of Cs-137 in water is calculated at the nodes of the drainage system and at the sewage treatment plant. The external exposure to staff of the treatment plant is estimated. For Cs-137 radiation levels in the plant are low since wash-off of cesium from surfaces is an ineffective process. © 2012...

  7. Heat from waste water sewer. The daycare centre Maerzwiesen in Rauenberg; Waerme aus dem Abwasserkanal. Das Kinderhaus Maerzwiesen in Rauenberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W.

    2012-07-01

    The use of wastewater in the sewer in front of the new building of the day care center Maerzwiesen (Rauenberg, Federal Republic of Germany) for the production of comfortable warmth seems to be strange at first. On closer inspection, benefits are evident which are well understood. These benefits can be transferred to other future projects at home and abroad. It is in the interest of climate protection also to use waste heat.

  8. Bacteriophage ecology in a small community sewer system related to their indicative role in sewage pollution of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Efrat; Starosvetsky, Jeana; Armon, Robert

    2007-10-01

    In view of various studies looking for the merit of coliphages as indicators of water pollution with viruses originating from faecal material, a small agricultural community (population of approximately 1500 inhabitants of all ages, 2-3 km from Haifa) was selected in order to understand these bacteriophage ecology (F-RNA and somatic coliphages) in its sewer and oxidation pond system. Along the sewer lines, it was possible to isolate constantly both bacteriophage types (F-RNA and somatic coliphages) at 10(2)-10(4) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1). The average numbers of somatic and F-RNA phages isolated from oxidation pond were 10(3)-10(4) pfu ml(-1); however, somatic coliphages were undetectable for several months (April-August). Significant high correlation (0.944 10(5) pfu g(-1)) for up to 1 year. The excretion of F-RNA coliphages was highly linked to Escherichia coli F(+) harborage in the intestinal track as found in their faecal content. Finally, three bacterial hosts E. coli F(+), F(-) and CN(13) tested for survivability in sewage filtrate revealed that E. coli F(+) had the highest survivability under these conditions. Presence of somatic and F male-specific phages in sewer lines of a small community are influenced by several factors such as: anionic detergents, nutrients, temperature, source (mainly infants), shedding and survival capability of the host strain. Better understanding of coliphages ecology in sewer systems can enhance our evaluation of these proposed indicator/index microorganisms used in tracking environmental pollution of water, soil and crop contamination with faecal material containing enteric viruses.

  9. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James

    2017-09-01

    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  10. Determining the long-term effects of H₂S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature on concrete sewer corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2014-11-15

    Many studies of sewer corrosion are performed in accelerated conditions that are not representing the actual corrosion processes. This study investigated the effects of various factors over 3.5 years under controlled conditions simulating the sewer environment. Concrete coupons prepared from precorroded sewers were exposed, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater, in laboratory controlled corrosion chambers. Over the 45 month exposure period, three environmental factors of H2S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature were controlled at different levels in the corrosion chambers. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the long term effects of these factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, corrosion layer sulfate levels and concrete loss. Corrosion rates were also determined for different exposure periods. It was found that the corrosion rate of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the H2S concentration in the gas phase. Relative humidity played also a role for the corrosion activity of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as the surfaces of these coupons were saturated due to capillary suction of sewage on the coupon surface. The effect of temperature on corrosion activity varied and possibly the acclimation of corrosion-inducing microbes to temperature mitigated effects of that factor. It was apparent that biological sulfide oxidation was not the limiting step of the overall corrosion process. These findings provide real insights into the long-term effects of these key environmental factors on the sewer corrosion processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured i......, the urprisingly high level of infection calls for an increased public health concern. ...

  13. [To the 80th anniversary of the 637th center of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischugin, E Y; Mathis, A A; Tsintsadze, O G; Tarumov, R A

    2015-06-01

    In March 2015 marked the 80th anniversary of the creation of the 637th Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. The date of establishment of the Centre is rooted in the pre-war period, when sanitary-epidemiological laboratories of the Black Sea Fleet were organized as a scientific and methodological institution. During the Great Patriotic War, as well as during the early postwar period, the staff of the Centre carried out valuable work on provision of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the Black Sea Fleet. Later, soldiers of the Center participated in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, fulfilling their international duty in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, on the island of Dahlak, as well as in the Chechen Republic during the anti-terrorist operation. During its existence, the Centre repeatedly reorganized and is now an institution that successfully solves the problem of ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the troops in the area of responsibility.

  14. [Center of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district celebrates 70 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedniakov, V V; Kunaev, A V

    2012-04-01

    The history of the centre of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district stationed in Kazan is stated shortly. This institution originated in 104th sanitary and epidemiological detachment, which was formed in May 1942 in complement of Bryansk Navy. During 1942-1945 104th SED was allotted to Braynsk, Central, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belarus's fronts. Nowadays this Center in Kazan is component part of the united territorial system of medical supply of troops stationed in republic of Tatarstan, Udmurtiya, Chuvashiya, Mariy Al. It is modern profile institution where work highly skilled physicians and medical stuff of medium-level. Employees of the center have great experience in realization of prophylactic and anti-epidemiological actions.

  15. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  17. Comparison of microbial communities across sections of a corroding sewer pipe and the effects of wastewater flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayford, Barry I; Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene; Bond, Philip L

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the variation in microbially induced concrete corrosion communities at different circumferential locations of a real sewer pipe and the effects of a wastewater flooding event on the community. Three distinct microbial community groups were found in different corrosion samples. The physico-chemical properties of the corrosion layers and the microbial communities were distinct for the cross-sectional positions within the pipe, ie ceiling, wall and tidal zones. The microbial communities detected from the same positions in the pipe were consistent over the length of the pipe, as well as being consistent between the replicate pipes. The dominating ceiling communities were members of the bacterial orders Rhodospirillales, Acidithiobacillales, Actinomycetales, Xanthomonadales and Acidobacteriales. The wall communities were composed of members of the Xanthomonadales, Hydrogenophilales, Chromatiales and Sphingobacteriales. The tidal zones were dominated by eight bacterial and one archaeal order, with the common physiological trait of anaerobic metabolism. Sewage flooding within the sewer system did not change the tidal and wall communities, although the corrosion communities in ceiling samples were notably different, becoming more similar to the wall and tidal samples. This suggests that sewage flooding has a significant impact on the corrosion community in sewers.

  18. Where to Find Water Pipes and Sewers?—On the Correlation of Infrastructure Networks in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban water infrastructure, i.e., water supply and sewer networks, are underground structures, implying that detailed information on their location and features is not directly accessible, frequently erroneous, or missing. For public use, data is also not made available due to security concerns. This lack of quality data, especially for research purposes, requires substantial effort when such data is sought for both statistical and model‐based analyses. An alternative to gathering data from archives and observations is to extract the information from surrogate data sources (e.g., the street network. The key for such an undertaking is to identify the common characteristics of all urban infrastructure network types and to quantify them. In this work, the network correlations of the street, water supply, and sewer networks are systematically analyzed. The results showed a strong correlation between the street networks and urban water infrastructure networks, in general. For the investigated cases, on average, 50% of the street network length correlates with 80%-85% of the total water supply/sewer network. A correlation between street types and water infrastructure properties (e.g., pipe diameter cannot be found. All analyses are quantified in the form of different geometric‐ and graph‐based indicators. The obtained results improve the understanding of urban network infrastructure from an integrated point of view. Moreover, the method can be fundamental for different research purposes, such as data verification, data completion, or even the entire generation of feasible datasets.

  19. Fecal pollution in water from storm sewers and adjacent seashores in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardonha, Angela M S; Vieira, Regine H S F; Rodrigues, Dália P; Macrae, Andrew; Peirano, Gizele; Teophilo, Grace N D

    2004-09-01

    A study on the distribution patterns of enteropathogenic bacteria polluting the shoreline in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, was carried out based on 72 samples obtained from three storm sewers and adjoining beach locations, Praia do Meio (PM), Areia Preta (AP) and Ponta Negra (PN). From each location, 12 water samples were taken and analyzed for fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli. In AP, two (16.7%) of the seawater samples and five (41.7%) of the storm sewer samples yielded values above 1.1 x 107 FC/100 ml, whereas only one (8.3%) of the samples from PM reached this level. There was no correlation (p > 0.05) between rainfall indices and FC values. A total of 64 E. coli isolates were obtained: 37 from the storm sewer samples and 27 from the seawater samples. Of these isolates, four (O143, two O112ac, and O124) were enteroinvasive and two (O111 and O125) were enteropathogenic. Resistance to antibiotics and to heavy metals was also analyzed. Almost 36% of the E. coli strains isolated were resistant to more than one antibiotic. All strains were resistant to zinc and copper at the highest concentration tested (250 microg/ml), and several (23.4%) were resistant to mercury at 50 microg/ml. Our results agreed with previous reports that antibiotic resistance is commonly associated with heavy-metal resistance in pathogens.

  20. Sanitary land fills recommendations evolution; Evoluzione della normativa sulle discariche e sue implicazioni. Documento di indirizzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cecco, C.; Di Benedetto, E. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)]|[Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. IMAGE; Cossu, R. [Comitato Tecnico Discariche (Italy); Cirelli, A. [Federambiente, Rome (Italy); Cesco, P. [FISE-Assoambiente, Milan (Italy); Magagni, A. [Associazione Italiana Tecnici dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In the sanitary landfills will be accepted only non reusable wastes at the purpose to reduce danger and volume. [Italian] Con il Decreto Ronchi (n. 22 del 5 febbraio 1997) si e' riaffrontata, in linea con le nuove strategie europee, la problematica rifiuti in tutta la sua complessita'. La gestione rifiuti si basa sul concetto di sistema di smaltimento integrato che presuppone alcuni principi fondamentali, tra cui il riciclaggio e il reimpiego.

  1. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  2. Role of veterinarian in securing sanitary hygiene of food of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Lazar; Katić Vera R.; Bunčić Olivera

    2005-01-01

    The consumer demands that to be provided with a sufficient quantity of articles of animal origin that meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene and are available at acceptable prices. Food articles of animal origin that are safe for human consumption can be obtained only from healthy animals. Veterinarians are daily concerned with the health of animals and are taking measures to prevent the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from animals to humans. The knowledge of epizootiology, micro...

  3. 1851 International Sanitary Conference and the construction of an international sphere of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel De Almeida, Joao Jose

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the 1851 International Sanitary Conference, this dissertation analyses an important episode in the international regulation of health, trade, passengers, and cargo in a period of epidemic crisis. It argues that a group of diplomats and physicians appointed to represent 12 European nations instituted a new international forum that extended – and occasionally rivalled – national and local agencies for epidemic governance. Together, delegates endeavoured to establish a...

