WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary sewer systems

  1. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  2. Design of self-cleansing sanitary sewer systems with the use of flushing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goormans, T; Engelen, D; Bouteligier, R; Willems, P; Berlamont, J

    2009-01-01

    Many European countries tend to shift from constructing combined sewer systems to separate ones, in order to optimise wastewater treatment efficiency and reduce CSO impact on surface waters. An economic design minimises maintenance requirements by aiming at self-cleansing pipes. However, providing the necessary slopes for self-cleansing sanitary sewer pipes often is unfeasible in flat regions, resulting in an increased risk of loss of hydraulic capacity or blocking. To reduce these risks, flushing tanks can be installed in the sewer system. Where most other researchers contribute to a better understanding of the hydraulics of flushing, this paper rather tries to formulate a methodology to design and test flushing devices in sanitary sewer systems using standards and hydrodynamic simulations. Therefore, several aspects that require consideration when incorporating flushing devices into a sanitary sewer system are discussed. For instance, when flushing sanitary sewers the increase in discharge has to be explicitly considered. A Belgian case study is used to investigate the suitability of the developed methodology. Although the pipe slopes in the methodology are derived assuming uniform flow, the simulation results comply with it. Furthermore, pressurisation of the conduits due to multiple flushing waves remains within acceptable limits.

  3. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  6. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  7. Sanitary Sewer Systems and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources before reaching the treatment facility potentially contaminating them with gastrointestinal pathogens. Causes of SSOs include heavy rainfall and rupture/blockage of sewer lines. Few studi...

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  15. Sewer Systems and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the impact of climate change on the overflows of sewer systems is assessed. The emphasis is on the overflows of combined sewer systems. The purpose is twofold: first, to obtain a first-order estimate of the impact of climate change on overflows of sewer systems; and second, to obtain

  16. Sewer Systems and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the impact of climate change on the overflows of sewer systems is assessed. The emphasis is on the overflows of combined sewer systems. The purpose is twofold: first, to obtain a first-order estimate of the impact of climate change on overflows of sewer systems; and second, to obtain insight into the relevant meteorological variables that are important with respect to climate change. A reservoir model is used to assess the impact of climate change on several combinations of st...

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft;

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flows and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...... to design an optimising control strategy for a subcathcment area in Copenhagen....

  19. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System using Green Infrastructure - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) submitted an Integrated Overflow Abatement Plan (IOAP) addressing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows. Many of the solutions involve gray infrastructure, such as large, end-of...

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information about this notice, contact... or e-mail: schaner.greg@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Properly designed..., line breaks, sewer defects that allow storm water and groundwater to overload the system, lapses in...

  3. Corrosion and odor management in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Jing; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Sewers emit hydrogen sulfide and various volatile organic sulfur and carbon compounds, which require control and mitigation. In the last 5-10 years, extensive research was conducted to optimize existing sulfide abatement technologies based on newly developed in-depth understanding of the in-sewer processes. Recent advances have also led to low-cost novel solutions targeting sewer biofilms. Online control has been demonstrated to greatly reduce the chemical usage. Dynamic models for both the water, air and solid (concrete) phases have been developed and used for the planning and maintenance of sewer systems. Existing technologies primarily focused on 'hotspots' in sewers. Future research should aim to achieve network-wide corrosion and emission control and management of sewers as an integrated component of an urban water system.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF INTERCEPTOR SEWER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model was built up to solve the problem of optimal operational control by analysing the factors on an interceptor sewer system and a Fortran program was produced for this model. This paper shows that the optimal control states can be determined by working out the optimal flow rates by means of Linear Programming (LP). The result is very sensitive to interception points and the concentration weight coefficients over time. The result further highlights some practical applications for the existing sewer systems or the sewer systems under design.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, I.; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2013-01-01

    Self-optimising control is a useful concept to select optimal controlled variables from a set of candidate measurements in a systematic manner. In this study, use self-optimizing control tools and apply them to the specific features of sewer systems, e.g. the continuously transient dynamics......, the availability of a large number of measurements, the stochastic and unforeseeable character of the disturbances (rainfall). Using a subcatchment area in the Copenhagen sewer system as a case study we demonstrate, step by step, the formulation of the self-optimising control problem. The final result...... is an improved control structure aimed at optimizing the losses for a given control objective, here the minimization of the combined sewer overflows despite rainfall variations....

  8. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  9. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas, e

  10. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas, e

  11. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  12. [Pollutant source apportionment of combined sewer overflows using chemical mass balance method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mei-Hong; Li, Tian; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Pollutant characteristics of surface runoff, sanitary sewage and sewer deposits from a combined sewer system in Shanghai were studied. It was confirmed that the content of Zn, NH4(+) -N, P, respectively in surface runoff, sanitary sewage and sewer deposits was specific and relatively stable based on contrasting pollutant characteristics of different sources. Three non-dimensional parameters-Zn/P, NH4(+) -N/Zn, P/K were proposed as characteristic index for surface runoff, sanitary sewage and sewer deposits. In order to find sources of pollutants in CSO, the application of chemical mass balance method was discussed: the average contributions to CSO were 42.8% for surface runoff, 12.2% for sanitary sewage, 23.8% for sewer deposits, and the results basically reflected the composition of CSO pollution. The research method and results can provide guidance for pollutant source apportionment of combined sewer overflows.

  13. Characterization of Washoff Behavior of In-Sewer Deposits in Combined Sewer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, WeonJae; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including chemical pollutants, bacterial indicators, and enteric viruses were intensively investigated. By using several morphological analyses, some of which were suggested through this study, the characteristics of first foul flush were examined. As a result, the washoff behaviors of each pollutant were characterized according to their (i) event load ratios (ELRs), (ii) time-series concentration and load curves, (iii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, and (iv) dimensionless runoff concentrations (DRCs). The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were categorized into 3 typical groups: the strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies their different physicochemical properties of in-sewer deposits in CSSs, their strength of first foul flush phenomena, and the washoff priority as well.

  14. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  15. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Royuela, Albert; Bosch, Ll.; Kiser, M.A.; Poch, Manuel; Corominas Tabares, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a C...

  16. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...... radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate...

  17. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    for this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This can aid...... urban drainage planner and other professionals in the planning phase of sewer system con-trol design and effectively contribute to find novel control solution. It was investigated if the established methodology used in classic control the-ory for process control design can be applied meaningfully....... This was not unexpected, since the true potential of having optimisation arises, when a system has many control loops with limit-ing constraints and/or changing prioritisation between them. The results showed that for small sewer systems, where the complexity is limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement...

  18. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  19. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  20. Solar sanitary system (SOL-SAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    Ordinary composting toilets, because of cooling by evaporation, do not heat the product (humus) hot enough to kill all pathogenic viruses, bacteria, or parasite eggs and cysts. The SOL-SAN system uses direct radiation to pasteurize incoming river water for drinking and also, separately, to pasteurize and dry the humus, and to pasteurize the effluent gray/brown water. Work is in progress on simple fool-proof methods of insuring that the water will not flow out unless it has been pasteurized. Heat exchangers recapture the heat from these very hot pasteurized liquids, thereby warming more in-coming water for washing, which is important for preventing transmission of pathogenic microbes. When pasteurized, the humus and gray/brown water can safely be recycled to fertilize and water the family vegetable garden. Thus no sewer would be needed, and the vegetables or fish would grow well. Widespread use of the SOL-SAN system would save water and nutrients, reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases, improve the nutrition and vitality of the population, and save the large fraction of human food now consumed by parasites.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  3. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  4. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Bosch, Ll; Kiser, M A; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2015-02-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a CSS using overflow duration and rain volume data, (2) characterizing the performance of CSO structures with statistics, (3) evaluating the compliance of a CSS with government guidelines, and (4) generating decision tree models to provide support to managers for making decisions about system maintenance. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a CSS in La Garriga, Spain. The rain volume breaking point from which CSO structures started to overflow ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.8 mm. The structures with the best and worst performance in terms of overflow (overflow probability, order, duration and CSO ranking) were characterized. Most of the obtained decision trees to predict overflows from rain data had accuracies ranging from 70% to 83%. The results obtained from the proposed methodology can greatly support managers and engineers dealing with real-world problems, improvements, and maintenance of CSSs.

  5. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  6. Risk assessment of sewer condition using artificial intelligence tools: application to the SANEST sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, V; Matos, J P; Almeida, N; Saldanha Matos, J

    2014-01-01

    Operation, maintenance and rehabilitation comprise the main concerns of wastewater infrastructure asset management. Given the nature of the service provided by a wastewater system and the characteristics of the supporting infrastructure, technical issues are relevant to support asset management decisions. In particular, in densely urbanized areas served by large, complex and aging sewer networks, the sustainability of the infrastructures largely depends on the implementation of an efficient asset management system. The efficiency of such a system may be enhanced with technical decision support tools. This paper describes the role of artificial intelligence tools such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for assisting the planning of operation and maintenance activities of wastewater infrastructures. A case study of the application of this type of tool to the wastewater infrastructures of Sistema de Saneamento da Costa do Estoril is presented.

  7. Model-based analysis of control performance in sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Høyer; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Johansen, N.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Design and assessment of control in wastewater systems has to be tackled at all levels, including supervisory and regulatory level. We present here an integrated approach to assessment of control in sewer systems based on modelling and the use of process control tools to assess the controllability...... of the process. A case study of a subcatchment area in Copenhagen (Denmark) is used to illustrate the combined approach in modelling of the system and control assessment....

  8. Flooding in urban drainage systems: Coupling hyperbolic conservation laws for sewer systems and surface flow

    CERN Document Server

    Borsche, Raul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for a sewer network coupled to surface flow and investigate it numerically. In particular, we present a new model for the manholes in storm sewer systems. It is derived using the balance of the total energy in the complete network. The resulting system of equations contains, aside from hyperbolic conservation laws for the sewer network and algebraic relations for the coupling conditions, a system of ODEs governing the flow in the manholes. The manholes provide natural points for the interaction of the sewer system and the run off on the urban surface modelled by shallow water equations. Finally, a numerical method for the coupled system is presented. In several numerical tests we study the influence of the manhole model on the sewer system and the coupling with 2D surface flow.

  9. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines

    2015-01-01

    . To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators......A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation...... in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed...

  10. Worcester Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Worcester was issued NPDES Permit MAS010002 for discharging storm water from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) which became effective on October 30, 1998. The permit expired five years later on October 30, 2003; however, EPA administratively continued the permit as allowed by regulation. Proceeding to reissue this NPDES permit, EPA and MassDEP have now issued a draft permit and fact sheet (which provides EPA's technical basis for establishing permit conditions).

  11. An approach to pathogens flux simulation in a combined sewer system

    OpenAIRE

    Breil, P.; Petit, S.; Boukerb, A.; Namour, P.; McCarthy, D; Cournoyer, B

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Combined sewer systems convey organic matters and pathogens coming from human and animal faeces. They are mixed with rainfall runoff during storm event and can overflows to natural aquatic systems. Preliminary genetic analyses of pathogens were conducted in an experimental small water course and its lateral combined sewer system (OTHU site). Results indicate that natural system pathogens are an evolution of sewer system pathogens. However their presumed survival should...

  12. Successful Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Programs Implemented in the Navy - NESDI #494

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    2014 SUCCESSFUL MUNICIPAL SEPARATE STORM SEWER SYSTEM PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED IN THE NAVY—NESDI #494 Prepared by: Edwin Chiang, P.E...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SUCCESSFUL MUNICIPAL SEPARATE STORM SEWER SYSTEM PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED IN THE NAVY—PROJECT #494 5b. GRANT NUMBER...installations as lessons learned for complying with municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) regulatory requirements. An evaluation of business practices

  13. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  14. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  15. Leveraging existing infrastructure for central automatic control of multiple sewer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, A.; Van Heeringen, K.J.; Van Nooyen, R.R.P.; Van Velzen, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are gained by upgrading locally controlled sewer systems. The paper focuses on the reuse and extension of existing sewer systems and hardware and software infrastructure in an experimental integrated automatic

  16. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow bas...

  17. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  18. Design and performance evaluation of a simplified dynamic model for combined sewer overflows in pumped sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal-Rombouts, Petra; Sun, Siao; Langeveld, Jeroen; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Clemens, François

    2016-07-01

    Optimisation or real time control (RTC) studies in wastewater systems increasingly require rapid simulations of sewer systems in extensive catchments. To reduce the simulation time calibrated simplified models are applied, with the performance generally based on the goodness of fit of the calibration. In this research the performance of three simplified and a full hydrodynamic (FH) model for two catchments are compared based on the correct determination of CSO event occurrences and of the total discharged volumes to the surface water. Simplified model M1 consists of a rainfall runoff outflow (RRO) model only. M2 combines the RRO model with a static reservoir model for the sewer behaviour. M3 comprises the RRO model and a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir characteristics were derived from FH model simulations. It was found that M2 and M3 are able to describe the sewer behaviour of the catchments, contrary to M1. The preferred model structure depends on the quality of the information (geometrical database and monitoring data) available for the design and calibration of the model. Finally, calibrated simplified models are shown to be preferable to uncalibrated FH models when performing optimisation or RTC studies.

  19. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  20. Controlling sewer systems – a critical review based on systems in three EU cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, D.

    2017-01-01

    . With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs.......The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well...... as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified...

  1. Real-time control of sewer systems using turbidity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Schütze, M

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems has been proven useful as a means to reduce pollution by combined sewer overflow discharges. So far, RTC has been investigated mainly with a sole focus on water quantity aspects. However, as measurement techniques for pollution of wastewater are advancing, pollution-based RTC might be of increasing interest. For example, turbidity data sets from an extensive measurement programme in two Paris catchments allow a detailed investigation of the benefits of using pollution-based data for RTC. This paper exemplifies this, comparing pollution-based RTC with flow-based RTC. Results suggest that pollution-based RTC indeed has some potential, particularly when measurements of water-quality characteristics are readily available.

  2. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of advanced environmental decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse

    2016-01-01

    been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS......During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems...

  3. Cesium and strontium loads into a combined sewer system from rainwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Yoshida, Daiki; Ito, Ayumi; Umita, Teruyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this study, combined sewage samples were taken with time in several rain events and sanitary sewage samples were taken with time in dry weather to calculate Cs and Sr loads to sewers from rainwater runoff. Cs and Sr in rainwater were present as particulate forms at first flush and the particulate Cs and Sr were mainly bound with inorganic suspended solids such as clay minerals in combined sewage samples. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis showed Cs and Sr loads from rainwater runoff could be estimated by the total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days. The variation of the Sr load from rainwater to sewers was more sensitive to total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days than that of the Cs load.

  4. Towards better management of combined sewer systems. A methodology based on low-cost monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Royuela, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In combined sewer systems (CSS) wastewater and stormwater flow through the same pipes. During severe rain episodes, the excess combined flow of untreated wastewater and stormwater is released out from the system through overflow structures, producing the combined sewer overflows (CSO). CSOs represent a threat for water quality of receiving water bodies and for human health, for what current (and future) legislation on the protection of water quality, are demanding more control on this transie...

  5. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions.

  6. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges.

  7. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  8. A methodological approach to the design of optimising control strategies for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters. Accordin......This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters...... control; a rule based expert system. On the other hand, compared with a regulatory control technique designed earlier in Mollerup et al. (2015), the optimisation showed similar performance with respect to minimising overflow volume. Hence for operation of small sewer systems, regulatory control strategies...... can offer promising potential and should be considered along more advanced strategies when identifying novel solutions....

  9. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  10. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    by performing long term simulations - using a sewer flow simulation model - and draw up extreme event statistics from the model simulations. In this context it is important to realize that uncertainties related to the input parameters of rainfall runoff models will give rise to uncertainties related...... to draw up extreme event statistics covering return periods of as much as 33 years. By comparing these two different extreme event statistics it is evident that these to a great extent depend on the uncertainties related to the input parameters of the rainfall runoff model....... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified...

  11. New Approach for Receiving Water Objectives for Overflows from Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods for formu......The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods...

  12. New approach for receiving water objectives for overflows from sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods for formu......The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods...

  13. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  14. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  15. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  16. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  17. Quality of visual sewer inspection data: The need for a new coding system?! (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, J.; Van der Steen, A.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research learned that the reproducibility of visual sewer inspection data is poor (Dirksen et al.). Further research by Arjan et al. showed that the applied coding system has a major influence on the reproducibility. The aim of this study was to give relevant suggestions to improve the qual

  18. Temporal asymmetry in precipitation time series and its influence on flow simulations in combined sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Schütze, Manfred; Bárdossy, András

    2017-09-01

    A property of natural processes is temporal irreversibility. However, this property cannot be reflected by most statistics used to describe precipitation time series and, consequently, is not considered in most precipitation models. In this paper, a new statistic, the asymmetry measure, is introduced and applied to precipitation enabling to detect and quantify irreversibility. It is used to analyze two different data sets of Singapore and Germany. The data of both locations show a significant asymmetry for high temporal resolutions. The asymmetry is more pronounced for Singapore where the climate is dominated by convective precipitation events. The impact of irreversibility on applications is analyzed on two different hydrological sewer system models. The results show that the effect of the irreversibility can lead to biases in combined sewer overflow statistics. This bias is in the same order as the effect that can be achieved by real time control of sewer systems. Consequently, wrong conclusion can be drawn if synthetic time series are used for sewer systems if asymmetry is present, but not considered in precipitation modeling.

  19. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system--A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Burkhardt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72-95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters95%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions. • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality • Includes greatly expanded coverage...... of odor formation and prediction • Details the WATS sewer process model • Highlights the importance of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic processes Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, provides a basis for up-to-date understanding and modeling of sewer...

  1. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  2. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  3. 78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... sewer systems in municipalities such as systems at military bases, large hospital or prison complexes... meet the MEP standard. The iterative process of MEP consists of a municipality developing a...

  4. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  5. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  6. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  7. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  8. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    of pollutants discharged from treatment plants, etc.). The tools developed in the SWI project include (but are not limited to (i) rainfall nowcasting based on radar measurements, (ii) probabilistic flow forecasting based on data assimilation and stochastic models, (iii) prediction and optimization of wet...... measurements, flow and water levels, operational parameters at treatment plants) it is possible to dynamically optimize the integrated storm- and wastewater systems according to different criteria (e.g. utilizing the system fully at all times and reducing volumes of combined sewer overflows, loads......-weather performance of wastewater treatment plants, and (iv) integrated control of the different elements of the integrated wastewater systems. Full-scale testing of these tools in different catchment located in Denmark ensure that the developed tools can represent an important step forwards for on-line operation...

  9. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  10. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  11. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  12. Modelling the effects of on-site greywater reuse and low flush toilets on municipal sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-15

    On-site greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WET) reduce urban freshwater demand. Research on GWR and WET has generally overlooked the effects that GWR may have on municipal sewer systems. This paper discusses and quantifies these effects. The effects of GWR and WET, positive and negative, were studied by modelling a representative urban sewer system. GWR scenarios were modelled and analysed using the SIMBA simulation system. The results show that, as expected, the flow, velocity and proportional depth decrease as GWR increases. Nevertheless, the reduction is not evenly distributed throughout the day but mainly occurs during the morning and evening peaks. Examination of the effects of reduced toilet flush volumes revealed that in some of the GWR scenarios flows, velocities and proportional depths in the sewer were reduced, while in other GWR scenarios discharge volumes, velocities and proportional depths did not change. Further, it is indicated that as a result of GWR and installation of WET, sewer blockage rates are not expected to increase significantly. The results support the option to construct new sewer systems with smaller pipe diameters. The analysis shows that as the penetration of GWR systems increase, and with the installation of WET, concentrations of pollutants also increase. In GWR scenarios (when toilet flush volume is not reduced) the increase in pollutant concentrations is lower than the proportional reduction of sewage flow. Moreover, the results show that the spatial distribution of houses reusing GW does not significantly affect the parameters examined.

  13. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  14. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2015-01-01

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems....... Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current...... rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation...

  15. Uncertainty in prediction and simulation of flow in sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders

    was obtained with the stochastic method as the preferred. The thesis has demonstrated that the statistical requirements to the formal stochastic approach are very hard to fulfill in practice when prediction steps beyond the one-step is considered. Thus the underlying assumption of the GLUE methodology...... of describing features such as flow constraints, basins and pumps were tested for their ability to describe the output with a time resolution of 15 minutes. Two approaches to uncertainty quantification were distinguished and adopted, the stochastic and the epistemic method. Stochastic uncertainty refers...... to the randomness observed in nature, which is normally irreducible due to the inherent variation of physical systems. Epistemic uncertainty on the contrary arises from incomplete knowledge about a physical system. For quantifying stochastic uncertainties a frequentist approach was applied whereas the generalised...

  16. Modernizing sewers and wastewater systems with new technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    After continuous problems and challenges with dead fish and oxygen depletion in the waters, Denmark initiated an action plan for Danish waters to reduce pollution in the late 1980s. The action plan puts focus on stricter criteria for wastewater treatment plants. Over the years, the plan has been...... revised three times to ensure continuity in the work. As a result, Danish waters are significantly cleaner today. Since 1987 the pollution caused by wastewater has been reduced by 80 - 90 % - depending on the type of pollutant. Upgrading the wastewater treatment system with a number of new and innovative...

  17. An experiment to use medical I-131 as tracer in a city sewer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Susanne; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    City sewer systems have to reliably carry residential and industrial wastewater to treatment plants, often mixed with rainwater. Transport in the sewer system is regularly modelled in order to predict sewerage levels, transport velocities and volume discharges. Radioisotopes would be interesting tracers, as they can be detected quickly and without the need of applying wet chemistry. Medical isotopes are released in large quantities (many MBq) by excretion from patients either at the location of administration or from elsewhere, most probably the patient's home. Depending on diagnostic or treatment modality, isotopes of different physical characteristics are used, often bound to compounds of specific metabolic behaviour. Routine environmental surveillance regularly detects the most common diagnostic ({sup 99m}Tc) and therapeutic ({sup 131}I) isotopes in city wastewater samples. Except for {sup 131}I in the case of a nuclear emergency, no contributions from sources other than medical are expected. Medical isotopes therefore might be used for tracing purposes, provided individual inputs can be identified and separated. A field experiment has been designed involving {sup 131}I releases from a single patient who had undergone radioiodine thyroid ablation therapy. This modality is applied after thyroid cancer surgery in order to destroy residual thyroid tissue. Activities up to 5 GBq of {sup 131}I are used which are excreted within few days, as no iodine-retaining thyroid tissue remains. In Germany, about 20,000 of these treatments are performed yearly. For a sewer system of 500,000 inhabitants, about 150 cases would be expected per year, making it quite improbable to have interference between individual patient releases in the same region of the city sewer system. Practically, the radiometric laboratory was informed of the expected release of an (anonymous) patient from the collaborating radiotherapy unit several days in advance, plus the approximate location of

  18. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic transformations of sulfide in a sewer system--field study and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Madsen, Heidi Ina; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-01-01

    The formation and fate of sulfide in a force main and a downstream-located gravity sewer were investigated in an extensive field study. Sulfide formation in the force main was significant. However, during 14 minutes of transport in the gravity sewer, the sulfide concentration decreased 30%, on average. An application of a conceptual sewer process model for simulating the formation and fate of sulfide was demonstrated. Overall, the model predicted that approximately 90% of the decrease of the sulfide concentration in the gravity sewer was the result of sulfide oxidation and that only a small fraction entered the sewer atmosphere, causing odor and corrosion. Even so, the model predicted concrete corrosion rates of up to 1.2 mm/y in the gravity sewer section.

  20. A model for methane production in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaosakul, Thitirat; Koottatep, Thammarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2014-09-19

    Most sewers in developing countries are combined sewers which receive stormwater and effluent from septic tanks or cesspools of households and buildings. Although the wastewater strength in these sewers is usually lower than those in developed countries, due to improper construction and maintenance, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) could be relatively long and resulting considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) production. This study proposed an empirical model to predict the quantity of methane production in gravity-flow sewers based on relevant parameters such as surface area to volume ratio (A/V) of sewer, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wastewater temperature. The model was developed from field survey data of gravity-flow sewers located in a peri-urban area, central Thailand and validated with field data of a sewer system of the Gold Coast area, Queensland, Australia. Application of this model to improve construction and maintenance of gravity-flow sewers to minimize GHG production and reduce global warming is presented.

  1. Greening sanitary systems: and end-user perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of the thesis is to contribute to a transition towards sustainable sanitation and wastewater systems and practices in Western society by developing a social science perspective on sanitation and wastewater management. The empirical core of this study comprises a comparative case stud

  2. Removal of nutrients from combined sewer overflows and lake water in a vertical-flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, L; Brix, H

    2001-01-01

    Lake Utterslev is situated in a densely built-up area of Copenhagen, and is heavily eutrophicated from combined sewer overflows. At the same time the lake suffers from lack of water. Therefore, a 5,000 m2 vertical flow wetland system was constructed in 1998 to reduce the phosphorus discharge from combined sewer overflows without reducing the water supply to the lake. During dry periods the constructed wetland is used to remove phosphorus from the lake water. The system is designed as a 90 m diameter circular bed with a bed depth of c. 2 m. The system is isolated from the surroundings by a polyethylene membrane. The bed medium consists of a mixture of gravel and crushed marble, which has a high binding capacity for phosphorus. The bed is located within the natural littoral zone of the lake and is planted with common reed (Phragmites australis). The constructed wetland is intermittently loaded with combined sewer overflow water or lake water and, after percolation through the bed medium, the water is collected in a network of drainage pipes at the bottom of the bed and pumped to the lake. The fully automated loading cycle results in alternating wet and dry periods. During the initial two years of operation, the phosphorus removal for combined sewer overflows has been consistently high (94-99% of inflow concentrations). When loaded with lake water, the phosphorus removal has been high during summer (71-97%) and lower during winter (53-75%) partly because of lower inlet concentrations. Effluent phosphorus concentrations are consistently low (0.03-0.04 mg/L). Ammonium nitrogen is nitrified in the constructed wetland, and total suspended solids and COD are generally reduced to concentrations below 5 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The study documents that a subsurface flow constructed wetland system can be designed and operated to effectively remove phosphorus and other pollutants from combined sewer overflows and eutrophicated lake water.