  4. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  5. Sanitary Norms of the Design of Industrial Enterprises. SN 245-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-09

    processing/treatment of natural resins and their residue/remainders (coal-tar pitch, etc.). 7. production calcined soda using ammonium soda process in...small content of volatile hydrocarbons. QOC 79069402 PAGE 2. Enterprises for yield of rocks of VI-VII category: dolomite , magnesite, asbestos, *ars...quantity of more than 150,000 t/yr. 2. Production of magnesite, dolomite and fireclay vith firing in shaft, rotary and other kilns. Class II. Sanitary

  6. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O.; Aschieri, A. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  7. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  8. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M. Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  9. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Security Facilities, Little Mountain Test Annex, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-09

    Providing connections to existing buried utilities consisting of water, electricity, telephone/data, sanitary sewer, and storm drains . • Installing...telephone/data, sanitary sewer, and storm drains . Discussions related to preventing soil erosion (stormwater pollution prevention) are addressed under...connections to existing buried utilities consisting of water, electricity, telephone/data, sanitary sewer, and storm drains . 11 • Installing a

  10. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  11. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  12. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  13. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  14. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  16. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHER HASSAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite only. In addition to a-quartz and primary mullite, elongated needles of secondary mullite were also present in samples fired at 1200 and 1300oC. Unlike typical vitreous ceramics bodies, regions containing elongated secondary mullite originating from the clay relict and growing into the feldspar relict were few in number which is consistent with the high clay content in the starting body ingredients of the investigated samples. Another sample investigated for comparison purposes, contained all the phases mentioned above along with some corundum grains which indicated that the composition of sanitary ware varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detected high concentration of Fe in some regions in the bulk but the glaze did not contain any Fe.

  17. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  18. Production of durable and cost effective sewer pipes using petroleum and industrial waste by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gamal Maisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environment has an adverse impact on concrete structures because of the high ambient temperature, humidity, salt contaminated dust, sea water and underground salts. As an innovative solution, reinforced modified sulfur concrete (MSC pipes are recognized as a durable and economical solution for deterioration of pipelines. This work describes the manufacture and characterization of new MSC based on a cost effective sulfur modification process. Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil refining process was used to modify elemental sulfur and enhance its physical, mechanical properties, and mostly to increase its corrosive resistivity. The study has focused on optimizing the proportions of an offered MSC mixes that are composed of modified sulfur (MS as a binder, crushed sand, dune sand and ladle furnace (LF slag as aggregates, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGFBS as a filler. To maximize the physical and mechanical properties of MSC sewer pipes, different mixtures were prepared and investigated. The optimum mix of MSC has a maximum compressive strength of 64 MPa, maximum splitting tensile strength of 4.5 MPa, maximum flexural strength of 21 MP, with a high corrosion resistance in acidic and salty environments.

  19. Performance assessment of a vertical flow constructed wetland treating unsettled combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfy, T G; Gerodolle, M; Gourdon, R; Meyer, D; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2017-06-01

    The performance of a vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow treatment (CSO CW) has been evaluated. The full-scale site has been monitored for 3 years for major pollutants and for two load events for a range of micropollutants (metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Performance were predominantly high (97% for total suspended solids (TSS), 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 72% for NH4-N), even if several loads were extremely voluminous, pushing the filter to its limits. Two different filter materials (a 4:1 mixture of sand and zeolite and natural pozzolana) showed similar treatment performance. Furthermore, environmental factors were correlated with COD removal efficiency. The greatest influencers of COD removal efficiency were the inlet dissolved COD concentrations and the duration and potential evapotranspiration during inter-event periods. Furthermore, sludge was analysed for quality and a sludge depth map was created. The map, and calculating the changes in sludge volume, helped to understand solid accumulation dynamics.

  20. Ability of Preissmann slot scheme to simulate smooth pressurisation transient in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Giovanni Battista; Freni, Gabriele; Tomaselli, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Urban drainage networks are generally designed to operate in a free-surface flow condition. However, as a consequence of heavy rainfall events or network malfunctions, the filling of sewers (pressurisation) and network overflow may occur. Several modelling software products are commonly used to simulate floods in drainage networks, and their results are usually thought to be reliable and robust. However, no specific studies have been carried out on the behaviour of these modelling products during the pressurisation transition. Mathematical models often use the Preissmann slot concept to handle pressurisation. In this paper, on the basis of laboratory pipe tests, the reliability of such a scheme is studied by means of a popular and open-source software product: SWMM (Storm Water Management Model). Many numerical tests were carried out with SWMM, varying the spatial and time steps and the Preissmann slot width, in order to examine the performance of the modelling software over intervals of these parameters even wider than what is usual in practical applications. The comparison between simulated and experimental surges allows one to draw interesting conclusions regarding the effectiveness of software products analogous to SWMM in simulating pressurisation, as well as the choice of the parameters themselves.

  1. Management of combined sewer overflows based on observations from the urbanized Liguori catchment of Cosenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, P; Carbone, M; Garofalo, G; Sansalone, J J

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines an urbanized catchment in Cosenza, Italy where an off-line basin intercepting CSOs was studied to illustrate reduction in CSO discharges to the Crati River. While the hydrologic transport of pollutant mass is never known a-priori and can be flow-limited, the volumetric requirements of the basin were modeled based on the classic assumption that wet weather flows transport urban and sewer loads in a mass-limited (first-flush) delivery. The volumetric capacity of the basin was varied from 10 to 50 m(3)/ha. Operational basin control was simulated with historical datasets from the Liguori catchment, event-based loading data, and continuous simulation modelling with SWMM. Utilizing data from the catchment, the SWMM simulations were conducted considering the storage basin with or without sedimentation treatment. Results illustrate the potential benefits of the off-line operation for the system with respect to the volume and mass reduction of CSOs into the Crati River. Results demonstrate the importance of particle size distribution (PSD) as an index of basin efficiency, coupled with analysis of the hydrodynamic response of the basin. The basin model attenuated influent PSDs, separating the coarser fraction of the PSD, and reduced the load of influent particulate matter (PM).

  2. Dispersion and Travel Time of Dissolved and Floating Tracers in Urban Sewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istók Balázs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of oil spills affecting urban sewage networks can be eliminated if timely intervention is taken. The design of such actions requires knowledge of the transport of surface pollutants in open channels. In this study we investigated the travel time and dispersion of pollutants by means of tracer experiments in sewage networks and a creek. The travel time of surface tracers has been found to be significantly shorter than that of a bulk flow tracer. The ratio of the travel times of a bulk flow tracer and surface tracers agreed with the known correlations obtained for rivers. An increasing tendency in the ratio of travel times has been observed for increasing bulk flow velocity. A segment-wise dispersion model was implemented in the existing hydraulic model of a sewer system. The simulation results were compared with the experimental observations. The dispersion rate of the bulk flow tracer has been found to obey Taylor’s mixing theory for long channels and was more intensive than that of surface tracers in community sewage channels.

  3. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  4. [A functional subsystem of sanitary-and-epidemiological situation surveillance of the unified state system for prevention and elimination of emergence situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolenskiĭ, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Mass destructions of the social infrastructure and household systems under stressors in the areas of emergency situations involve marked sanitary-and-epidemiological problems in a region's population, which in turn give rise to the activation of routes of transmission and formation of infectious and parasitic diseases. The most important lines of activities of supervising the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation under emergencies are to timely assess the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation, to predict, to organize, and to correct sanitary-and-antiepidemic measures.

  5. Hydraulic Modeling and Evolutionary Optimization for Enhanced Real-Time Decision Support of Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A. R.; Ostfeld, A.

    2011-12-01

    Real-time mitigation of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) requires evaluation of multiple operational strategies during rapidly changing rainfall events. Simulation models for hydraulically complex systems can effectively provide decision support for short time intervals when coupled with efficient optimization. This work seeks to reduce CSOs for a test case roughly based on the North Branch of the Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP), which is operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). The North Branch tunnel flows to a junction with the main TARP system. The Chicago combined sewer system alleviates potential CSOs by directing high interceptor flows through sluice gates and dropshafts to a deep tunnel. Decision variables to control CSOs consist of sluice gate positions that control water flow to the tunnel as well as a treatment plant pumping rate that lowers interceptor water levels. A physics-based numerical model is used to simulate the hydraulic effects of changes in the decision variables. The numerical model is step-wise steady and conserves water mass and momentum at each time step by iterating through a series of look-up tables. The look-up tables are constructed offline to avoid extensive real-time calculations, and describe conduit storage and water elevations as a function of flow. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to minimize CSOs at each time interval within a moving horizon framework. Decision variables are coded at 15-minute increments and GA solutions are two hours in duration. At each 15-minute interval, the algorithm identifies a good solution for a two-hour rainfall forecast. Three GA modifications help reduce optimization time. The first adjustment reduces the search alphabet by eliminating sluice gate positions that do not influence overflow volume. The second GA retains knowledge of the best decision at the previous interval by shifting the genes in the best previous sequence to initialize search at

  6. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrés-Doménech

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Water Framework Directive (WFD was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain. First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+, within the river just after the spills.

  7. Sulfide emissions in sewer networks: focus on liquid to gas mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    H2S emission dynamics in sewers are conditioned by the mass transfer coefficient at the interface. This work aims at measuring the variation of the mass transfer coefficient with the hydraulic characteristics, with the objective of estimating H2S emission in gravity pipes, and collecting data to establish models independent of the system geometry. The ratio between the H2S and O2 mass transfer coefficient was assessed in an 8 L mixed reactor under different experimental conditions. Then, oxygen mass transfer measurements were performed in a 10 m long gravity pipe. The following ranges of experimental conditions were investigated: velocity flow [0-0.61 m.s-1], Reynolds number [0-23,333]. The hydrodynamic parameters at the liquid/gas interface were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the laboratory-scale reactor, the O2 mass transfer coefficient was found to depend on the stirring rate (rph) as follows: KL,O2 = 0.016 + 0.025 N3.85. A KL,H2S/KL,O2 ratio of 0.64 ± 0.24 was found, in accordance with previously published data. CFD results helped in refining this correlation: the mass transfer coefficient depends on the local interface velocity ui (m.h-1): KL,O2 = 0.016 + 1.02 × 10-5 ui3.85 In the gravity pipe device, KL,O2 also exponentially increased with the mean flow velocity. These trends were found to be consistent with the increasing level of turbulence.

  8. [Theoretical and conceptual considerations about the work in sanitary surveillance, as a specific field of the work in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gisélia Santana; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical-conceptual presupposes to the analysis of the work in sanitary surveillance in a social and historical perspective. As a work in health, the sanitary surveillance presents particularities that are inherent to the elements that are part of its process of work. These elements are inserted in the space of the production-consumption relationships, under the regulatory action of the State. The problematic of the work in sanitary surveillance occurs due to the specificities of its objects. It is identified in these objects a double dimension, at the same time as a "way of life" and "commodity". This confers to its working process a provisory and historical character, permeated by contradictions. The technical and social division of the work determines the organization of the working process in its "technical-scientific" and "political-administrative" organization, taking in account the necessity to guarantee the integrality in the actions of the health protection. It is expected that the sanitary surveillance should be organized and acting in several phases of the productive chain. It is identified and discussed the concepts of inter-dependence and inter-complementary as the principles to build the practices of sanitary control.