  3. ENSURING SANITARY RELIABILITY OF TERRITORIES WHEN USING REMOVABLE SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found out that in most cases the system of removable water disposal is arranged with violations, i.e. cesspools that collect runoffs are either not designed at all — waste water merge into an open trench (ditch, and then water is filtered into the ground, or are designed against the rules (instead of a cesspool the user presupposes a simple hole dug in the ground. The authors witnessed the cases of ingress of wastewater into open waters, near which holiday villages are situated. This fact raises the question on the necessity of solving these problems which will prevent pollution of soil and surface waters, as well as the surrounding areas by sewages to prevent the development of infections and to prevent environmental disaster on a local scale. If you have a small rate of water flow in a summer cottage, it is feasible to design a sump for removal of faecal discharge (human physiological discharge, which are the most dangerous. It is advisable to install in the ground sealed (cumulative capacity, and build headroom on the top in the form of a toilet cabin (detached structure. This will allow completely getting rid of contamination with sewage effluents. The volume of the tank must be calculated individually depending on the water consumption on the site. Periodically it is needed to call out a cesspoolage truck after filling the reservoir, which would be then emptied of faecal material. In the last 20 years in our country a promising trend in removable sanitation began to develop — bio toilets. They became popular in country houses, as well as for persons with disabilities A composting toilet is a portable container, which is very compact and can be installed in any location of a country house. A more costly option, but an environmentally sound and convenient one to use is the construction of local water disposal systems with the use of not only mechanical, but also biological treatment. The choice of a particular scheme of

  4. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    H, alkalinity and sewer-air CO2 concentrations. An intercepting sewer was studied and an average sewer-air retention time of approximately 1.5-2.5 hours was found at CO2 levels around 4-6 times the natural background. Also an upstream sub-catchment was studied. In this part of the sewer system the level of CO2...

  5. Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions: the Ericeira case study, in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa

    2017-01-01

    The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously...... and through intensive sampling campaigns. Upstream, where flow rates were relatively low, dissolved sulfide concentrations around 12 mg S L1 and hydrogen sulfide gas concentrations above 250 ppm were observed, along with limited corrosion damage. It is believed this is due to the low relative humidity...... detected along the atmosphere of the studied sewer system. Downstream, gas concentrations were always below 40 ppm. Despite that, high signs of corrosion were detected, particularly in manholes with drop structures. It is thought that condensation of spray produced by the fall is the main cause...

  6. A forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid process for direct sewer mining: system performance and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the robustness and treatment capacity of a forward osmosis (FO)-membrane distillation (MD) hybrid system for small-scale decentralized sewer mining. A stable water flux was realized using a laboratory-scale FO-MD hybrid system operating continuously with raw sewage as the feed at water recovery up to 80%. The hybrid system also showed an excellent capacity for the removal of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), with removal rates ranging from 91 to 98%. The results suggest that TrOC transport through the FO membrane is governed by "solute-membrane" interaction, whereas that through the MD membrane is strongly correlated to TrOC volatility. Concentrations of organic matter and TrOCs in the draw solution increased substantially as the water recovery increased. This accumulation of some contaminants in the draw solution is attributed to the difference in their rejection by the FO and MD systems. We demonstrate that granular activated carbon adsorption or ultraviolet oxidation could be used to prevent contaminant accumulation in the draw solution, resulting in near complete rejection (>99.5%) of TrOCs.

  7. Pathogen cross-transmission via building sanitary plumbing systems in a full scale pilot test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, Thomas J.; Kelly, David A.; Rodriguez-Gil, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The WHO Consensus Document on the epidemiology of the SARS epidemic in 2003, included a report on a concentrated outbreak in one Hong Kong housing block which was considered a ‘super-spreading event’. The WHO report conjectured that the sanitary plumbing system was one transmission route for the virus. Empty U-traps allowed the aerosolised virus to enter households from the sewerage system. No biological evidence was presented. This research reports evidence that pathogens can be aerosolised and transported on airstreams within sanitary plumbing systems and enter buildings via empty U-traps. A sanitary plumbing system was built, representing two floors of a building, with simulated toilet flushes on the lower floor and a sterile chamber with extractor fan on the floor above. Cultures of a model organism, Pseudomonas putida at 106–109 cfu ml-1 in 0·85% NaCl were flushed into the system in volumes of 6 to 20 litres to represent single or multiple toilet flushes. Air and surface samples were cultured on agar plates and assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Flushing from a toilet into a sanitary plumbing system generated enough turbulence to aerosolise pathogens. Typical sanitary plumbing system airflows (between 20–30 ls-1) were sufficient to carry aerosolised pathogens between different floors of a building. Empty U-traps allowed aerosolised pathogens to enter the chamber, encouraging cross-transmission. All parts of the system were found to be contaminated post-flush. Empty U-traps have been observed in many buildings and a risk assessment indicates the potential for high risk cross-transmission under defect conditions in buildings with high pathogen loading such as hospitals. Under defective conditions (which are not uncommon) aerosolised pathogens can be carried on the airflows within sanitary plumbing systems. Our findings show that greater consideration should be given to this mode of pathogen transmission. PMID:28187135

  8. Succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the microbial community on corroding concrete in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-02-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O3(2-)). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  9. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...... constructive measures. To avoid critical situations in the treatment process, the inflow to the treatment plant is automatically reduced to a defined value if high inflows to the treatment plant occur in combination with unfavorable conditions on the secondary clarifiers during rainfall events. The integrated...

  10. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems.

  11. High-throughput amplicon sequencing reveals distinct communities within a corroding concrete sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayford, Barry I; Dennis, Paul G; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2012-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is an important problem in sewers. Here, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to characterize MICC communities. Microbial community composition differed between wall- and ceiling-associated MICC layers. Acidithiobacillus spp. were present at low abundances, and the communities were dominated by other sulfur-oxidizing-associated lineages.

  12. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System Using Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A green infrastructure (GI) design approach was used in CSO Basin #130, a 17-acre sewershed in the Butchertown section of Louisville, Kentucky, to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs). For the design year, the modeled design was expected to reduce the CSO frequency from 34 to ...

  13. Technological and hygiene-sanitary aspects of using biologically pure process waste watern in the systems of technical water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ushakov, Vasily Yakovlevich; Solodov, G. А.

    2007-01-01

    According to sanitary-toxicological factors biologically purified waste water of chemical enterprise are referred to low-toxic substances, are not allergens, do not posses irritant action on mucous tunics and skin and are suitable for recycling water system makeup. Crucial factors of reusing these waters are their corrosive activity, susceptibility to mineral salt accumulation and bioaccretion.

  14. Management of storm water in unitary sewer systems; Gestion de las aguas de tormenta en las redes de alcantarillado unitarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayos, C.

    1999-08-01

    A brief review is provided of the general problems of storm waters and how they are dealt with in Directive 91/27/EEC. An experiment in Asturias, Spain, is reported in which storm water storage tanks were designed to reduce the number and impact of discharges from the unitary sewer systems. The criteria for calculating the design flows in accordance with the guidelines of Spain`s Northern Hydrographic Confederation, the procedures used in determining the size of the overflows and the different elements employed in the equipment, control systems and safety systems are all described. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Investigations of perspective technologies, equipment and sanitary - hygienic means for Life-Support System of new generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary - hygienic conditions allows to keep health and capacity of the crewmembers work at increase of space flight duration. There is a wide application experience of means, methods and equipment for sanitary - hygienic supply, which were developed and experimentally tested for space flights. However, about 800 kg personal hygiene means (napkins and towels are made with water and delivered with the Earth) are necessary for 3 crewmembers per one year. For long orbital and interplanetary flights (without an opportunity of stocks updating) it is necessary to increase a degree of Life-Support System isolation and optimization of goods turnover. Washing combined with water regeneration system is most perspective for sanitary - hygienic procedures. Therefore, creation of space equipment for washing with sanitary - hygienic water (SHW) regeneration system is especially important. The researches have shown, that to processes, which can be applied for SHW regeneration in space conditions and require insignificant quantity of additional materials (as against sorption), concern membrane methods (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.). Two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration recovered no less than 85 % of permeate with the organic and inorganic selectivity of 82-95 %. The tests of two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration carried out on mock up solutions and real SHW, containing detergents really used in space flight conditions. The researches on a substantiation of an opportunity of clothing washing, clothing drying and the estimation of an opportunity of application of various detergents for clothing washing are urgent. The tests of water extraction technology from textile materials are carried out. Is established, that at conditional time of contact 1s, humidity of a leaving air flow from clothing drying unit comes nearer to 100 %. It is necessary to solve the problem for creation of Life-Support System of new generation for long-term space

  16. In-place rehabilitation of process sewers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arles, K.R.; Faller, C.C. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The majority of petrochemical manufacturing facilities have thousands of feet of existing underground gravity sewers that convey the site`s industrial wastes to treatment facilities. The integrity of these sewer systems is a serious concern to owners. A potential consequence of leaks is soil and groundwater contamination. Prior to 1992, only two options were available to remedy this situation. The sewer systems could be replaced with either a new dual-walled, monitored underground pipe system via direct bury, or with an above ground pumped system. In 1992, Engineering, in conjunction with several trenchless technology vendors, developed and demonstrated modified relining systems that can rehabilitate existing sewers and result in monitored dual-walled gravity sewer systems. These proven systems have since been enhanced, upgraded, and installed at two operating facilities. With thorough sewer investigation and assessments, industry now has viable, cost effective options to rehabilitate underground chemical process sewers. These upgraded sewer systems provide the environmental security of monitored dual-walled pipe, enhanced flow characteristics, and retain accessibility for maintenance and inspections.

  17. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  18. The priority substances and its situation in sewers systems; La sustancias prioritarias y su incidencia en las redes de saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles Pascual, F.; Santateresa Forcada, E.

    2007-07-01

    Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) and European Decision 2455/2001/EC witch approves the list of priority substances force the member states to carry out controls of the above mentioned substances in order to reduce the spilt ones, emission and losses of this substances. In this article there takes form the current situation of the control of the priority substances of sewers systems based on the information facilitated by the members of the Group of Industrial Spilt of AEAS, together with Iproma's experience in control of waste water continental waters, sediments and biota. (Author)

  19. Haccp system guarantee of quality and first in sanitary service privation from RBH agents through terrorism and sabotage in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2004-01-01

    Presented instructive-informative rough copy with answers and explanations that is going to be useful in wide interested parties. Those interested parties will get involved in introduction of HACCP system in sanitary service against RBH ageneses. All conceptions in this work will give answers to the basic questions: a) definition of HACCP system; b) HACCP definition i c) principle of HACCP system; d) analysis of hazard; e) determination of critical point; f) critical and operative limits; g) ...

  20. Storm water management in an urban catchment: effects of source control and real-time management of sewer systems on receiving water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Nafo, I; Niemann, A; Geiger, W F

    2002-01-01

    For the examination of the effects of different storm water management strategies in an urban catchment area on receiving water quality, an integrated simulation of the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water is carried out. In the sewer system real-time control measures are implemented. As examples of source control measures the reduction of wastewater and the reduction of the amount of impervious surfaces producing storm water discharges are examined. The surface runoff calculation and the simulation of the sewer system and the WWTP are based on a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The impact of the measures on the receiving water is simulated using AQUASIM. It can be shown that the examined storm water management measures, especially the source control measures, can reduce the combined sewer overflow volume and the pollutant discharge load considerably. All examined measures also have positive effects on the receiving water quality. Moreover, the reduction of impervious surfaces avoids combined sewer overflow activities, and in consequence prevents pollutants from discharging into the receiving water after small rainfall events. However, the receiving water quality improvement may not be seen as important enough to avoid acute receiving water effects in general.

  1. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flow...... and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...

  2. REMOTELY CONTROLLED SEWERS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The basics of remotely controlled sewers [1] are presented focusing on Leipzig Municipality’s sewer control project [2] located in Germany. The consequences of sewer surcharge events are outlined considering possible counter measures. The required data basis, the controllable sewer objects and their relevant control units are pointed out. The presentation is finished exposing the types of control network, possible control algorithms as well as important aspects regarding the decision for / ag...

  3. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  4. Information use in Dutch sewer assest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are capital-intensive infrastructures, requiring appropriate asset management to safeguard serviceability. In the Netherlands, effective sewer asset management is described by De Leeuw’s control paradigm. Reliable data and information are key elements in decision-making for rehabilitat

  5. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  6. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  7. Dissolved methane in rising main sewer systems: field measurements and simple model development for estimating greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jeff; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2009-01-01

    At present, the potential generation of methane in wastewater collection systems is ignored under international greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting protocols, despite recent reports of substantial dissolved methane formation in sewers. This suggests that the current national GHG inventories for wastewater handling systems are likely to be underestimated for some situations. This study presents a new catalogue of field data on methane formation in rising main sewerage systems and proposes an empirically-fitted, theoretical model to predict dissolved methane concentrations, based upon the independent variables of pipeline geometry (i.e. surface area to volume ratio, A/V) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Systems with longer HRT and/or larger A/V ratios are shown to have higher dissolved methane concentrations. This simple predictive model provides a means for water authorities to estimate the methane emissions from other pressurised sewerage systems of similar characteristics.