  9. [Facilitating factors and difficulties in the the implementation of sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-09-01

    Drugstores are the health establishments where medications are dispensed, which is why sanitary surveillance is justified as a means of intervention. The health department uses various technologies to control risk in drugstores. In this study we used the theory of the process of work in health as a benchmark in order to describe and analyze the strengths and difficulties encountered in sanitary surveillance in drugstores in Salvador. Case study methodological strategy was adopted, the analytical categories being facilitating factors and difficulties inherent to technicians, drugstore, sanitary surveillance service and the social environment. Data were collected through direct observation techniques and semi-structured interviews, and the findings were assessed using content analysis. The body of information was processed and categorized using QSR N VIVO software. It was revealed that the nature of the facilitating factors and difficulties found in surveillance activities of drugstores indicate the need for urgent change within the scope of services and the sanitary culture in the country. It also stresses the possibilities of offering a quality service for the protection of health, in a setting conducive to the development of sanitary surveillance and the process of decentralization of these actions.

  10. A link between damaging behaviour in pigs, sanitary conditions, and dietary protein and amino acid supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Meer

    Full Text Available The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC, and fed a normal CP (NP vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine. The HSC pigs were vaccinated in the first nine weeks of life and received antibiotics at arrival at experimental farm at ten weeks, after which they were kept in a disinfected part of the farm with a strict hygiene protocol. The LSC pigs were kept on the same farm in non-disinfected pens to which manure from another pig farm was introduced fortnightly. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored for 10×10 min per pen per week. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase (47 vs. 32% of pigs, P < 0.0001 and the frequency of ear biting (1.3 vs. 1.2 times per hour, P = 0.03 were increased in LSC compared with HSC pigs. This effect on ear biting was diet dependent, however, the supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs by 18% (SC × AA profile, P < 0.01. The prevalence of tail wounds was lower for pigs in LSC (13 ± 0.02 than for pigs in HSC (0.22 ± 0.03 in the grower phase (P < 0.007. Regardless of AA profile or sanitary status, LP pigs showed more ear biting (+20%, P < 0.05, tail biting (+25%, P < 0.10, belly nosing (+152%, P < 0.01, other oral manipulation directed at pen mates (+13%, P < 0.05, and aggression (+30%, P < 0.01 than NP pigs, with no effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both low

  11. Determination of mercury traces in sanitary landfill leachates by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Cuervo, Germán; Hoyos, Olga Lucía; Gutiérrez, Tania

    2009-07-01

    Particular attention is being paid to the presence of heavy metals--especially mercury--because of their tendency to accumulate in water. These toxic and persistent substances in the environment continuously accumulate and increase as a result of anthropogenic activity (Sonthalia et al., 2004). This paper presents the detection and measurement of the amount of dissolved mercury in young and mature leachates of a sanitary landfill, where the young leachates have had a technical environmental treatment compared with the mature leachates, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry as an instrumental technique. The results showed significant differences in mercury content in both leachates.

  12. Sanitary survey rapport 4: Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    Denne sanitary survey vurderer de potentielle mikrobiologiske forureningskilder, der kan have betydning for muslingeproduktionen i Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav. Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav er underopdelt i 11 produktionsområder, der er vurderet hver for sig. Bakterien E. coli er anvendt so...... ved lave forekomster af E. coli med relativt få observationer af E. coli i kritiske koncentrationer, men de fleste produktionsområder har dog for få prøvetagninger til at opnå en permanent klassificering. Rapporten indeholder forslag til en prøvetagningsplan, som tager udgangspunkt i EU...

  13. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired...... report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing...... for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised....

  14. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  15. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  16. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  17. Coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model to rapidly evaluate surface inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hong-Ming; Hsu, Hao-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas around the world and cause the infrastructure and people living to expose continuously in the high risk level of pluvial flooding. According to historical surveys, the major reasons of severe surface inundations in the urban areas can be attributed to heavy rainfall in the short time and/or drainage system failure. In order to obtain real-time flood forecasting with high accuracy and less uncertainty, an appropriate system for predicting floods is necessary. For the reason, this study coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model as an operational modelling system for rapidly evaluating surface inundation. The proposed system is constructed by three significant components: (1) all the rainfall-runoff of a sub-catchment collected via gullies is simulated by the RUNOFF module of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM); (2) and directly drained to the 1-D sewer and street networks via manholes as inflow discharges to conduct flow routing by using the EXTRAN module of SWMM; (3) after the 1-D simulations, the surcharges from manholes are considered as point sources in 2-D overland flow simulations that are executed by the WASH123D model. It can thus be used for urban flood modelling that reflects the rainfall-runoff processes, and the dynamic flow interactions between the storm sewer system and the ground surface in urban areas. In the present study, we adopted the Huwei Science and Technology Park, located in the south-western part of Taiwan, as the demonstration area because of its high industrial values. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. It is as isolated urban drainage area in which there is a complete sewer system that collects the runoff and drains to the detention pond. Based on the simulated results, the proposed modelling system was found that the simulated floods fit to the survey records because the physical rainfall-runoff phenomena in

  18. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters with pathogens from combined sewer overflows limits recreational use of surface waters. Large retention basins are a satisfactory solution but they are rarely sufficient for economic or space reasons. Fast disinfection during the overflow is an alternative, but few...... methods are known and each has problems. This work evaluated for the first time the full-scale disinfection using performic acid by the removal of the two currently regulated indicator bacteria for bathing water quality, E. coli and Enterococcus. Experiments were performed at a sewage bypass through a sea...

  19. The priority substances and its situation in sewers systems; La sustancias prioritarias y su incidencia en las redes de saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles Pascual, F.; Santateresa Forcada, E.

    2007-07-01

    Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) and European Decision 2455/2001/EC witch approves the list of priority substances force the member states to carry out controls of the above mentioned substances in order to reduce the spilt ones, emission and losses of this substances. In this article there takes form the current situation of the control of the priority substances of sewers systems based on the information facilitated by the members of the Group of Industrial Spilt of AEAS, together with Iproma's experience in control of waste water continental waters, sediments and biota. (Author)

  20. [The necessity of new approaches to the elaboration of the projects for the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts around the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, health resorts and their natural medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Adilov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The international experience gained during the past two centuries indicates that the most efficient and rational way to ensure the protection of the territories occupied by the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, spa centres, and health resorts together with their natural medical resources is to set up sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones along the perimeter of these territories. Beginning from 2000, numerous changes and amendments have been annually introduced in the Russian legislation intended to ensure efficacious control over the rational exploitation of the territories of therapeutic and health-promotion value and their natural medical resources. These initiatives have negative effect on the activities of these organizations and the quality of the services they are expected to provide. Taken together these effects lead to the degradation of the spa and health resort business. Bearing in mind the current conditions for economic activities, it is proposed, in contrast to the former global approach, to envisage in the aforementioned projects the establishment of the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones and determine their borders based on the results of the assessment of their potential for the protection of therapeutic factors and other valuable resources. Equally important is the maximum reduction of the areas of the second and third zones taking into account their relevant objective characteristics. In certain cases, the protective district may coincide with the second zone. As far as the federal health resorts and large territories of special health-promotion value are concerned, some of them may have two or more sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts. Both the owners and the users of these territories should be provided the necessary and sufficient possibilities for the rational nature use at the grounds and in the adjacent water areas suitable for the development of health resort

  1. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  2. Research of sanitary, chemical and toxicological properties of silicone material «Silast-M» for removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedenko I.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to conduct sanitary, chemical and toxicological testing of the domestic cold-curing silicone material «Silast-M» for removable dentures. The object of the study included samples of silicone material «Silast-M» developed by CJSC «MEDSIL» in cooperation with the Department of Moscow State Medico-Stomatological University n.a. A. I. Evdokimov. Laboratory studies were carried out in the department of toxicology testing and researching materials and medical products VNIIIMT in accordance with the instructions on the sanitary, chemical and toxicological studies, developed and approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The results showed that all samples did not exceed the limit values. Conclusion. After successfully passed sanitary, chemical and toxicological studies clinical trials of the material have been started.

  3. Assessing the energetic and environmental impacts of the operation and maintenance of Spanish sewer networks from a life-cycle perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-015-0958-2 The environmental impacts resulting from sewer networks are best analysed from a life-cycle perspective to integrate the energy requirements into the infrastructure design. The energy requirements for pumping wastewater depend on the configuration of the city (e.g., climate, population, length of the sewer, topography, etc.). This study analyses and models the effect of such site-specific feature...

  4. A novel approach to model dynamic flow interactions between storm sewer system and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Wang, Chia-Ho; Chen, Albert S.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel approach to simulate dynamic flow interactions between storm sewers and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas. The proposed approach couples the one-dimensional (1D) sewer flow model (SFM) and the two-dimensional (2D) overland flow model (OFM) with different techniques depending on the land cover type of the study areas. For roads, pavements, plazas, and so forth where rainfall becomes surface runoff before entering the sewer system, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated directly in the 2D OFM, and the runoff is drained to the sewer network via inlets, which is regarded as the input to 1D SFM. For green areas on which rainfall falls into the permeable ground surface and the generated direct runoff traverses terrain, the deduction rate is applied to the rainfall for reflecting the soil infiltration in the 2D OFM. For flat building roofs with drainage facilities allowing rainfall to drain directly from the roof to sewer networks, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated using the hydrological module in the 1D SFM where no rainfall is applied to these areas in the 2D OFM. The 1D SFM is used for hydraulic simulations in the sewer network. Where the flow in the drainage network exceeds its capacity, a surcharge occurs and water may spill onto the ground surface if the pressure head in a manhole exceeds the ground elevation. The overflow discharge from the sewer system is calculated by the 1D SFM and considered a point source in the 2D OFM. The overland flow will return into the sewer network when it reaches an inlet that connects to an un-surcharged manhole. In this case, the inlet is considered as a point sink in the 2D OFM and an inflow to a manhole in the 1D SFM. The proposed approach was compared to other five urban flood modelling techniques with four rainfall events that had previously recorded inundation areas. The merits and drawbacks of each modelling technique were compared and discussed. Based on the

  5. Informal uncertainty analysis (GLUE) of continuous flow simulation in a hybrid sewer system with infiltration inflow - Consistency of containment ratios in calibration and validation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Grum, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of flows in sewer systems is increasingly applied to calibrate urban drainage models used for long-term simulation. However, most often models are calibrated without considering the uncertainties. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology is here applied...... to assess parameter and flow simulation uncertainty using a simplified lumped sewer model that accounts for three separate flow contributions: wastewater, fast runoff from paved areas, and slow infiltrating water from permeable areas. Recently GLUE methodology has been critisised for generating prediction...... rain inputs and more accurate flow observations to reduce parameter and model simulation uncertainty. © Author(s) 2013....

  6. Relationships between health, education and environment in Quito: the role of sanitary and environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sarrade Cobos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the ecological unbalance that affects a city like Quito, marked by an anarchic urban growth and problems on its environmental quality, it is interesting to relate three “Good Living” factors: Health, Education and Environment. There are numerous ways to establish links. Under this thought, based on scientific studies and public policies, we have defined to concrete facts: the impact of the environment on the health of the public and the possibility of reducing sanitary risks thru education. The economical, political and cultural dynamics of the Ecuadorian Capital could encourage the elaboration of programs and actions toward a better environmental and sanitary education. Which are the strategies, from the Municipal authorities, to create a collective dynamism that will take the population to become aware of the natural and anthropological risks? Many efforts have been realized to determine the natural threats, but little has been done in order to analyze the impact of the decay of the environment over our health. There are many different initiatives to sensitize the population on these risks. Nevertheless, there is a still lot to do with respect to the dissemination and follow up of programs and projects that are being carried out on the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito.