  8. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introduction and development of risk-oriented models for control and surveillance is the actual objective at realization of sanitary-epidemiological control (surveillance . It is necessary to work out and harmonize concept, procedural apparatus, and scientific and methodological support of risk-oriented control and surveillance on the base of the best world patterns and standards.

  9. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  10. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, L; Kaiser, J C; Andersson, K G; Andorfer, H; Angermair, G; Gusel, C; Tandler, R

    2013-04-01

    After an accidental radioactive contamination by aerosols in inhabited areas, the radiation exposure to man is determined by complex interactions between different factors such as dry or wet deposition, different types of ground surfaces, chemical properties of the radionuclides involved and building development as well as dependence on bomb construction e.g. design and geometry. At short-term, the first rainfall is an important way of natural decontamination: deposited radionuclides are washed off from surfaces and in urban areas the resulting contaminated runoff enters the sewer system and is collected in a sewage plant. Up to now the potential exposure caused by this process has received little attention and is estimated here with simulation models. The commercial rainfall-runoff model for urban sewer systems KANAL++ has been extended to include transport of radionuclides from surfaces through the drainage to various discharge facilities. The flow from surfaces is modeled by unit hydrographs, which produce boundary conditions for a system of 1d coupled flow and transport equations in a tube system. Initial conditions are provided by a map of surface contamination which is produced by geo-statistical interpolation of γ-dose rate measurements taking into account the detector environment. The corresponding methodology is implemented in the Inhabited Area Monitoring Module (IAMM) software module as part of the European decision system JRODOS. A hypothetical scenario is considered where a Radiation Dispersal Device (RDD) with Cs-137 is detonated in a small inhabited area whose drainage system is realistically modeled. The transition of deposited radionuclides due to rainfall into the surface runoff is accounted for by different nuclide-specific entrainment coefficients for paved and unpaved surfaces. The concentration of Cs-137 in water is calculated at the nodes of the drainage system and at the sewage treatment plant. The external exposure to staff of the

  11. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Kaiser, J.C.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2013-01-01

    and building development as well as dependence on bomb construction e.g. design and geometry. At short-term, the first rainfall is an important way of natural decontamination: deposited radionuclides are washed off from surfaces and in urban areas the resulting contaminated runoff enters the sewer system...... the drainage to various discharge facilities. The flow from surfaces is modeled by unit hydrographs, which produce boundary conditions for a system of 1d coupled flow and transport equations in a tube system. Initial conditions are provided by a map of surface contamination which is produced by geostatistical......After an accidental radioactive contamination by aerosols in inhabited areas, the radiation exposure to man is determined by complex interactions between different factors such as dry or wet deposition, different types of ground surfaces, chemical properties of the radionuclides involved...

  12. Aromatic hydrocarbons from service stations in the sewer system in Cartagena, Columbia; Hidrocarburos aromaticos en la red de alcantarillado procedentes de estaciones de servicio en Cartagena (Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachorro Sanchez, P.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Luna Jara, J.

    2000-07-01

    The results of this study are part of a project for characterising domestic and industrial waste flowing through the sewer system of Cartagena de Indias (Columbia). Characterisation was carried out in order to establish the contaminating load in the drinking water supply with a view to establishing a framework for compensatory taxes levied by the corresponding environmental agency. (Author)

  13. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity...

  14. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In urban drainage modeling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity...

  15. Tracer tests and uncertainty propagation to design monitoring setups in view of pharmaceutical mass flow analyses in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepiszewski, Kai; Venditti, Silvia; Koehler, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The development of a strategic approach to manage pollution of surface waters with pharmaceutical residues is in centre of interest in Europe. In this context a lack of reliable standard procedures for sampling and subsequent assessment of pharmaceutical mass flows in the water cycle has been identified. Authoritative assessment of relevant substance concentrations and flows is essential for environmental risk assessments and reliable efficiency analysis of measures to reduce or avoid emissions of drugs to water systems. Accordingly, a detailed preparation of monitoring campaigns including an accuracy check for the sampling configuration provides important information on the reliability of the gathered data. It finally supports data analysis and interpretation for evaluations of the efficiency of measures as well as for cost benefit assessments. The precision of mass flow balances is expected to be particularly weak when substances with high short-term variations and rare upstream emissions are considered. This is especially true for substance flow analysis in sewers close to source because of expectable highly dynamic flow conditions and emission patterns of pollutants. The case study presented here focusses on the verification of a monitoring campaign in a hospital sewer in Luxembourg. The results highlight the importance for a priori accuracy checks and provide a blueprint for well-designed monitoring campaigns of pharmaceutical trace pollutants on the one hand. On the other hand, the study provides evidence that the defined and applied continuous flow proportional sampling procedure enables a representative monitoring of short-term peak loads of the x-ray contrast media iobitridol close to source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the standing debate concerning the advantages of separate sewer systems compared to traditional combined sewers. By a case study this investigation reveals that a transformation of one fourth of a given total area from being combined to become...... separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  17. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the standing debate concerning the advantages of separate sewer systems compared to traditional combined sewers. By a case study this investigation reveals that a transformation of one fourth of a given total area from being combined to become...... separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  18. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  19. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...... receiving waters when detention ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. It is concluded that consequences can be fatal for receiving waters, if no retention of pollutants is integrated into the system....

  20. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  1. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Michael J.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Mayer, Paul M.; Utz, Ryan M.; Cooper, Curtis A.

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water, carbon, and nutrient fluxes associated with urban infrastructure and stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management globally. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in urban stream restoration and sewer infrastructure. We compared an urban restored stream with two urban degraded streams draining varying levels of urban development and one stream with upland stormwater management systems over a 3-year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower (p exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at relatively lower streamflow than the two more urban catchments, which exported most carbon and nutrients at higher streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 kg ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban degraded streams (p exports. However, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the urban restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), statistically similar to the urban degraded streams. These isotopic results as well as additional tracers, including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt), suggested that groundwater contamination was a major source of urban nutrient fluxes, which has been less considered compared to upland sources. Overall, leaking sewer pipes are a problem globally and our results suggest that combining stream restoration with restoration of aging sewer pipes can be critical to more effectively minimizing urban nonpoint nutrient sources. The sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of groundwater

  2. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Mendez, J.M.; Barrios, J.A.; Salgado, G.; Sheinbaum, C.

    2003-07-01

    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated in 2.8 Mm{sup 3}, which includes 0.41 Mm{sup 3} of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm{sup 3} of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse. (author)

  3. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  4. Assessment of the ecotoxicological risk of combined sewer overflows for an aquatic system using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooré Bi, Eustache; Monette, Frederic; Gasperi, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Very few tools are available for assessing the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on receiving aquatic environments. The main goal of the study was to assess the ecotoxicological risk of CSOs for a surface aquatic ecosystem using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach. Wastewater samples from the city of Longueuil, Canada CSO were collected for various rainfall events during one summer season and analyzed for a large panel of substances (n = 116). Four bioassays were also conducted on representative organisms of surface aquatic systems (Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analytical data did not reveal any ecotoxicological risk for St. Lawrence River organisms, mainly due to strong effluent dilution. However, the substance approach showed that, because of their contribution to the ecotoxicological hazard posed by the effluent, total phosphorus (Ptot), aluminum (Al), total residual chlorine, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), pyrene, ammonia (N-NH4 (+)), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) require more targeted monitoring. While chronic ecotoxicity tests revealed a potential impact of CSO discharges on P. promelas and C. dubia, acute toxicity tests did not show any effect on D. magna or O. mykiss, thus underscoring the importance of chronic toxicity tests as part of efforts aimed at characterizing effluent toxicity. Ultimately, the study leads to the conclusion that the coupled "substance and bioassay" approach is a reliable and robust method for assessing the ecotoxicological risk associated with complex discharges such as CSOs.

  5. An expert system with radial basis function neural network based on decision trees for predicting sediment transport in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebtehaj, Isa; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an expert system with a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) based on decision trees (DT) is designed to predict sediment transport in sewer pipes at the limit of deposition. First, sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of each parameter on predicting the densimetric Froude number (Fr). The results indicate that utilizing the ratio of the median particle diameter to pipe diameter (d/D), ratio of median particle diameter to hydraulic radius (d/R) and volumetric sediment concentration (C(V)) as the input combination leads to the best Fr prediction. Subsequently, the new hybrid DT-RBF method is presented. The results of DT-RBF are compared with RBF and RBF-particle swarm optimization (PSO), which uses PSO for RBF training. It appears that DT-RBF is more accurate (R(2) = 0.934, MARE = 0.103, RMSE = 0.527, SI = 0.13, BIAS = -0.071) than the two other RBF methods. Moreover, the proposed DT-RBF model offers explicit expressions for use by practicing engineers.

  6. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of sewer pipe condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Haan, C.; Tirion, M.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection (CCTV) and core sampling are a

  7. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of sewer pipe condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Haan, C.; Tirion, M.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection (CCTV) and core sampling are a

  8. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of sewer pipe condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Haan, C.; Tirion, M.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection (CCTV) and core sampling are

  9. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  10. Effects of climate and sewer condition on virus transport to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen contamination from leaky sanitary sewers poses a threat to groundwater quality in urban areas, yet the spatial and temporal dimensions of this contamination are not well understood. In this study, 16 monitoring wells and six municipal wells were repeatedly sampled for human enteric viruses....

  11. Sewer Lateral Electro Scan Field Verification Pilot (WERF Report INFR4R12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:WERF selected a proposed research project to field test an emerging technology for inspecting sanitary sewer lateral pipes. The technology is called Electro Scan and is used to find defects in laterals that allow the infiltration of groundwater into the lateral. Electro ...

  12. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  13. Sewerage Pumping Stations, Pumping stations included in sanitary sewer system data above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  14. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < EF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < PEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) ≤ SPEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1), using the abovementioned conditions. While EF process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after

  15. Effects of in vivo chronic hydrocarbons pollution on sanitary status and immune system in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Kanan, Rami; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2011-10-01

    Following the development of an experimental system to expose adult fish to low and stable concentration of pollutant over a prolonged period, the in vivo effects of hydrocarbons on sanitary status, i.e. the health status of fish with regard to chemical pollution, and immune system in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax were assessed. A total of 90 fish were acclimated for 15 days, then 45 fish were exposed to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Arabian crude oil, similar to a complex pollution by hydrocarbons chronically observed in situ in estuaries, while the 45 other control fish sustained the same experimental conditions in clean seawater. After 21 days of exposure, 30 contaminated and control fish were sampled, then 30 other fish were collected after a 15 day recovery period in clean sea water. PAH concentrations in crude oil, WSF, muscles and bile were measured by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. White blood cell counts and differential leucocyte counts were determined by classical haematology methods. Cell mortality and phagocytosis activity of leucocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Haemolytic alternative complement activity and stress parameters were analyzed in blood plasma by spectrophotometry. After a 21 day exposure period to a mixture of 41 parent/alkylated-PAHs (835 ± 52/85 ± 1 5 ng L(-1)). Fish flesh was contaminated by a bioconcentration of naphthalene very closed to the Reference Dose for Oral Exposure estimated by US-EPA's Integrated Risk Information System, causing a potential risk for human consumers. A leucopenia due to a lymphopenia, a rise in leucocyte mortality and a decrease in phagocytosis activity were noted in contaminated fish compared to controls. All these results may be explained by the damage to membrane cells integrity by uptake of PAHs and suggested an impairment of specific and nonspecific immune systems. After a 15 day recovery period, effects were reversible for sanitary status and an offset in

  16. Integrated design of sewers and wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Ujang, Z; Talib, S A

    2002-01-01

    Sewer system design must be integrated with wastewater treatment plant design when moving towards a more sustainable urban wastewater management. This integration allows an optimization of the design of both systems to achieve a better and more cost-effective wastewater management. Hitherto integrated process design has not been an option because the tools to predict in-sewer wastewater transformations have been inadequate. In this study the WATS model--being a new and validated tool for in-sewer microbial process simulations--is presented and its application for integrated sewer and treatment plant design is exemplified. A case study on a Malaysian catchment illustrates this integration. The effects of centralization of wastewater treatment and the subsequently longer transport distances are addressed. The layout of the intercepting sewer is optimized to meet the requirements of different treatment scenarios.

  17. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of advanced environmental decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A decision support system was developed for CSO minimization during wet weather. •The acquired expert knowledge was implemented in a set of 21 decision trees. •The operational intercomparison illustrated better results for the EDSS mode. •The expert quality evaluation exposed environm......Highlights •A decision support system was developed for CSO minimization during wet weather. •The acquired expert knowledge was implemented in a set of 21 decision trees. •The operational intercomparison illustrated better results for the EDSS mode. •The expert quality evaluation exposed...

  18. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    . It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...

  19. Effects of tow transit on the efficacy of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Electric Dispersal Barrier System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremiah J.; LeRoy, Jessica Z.; Shanks, Matthew R.; Jackson, Patrick Ryan; Engel, Frank; Murphy, Elizabeth; Baxter, Carey L.; McInerney, Michael K.; Barkowski, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers undertook a field study in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Romeoville, Illinois to determine the influence of tow transit on the efficacy of the Electric Dispersal Barrier System (EDBS) in preventing the passage of juvenile fish (total length return current of water flowing between the tow and the canal wall that typically travels opposite the direction of tow movement, and cause a decrease in the voltage gradient of the barrier of up to 88%. Return currents and decreases in voltage gradients induced by tow passage likely contributed to the observed fish passage through the EDBS. The efficacy of the EDBS in preventing the passage of small, wild fish is compromised while tows are moving across the barrier system. In particular, downbound tows moving through the EDBS create a pathway for the upstream movement of small fish, and therefore may increase the risk of transfer of invasive fishes from the Mississippi River Basin to the Great Lakes Basin.