  7. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  8. [Sanitary surveillance: descentralization strategies in Mato Grosso (Brazil), 1996-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Miriane Silva; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The decentralization process of sanitary surveillance services to states and municipalities was improved after NOB/96, when funding transferences were defined. In Mato Grosso, this responsibility was incorporated by the Sanitary Surveillance Coordination (Visa/SES) which developed strategies to decentralize at first, the basic actions to all municipalities of the state. The objective of this research is to describe and analyze the strategies adopted by Visa/SES in decentralization of Visa actions to municipalities and the main difficulties found. This research is a qualitative study with documental and interview analysis. The results show as main adopted strategies: several training to professionals from regional, central and local levels; development of technical material to municipals services; assessment with join inspections between three levels of management; creation of law documents. It was observed an active performance in the decentralization, the Visa/SES keeps performing the high and middle complexity actions in almost all municipalities and even those of low complexity, in some, which impede other important tasks as supervision and evaluation of this process, besides continuous support and organization of municipalities services.

  9. [Exercise electrocardiography in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafa, F; Calsamiglia, G; Pala, G; Perotti, M R; Colombi, R; Candura, S M

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the opportunity of exercise electrocardiography (ECG) in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain, we estimated the energy consumption of the duties of 22 electrical workers (males; age: 35-56 years). They subsequently underwent Treadmill exercise ECG, determining for each worker the maximal METs (multiples of basal metabolism) and the critical potency (P(CRIT)). In one subject, myocardial ischemia arose 9 minutes after the beginning of the test. The others interrupted the test after 7-13 minutes for tiring; 5 of them showed ventricular extra systoles, paired or isolated. Twelve subjects presented arterial hypertension, at rest and/or during exercise. Ergonomic analysis revealed that the occupational duties were between 1.5 and 8.0 METs. The energy consumption of the job on the whole was 4-6 METs (medium intensity). The maximal METs reached by the examined subjects were between 8.8 and 15.6; however, only 11 workers went reassuringly over the 4 METs required by duty analysis at P(CRIT). One subject was declared unfit for the job, and a judgement of partial idoneity was expressed for 3 workers. Preventive and therapeutic indications were given to 12 subjects. Aerobic training was suggested to 10 workers. The study indicates that an ergonomic evaluation is advisable for the most energy consuming occupational duties. In such cases, the sanitary surveillance should include a cardiologic assessment with exercise ECG, reproducing the physical strain of the specific job.

  10. [Integral care, a SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) guideline for the sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Reis, Daniela Carla de Souza; da Silva, Luciana Leite Gonçalves

    2010-11-01

    The sanitary surveillance (Visa) performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens) that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the Visa; and political impediments. The Visa has been organized by National Health Surveillance Agency. Nowadays it has as sanitary responsibilities, communication with society and health promotion. The proposal of the literature concerning integral care is based on the assistance issue. The organization of the services in the different federative entities is the sense of integral care most adopted by Visa. Political impediments focus on the institutional renewal, on the conflicts of interest arena, on the distance between formulated policies and established practices and gaps concerning work management and the insufficiency of financial support.

  11. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  12. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  13. Role of veterinarian in securing sanitary hygiene of food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Lazar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demands that to be provided with a sufficient quantity of articles of animal origin that meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene and are available at acceptable prices. Food articles of animal origin that are safe for human consumption can be obtained only from healthy animals. Veterinarians are daily concerned with the health of animals and are taking measures to prevent the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from animals to humans. The knowledge of epizootiology, microbiology, the sources and pathways of contamination of food articles of animal origin by microbiological and chemical pollutants, the procedures in the process of producing food articles in which such pollutants can be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level, and the connection between these factors and human health, give veterinarians the key position in the securing of sanitary hygiene of articles of animal origin. The safety of articles of animal origin is a specialized field in the area of veterinary medicine that links all the activities of a veterinarian. In partnership with other professions, engaged in the chain of food production, veterinarians guarantee that food articles are safe for the health of consumers.

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  15. The Evaluation of Sanitary-Epidemiological Service Conditions On a Submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żychliński Michał

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Service on a submarine is the most stressful and psychologically challenging form of military service. It is characterised by specific living and sanitaryepidemiological conditions which are far from typical. This work is based on the analyses of reports formulated from research conducted by a working environment laboratory, and on the control protocols of the sanitary supervision and control team (WOMP Gdynia, from the Kobben submersible vessels in the years 2014 and 2015. Military Centres of Preventive Medicine hold supervision over Military Units pursuant to generally applicable regulations in the civil environment and standardised NATO norms. Measurements concern the level of noise, mechanical vibrations, chemical agents, electromagnetic radiation, physiochemical and biological water and kitchenware tests. The objective of the research is to evaluate the service conditions on a submersible vessel with regard to sanitary-epidemiological aspects such as exposure to infectious and occupational diseases. In selected stations, the conducted measurements indicate an increased level of noise, electromagnetic radiation and excess quantities of bacteria colonies on kitchenware.

  16. Sanitary conditions of mozzarella and Minas frescal cheese production in northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marangon Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cheese due its rich nutritional composition provides a favorable environment for the multiplication of many kinds of microorganisms. The excess of total and thermotolerant coliforms indicates contamination from environmental and fecal origin, respectively, which characterizes low microbiological quality and unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions during the cheese production process, besides the possibility of enteropathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hygienic condition of the production of Mozzarella and Minas Frescal cheeses, produced in Northern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Fifty samples were analyzed, of which 14 were of Mozzarella cheese and 36 were of Minas Frescal cheese covering the period from June 2011 to June 2016. The sanitary conditions of production were evaluated by counting the total and thermotolerant coliforms according to the methodology recommended by the Brazilian legislation. For the Mozzarella cheese, it was observed that all the samples presented counts according to the recommended standards for total and thermotolerant coliforms. However, it was observed that 55.6% of the Minas Frescal cheese samples were in disagreement with the standards established by the legislation for total coliforms, as well as 27.8% for thermotolerant coliforms. These results indicate that a considerable part of the Minas Frescal cheeses present unsatisfactory hygienic conditions during the stages of production, increasing consumer health risk. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt good practices of manufacturing, take corrective actions to fix the contamination problem and compliance with microbiological quality standards established and microbiological safety assurance.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  18. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  19. Health hazards in areas of military operations conducted in different climatic and sanitary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the most common health hazards occurring among personnel of peacekeeping and stabilization missions functioning within armed conflicts in the contemporary world. Military operations have been executed in diverse climatic and sanitary conditions, which are frequently unfamiliar for their participants. Some of them, e.g. the UN peacekeeping missions in the Middle East (Lebanon, the Golan Heights), have been carried out in a relatively stable geopolitical environment; whereas, stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which are actually combat activities, undoubtedly fall into the group of the most perilous military operations in the world. Hot or cold climate, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions along with warfare facilitate the occurrence of numerous diseases and body injuries not only among the local people but also among peacekeepers, who represent the population of immigrants. Health hazards which pose major epidemiological threats in combat zones are arthropod-borne, food and water-borne, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, enzootic diseases, battle injuries, and non- -battle injuries, e.g. traffic accidents. Another considerable health problem are psychiatric disorders, which can either appear directly after the occurrence of a traumatic event in a combat zone or indirectly, after some time had elapsed. In addition to the health hazards listed above, environmental factors such as changeable weather conditions and local fauna may also be life threatening.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  1. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  2. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  3. The effects of combined sewer overflow events on riverine sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Dorner, Sarah; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2016-04-01

    This study was set out to investigate the impacts of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) on the microbiological water quality of a river used as a source of drinking water treatment plants. Escherichia coli concentrations were monitored at various stations of a river segment located in the Greater Montreal Area including two Drinking Water Intakes (DWIs) in different weather conditions (dry weather and wet weather (precipitation and snowmelt period)). Long-term monitoring data (2002-2011) at DWIs revealed good microbiological water quality with E. coli median concentrations of 20 and 30 CFU/100 mL for DWI-1 and DWI-2 respectively. However, E. coli concentration peaks reached up to 510 and 1000 CFU/100 mL for both DWIs respectively. Statistical Process Control (SPC) analysis allowed the identification of E. coli concentration peaks in almost a decade of routine monitoring data at DWIs. Almost 80% of these concentrations were linked to CSO discharges caused by precipitation exceeding 10 mm or spring snowmelt. Dry weather monitoring confirmed good microbiological water quality. Wet weather monitoring showed an increase of approximately 1.5 log of E. coli concentrations at DWIs. Cumulative impacts of CSO discharges were quantified at the river center with an increase of approximately 0.5 log of E. coli concentrations. Caffeine (CAF) was tested as a potential chemical indicator of CSO discharges in the river and CAF concentrations fell within the range of previous measurements performed for surface waters in the same area (∼20 ng/L). However, no significant differences were observed between CAF concentrations in dry and wet weather, as the dilution potential of the river was too high. CSO event based monitoring demonstrated that current bi-monthly or weekly compliance monitoring at DWIs underestimate E. coli concentrations entering DWIs and thus, should not be used to quantify the risk at DWIs. High frequency event-based monitoring is a desirable approach to

  4. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  5. On the preventive management of sediment-related sewer blockages: a combined maintenance and routing optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, John E; Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Duque, Daniel; Medaglia, Andrés L; Torres, María N; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo

    In this work we tackle the problem of planning and scheduling preventive maintenance (PM) of sediment-related sewer blockages in a set of geographically distributed sites that are subject to non-deterministic failures. To solve the problem, we extend a combined maintenance and routing (CMR) optimization approach which is a procedure based on two components: (a) first a maintenance model is used to determine the optimal time to perform PM operations for each site and second (b) a mixed integer program-based split procedure is proposed to route a set of crews (e.g., sewer cleaners, vehicles equipped with winches or rods and dump trucks) in order to perform PM operations at a near-optimal minimum expected cost. We applied the proposed CMR optimization approach to two (out of five) operative zones in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), where more than 100 maintenance operations per zone must be scheduled on a weekly basis. Comparing the CMR against the current maintenance plan, we obtained more than 50% of cost savings in 90% of the sites.

  6. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  7. ICUD-0530 Scenario based risk assessment of the dispersion of E-coli from combined sewer overflow to a fresh-water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2017-01-01

    A scenario based risk assessment method is used to evaluate how combined sewer overflow (CSO) affects a nearby bathing beach in Skanderborg, Denmark. The method combines an urban drainage model with a 3D CFD model to pre-simulate 60 different scenarios, used for assessing the risk of poor bathing...