  20. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  1. Integrated operation of sewer system and WWTP by simulation-based control of the WWTP inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H; Vanrolleghem, P A; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    In recent years numerical modelling became a standard procedure to optimise urban wastewater systems design and operation by integration. For dynamic control of the wastewater teatment plant (WWTP) inflow, a model-based predictive concept is introduced aiming at improving the receiving water quality. An on-line simulator running parallel to the real WWTP operation reflects the actual state of operation and provides this model information to a prognosis tool which determines the best option for the WWTP inflow. The investigations showed that it is possible to reduce the NH4-N peak concentrations in the receiving water by dynamic WWTP inflow control based on predictive scenario analysis.

  2. Storm water management implications on WWTPS in combined sewer systems: Integration strategies and process conditions; Implicaciones sobre la estacion depuradora de la gestion de aguas pluviales en los sistemas de saneamiento unitario: estrategias de integracion y afecciones sobre los procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Lopez, J.; Jacome Burgos, A.; Anta Alvarez, J.; Blanco Menendez, J. P.; Hernaez Oubina, D.; Rio Cambeses, H. del

    2012-07-01

    New design and strategies to manage wet weather floes in combined sewer systems, which main objective is to minimize environmental impacts on water bodies, require the treatment of large volumes of storm water. Wet weather flows introduced into combined sewer show dynamic-transient behavior both in terms of flow discharges and pollution. With traditional design strategies, large pollution peaks are spilled during rain events into water receiving bodies by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nowadays, CSOs have been reduced providing some storage capacity into the combined sewer systems (either in network, by means storm water tanks, or in WWTP). The stored storm water and its associated pollution should be treated. WWTP inflows during rainy events are conditioned by the local storm water management strategy. The WWTP can be overcome if it is managed using traditional dry weather strategies. In order to optimize the treatment performance and to assure that urban pollution do not reach aquatic environment, the WWTP must participate in the system in an integrated manner. This is a key element. This paper shows firstly the importance of CSO pollution and the development of new strategies for storm water management in combined sewer systems. Storm water tanks, located in the sewerage system, have been one of the most common solutions adopted but there are some experiences of wet weather flow management at the WWTP. All these strategies are revised in the paper. Once the role of the WWTP in the new combined sewer systems is known, the article presents a review about the problems generated by the hydraulic overloads and the large variations of the pollution characteristics on different stages of the water line. Special emphasis is made on the problems generated in secondary processes based on activated sludge. these problems are analysed in detail and some mitigation strategies are proposed. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Benchmarking management of sewer systems: more to learn than cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenen, A S

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine municipalities in the Netherlands conducted a pilot study to develop and try out a methodology to compare the quality of their sewerage management. The participants chose a multidimensional benchmarking with an emphasis on the aim of improving the working processes within sewerage management. A second goal was accountability to the stakeholders. The benchmarking methodology was based as well on analysing data within a "balanced-score-card" system as on intensive exchange of knowledge and experiences. The pilot resulted in a state of the art overview of the quality of sewerage management in the Netherlands. However, above all, it resulted in the shocking fact that the work is carried out in many different ways which cannot be explained by technical reasons or local circumstances. To pinpoint best practices and actually implement these improvements the learning process must continue after the analysis and presentation of the data. A start has been made to form regional specialist networks for further discussion and exchange of experiences.

  4. Importance of anthropogenic climate impact, sampling error and urban development in sewer system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, C; Maurer, M

    2015-04-15

    Urban drainage design relying on observed precipitation series neglects the uncertainties associated with current and indeed future climate variability. Urban drainage design is further affected by the large stochastic variability of precipitation extremes and sampling errors arising from the short observation periods of extreme precipitation. Stochastic downscaling addresses anthropogenic climate impact by allowing relevant precipitation characteristics to be derived from local observations and an ensemble of climate models. This multi-climate model approach seeks to reflect the uncertainties in the data due to structural errors of the climate models. An ensemble of outcomes from stochastic downscaling allows for addressing the sampling uncertainty. These uncertainties are clearly reflected in the precipitation-runoff predictions of three urban drainage systems. They were mostly due to the sampling uncertainty. The contribution of climate model uncertainty was found to be of minor importance. Under the applied greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B) and within the period 2036-2065, the potential for urban flooding in our Swiss case study is slightly reduced on average compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Scenario planning was applied to consider urban development associated with future socio-economic factors affecting urban drainage. The impact of scenario uncertainty was to a large extent found to be case-specific, thus emphasizing the need for scenario planning in every individual case. The results represent a valuable basis for discussions of new drainage design standards aiming specifically to include considerations of uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  6. Pollution load modelling in sewer systems: an approach of combining long term online sensor data with multi-objective auto-calibration schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamerith, V; Muschalla, D; Könemann, P; Gruber, G

    2009-01-01

    Pollutant load modelling for sewer systems is state-of-the-art, especially for the estimation of discharged pollutant loads and development of sewer management strategies. However, conventionally obtained calibration data sets are often not exhaustive and have significant drawbacks. In the Graz West catchment area (Graz, Austria), continuous high-resolution long-term online measurements for discharge and pollutant concentration have been carried out since 2002.In this paper, the application of single- and multi-objective auto-calibration schemes based on evolution strategies for a deterministic hydrological pollutant load model will be discussed. Three approaches for pollutant load modelling are examined and compared: using a constant storm weather concentration and two surface accumulation-wash-off approaches with basic respectively extended wash-off equations. It is shown that the applied auto-calibration method leads to very satisfying results for both the calibration and the validation data set, and also for the dry and the storm weather runoff. Results from multi-objective calibration show better robustness in validation events than single-objective calibration. The build-up wash-off approach using the basic wash-off equation gives the best correlations between measured data and simulation results.

  7. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  8. 76 FR 53941 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Euclid's operation of its municipal wastewater and sewer system. The Complaint alleges that the City discharges combined sewer overflows (``CSOs'') and sanitary sewer overflows (``SSOs'') in violation of...

  9. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) units...

  10. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling total suspended solids, E. coli and carbamazepine, a tracer of wastewater contamination from combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongmala, Khemngeun; Autixier, Laurène; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Fuamba, Musandji; Galarneau, Martine; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Urban source water protection requires knowledge of sources of fecal contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Combined and sanitary sewer overflows (CSOs and SSOs) are primary sources of microbiological contamination and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) in urban water supplies. To quantify the impact of sewer overflows, predictive simulation models are required and have not been widely applied for microbial contaminants such as fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in urban drainage networks. The objective of this study was to apply a simulation model to estimate the dynamics of three contaminants in sewer overflows - total suspended solids, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbamazepine, a WWMP. A mixed combined and pseudo-sanitary drainage network in Québec, Canada was studied and modelled for a total of 7 events for which water quality data were available. Model results were significantly correlated with field water quality data. The model confirmed that the contributions of E. coli from runoff and sewer deposits were minor and their dominant source was from sewage. In contrast, the main sources of total suspended solids were stormwater runoff and sewer resuspension. Given that it is not present in stormwater, carbamazepine was found to be a useful stable tracer of sewage contributions to total contaminant loads and also provided an indication of the fraction of total suspended solids originating from sewer deposits because of its similar response to increasing flowrates.

  12. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  13. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge

  14. Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies for sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, Manfred; Möderl, Michael; Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz; Hammerer, Max; Kinzel, Heiko; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Building measures in sewer systems are increasingly driven by rehabilitation/retrofitting and adaptation needs. Aging infrastructure together with changing boundary conditions (due to climate change, land-use change, demographic change) and also changing design standards and legislation require a prospective design to preserve the functionality of urban drainage systems not only today, but also in a long-term perspective. To improve a prospective design of urban water infrastructure, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency funded the research project 'REHAB - Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies of urban infrastructure systems'. Therein a novel strategic planning tool which considers these external drivers of rehabilitation strategies is developed. In this study the scope of the project is described and, as well as first results regarding sewer pipe conditions, future development and vulnerability assessment are also discussed.

  15. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  16. The Historical Development of Sewers Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence of surface-based storm drainage systems in early Babylonian and Mesopotamian Empires in Iraq (ca. 4000–2500 BC, it is not until after ca. 3000 BC that we find evidence of the well organized and operated sewer and drainage systems of the Minoans and Harappans in Crete and the Indus valley, respectively. The Minoans and Indus valley civilizations originally, and the Hellenes and Romans thereafter, are considered pioneers in developing basic sewerage and drainage technologies, with emphasis on sanitation in the urban environment. The Hellenes and Romans further developed these techniques and greatly increased the scale of these systems. Although other ancient civilizations also contributed, notably some of the Chinese dynasties, very little progress was made during the Dark ages from ca. 300 AD through to the middle of the 18th century. It was only from 1850 onwards that that modern sewerage was “reborn”, but many of the principles grasped by the ancients are still in use today. This paper traces the development of the sewer from those earliest of civilizations through to the present day and beyond. A 6000 year technological history is a powerful validation of the vital contribution of sewers to human history.

  17. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement...... weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  18. Identification of in-sewer sources of organic solids contributing to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyerre, M; Chebbo, G

    2002-09-01

    Previous research has shown that combined sewer systems are the main source of particle and organic pollution during rainfall events contributing to combined sewer overflow. The aim of this article is to identify in an urban catchment area called "Le Marais", in the center of Paris, the types of sediments that are eroded and contribute to the pollution of combined sewer overflow. Three sediment types are considered: granular material found in the inverts of pipes, organic biofilms and organic sediment at the water bed interface, identified as an immobile layer in the "Le Marais" catchment area. The method used consist, firstly, of sampling and assessing the organic pollutant loads and metallic loads of the particles in each type of sediment. Then, the mass of each type of sediment is assessed. The mass and the characteristics of each type of sediment is finally compared to the mass and characteristics of the particles eroded in the catchment area, estimated by mass balances, in order to find the source of eroded particles. The only identified type of deposit that can contribute to combined sewer overflows is the organic layer. Indeed, the solids of this layer have mean and metallic loads that are of the same order of magnitude as the eroded particles. Moreover, the mass of the organic layer considered over different time scales is of the same order of magnitude as the eroded masses during rainfall events and an erosion experiment showed that the organic layer is actually eroded.

  19. Assessing the Role of Sewers and Atmospheric Deposition as Nitrate Contamination Sources to Urban Surface Waters using Stable Nitrate Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Excess nitrate (NO3-) contributes to the overall degraded quality of streams in many urban areas. These systems are often dominated by impervious surfaces and storm sewers that can route atmospherically deposited nitrogen, from both wet and dry deposition, to waterways. Moreover, in densely populated watersheds there is the potential for interaction between urban waterways and sewer systems. The affects of accumulated nitrate in riverine and estuary systems include low dissolved oxygen, loss of species diversity, increased mortality of aquatic species, and general eutrophication of the waterbody. However, the dynamics of nitrate pollution from each source and it’s affect on urban waterways is poorly constrained. The isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate have been proven effective in helping to distinguish contamination sources to ground and surface waters. In order to improve our understanding of urban nitrate pollution sources and dynamics, we examined nitrate isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) in base- and stormflow samples collected over a two-year period from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Nine Mile Run drains a 1,600 hectare urban watershed characterized by 38% impervious surface cover. Prior work has documented high nitrate export from the watershed (~19 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). Potential nitrate sources to the watershed include observed sewer overflows draining directly to the stream, as well as atmospheric deposition (~23 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). In this and other urban systems with high percentages of impervious surfaces, there is likely minimal input from nitrate derived from soil or fertilizer. In this presentation, we examine spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate isotopic composition collected at five locations along Nine Mile Run characterized by both sanitary and combined-sewer cross-connections. Preliminary isotopic analysis of low-flow winter streamwater samples suggest nitrate export from Nine Mile Run is primarily influenced by

  20. Microbial community structures and in situ sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing activities in biofilms developed on mortar specimens in a corroded sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hisashi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2009-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) caused by sulfuric acid attack in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of microbial community structures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their in situ activities is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the microbial community structures and the in situ hydrogen sulfide production and consumption rates within biofilms and corroded materials developed on mortar specimens placed in a corroded manhole was investigated by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques and microsensors for hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, pH and the oxidation-reduction potential. The dark-gray gel-like biofilm was developed in the bottom (from the bottom to 4 cm) and the middle (4-20 cm from the bottom of the manhole) parts of the mortar specimens. White filamentous biofilms covered the gel-like biofilm in the middle part. The mortar specimens placed in the upper part (30 cm above the bottom of the manhole) were corroded. The 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis revealed that one clone retrieved from the bottom biofilm sample was related to an SRB, 12 clones and 6 clones retrieved from the middle biofilm and the corroded material samples, respectively, were related to SOB. In situ hybridization results showed that the SRB were detected throughout the bottom biofilm and filamentous SOB cells were mainly detected in the upper oxic layer of the middle biofilm. Microsensor measurements demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide was produced in and diffused out of the bottom biofilms. In contrast, in the middle biofilm the hydrogen sulfide produced in the deeper parts of the biofilm was oxidized in the upper filamentous biofilm. pH was around 3 in the corroded materials developed in the upper part of the mortar specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that hydrogen sulfide provided from the bottom biofilms and the sludge settling tank was

  1. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m(3) and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an "Imminent Hazard" condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

  2. Impact of water source management practices in residential areas on sewer networks - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged drought which has occurred everywhere around the world has caused water shortages, leading many countries to consider more sustainable practices, which are called source management practices (SMPs) to ensure water availability for the future. SMPs include the practices of water use reduction, potable water substitution and wastewater volume reduction such as water demand management, rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and sewer mining. Besides the well known advantages from SMPs, they also contribute to the alteration of wastewater characteristics which finally affect the process in downstream infrastructure such as sewerage networks. Several studies have shown that the implementation of SMPs decreases the wastewater flow, whilst increasing its strength. High-strength wastewater can cause sewer problems such as sewer blockage, odour and corrosion. Yet, not all SMPs and their impact on existing sewer networks have been investigated. Therefore, this study reviews some examples of four common SMPs, the wastewater characteristics and the physical and biochemical transformation processes in sewers and the problems that might caused by them, and finally the potential impacts of those SMPs on wastewater characteristics and sewer networks are discussed. This paper provides sewer system managers with an overview of potential impacts on the sewer network due to the implementation of some SMPs. Potential research opportunities for the impact of SMPs on existing sewers are also identified.

  3. Long-term pollution simulation in combined sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, B; Zug, M; Tabuchi, J P; Tisserand, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of long term pollution simulations on the example of the sewerage system of Grand-Couronne. This modelling work is part of a study where objective is to develop a method to define the reference flow of a WWTP. The model HYDROWORKS DM has been successfully validated in hydraulics and pollution for the sewer network, for long time simulations. A conceptual model has been built to model the pollution in the tank at the outlet of the combined system. One synthetic year of rain has been used to simulate the working of the "up stream system" of the WWTP (combined sewer + tank + separate sewer + pre-treatments) and has been successfully validated by measurements of the 1998-1999 year. If this paper is focused on the "up stream system", the SIMBA/SIMBAD WWTP model has been successfully calibrated and validated too, and the combination represents a fully validated "Integrated Model" for the sewerage system.

  4. Sanitary technology. Special issue; Sanitairtechniek. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, H. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); De Veer, T. [PWN Waterleidingbedrijf Noord-Holland, Velserbroek (Netherlands); Korstanje, H.; De Gids, Ph. K. [LegioFreeWaterSystems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands); Scheffer, W.J.H. [UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Van Wolferen, H. [TNO Milieu en Energie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Donker, H. [Kemper Nederland, Groenlo (Netherlands); Engelenburg, M. [ATECA, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wolters, J. [Tour en Andersson, Alphen aan den Rijn (Netherlands); Doldersum, R.H. [De Melker Sanitairtechniek, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    In 11 articles attention is paid to several aspects of sanitary technology, in particular the prevention and control of legionella in heating systems and water supply installations. [Dutch] In 11 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. sanitaire techniek, in het bijzonder legionella preventie en beheer in verwarmingssystemen en leidingwaterinstallaties.

  5. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, polypropylene (PP and High density polyethylene (HDPE, to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LASFAR Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of the time of exposure to sulfuric acid solution leads to a progressive increase in tensile strength followed by a slight decrease at 40°C. The unaged samples of all materials have a much lower tensile strength than those of the aged samples, and a drop in elongation at break could be observed. These results can be explained by the increase of crystallinity, followed by the increase of crosslinking density due to the diffusion of the solvent and the effect of the temperature as the exposure time increases. These results prove that there is a correlation between the diffusion of the solvent as well as the increased exposure time and temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer.

  6. The Characteristics of Waste Water Flow in a Danish Combined Sewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    have been analysed in order to extract some of their characteristics. Furthermore it is emphasised that the presence of a self-cleansing capacity of a combined sewer system is of vital importance in order to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. Whether or not the pipelines...

  7. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchen Liu; Chen Wu; Xiaohong Zhou; David Z.Zhu; Hanchang Shi

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards,and requires expensive programs for its prevention.The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments.The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated.The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment.The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide)ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions ofefficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss.The opth-nal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  8. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  9. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations.

  10. Distribution of selected PCB congeners in the Babcock Street sewer district: a multimedia approach to identify PCB sources in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharging to the Buffalo River, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, B G; Irvine, K N; Kannan, K; Pragatheeswaran, V; Sajwan, K S

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate sources of PCBs in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to the Buffalo River, New York, combined sewage, sanitary flow, atmospheric wet and dry depositions, and street dust samples were collected from the Babcock Street sewer district and analyzed. Total PCB concentrations (sum of the PCB congeners quantitated) in particulate and dissolved phases of sanitary flow were 101-269 ng g-1 dry weight and 50% of the total PCB load in street dust samples. PCB congener composition in the particulate phase of CSOs reflects the congener pattern of the street dusts. In this context, it can be suggested that the local contaminated street dusts are one of the potential sources of PCBs in CSOs, which is a source of PCBs to the Buffalo River.

  11. Three-dimensional model to capture the fate and transport of combined sewer overflow discharges: A case study in the Chicago Area Waterway System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Zhu, Zhenduo; Morales, Viviana; Landry, Blake J; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2017-01-15

    We used a numerical model to analyze the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in the hydrodynamics and water quality of the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS). We coupled the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) with the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) to perform three-dimensional simulations of the hydrodynamics and water quality in CAWS. The analysis was performed for two different storms: (i) May 6, 2009 representing a 6-hour duration 4-month return period, and (ii) September 12, 2008 representing a 48-hour duration 100-year return period. Results from the simulations show distinct differences between the two storms. During the May 2009 storm there was only one major CSO pumping event with negligible impact on the water quality of CAWS. During the September 2008 storm there were several CSOs that impacted the hydrodynamics and water quality of CAWS. In particular, CSOs during the September 2008 event induced a reversal flow in CAWS, with a plume of constituents that traveled in the opposite direction as water does under normal conditions. However, the simulation results show that CSOs events in CAWS take place during periods of high rainfall, thus the discharge of CSOs is significantly diluted along the CAWS. As a result, the concentrations of organic matter and inorganic nutrients observed at the downstream boundary in CAWS were significantly lower than those recorded at the CSOs outfalls and are within the limits established in the regulation for regular effluents. These results suggest that even during storms events with significant CSOs into the CAWS there is a significant dilution that reduce the impact in the water quality at the system boundaries.

  12. Developments in sanitary techniques 2011-2012. Important progress through studies in 2011; Ontwikkelingen sanitaire technieken 2011-2012. Belangrijke vorderingen door studies in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-12-15

    In 2011, new laws and regulations were the main theme in sanitary techniques (ST). Libraries have been updated in the areas of tap water installations and sewer systems of buildings. Some important progress was made in the framework of several ST preliminary studies conducted by TVVL and Uneto-VNI. Still, the start-up of new ST studies and projects in 2012 is lagging behind compared to previous years. [Dutch] Het vakgebied van sanitaire technieken (ST) stond in 2011 vooral in het teken van nieuwe wet- en regelgeving. Zowel op het gebied van leidingwaterinstallaties als riolering van bouwwerken zijn de bibliotheken geactualiseerd. In het kader van enkele ST-voorstudies, uitgevoerd door TVVL en Uneto-VNI zijn belangrijke vorderingen gemaakt. De opstart van nieuwe ST-studies en -projecten in 2012 blijft echter achter ten opzichte van voorgaande jaren.

  13. Molecular survey of concrete sewer biofilm microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Revetta, Randy P; Iker, Brandon; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Garcia, Jarissa; Sullivan, John; Weast, James

    2011-10-01

    The microbial composition of concrete biofilms within wastewater collection systems was studied using molecular assays. SSU rDNA clone libraries were generated from 16 concrete surfaces of manholes, a combined sewer overflow, and sections of a corroded sewer pipe. Of the 2457 sequences analyzed, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria represented 15%, 22%, 11%, and 4% of the clones, respectively. β-Proteobacteria (47%) sequences were more abundant in the pipe crown than any of the other concrete surfaces. While 178 to 493 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were associated with the different concrete samples, only four sequences were shared among the different clone libraries. Bacteria implicated in concrete corrosion were found in the clone libraries while archaea, fungi, and several bacterial groups were also detected using group-specific assays. The results showed that concrete sewer biofilms are more diverse than previously reported. A more comprehensive molecular database will be needed to better study the dynamics of concrete biofilms.

  14. Migrating Storms and Optimal Control of Urban Sewer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upaka Rathnayake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Uniform storms are generally applied in most of the research on sewer systems. This is for modeling simplicity. However, in the real world, these conditions may not be applicable. It is very important to consider the migration behavior of storms not only in the design of combined sewers, but also in controlling them. Therefore, this research was carried out to improve Rathnayake and Tanyimboh’s optimal control algorithm for migrating storms. Promising results were found from the model improvement. Feasible solutions were obtained from the multi-objective optimization and, in addition, the role of on-line storage tanks was well placed.

  15. Comparison of Free-Living Amoebae in Hot Water Systems of Hospitals with Isolates from Moist Sanitary Areas by Identifying Genera and Determining Temperature Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Ute; Weber, Susanne; Michel, Rolf; Selenka, Fidelis; Wilhelm, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Legionella-contaminated hot water systems and moist sanitary areas in six hospitals were sampled for amoebae by following a standardized collection protocol. Genus identifications and temperature tolerance determinations were made. Amoebae identified as Hartmannella vermiformis (65%), Echinamoebae spp. (15%), Saccamoebae spp. (12%), and Vahlkampfia spp. (9%) were detected in 29 of 56 (52%) hot water samples. Twenty-three of 49 (47%) swabs obtained from moist areas were amoeba positive. The following genera were identified: Acanthamoeba (22%), Naegleria (22%), Vahlkampfia (20%), Hartmannella (15%), and Vanella (7%). The temperature tolerance of amoebae from hot water systems was strikingly different from that of amoebae from moist areas. At 44°C on agar, 59% of amoebic isolates sampled from hot water systems showed growth. The corresponding value for isolates from moist areas was only 17%. Six Acanthamoeba isolates from the moist areas were considered potential pathogens. Four Hartmannella and two Saccamoeba isolates from hot water could be cultured at 53°C. PMID:9572957

  16. Spatial Models of Sewer Pipe Leakage Predict the Occurrence of Wastewater Indicators in Shallow Urban Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Lee, Do Gyun; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2017-02-07

    Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate, and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging. Here we develop and test a spatially explicit model of exfiltration probability based on pipe attributes and groundwater elevation without prior knowledge of exfiltrating defect locations. We find that models of exfiltration probability can predict the probable occurrence in underlying shallow groundwater of established wastewater indicators including the artificial sweetener acesulfame, tryptophan-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and a stable isotope of water (δ(18)O). The strength of the association between exfiltration probability and indicators of wastewater increased when multiple pipe attributes, distance weighting, and groundwater flow direction were considered in the model. The results prove that available sanitary sewer databases and groundwater digital elevation data can be analyzed to predict where pipes are likely leaking and contaminating groundwater. Such understanding could direct sewer infrastructure reinvestment toward water resource protection.

  17. 76 FR 49505 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... sewage from its sanitary sewer system-- discharges that often are referred to as Sanitary Sewer Overflows or ``SSOs''--and from MSD's combined storm water and sanitary sewer system--discharges that often are referred to as Combined Sewer Overflows or ``CSOs''--violate MSD's National Pollutant Discharge...

  18. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real real rainfall time series as input and with a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (Autoregressive moving average) applied...

  19. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real rainfall time series as input ans with the aply of a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (autoregressiv moving average model...

  20. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources.

  1. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia

    1994-01-01

    A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical...... model MOUSE ST which describes the sediment transport in sewers. This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in MOUSE ST. The study was founded by the Swedish Water and Waste Works Association and the Nordic Industrial...

  2. Principles and Approaches for Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Appelgren, Cecilia; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    A study has been carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A result of the study is a mathematical model MOUSE ST which describes sediment transport in sewers....... This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in in MOUSE ST. Further, the paper presents a simple application of MOUSE ST to the Rya catchment in Gothenburg, Sweden....

  3. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  4. A Novel Model for Sewer Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Based on the naturally occurring gas CO2 the dynamics of natural ventilation and gas flow was studied in an intercepting sewer receiving wastewater from a pressure main. A deterministic physiochemical model including description of release of CO2 into the sewer gas phase was built and validated a...... against field measurements....

  5. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  6. ANFIS-based approach for predicting sediment transport in clean sewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.; Ab. Ghani, Aminuddin; Fei, Seow Yen

    2012-01-01

    The necessity of sewers to carry sediment has been recognized for many years. Typically, old sewage systems were designated based on self-cleansing concept where there is no deposition in sewer. These codes were applicable to non-cohesive sediments (typically storm sewers). This study presents adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which is a combination of neural network and fuzzy logic, as an alternative approach to predict the functional relationships of sediment transport in sewer pipe systems. The proposed relationship can be applied to different boundaries with partially full flow. The present ANFIS approach gives satisfactory results (r2 = 0.98 and RMSE = 0.002431) compared to the existing predictor. PMID:22389640

  7. Heat modeling of wastewater in sewer networks: Determination of thermal energy content from sewage with modeling tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias Maxil, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This text presents an approach to assess the energy content (flow and temperature) at any point of the sewer system based on the coupling of a stochastic model to predict drinking water demand from households and a model to estimate the temperature distribution in the sewer network. An application e

  8. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH₄/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle.