  8. Integrating atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Bout, Bastian Van den; Jetten, V.G.; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, this paper develops an integrated and spatially-distributed modelling approach, linking atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models, to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The modelling system is applied to a small urban catchment

  9. A methodology for linking 2D overland flow models with the sewer network model SWMM 5.1 based on dynamic link libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Jorge; Martins, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Pluvial flooding in urban areas is characterized by a gradually varying inundation process caused by surcharge of the sewer manholes. Therefore urban flood models need to simulate the interaction between the sewer network and the overland flow in order to accurately predict the flood inundation extents. In this work we present a methodology for linking 2D overland flow models with the storm sewer model SWMM 5. SWMM 5 is a well-known free open-source code originally developed in 1971. The latest major release saw its structure re-written in C ++ allowing it to be compiled as a command line executable or through a series of calls made to function inside a dynamic link library (DLL). The methodology developed herein is written inside the same DLL in C + +, and is able to simulate the bi-directional interaction between both models during simulation. Validation is done in a real case study with an existing urban flood coupled model. The novelty herein is that the new methodology can be added to SWMM without the need for editing SWMM's original code. Furthermore, it is directly applicable to other coupled overland flow models aiming to use SWMM 5 as the sewer network model.

  10. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities). (3) If the dwelling unit includes its own sanitary facility, it must be in proper operating condition, usable in privacy, and adequate for personal hygiene and the disposal of human waste. (4) The.../driveways, play areas and equipment, refuse disposal, roads, storm drainage and walkways must be free of...

  11. [On risk-oriented model of sanitary epidemiologic surveillance in occupational hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseval, N V; Mai, I V; Kostarev, V G; Bashketova, N S

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Federal Service on surveillance in consumers rights protection and public well-being set a task to organize planned work of regional agencies on basis of risk-oriented model of control and supervision. Based on results of pilot project in Rospotrebnadzor Department of Perm area and St-Petersburg, the article covers methodic approaches to classification of objects liable to surveillance in occupational hygiene. The classification considers possibility of sanitary law violation, severity of this violation consequences and number of workers exposed to risk factors including hazardous work conditions. The authors specified recommendations on periodicity and forms of planned inspections considering evaluation of potential risk for human health, determined problems that require solution in implementation of risk-oriented model of surveillance.

  12. Biodegradation and Detoxification of Sanitary Landfill Leachate by Stabilization Ponds System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rejane H R; Martins, Cláudia L; Fernandes, Heloísa; Velho, Viviane F

    2017-06-01

      The performance of a pilot stabilization ponds system was evaluated for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, focusing on effluent detoxification. Three serial ponds (anaerobic-P1, facultative-P2, and maturation-P3) were evaluated during two different operational conditions: natural condition (period 1) and 24 hours of artificial aeration in P2 (period 2). The ponds system exhibited removal efficiencies of 53% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 81% for filtered biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD), and 84% for NH4+-N during period 1 and 70% for SCOD, 80% for FBOD, and 96% for -N during period 2. Most metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and organic compounds in the leachate were significantly reduced in the treatment system, with greater reductions during period 2. Moreover, toxicity tests demonstrated the capacity of the system to reduce the toxicity of the raw leachate (up to 89% toxicity reduction).

  13. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the North Western Mediterranean Sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the North Western Mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, WRu and from atmospheric fall out, TXCs and sup(239 + 240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 V) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26.

  14. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  15. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  16. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  17. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  19. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  20. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  1. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  2. Heavy metals in sludge during anaerobic sanitary landfill: Speciation transformation and phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhu, Ying; Shan, Ranran; Shao, Yanqiu; Tian, Chao

    2017-03-15

    Sanitary landfill persists as a predominant sludge disposal method in particular in China. In this study, successive subsurface sludge samples (0.3 m deep) were collected from a bioreactor landfill unit where an anaerobic process took place during a 500 d period. The sludge samples were analyzed for total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and their species distributions, together with selected sludge chemical properties. In addition, the sludge samples were subjected to phytotoxicity testing. The results showed that the mobilities of Cd and Ni were decreased with landfill time, while the mobilities of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn remained consistently low over the landfill period. The residual amounts of all these heavy metals were increased with landfill time, suggesting that the anaerobic sanitary landfill is an effective sludge stabilization method to reduce the ecological risk of these heavy metals. The increase in the sludge pH value with landfill time tended to promote the precipitation of heavy metals. Moreover, the sludge stabilization was found to be indicated by the formation of humic substance (HS) and volatilization of volatile matter (VM). The germination index (GI) values of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis) seeds grown in the 500 d anaerobically stabilized sludge were approximately 5.2- and 4.1-times higher than the values of those grown in the fresh sludge. The final sludge extract did not cause any significant inhibitory effect on the germination of the two types of seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Ryus, Caitlin R; Dolan, Catherine S; Dopson, Sue; Scott, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, ppads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201202000361337.

  4. SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASPECTS IN COMMERCIALIZATION IN FISH MARKET IGARAPÉ DAS MULHERES, MACAPÁ-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Souza Silva Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being highly perishable, the fish requires special care from capture to arrival at the consumer's home. However, after the capture, the microbiota is altered at all stages. This study aimed to assess the sanitary conditions of marketing of fish in the Fish Friday, Macapá-AP, in order to identify critical points of the process. We used the direct observational method with the application of a checklist, based on the RDC nº216, items for building, equipment / instruments, utensils and hygiene, clothing, hygienic habits, personal protective equipment and quality raw material. The fair in question was rated in Group 2, failing to meet the requirements of industry topics Organization (marketing space extremely limited, national manager indefinite absence of good practice manual, along with the standard operating procedures; hygiene observation site (fish is exposed without ice, ice used only for storage, water use without treatment, and cleaned the handler (clothing unsatisfactory, tobacco consumption during marketing, simultaneous manipulation of money and food, no clean hands when handling food thus does not meet the provisions of the legislation. Such unconformities compromise the quality of products and endangers the health of the consumer, demonstrating that only the drafting of laws is not sufficient to ensure food safety without intense scrutiny in conjunction with the drafting resolutions appropriate to the reality of each region and training programs aimed at promoting recycling and the production of safe food hygiene and sanitary conditions in the question that reality cannot be changed. Keywords: marketing of fish; conditions of merchantability; market.

  5. SANITARY-HYGIENIC QUALITY OF FRESH AND FROZEN TILAPIA (Oreochromis spp. IN PUBLIC MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Xavier Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the sanitary quality of tilapia (Oreochromis spp. sold in public markets in the city of Mossoro-RN. For such we made use of a checklist and an observational study to evaluate good handling practices in 10 establishments that commercialize fish. We obtained 30 samples of tilapia and evaluated them as to their sensory and microbiological aspects (Salmonella spp., coliforms at 45 ºC, Staphylococcus ssp. count, psychrotrophic bacteria and enterobacteria, as well as to their pH and internal and external temperature. We observed that none of the studied establishments were in accordance with the standards recommended by the legislation. Regarding the sensory evaluation, 83.3% of the samples showed compliance with the requirements of the legislation. As for the coliforms at 45 °C essay, the results ranged from 0.477 to 1.509 log10 CFU/g; in the Staphylococcus spp. essay we found results from 4.854 to 5.397 log10 CFU/g; and further, we found values from 3.884 to 4.937 and from 4.707 to 5.463 log10 CFU/g for enterobacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. All the samples were within the requirements for contamination by Salmonella spp. (absence. The pH ranged from 5.99 to 6.18 and temperatures indicated non-compliance with the recommendations. Thus, we can infer that the sanitary quality of tilapia sold in public markets in Mossoro-RN was impaired, presenting a risk to consumer health due to unsatisfactory handling conditions. Keywords: best practices; microbiology; physio-chemistry.

  6. Daily dynamics of emerging pollutants in a sewer network (région Centre, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebault, Thomas; Réty, Maxime; Jacob, Jérémy; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laetitia; Morio, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    As any catchment, cities are characterized by important flux of various materials. The specificity of urban socio-ecosystems lies in the nature of these materials that mainly result from human activities or are man-made. An important issue concerns emerging pollutants for which an understanding of their temporal dynamics is crucial to better forecast flux and adapt remediation treatments before waters are released in the environment. This study aims at better understanding the socio-economic drivers of emerging pollutants temporal dynamics by monitoring, on a daily basis during 85 consecutive days, a series of fifty illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals as well as their metabolites in a sewer network that collects wastewater from 90,000 inhabitants and upstream a wastewater plant. Flow-enslaved composite samples were automatically collected over 24h, then filtered, and target compounds were concentrated by solid-phase extraction before quantitation by HPLC-MS. Concentrations were converted into mass loads per population equivalent by several corrections (i) the flow, (ii) the solid/liquid partition and the molar ratio between target residue and parent-compound (iii) the number of population-equivalent on the catchment and (iv) the excretion rate of target residue. The large dataset obtained, combined to a literature survey, allows us discussing several issues. (1) Calculated daily mass loads of pharmaceuticals are in agreement with literature data for comparable cities except for to anti-inflammatory drugs: ketoprofen that shows the highest values and ibuprofen that displays the lowest values. This would attest to local therapeutic preference that remains to be explained. Daily mass loads for illicit drugs are lower than those measured in more populated cities, except for tetrahydrocannabinol that exceeds the highest reported values. (2) Consumption estimates of pharmaceutical based on our approach are very close to theoretical values from the literature. Additionally

  7. Correlations between rainfall data and insurance damage data related to sewer flooding for the case of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Sewer flooding due to extreme rainfall may result in considerable damage. Damage data to quantify costs of cleaning, drying, and replacing materials and goods are rare in literature. In this study, insurance claim data related to property damages were analysed for the municipality of Aarhus......, Denmark. The aim of this paper was to study the extent to which rainfall data can be used to explain variations in insurance claim data. In particular, the paper addresses the issue of time-lag between claim date and time of the damaging rainfall event, which may, if not taken into account, lead...... to underestimations of correlations between rainfall and damage variables. Rainfall data from two rain gauges were used to extract rainfall characteristics. From cross correlations between time series of rainfall and claim data, it can be concluded that rainfall events induce claims mostly on the same day, but also...

  8. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak...... and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark....... The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-14:1 Process Sewer, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-02-22

    The 100-B-14:1 subsite encompasses the former process sewer main associated with the 105-B Reactor Building, 108-B Chemical Pumphouse and Tritium Separation Facility, 184-B Boiler House and the 100-B water treatment facilities, as well as the feeder lines associated with the 108-B facility, formerly discharging to the 116-B-7 Outfall Structure. The subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... volumes. Traditionally it is rarely to dispose of long term rainfall time series from a local catchment rain gauge. In the present case study this is actually the case. 2 rainfall gauges have recorded events for approximately 9 years at 2 locations within the catchment. Beside these 2 gauges another 7...

  11. Evaluation of probabilistic flow predictions in sewer systems using grey box models and a skill score criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how the grey box methodology can be applied to find models that can describe the flow prediction uncertainty in a sewer system where rain data are used as input, and flow measurements are used for calibration and updating model states. Grey box models are composed of a drift...... term and a diffusion term, respectively accounting for the deterministic and stochastic part of the models. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the process noise and the observation noise. We compare five different model candidates’ predictive performances that solely differ with respect...... coverage of the prediction intervals, i.e. the bias between these coverages should ideally be zero. The sharpness is a measure of the distance between the lower and upper prediction limits, and skill score criterion makes it possible to pinpoint the preferred model by taking into account both reliability...