  9. Network condition simulator for benchmarking sewer deterioration models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A; Hug, T; Rieckermann, J; Maurer, M

    2011-10-15

    An accurate description of aging and deterioration of urban drainage systems is necessary for optimal investment and rehabilitation planning. Due to a general lack of suitable datasets, network condition models are rarely validated, and if so with varying levels of success. We therefore propose a novel network condition simulator (NetCoS) that produces a synthetic population of sewer sections with a given condition-class distribution. NetCoS can be used to benchmark deterioration models and guide utilities in the selection of appropriate models and data management strategies. The underlying probabilistic model considers three main processes: a) deterioration, b) replacement policy, and c) expansions of the sewer network. The deterioration model features a semi-Markov chain that uses transition probabilities based on user-defined survival functions. The replacement policy is approximated with a condition-class dependent probability of replacing a sewer pipe. The model then simulates the course of the sewer sections from the installation of the first line to the present, adding new pipes based on the defined replacement and expansion program. We demonstrate the usefulness of NetCoS in two examples where we quantify the influence of incomplete data and inspection frequency on the parameter estimation of a cohort survival model and a Markov deterioration model. Our results show that typical available sewer inventory data with discarded historical data overestimate the average life expectancy by up to 200 years. Although NetCoS cannot prove the validity of a particular deterioration model, it is useful to reveal its possible limitations and shortcomings and quantifies the effects of missing or uncertain data. Future developments should include additional processes, for example to investigate the long-term effect of pipe rehabilitation measures, such as inliners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of local control for simple sewer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Combined sewer networks, where both foul water and storm water are transported through the same system, tend to develop into complex networks due to expansion of towns and villages. The transport capacity of these systems is always limited, so occasional controlled spills into surface water, combined sewer overflows (CSO), are part of the normal operating procedure. Occasionally the ideas and rules present in the original design are not respected when the system is extended to cover a larger area. One way to deal with this problem is to implement central control. Another is to add pipes and hardware to bring the extended system into line with the original rules and ideas. We show that for a design rule often followed in the Netherlands, local control does quite well as long as the rule is respected and there are no large variations in precipitation intensity over the area covered by the system.

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of an in-sewer process model for the study of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donckels, B M R; Kroll, S; Van Dorpe, M; Weemaes, M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the sewer system can result in corrosion of the concrete sewer pipes. The formation and fate of hydrogen sulfide in the sewer system is governed by a complex system of biological, chemical and physical processes. Therefore, mechanistic models have been developed to describe the underlying processes. In this work, global sensitivity analysis was applied to an in-sewer process model (aqua3S) to determine the most important model input factors with regard to sulfide formation in rising mains and the concrete corrosion rate downstream of a rising main. The results of the sensitivity analysis revealed the most influential model parameters, but also the importance of the characteristics of the organic matter, the alkalinity of the concrete and the movement of the sewer gas phase.

  12. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  13. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  14. Performance of Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic System in Removal of Nitrogen in the Treatment of Sanitary Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Rodrigues Foco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evaluation of the performance of an anaerobic-aerobic system, consisting of anaerobic filter (AF followed by biological aerated filter (BAF, operated with and without recirculation of treated effluent to mitigate the adverse effects of organic concentrations on nitrification and promote the removal of Total Nitrogen in anoxic ambient. In the first two steps, the application of the organic loading rate (OLR on BAF ranged from 0.49 ± 0.27 and 0.31 ± 0.08 kg BOD m-3 d-1 due to the reduction of surface application rate of 60 to 44 m3 m-2 d-1. In the third stage, with recirculation, OLR and surface application rate were 0.29 ± 0.02 kg BOD m-3 d-1 and 65.8 m3 m-2 d-1, allowing the system to reduce 43 ± 10% of average initial concentration of 72 mg L-1 Total Nitrogen. The application of organic loading rates in BAS, more than 0.30 kg BOD m-3 d-1 inhibited nitrification due to competition for oxygen

  15. Premise to implement a grading system to evaluate the sanitary level in food service establishments in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Razzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions.

  16. A Feasibility Study of Implementing Target Costing System in Porcelain Sanitary-ware Industry (Case Study: Chini Kord Company, Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saeidipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to importance of costs, profitability, and survival in the competitive market, producing company managers work around the clock to reduce the prices and increase the profits. Target costing is a strategic approach to cost management aiming at promoting competitive potentials of the companies. This research is a grounded-case study studying feasibility of running target costing system in Chini Kord Company, Kermanshah branch which produces hygienic porcelain ware. Through stratified random sampling and Morgan Table, out of an 800 statistical population, a 260 sample size was chosen. To validate the questionnaire, Likret Scale and to analyze the data, inferential and descriptive statistical tools such as mean, variance, standard deviation, T-test, one-way ANOVA, single sample T, and SPSS software were used. The results indicated that running target costing in market-driven level, product-level, component level and net profit margin level was feasible, and all the questions were valid. Moreover, it was proved there is no significant difference between managers, experts, and workers’ opinions on target costing feasibility and all consented on its implementation.

  17. Changes in water quality parameters due to in-sewer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, J; Shepherd, W; Guymer, I; Fox, K

    2003-01-01

    Combined sewer systems contain a large number of organic and inorganic pollutants from both domestic and industrial sources. These pollutants are often retained within the combined sewer system for significant lengths of time before entering sewage treatment works, or being spilt to a watercourse via a combined sewer overflow (CSO) during storm conditions. Currently little knowledge exists concerning the effects of in sewer processes on pollutants. Understanding of in-sewer processes is important for the effective and efficient design of treatment works and CSO chambers and for impact assessments on receiving waters. A series of studies covering storm and dry weather flow conditions were undertaken with the aim of investigating the nature of in-sewer processes. These studies consisted of marking a body of water with a fluorescent tracer. The tracer was then monitored at a series of downstream sites, and discrete samples collected from the body of water as it progressed through the sewer. The samples were analysed for water quality parameters and these results investigated in tandem with the detailed hydraulic information gained through the tracer studies. The results highlight the hydraulic differences between storm and dry weather conditions such as increased travel times and mixing under storm conditions. The Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) and Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) model parameters have been quantified for the tracer data. The ADE mixing coefficient is shown to increase by an order of magnitude for storm conditions. The ADZ dispersive fraction parameter is shown to be approximately constant with flow. Chemical reactions and decay within the sewer system were found to be consistent with oxygen limitation.

  18. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    . After transport in sewers, these chemicals enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Monitoring campaigns are normally performed at WWTP influent to collect representative samples. Following quantitative chemical analysis, measured drug loads are used to estimate population-normalized parent drug......, are subject to physical, chemical or biological processes in sewers (fate processes). The occurrence of these processes may lead to significant change of drug loads at WWTP influent compared to source release points. Therefore, not accounting for these variations may negatively affect drug use estimates....... Sewer systems can be considered as biological reactors, in which the concentration of organic chemicals present in wastewater can be impacted by in-sewer processes during hydraulic residence time. Illicit drug biomarkers, as trace organic chemicals in the range of nanograms to micrograms per liter...

  19. Sulfide and methane production in sewer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Ganigué, Ramon; Werner, Ursula; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant sulfide and methane production by sewer biofilms, particularly in rising mains. Sewer sediments in gravity sewers are also biologically active; however, their contribution to biological transformations in sewers is poorly understood at present. In this study, sediments collected from a gravity sewer were cultivated in a laboratory reactor fed with real wastewater for more than one year to obtain intact sediments. Batch test results show significant sulfide production with an average rate of 9.20 ± 0.39 g S/m(2)·d from the sediments, which is significantly higher than the areal rate of sewer biofilms. In contrast, the average methane production rate is 1.56 ± 0.14 g CH4/m(2)·d at 20 °C, which is comparable to the areal rate of sewer biofilms. These results clearly show that the contributions of sewer sediments to sulfide and methane production cannot be ignored when evaluating sewer emissions. Microsensor and pore water measurements of sulfide, sulfate and methane in the sediments, microbial profiling along the depth of the sediments and mathematical modelling reveal that sulfide production takes place near the sediment surface due to the limited penetration of sulfate. In comparison, methane production occurs in a much deeper zone below the surface likely due to the better penetration of soluble organic carbon. Modelling results illustrate the dependency of sulfide and methane productions on the bulk sulfate and soluble organic carbon concentrations can be well described with half-order kinetics.

  20. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  1. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik; Poulsen, Niels K.; Falk, Anne K. V.

    2017-01-01

    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and controlled have thus become essential factors for effcient performance of waste water treatment plants. This paper examines methods for simplified modelling and controlling a sewer network. A practical approach to the problem is used by analysing simplified design model, which is based on the Barcelona benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control.

  2. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored...... and controlled have thus become essential factors for efficient performance of waste water treatment plants. This paper examines methods for simplified modelling and controlling a sewer network. A practical approach to the problem is used by analysing simplified design model, which is based on the Barcelona...

  3. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow.

  4. Solids separation efficiency of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, G; Vaes, G; Berlamont, J

    2005-01-01

    The removal of sewer solids at combined sewer overflow locations depends on the flow patterns inside the overflow structure on the one hand and on the sediment characteristics on the other hand. Flow conditions can be described by the residence time distribution; sewer sediments can be characterised by their settling velocity distribution. The combination of both distributions leads to a dimensionless efficiency curve, which gives the removal efficiency as a function of the Hazen number. For field conditions this efficiency curve is mainly influenced by the settling velocity distribution of the sewer sediments and, as a consequence, nearly identical efficiency curves are found for different types of prototype CSO structure. For design purposes, a methodology using return frequency analysis is proposed.

  5. Aerobic Heterotrophic Biodégradation in Polluted Drains and Sewers: The drain and sewer as dual-phase biological reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Wastewater collection systems such as sewers, sewage drains, and polluted shallow aquatic systems such as rivers, streams, and lagoons are characterized by the fact that both suspended and attached biomass exist and function. They are dual-phase systems. Contrary to biofilm dominated systems such as

  6. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    for Grand Forks AFB include Marsh Milkweed , Bottlebrush Sedge, Prairie Cordgrass, Wooly Sedge, Awl- Fruit Sedge, Baltic Rush, Wool-Grass, Soft-stem...AFB has a humid continental climate that is characterized by frequent and drastic weather changes. The summers are short and humid with frequent...Vegetation is robust at GFAFB wetlands and many are characterized as typical prairie potholes found within the northern plains ecoregion. Wetlands

  7. Reducing pathogens in combined sewer overflows using performic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondera, Katharina; Klaer, Kassandra; Koch, Christoph; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Combined sewer overflows contribute significantly to pathogen loads in surface water. Some chemical disinfectants such as chlorine have proved to reduce the levels of microorganisms even in complex matrices such as wastewater in combined sewer systems; however, some of them release toxic by-products into water bodies and increase costs of plant maintenance and repair. In this study, we determined if performic acid (PFA) disinfection units can be operated at decentralized treatment facilities and reduce bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The PFA dosing unit at the inflow of a CSO storage tank dosed a fixed flow volume into the inflowing stormwater and, thus, concentrations varied between approximately 12-24mgl(-1). The results showed a reduction of most hygienically relevant bacteria with mean removal efficiencies of 1.8log10 for Aeromonas spp. and 3.1log10 for E. coli. For viruses, however, reduction was only observed for somatic coliphages with 2.7log10. In this setting, PFA does not seem to be suitable to remove e.g. protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia. In terms of operation, dosing the substance is uncritical in decentralized facilities, but the PFA needs too much time to react with pathogens after being dosed into the overflow of CSO storage tanks and before dilution with surface water in most facilities.

  8. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  9. Gamma Radiation Detectors of the TA-55 Waste Line Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack E. Malcom

    1999-06-01

    This report covers the gamma detectors, measurement instrumentation, and testing results of a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system monitors the process liquid waste streams at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) for the presence of radioactive contamination. The detectors are at various points on the acid, caustic, and industrial waste lines. Two of the detectors are on the sanitary sewer lines from the facility. A custom interface unit associated with these two detectors furnishes the facility operation center with a notification of the detection of material. All of the detectors furnish measurement information to a central computer system for storage and trending.

  10. RATES OF GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG AREAS IMPACTED BY COMBINED SEWER FACILITIES: ANALYSIS OF MASSACHUSETTS DATA, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have reported a temporal association between heavy rainfall and gastrointestinal infection (GI). Combined sewer systems (CSSs), which are present in many urban areas in the US, were designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater ...