  12. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In urban drainage modeling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... volumes. Traditionally it is rarely to dispose of long term rainfall time series from a local catchment rain gauge. In the present case study this is actually the case. 2 rainfall gauges have recorded events for approximately 9 years at 2 locations within the catchment. Beside these 2 gauges another 7...

  13. A field experiment to evaluate the cleaning performance of sewer flushing on non-uniform sediment deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Gashin; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Campisano, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    The results of a field experiment to evaluate the scouring effect of a single flush operation in a compound-section sewer channel in Paris, France, are presented in this paper. Full monitoring of the experiment allowed identifying flush-related transport/deposition key processes playing a role on the evolution of the deposited sediments. Overall, the flush was able to scour sediments accumulated over the channel invert up to a significant distance from the gate. The analysis of the results revealed that the flush had a different impact on the various sediments present in the bed mixtures, with most of the eroded volume including sediment particles smaller than the median grain size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the prediction of in-sewer transformation of illicit drug biomarkers by identifying a new modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    drugs) is altered during transport. Although reduced stability of several drug biomarkers was shown in raw sewage and biofilm, evidence on the type of transformation (biotic or abiotic) and the effect of different redox conditions on transformation is currently insufficient. In this study......, the biotransformation and abiotic transformation of 16 illicit drugs were assessed in wastewater and mineral water, respectively. The targeted illicit drugs were: cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene; heroin and its metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, and morphine...... and illicit drugs in wastewater was simulated using Wastewater Aerobic/anaerobic Transformations in Sewers model (WATS)1 extended with the Activated Sludge Model for Xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X)2. In addition, abiotic and biotic transformation pathways (based on available literature studies...

  15. High-resolution microbial community succession of microbially induced concrete corrosion in working sanitary manholes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Ling

    Full Text Available Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low α-diversity levels (< 10 taxa in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high α-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of climate change on a combined sewer overflow and its receiving water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Eustache Gooré; Monette, Frédéric; Gachon, Philippe; Gaspéri, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Projections from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the southern part of the province of Québec, Canada, suggest an increase in extreme precipitation events for the 2050 horizon (2041-2070). The main goal of this study consisted in a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of the 20 % increase in rainfall intensity that led, in the summer of 2013, to overflows in the "Rolland-Therrien" combined sewer system in the city of Longueuil, Canada. The PCSWMM 2013 model was used to assess the sensitivity of this overflow under current (2013) and future (2050) climate conditions. The simulated quantitative variables (peak flow, Q(CSO), and volume discharged, VD) served as the basis for deriving ecotoxicological risk indices and event fluxes (EFs) transported to the St. Lawrence (SL) River. Results highlighted 15 to 500% increases in VD and 13 to 148% increases in Q(CSO) by 2050 (compared to 2013), based on eight rainfall events measured from May to October. These results show that (i) the relationships between precipitation and combined sewer overflow variables are not linear and (ii) the design criteria for current hydraulic infrastructure must be revised to account for the impact of climate change (CC) arising from changes in precipitation regimes. EFs discharged into the SL River will be 2.24 times larger in the future than they are now (2013) due to large VDs resulting from CC. This will, in turn, lead to excessive inputs of total suspended solids (TSSs) and tracers for numerous urban pollutants (organic matter and nutrients, metals) into the receiving water body. Ecotoxicological risk indices will increase by more than 100% by 2050 compared to 2013. Given that substantial VDs are at play, and although CC scenarios have many sources of uncertainty, strategies to adapt this drainage network to the effects of CC will have to be developed.

  17. [Status and directions of improving of surveillance subsystem of sanitary-epidemiological situation in the service of emergency medicine of the Ministry of Defense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuchenko, O M; Karniz, A F; Iakovlev, S V; Korniushko, I G

    2011-07-01

    The article provides a description of the composition and tasks of government, forces and means of preventive direction of Disaster Medicine Service in countering the biological threats. The subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation, functioning at the central, regional and territorial levels is entrusted with the organization and conduct of monitoring activities, monitoring, assessment, prediction, prevention and elimination of the adverse health and sanitary emergencies. The author suggests the promising areas of optimization of the subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation.

  18. Financial Management: Promptness of FY 2004 First Quarter DoD Payments to the Department of the Treasury for District of Columbia Water and Sewer Services (D-2004-010)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    This report should be read by civil service managers, uniformed officers, and other individuals who have a direct interest in, or are in need of information about, the promptness of water and sewer...

  19. Financial Management: Promptness of FY 2003 Fourth Quarter DoD Payments to the Department of the Treasury for District of Columbia Water and Sewer Services (D-2003-118)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    This report should be read by civil service managers, uniformed officers, and other individuals who have a direct interest in, or are in need of information about, the promptness of water and sewer...

  20. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. METHODS: A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education. The primary outcome was school attendance. RESULTS: After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, p<.001. After 5 months, puberty education alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82 as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37, all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39. The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these

  1. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF SANITARY NORMS AND RULES EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SAFETY FOUNTAINS OF UKRAINE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov MB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main points of sanitary norms and rules of operation of fountains operating in recirculation mode (water recycling and their water supply from water bodies or water supply systems (flow mode, developed on the basis of standards of operation of swimming pools. Based on a proposal formulated standards specifications applicable to the disinfection system and water purification fountains operating in recirculation mode, implemented in the form of technology based on the bactericidal properties of silver ions and copper. The presented approach to biosecurity fountains found support from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and has been the basis of input sanitary norms and regulations will come into effect in 2013.

  3. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  4. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  5. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  6. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  7. [Organization and execution of surveillance of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation under conditions of the emergency situation of a natural character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Gusalova, L P; Tsgoeva, S K

    2003-01-01

    The data on the work of the formations and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania under the conditions of the emergency situation of the natural character (high floods) in June 2002 and the liquidation of its consequences are presented. Experience in ensuring the interaction between the formations of the sanitary and epidemiological service on the problems connected with the realization of the epidemiological surveillance in the territories affected by the natural calamity is described.

  8. Biogas plant at the sanitary landfill of Vitoria-Gasteiz (ES); Planta de biogas en el vertedero de Vitoria-Gasteiz (ES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Orejas, J.C.; Beyebach Bendich, A.

    1995-06-01

    A biogas collecting and incineration plant has been set up in the sanitary landfill of Gardelegui, in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain) at the end of 1994. There more, it is being studied the kind of biogas obtained in order to evaluate the possibility of an energy recovering. So the sanitary landfill reduces its environmental impact, reducing methane emissions to air and biogas filtering to near soils. (Author)

  9. The Effectiveness of Sanitary Inspections as a Risk Assessment Tool for Thermotolerant Coliform Bacteria Contamination of Rural Drinking Water: A Review of Data from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoad, Christian; Nagel, Corey; Bhattacharya, Animesh; Thomas, Evan

    2017-04-01

    AbstractThe use of sanitary inspections combined with periodic water quality testing has been recommended in some cases as screening tools for fecal contamination. We conducted sanitary inspections and tested for thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), a fecal indicator bacteria, among 7,317 unique water sources in West Bengal, India. Our results indicate that the sanitary inspection score has poor ability to identify TTC-contaminated sources. Among deep and shallow hand pumps, the area under curve (AUC) for prediction of TTC > 0 was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.61) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.54-0.62), respectively, indicating that the sanitary inspection score was only marginally better than chance in discriminating between contaminated and uncontaminated sources of this type. A slightly higher AUC value of 0.64 (95% CI=0.57-0.71) was observed when the sanitary inspection score was used for prediction of TTC > 0 among the gravity-fed piped sources. Among unprotected springs (AUC = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.38-0.55) and unprotected dug wells (AUC = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.66), the sanitary inspection score performed more poorly than chance in discriminating between sites with TTC 0. Aggregating over all source types, the sensitivity (true positive rate) of a high/very high sanitary inspection score for TTC contamination (TTC > 1 CFU/100 mL) was 29.4% and the specificity (true negative rate) was 77.9%, resulting in substantial misclassification of the sites when using the established risk categories. These findings suggest that sanitary surveys are inappropriate screening tools for identifying TTC contamination at water points.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (pfood hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  12. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  14. Fire prediction for a non-sanitary landfill “Bubanj” in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Emina R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the “Bubanj” landfill near the City of Niš, Serbia, which has been used for 47 years and which is categorized as a non-sanitary landfill. We utilised the LandGEM 3.02 model, used for estimating landfill gas emission rates, to calculate the amount of landfill gases. Additionally, we measured the amount and composition of landfill gas in section S4 of the landfill from July 2014 to June 2015. We utilised the ALOHA software to estimate the fire-vulnerable zone. The results of our analysis show that the measured average methane emission is higher than the calculated emission. The difference between the measured average emission and calculated emission of methane is logical, as the measurements were performed in an active section, where methane emission higher than in inactive sections is to be expected. Based on the measured methane emissions during one year, we conclude that the methane emission drops as the ambient temperature drops. This paper showcases the state of the “Bubanj” landfill, which is highly unsatisfactory in terms of environmental and fire protection because of landfill gas generation.

  15. Occupational Health Hazards in Sanitary Workers of Chandrapur City, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka V. Patil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available About 198 sanitary workers work in Chandrapur Municipal Corporation, out of which 20 workers (10% of the population was selected as a sample size (all male workers. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Occupational health hazards of these workers were analyzed through questionnaire survey and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR analysis. The results of the study showed that, these workers were exposed to a number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (85%, exposure to harmful gases (65%, respiratory problems (45%, headache (40%, dermatological problem (35%, gastrointestinal (10% and leptospirosis (10% during work. It was further observed that the workers were suffering from cough and cold (90%, skin problems (50%, allergies (15%, malaria and typhoid (15%, bronchitis lung and asthmatic problems (10% and hearing disorder (5% etc. after completion of work. The PEFR values were lower in exposed workers. Reduction in PEFR values was directly proportional with exposure duration. To reduce occupational health hazards, workers must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments such as face mask, gloves, gum boots, caps, apron etc. should be encouraged.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 15-24

  16. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  17. Investigation of Demodex Spp. prevalence among managers and workers of health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali; Karaman, Ulku; Degerli, Serpil; Colak, Cemil; Karadan, Mesut; Karci, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Two Demodex species are known to live on people. Demodex folliculorum lives in the openings of hair follicles alone or in groups. D brevis lives in the depths of the sebaceous glands alone. There are different related on the epidemiology of Demodex species have been published. In this study, taking into account that the parasite is transmitted through close contact from person to person, we aimed to evaluate the relation between the presence of Demodex spp with gender and age among the Health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment operators and workers who came for porter examination. For this purpose, 862 male and 215 female patients with a total of 1077 volunteers from the face area of the standard superficial skin biopsy (SSSB) method and studied samples were taken. More than five mites in 1 cm(2) density was defined as positive. In investigated samples 37.3% Demodex spp. positivity was detected. Only two were found to be D brevis and the others were D folliculorum. The study revealed statistically significant relationships between the positivity of parasites with the occupational group, age and sex. Since the prevalence of Demodex among healthy individuals without any complaint was found to be 37%, we believe Demodex spp should be investigated in porter examinations of people who have dermatological complaints. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  19. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  20. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

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    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  1. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate.

  2. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  3. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  4. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  5. [Organization of the service of the state sanitary and epidemic surveillance in the northern regions of the Chechen Republic at the emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Fedorov, Iu M; Bogdanov, I K; Efremenko, V I; Evchenko, Iu M; Rudnev, S M; Budyka, D A; Kostiukovskiĭ, V M

    2001-01-01

    The data characterizing the sanitary and epidemiological state of the population and the groups of persons, forced to quit the place of their permanent residence, on the territory embracing the Nadterechny, Naursky and Shelkovskoi regions of the Chechen Republic (CR) during the period of December 16, 1999, to February 19, 2000. A sharp deterioration of the situation which led to the renewal of hostilities on the whole territory of the CR was accompanied by the disorganization of all vitally important structures, including the systems of health service, sanitary and epidemiological surveilance. The above-mentioned regions of the CR were of great importance in the organization of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic measures, as it is on the territories of these regions that the camps with many thousands of persons, forced to move temporarily from Grozny and other regions affected by hostilities, are concentrated. The activity of specialized brigades of the antiepidemic service, working in cooperation with local organs of health service, the State Committee of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Federation and local services of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, was of great importance for the restoration of the structures and functions of sanitary and antiepidemic organs.

  6. Development and evaluation of a decision-supporting model for identifying the source location of microbial intrusions in real gravity sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Assuming a scenario of a hypothetical pathogenic outbreak, we aimed this study at developing a decision-support model for identifying the location of the pathogenic intrusion as a means of facilitating rapid detection and efficient containment. The developed model was applied to a real sewer system (the Campbell wash basin in Tucson, AZ) in order to validate its feasibility. The basin under investigation was divided into 14 sub-basins. The geometric information associated with the sewer network was digitized using GIS (Geological Information System) and imported into an urban sewer network simulation model to generate microbial breakthrough curves at the outlet. A pre-defined amount of Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is an indicator of fecal coliform bacteria, was hypothetically introduced into 56 manholes (four in each sub-basin, chosen at random), and a total of 56 breakthrough curves of E. coli were generated using the simulation model at the outlet. Transport patterns were classified depending upon the location of the injection site (manhole), various known characteristics (peak concentration and time, pipe length, travel time, etc.) extracted from each E. coli breakthrough curve and the layout of sewer network. Using this information, we back-predicted the injection location once an E. coli intrusion was detected at a monitoring site using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results showed that ANNs identified the location of the injection sites with 57% accuracy; ANNs correctly recognized eight out of fourteen expressions with relying on data from a single detection sensor. Increasing the available sensors within the basin significantly improved the accuracy of the simulation results (from 57% to 100%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-50:5 Process Sewers (183-DR Sedimentation Basin Drains), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-06

    The 100-D-50:5 subsite encompasses the southern process sewers formerly servicing the 183-DR coagulation and sedimentation basins and proximate surface runoff collection drains. The results of confirmatory sampling of pipeline sediments and underlying soils at the 100-D-50:5 subsite demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Sedimentology, stratigraphy and chronology of a decantation tank in the sewer network of Orléans (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jérémy; Thibault, Alexandre; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Le Milbeau, Claude; DiGiovanni, Christian; Sabatier, Pierre; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Ardito, Luigi; Morio, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Current debates on the status of the Anthropocene convey geologists and palaeoenvironmentalists toward new spatial and temporal targets. One of the most emblematic socio-ecosystem of the Anthropocene is urban areas in which the dynamics of materials are mainly controlled by human activities. This brings unprecedented elemental, molecular and isotopic concentrations and distributions that lead Norra (2009) to propose a new geological sphere: the Astysphere. Here we propose that sediments accumulated in sewer networks can provide original, integrated, and multi-thematic archives for the recent history of cities by considering urban systems as any catchment where materials are produced, transported and sedimented. The study site is a decantation tank that collects stormwater and wastewater from the north of Orléans city, upstream wastewater plants in Orléans. Sediments accumulated since 1942 over 17 m depth and were never cleaned out until 2015. Two sedimentary cores of 70 (A) and 250 cm long (B) were collected before clean out and then a third of 150 cm (C) after. Sediments are organized into layers constituted by sands and gravels alternating with silts and organic layers. Sharp contacts between those layers indicate evenemential sedimentation, as expected in sewer networks. We formulate the hypothesis that organic/mineral alternations result from a seasonal dynamic. 7Be presence in topmost sample from core A confirms it was deposited within the last 6 months. In core C, only the upper half core, mostly mineral, displays significant 7Be levels whereas 7Be is absent from the lower half, which is mostly organic. This would confirm that our hypothesis of a seasonal alternation, with organic facies deposited during spring- summer and mineral facies deposited during fall-winter. 30 14C dates measured on cores A and B by postbomb method are logically distributed with depth, the most ancient (beginning of the eighties) being recorder at 2.5m depth. This study shows that

  9. Sanitary protection zoning based on time-dependent vulnerability assessment model - case examples at two different type of aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Vladimir; Jemcov, Igor; Dragišić, Veselin; Atanacković, Nebojša

    2017-04-01

    Delineation of sanitary protection zones of groundwater source is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary task. Uniform methodology for protection zoning for various type of aquifers is not established. Currently applied methods mostly rely on horizontal groundwater travel time toward the tapping structure. On the other hand, groundwater vulnerability assessment methods evaluate the protective function of unsaturated zone as an important part of groundwater source protection. In some particular cases surface flow might also be important, because of rapid transfer of contaminants toward the zones with intense infiltration. For delineation of sanitary protection zones three major components should be analysed: vertical travel time through unsaturated zone, horizontal travel time through saturated zone and surface water travel time toward intense infiltration zones. Integrating the aforementioned components into one time-dependent model represents a basis of presented method for delineation of groundwater source protection zones in rocks and sediments of different porosity. The proposed model comprises of travel time components of surface water, as well as groundwater (horizontal and vertical component). The results obtained using the model, represent the groundwater vulnerability as the sum of the surface and groundwater travel time and corresponds to the travel time of potential contaminants from the ground surface to the tapping structure. This vulnerability assessment approach do not consider contaminant properties (intrinsic vulnerability) although it can be easily improved for evaluating the specific groundwater vulnerability. This concept of the sanitary protection zones was applied at two different type of aquifers: karstic aquifer of catchment area of Blederija springs and "Beli Timok" source of intergranular shallow aquifer. The first one represents a typical karst hydrogeological system with part of the catchment with allogenic recharge, and the second one

  10. Effects of rainfall events on the occurrence and detection efficiency of viruses in river water impacted by combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akihiko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Keisuke; Sano, Shoichi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kitajima, Masaaki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-15

    Rainfall events can introduce large amount of microbial contaminants including human enteric viruses into surface water by intermittent discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of rainfall events on viral loads in surface waters impacted by CSO and the reliability of molecular methods for detection of enteric viruses. The reliability of virus detection in the samples was assessed by using process controls for virus concentration, nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) steps, which allowed accurate estimation of virus detection efficiencies. Recovery efficiencies of poliovirus in river water samples collected during rainfall events (10%). The log10-transformed virus concentration efficiency was negatively correlated with suspended solid concentration (r(2)=0.86) that increased significantly during rainfall events. Efficiencies of DNA extraction and qPCR steps determined with adenovirus type 5 and a primer sharing control, respectively, were lower in dry weather. However, no clear relationship was observed between organic water quality parameters and efficiencies of these two steps. Observed concentrations of indigenous enteric adenoviruses, GII-noroviruses, enteroviruses, and Aichi viruses increased during rainfall events even though the virus concentration efficiency was presumed to be lower than in dry weather. The present study highlights the importance of using appropriate process controls to evaluate accurately the concentration of water borne enteric viruses in natural waters impacted by wastewater discharge, stormwater, and CSOs. © 2013.

  11. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  12. Deep Tunnel for Regulating Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution and Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DongHaoChong (DHC basin is located in the central city zone of Guangzhou City, China. Owing to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, diversion of rain and sewage is difficult. Waterlogging occurs frequently and combined sewer overflow (CSO pollution is a serious problem during the rainy season. Therefore, a deep tunnel for the DongHaoChong basin has been planned and its construction is currently underway. An urban rainstorm model for the DongHaoChong basin was developed on the basis of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM, and both the interception effect of CSO pollution and the degree of mitigation of flood were analyzed. Reasonable scenarios for the deep tunnel in terms of rainstorms with different design recurrence periods were evaluated. From the viewpoints of preventing rainstorm waterlogging disasters and protecting water quality in the region downstream of DongHaoChong River, the river flood control and drainage capacities of the region were improved to a 2-year rainstorm design recurrence period by the construction of the deep tunnel. Furthermore, the main pollutant load of the CSO is expected to be reduced by about 30%–40%.

  13. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Mendez, J.M.; Barrios, J.A.; Salgado, G.; Sheinbaum, C.

    2003-07-01

    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated in 2.8 Mm{sup 3}, which includes 0.41 Mm{sup 3} of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm{sup 3} of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse. (author)

  14. Influence of sampling intake position on suspended solid measurements in sewers: two probability/time-series-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Santiago; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-01

    Total suspended solid (TSS) measurements in urban drainage systems are required for several reasons. Aiming to assess uncertainties in the mean TSS concentration due to the influence of sampling intake vertical position and vertical concentration gradients in a sewer pipe, two methods are proposed: a simplified method based on a theoretical vertical concentration profile (SM) and a time series grouping method (TSM). SM is based on flow rate and water depth time series. TSM requires additional TSS time series as input data. All time series are from the Chassieu urban catchment in Lyon, France (time series from 2007 with 2-min time step, 89 rainfall events). The probability of measuring a TSS value lower than the mean TSS along the vertical cross section (TSS underestimation) is about 0.88 with SM and about 0.64 with TSM. TSM shows more realistic TSS underestimation values (about 39 %) than SM (about 269 %). Interquartile ranges (IQR) over the probability values indicate that SM is more uncertain (IQR = 0.08) than TSM (IQR = 0.02). Differences between the two methods are mainly due to simplifications in SM (absence of TSS measurements). SM assumes a significant asymmetry of the TSS concentration profile along the vertical axis in the cross section. This is compatible with the distribution of TSS measurements found in the TSM approach. The methods provide insights towards an indicator of the measurement performance and representativeness for a TSS sampling protocol.

  15. Effect of preparation variables of plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Ochoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of various preparation conditions for making plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware. We investigated the relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and final properties of the plaster molds. The results showed that the rheological behavior, and hence, the time during which the plaster suspension is pourable for making the plaster molds (before an important increase in viscosity due to the precipitation of gypsum crystals were dependent on the preparation conditions. Variations in the chemical composition, pore size distribution, and microstructure explained the statistically significant effect of preparation variables (including the mixing time, water temperature, and water quality. Preparation conditions that promoted high initial viscosity of the plaster suspension (accelerative effect of the setting time developed less porous structure in the mold that principally increased the compressive strength (16%, deionized water instead of tap water and the casting rate (9%, water at 25 °C instead of 38 °C. According to the results are proposed optimum conditions to make the molds while avoiding unnecessary energy use. Resumen: Mediante un diseño factorial completo se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de preparación de moldes de yeso para colado tradicional de muebles sanitarios. Se investigó la relación entre procesamiento, microestructura y propiedades del molde. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento reológico y por lo tanto el tiempo durante el cual la suspensión de yeso se puede verter para conformar los moldes (antes de un incremento importante de viscosidad debido a la formación de cristales de yeso fueron dependientes de las condiciones de preparación. Variaciones en composición química, distribución de tamaño de poro y microestructura explicaron el efecto estadísticamente significativo de las variables de preparación (que incluyeron

  16. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  17. The wind prophylaxis. Repressive and sanitary institutions in argentina’s Patagonia, 1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohoslavsky, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of some social control technologies and discourses, displayed in Argentina’s provinces between 1880 and 1940, with particular reference to the so-called ‘Territorios Nacionales’ of La Pampa, Río Negro and Neuquén, which were submitted to a direct federal authority. The main purpose is to analyze —within these areas— the building of repressive and sanitary institutions (i. e., police, prisons, asylums, hospitals as well as the enforcement of positivists studying and classifying methodologies, intended to identify ‘abnormality’. A straight and permanent rule of these ‘Territorios Nacionales’ on the federal State could have meant a longer attention to their social and economic development through a direct and intense presence of national, modernizing, positivist institutions. However, a deeper historical study of repressive and sanitary institutions allows to arrive to completely different conclusions. The sources show that these institutions had numerous daily problems, were frequently and severely under-budgeted, and were obliged to develop not originally foreseen functions and tasks. These situations imply revising not only these institutions’ real regulation capacities but also the very existence of a generalized, efficient social control programme in Argentina at the beginning of the 20th century, as many scholars focused on Buenos Aires’s study case have already argued.

    Este artículo avanza sobre el significado de las tecnologías y discursos del denominado «control social» en el interior argentino, haciendo hincapié en los Territorios Nacionales de La Pampa, Neuquén y Río Negro, entre 1880-1940. En esos espacios, de jurisdicción federal, se tomará en cuenta la conformación de instituciones represivas como policía y cárceles y sanitarias, como hospitales y asilos, así como la aplicación de metodologías positivistas para el estudio y el establecimiento de grillas

  18. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muscolino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, psycrophilic bacteria (PB, Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g. In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples.

  19. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  20. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

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    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  1. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

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    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  2. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

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    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  3. Socio-sanitary profile and information for living kidney donors and recipients in three Andalusian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Calvo, Manuel-Ángel; Morgado Almenara, Isabel; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Moreno Rodríguez, Andrés; Puertas Cruz, Teresa; García Álvarez, Teresa; Carmona Vílchez, María Dolores

    2017-11-09

    Information provided by health professionals to potential donors and recipients is essential for an autonomous and objective decision to make a living kidney donation. To determine the characteristics of the information received by living kidney donors and recipients, to find out their socio-sanitary profile, their socio-demographics, financial and labour characteristics, health and the caregiving activity of these donors and recipients. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of the population of living kidney donors and recipients from the University Hospitals Puerta del Mar (Cádiz), Virgen del Rocío (Seville), and the University Hospital Complex of Granada, between 08/04/2014 and 08/06/2015. According to the 40 living kidney donors and their 40 recipients surveyed, it is mainly nephrologists who make people aware and provide information about living kidney donation. Almost half of recipients require more information so the evaluation processes and pre-donation information should be updated. In general, the living kidney donor is female, aged 50, with primary/secondary education, lives with a partner and is related to the kidney recipient. Also, the living kidney donor is in paid employment, is overweight, perceives her health as very good or good, and does not smoke or drink alcohol. However, the typical living kidney recipient is male, aged 44 and has completed secondary school studies and vocational training. Furthermore, he does not work, perceives his health as good or regular, and he is an independent person for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

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    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  5. 75 FR 56520 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: NASJRB Willow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... approximately 3 acres and includes the Airport Surveillance Radar-11. The parcel being made available to the Air... house, storm sewer, sanitary sewer lines, electric and water lines, and substation. Redevelopment...

  6. [The becoming of public medicine (second half of XVIII-first half of xix centuries). Report I: The origin of concept of medical police, governing bodies of medical sanitary business, physician sanitary legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotchik, A M; Zatravkin, S N; Stotchik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present report covers the history of origination of concept of medical police in the second half of XVIII century. This body became one of the most important tool of state governance in Austria. France, Prussia and Russia. The relationship between origin of this concept and the results of scientific studies in area of investigation of epidemic constitutions is demonstrated. Two directions of activity of bodies of state governance are considered concerning the implementation of medical police--imposition of public administration of activities of physicians and development by joint efforts of physicians and lawyers of special physician sanitary legislation.

  7. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  8. A Study on historical-cultural architectural fabric of Bushehr Port an Urban, cultural and sanitary approach

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    darioush Ranjbar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays ancient cultural historic sites are considered as a local cultural asset. The cultural historic fabric of Bushehr port is one of the most unique historical urban sites which is confronting destruction because of speedy urban development. Therefore, the viewpoints of the historic fabric inhabitants were investigated to map its pathological pattern through a multidisciplinary approach. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, the viewpoints of the inhabitants in the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port was assessed, through a questionnaire, using random cluster multistage sampling method. The questionnaire was based on four dimensions including: social, sanitary, urban and cultural heritage. Results: A total of 218 residential units of the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port were surveyed. A portion of one fifth of the inhabitants were familiar with cultural heritage item, yet more than 60% of them agreed upon a renovation of the historic fabric of Bushehr. Meanwhile, more than 80% of the residents received no facility to renew their houses. Drug abuses were mentioned as the most important factor regarding insecurity (52.8%. The most important prospect of people from the municipality of the historic fabric of Bushehr port was renewal and renovation of the residential units (36.7% and 24.9% asked for renovation of pathways and alleys. Providing a sewage collecting network and regular daily gathering of garbage were reported as the most important sanitary need by the inhabitants. Conclusion: The inhabitants of historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port are interested in preserving their residential units as a cultural heritage, but sanitary and urban problems such as sewage and garbage collection system and the lack of patronage from the side of responsible organizations for renovating this Iranian historic fabric architecture are the deep problematic points.

  9. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

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    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  10. A qualitative understanding of the effects of reusable sanitary pads and puberty education: implications for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Steinfield, Laurel; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-06-27

    The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with schoolgirls who participated in the Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty trial concurrent with the final set of quantitative surveys. A framework approach and cross-case analysis were employed to describe and compare the experiences of 27 menstruating girls across the four intervention conditions; education (n = 8), reusable sanitary pads (n = 8), education with reusable sanitary pads (n = 6), and control (n = 5). Themes included: menstrual hygiene, soiling, irritation and infection, physical experience, knowledge of menstruation, psychological, social and cultural factors, and support from others. Those receiving reusable pads experienced improvements in comfort and reliability. This translated into reduced fears around garment soiling and related school absenteeism. Other menstrual hygiene challenges of washing, drying and privacy remained prominent. Puberty education improved girls' confidence to discuss menstruation and prompted additional support from teachers and peers. Findings have important implications for the development and evaluation of future interventions. Results suggest the provision of menstrual absorbents addresses one core barrier to menstrual health, but that interventions addressing broader needs such as privacy may improve effectiveness. Puberty education sessions should increase attention to body awareness and include strategies to address a wider range of practical menstrual challenges

  11. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  12. Role of Community in Swachh Bharat Mission. Their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sanitary Latrine Usage in Rural Areas, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Lawrence, D; Timsi, J; Sivaprakasam, P

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the "Swachh Bharat Mission" to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  13. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Umamaheswari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.

  14. Dai bisogni di salute al consumo di risorse sanitarie in provincia di Bergamo: profilo degli indicatori di bisogno, domanda, offerta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zucchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la complessità interpretativa dei dati relativi ad alcuni fenomeni sanitari a livello territoriale impone la necessità di uno strumento semplice di lettura “epidemiologica”; tale lettura si fonda sull’utilizzo di una serie di “indicatori”, fondamenta di un processo dinamico di monitoraggio temporale e spaziale in grado di descrivere sinteticamente fenomeni di per sé complessi, al fine di fornire al decisore un supporto sintetico ma scientificamente solido.

    Obiettivi: istituzione di un sistema di monitoraggio sanitario community-based; definizione di indicatori sanitari comparabili tramite un esame critico dei dati esistenti; sviluppo di metodologie per la raccolta e la validazione dei dati; supporto alla creazione di un sistema efficace e affidabile di trasferimento e scambio dei dati e degli indicatori stessi con uso spinto della tecnologia telematica; elaborazione di metodi e di strumenti necessari alla produzione di analisi e relazioni.

    Materiali e metodi: gli indicatori analizzati fanno riferimento
    all’elenco definito dal decreto ministeriale n. 27 del 12 dicembre 2001 “sistema di garanzie per il monitoraggio dell’assistenza sanitaria”. A questo elenco ne sono stati aggiunti altri, per un totale di 127, divisi in grandi capitoli tematici: assistenza sanitaria, assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera, indicatori stato di salute, consumo di risorse sanitarie (cui è stato dato particolare enfasi, indicatori di domanda/accessibilità. Per definire infine un
    profilo di sintesi di questi grandi capitoli e delle relative
    eterogeneità territoriali si è successivamente applicata la tecnica statistica dello “z-score”.
    Risultati: le differenze emerse a livello distrettuale hanno permesso di disegnare una ‘mappa’ degli indicatori sanitari in provincia di Bergamo.

    Conclusioni:i risultati di

  15. New legal regime for phyto sanitary products; Un nuevo regimen juridico para los envases de productos fitosanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda Gomez, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the Cabinet celebrated on he 14 degree centigree of December of 2001, the Government approved an important Royal Decree by means of which a new legal regime for phyto sanitary products of agricultural use was settled down. Its high-priority objective is to assure that the packaging waste generated after their use would be gathered without harming the environment and the public health, also guaranteeing that its final management will be carried out by means of the more correct methods environmentally. (Author)

  16. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  17. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin

    2012-01-01

    production process on meeting the hygiene-sanitary conditions during the production process tself, which primarily implies adequate washing and disinfecting of the equipment, the required temperature regimen for the pasteurization of the cream and similar activities, as well as the immaculate hygiene of the workers engaged in the production process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Unapređenje i razvoj higijenskih i tehnoloških postupaka u proizvodnji stočne hrane sa ciljem proizvodnje visokokvalitetnih i bezbednih proizvoda konkurentnih na globalnom tržištu

  18. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after a second biological process, 6.2 kJ L(-1) UV energy and 36 kWh m(-3) electrical energy were consumed using SPEF with a BDD anode at 200

  19. Bacterial population development and chemical characteristics of refuse decomposition in a simulated sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaz, M A; Schaefer, D M; Ham, R K

    1989-01-01

    Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-plus-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H(2) plus CO(2), respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH(4) per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially

  20. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the