  11. Postural stability assessment in sewer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W; Bhattacharya, A; Succop, P; Linz, D

    1996-01-01

    In this study, postural stability was measured with a microcomputer-based force platform as an indirect assessment of central nervous system effect in 28 sewer workers (age range 23.4 to 64.5 years, standard deviation of 8.7 years). All workers performed four 30-second postural sway tests. The organic-solvent exposure was measured by a photo-ionization detector. The photo-ionization detector was calibrated to measure volatile organic solvents in total benzene equivalence, and concentrations were measured in various parts of the plant. The mean exposure was .32 parts per million (ppm) benzene equivalent (range of .02 to .95 ppm, standard deviation .19 ppm). Based on a covariate adjusted linear multiple-regression model, a statistically significant (p organic-solvent exposure. These workers also had increased postural sway compared with a nonexposed population. The statistically significant correlation between postural sway determinations and organic-solvent exposure was surprising given the very low exposures measured. It is possible that the organic-solvent exposure might not be the causative agent, but rather that the solvents themselves correlate with some other causative exposure, ie, total volatile organics as implicated in the cause of sick-building syndrome.

  12. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers.

  13. 40 CFR 35.2024 - Combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined sewer overflows. 35.2024... from the State allotment for correction of combined sewer overflows provided that the project is on the... impacts of the combined sewer overflows and otherwise meets the requirements of this subpart. The...

  14. 考虑暴雨重现期下雨水管网溢流的优化理论初探%Optimization of Overflow from Storm Sewer System Based on Storm Return Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫婧; 张志成; 尤学一; 季民

    2012-01-01

    According to Tianjin Municipal Engineering Budget Price, a model for construction cost of storm sewer system was built. Five low-cost schemes were found by enumeration algorithm and by applying global search under given conditions of design flow, original buried depth and length of pipe. The cost of these five schemes decreased by 10. 13% , 9. 47% , 6. 25% , 5. 57% and 4. 82% respectively compared with the originally planned scheme. The overflows of the above five schemes in different storm return periods were simulated by SWMM. The quantitative relations of overflow risk to storm return periods and structure of storm sewer system were determined. All six schemes would lead to node overflow, pipe overload and high load of pipe drainage in different return periods except for 0. 5 a.%以《天津市市政工程预算基价》为基础,建立了雨水管网建设费用模型,并在给定设计流量、起始管埋深和管长条件下,利用枚举算法,全局搜索出造价较优的5种设计方案,且这5种方案的造价分别比规划方案低了10.13%、9.47%、6.25%、5.57%、4.82%.利用SWMM模型模拟了优选方案在不同降雨重现期下的溢流情况,确定了溢流风险与暴雨重现期和管网结构之间的定量关系.结果表明,包括规划方案在内的6种方案,在除0.5年外的其他不同重现期下都存在节点溢流和管道过载情况,管道排水负荷偏高.

  15. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  16. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  17. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, Kd,app, between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. Kd,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment.

  18. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Tao; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer; Smardon, Richard C.; Zeno F. Levy

    2014-01-01

    As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This ...

  19. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  1. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...

  2. Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard; Gardner, Bradford B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes areas such as: (1) urban runoff quality and quantity; (2) urban hydrology; (3) management practices; and (4) combined sewer overflows. A list of 140 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  4. Application of Morphological Segmentation to Leaking Defect Detection in Sewer Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED, to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO, were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  5. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors.

  6. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    , half of these were juveniles. The median time an individual was present in the sewers was 4 months with maxima up to 22 months. Abundance ranged from 2 to 44 animals per sewer system and the dynamics showed no regular fluctuations. Rats were distributed throughout the study area, regardless of sewer...... dimensions. Juvenile rats were captured more in the smaller and drier sewer sections. Activity areas of rats of both sexes overlapped partially, and observations of bite wounds were rare, suggesting a high degree of tolerance. The average maximal distance covered by rats was ~200 m for both sexes. Day...... a surface area of 30 Ha. Multiple-capture live traps were placed in manholes in public sewers; animals were marked individually and data were collected every fourth week for a period of almost 3 years. Key results.: In total, 332 individual rats were trapped. Approximately one-third were only caught once...

  7. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  8. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  9. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated.

  10. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  11. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  12. Biological assessment of effects of combined sewer overflows and storm water discharges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijklema, L.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The biological effects of discharges from combined or separated sewer systems are difficult to assess or to predict due to variahilities in concentrations, environmental conditions, morphometry, susceptibility of organisms, seasonality and other factors. A general discussion of the problem results i

  13. Monitoring the Startup of a Sacrificial Concrete Sewer for Odor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    to reduce hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S (g)) concentrations in the sewer headspace. After being in operation for approximately half a year, the system was able to maintain average H2S (g) levels of less than 1 ppmv at the downstream end, which is the first place air can escape. The daily maximum H2S (g) levels...

  14. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  15. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  16. Construção do Sistema Brasileiro de Vigilância Sanitária: argumentos para debate Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marismary Horsth De Seta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a construção do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, um arranjo voltado à regulação e redução dos riscos sanitários decorrentes do consumo de produtos, da prestação de serviços de saúde e do ambiente no Brasil. Consideraram-se aspectos históricos, políticos, fiscais e a conjuntura atual para cotejar seu desenvolvimento com o do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde, que tem recebido intensa cooperação internacional. O cotejamento se baseou na trajetória de seus sistemas nacionais e respectivos serviços federais, bem como nos critérios para descentralização. A análise teve como categoria central a coordenação federativa e se baseou no referencial do federalismo e das relações intergovernamentais. O contexto institucional da saúde e da vigilância sanitária apresenta forte competição política, instabilidade no projeto e provável redução da capacidade de coordenação federativa após o Pacto pela Saúde. O Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, em razão da sua natureza de bem público e da alta externalidade de seu campo de ação, requer coordenação federativa para incremento da cooperação regional e local e também pela heterogeneidade estrutural dos municípios brasileiros.This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context

  17. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...... H2S concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henrys law. In plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on these surfaces. Finally...

  18. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis.

  19. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  20. Corrosion of concrete sewers--the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide absorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces was quantified in a test rig consisting of 6 concrete pipes operated under sewer conditions. The test rig was placed in an underground sewer monitoring station with access to fresh wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the pipe every 2nd hour to peak concentrations around 1000 ppm. After some months of operation, the hydrogen sulfide became rapidly oxidized by the corroding concrete surfaces. At hydrogen sulfide concentrations of 1000 ppm, oxidation rates as high as 1 mg S m(-2) s(-1) were observed. The oxidation process followed simple nth order kinetics with a process order of 0.45-0.75. Extrapolating the results to gravity sewer systems showed that hydrogen sulfide oxidation by corroding concrete is a fast process compared to the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bulk water, resulting in low gas concentrations compared with equilibrium. Balancing hydrogen sulfide release with hydrogen sulfide oxidation at steady state conditions demonstrated that significant corrosion rates--several millimeters of concrete per year--can potentially occur at hydrogen sulfide gas phase concentrations well below 5-10 ppm. The results obtained in the study advances the knowledge on prediction of sewer concrete corrosion and the extent of odor problems.

  1. Research of trace metals as markers of entry pathways in combined sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounou, C; Varrault, G; Amedzro, K; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R; Garnaud, S; Chebbo, G

    2011-01-01

    Combined sewers receive high toxic trace metal loads emitted by various sources, such as traffic, industry, urban heating and building materials. During heavy rain events, Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) can occur and, if so, are discharged directly into the aquatic system and therefore could have an acute impact on receiving waters. In this study, the concentrations of 18 metals have been measured in 89 samples drawn from the three pollutant Entry Pathways in Combined Sewers (EPCS): i) roof runoff, ii) street runoff, and iii) industrial and domestic effluents and also drawn from sewer deposits (SD). The aim of this research is to identify metallic markers for each EPCS; the data matrix was submitted to principal component analysis in order to determine metallic markers for the three EPCS and SD. This study highlights the fact that metallic content variability across samples from different EPCS and SD exceeds the spatio-temporal variability of samples from the same EPCS. In the catchment studied here, the most valuable EPCS and SD markers are lead, sodium, boron, antimony and zinc; these markers could be used in future studies to identify the contributions of each EPCS to CSO metallic loads.

  2. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  3. Challenging opportunities for an organic geochemistry of the Anthropocene: Sediments in sewer systems as archives of urban metabolism. A case study in Orléans (France).

    OpenAIRE

    Thibault, Alexandre; Jacob, Jérémy; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Le Milbeau, Claude; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Urban socio-ecosystems can be defined according to sociological, economic, political, philosophic or historical criteria. For geologists, cities can also be considered as hydrological catchments subjected to biogeochemical cycles of elements, molecules and minerals that are produced, transported and deposited. In this case, most of the transfers are realized at the surface (for stormwater) and underground (for the stormwater and wastewater systems), and can be combined...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to correct combined sewer overflows which result in impaired uses in priority water quality areas... sewer overflows (category V). (ii) After September 30, 1984, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2... (category IIIA); (D) Major sewer system rehabilitation (category IIIB); (E) New collector sewers...

  5. A biofilm model for prediction of pollutant transformation in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Leung, Derek Hoi-Wai; Li, Shiyu; Chen, Guang-Hao; Okabe, Satoshi; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2009-07-01

    This study developed a new sewer biofilm model to simulate the pollutant transformation and biofilm variation in sewers under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions. The biofilm model can describe the activities of heterotrophic, autotrophic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the biofilm as well as the variations in biofilm thickness, the spatial profiles of SRB population and biofilm density. The model can describe dynamic biofilm growth, multiple biomass evolution and competitions among organic oxidation, denitrification, nitrification, sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation in a heterogeneous biofilm growing in a sewer. The model has been extensively verified by three different approaches, including direct verification by measurement of the spatial concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide in sewer biofilm. The spatial distribution profile of SRB in sewer biofilm was determined from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) images taken by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and were predicted well by the model.

  6. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  8. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of solids deposition, erosion, and transport processes in sewer systems has improved considerably in the past decade. This has provided guidance for controlling sewer solids and associated acute pollutants to protect the environment and improve the operation of wastewater systems. Although measures to decrease combined sewer overflow (CSO) events have reduced the amount of discharged pollution, overflows continue to occur during rainy weather in combined sewer systems. The solution lies in the amount of water allotted to various processes in an effluent treatment system, in impact evaluation of water quality and prediction technology, and in stressing the importance of developing a control technology. Extremely contaminated inflow has been a serious research subject, especially in connection with the influence of rainy weather on nitrogen and organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). An intensive investigation of an extremely polluted inflow load to WWTP during rainy weather was conducted in the city of Matsuyama, the region used for the present research on total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Since the inflow during rainy weather can be as much as 400 times that in dry weather, almost all sewers are unsettled and overflowing when a rain event is more than moderate. Another concern is the energy consumed by wastewater treatment; this problem has become important from the viewpoint of reducing CO(2) emissions and overall costs. Therefore, while establishing a prediction technology for the inflow water quality characteristics of a sewage disposal plant is an important priority, the development of a management/control method for an effluent treatment system that minimises energy consumption and CO(2) emissions due to water disposal is also a pressing research topic with regards to the quality of treated water. The procedure to improve water quality must make use of not only water quality and biotic criteria, but also

  9. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  10. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  11. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  12. 嘉兴市集中空调通风系统卫生监测结果分析%Analysis of the monitoring results for sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation system in public places of Jiaxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文芳; 周哲华; 富小飞; 吴水斌; 谢亮; 丁正贵

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the monitoring results of sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation system in public places of Jiaxing, so as to prevent and control harmful factors that may appear to affect health. Methods; Randomly collected the blowing air (petri dish) , samples from the duct inner surface (smear), and samples of cooling water and condensed water of central air conditioning ventilation systems in different industries, and valuated them in compliance with Health Regulations for Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Public Places. Results: The pass rate of total bacteria and total epiphyte contained in the blowing air of central air conditioning ventilation system in Jiaxing were all below 70% during these two years, but the pass rate of β - hemolytic streptococcus was 100% , the differences among bacteria, epiphyte and β - hemolytic streptococcus have statistical significance (2009, χ2 = 20. 20 ,P < 0.001; 2010, χ2 = 6.24 ,P < 0.05). The difference of pass rate of total bacteria (χ2 = 21.36,P<0.001) and total epiphyte(χ2 = 38.49,P<0.001) , which contained in the blowing air of central air conditioning ventilation system in different industries, has statistical significance. The positive rate of Legionella pneumophila in cooling water, condensed water was 29.6%. Conclusion-. To standardize hygienic valuation for central air conditioning ventilation system in public places, and found a professional cleaning and disinfection team for central air conditioning ventilation system is the key for guaranteeing a good sanitary quality.%目的:分析嘉兴市集中空调通风系统卫生监测结果,以预防和控制可能出现的健康危害因素.方法:采集不同行业集中空调通风系统送风中空气(平皿)、风管内表面(涂抹样)及冷却水、冷凝水样,按公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生规范进行评价.结果:二年中嘉兴市集中空调通风系统送风中空气细菌总数、

  13. Succession of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in Sewer Systems† ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular ...

  14. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  15. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  16. [The urgency of the application of the medical sanitary passport in the system for chemical safety in the areas of location of high-risk chemical facilities in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombarova, M Iu; Radilov, A S; Dulov, S A

    2012-01-01

    The main provisions concerning the need for a creation of medical and sanitary passport for territories in the protective measures zones (PMZ) of storage facilities and facilities for the destruction of chemical weapons (FDCW) are presented in the article. The assessment of results of certification of the territory of PMZ and FDCW in "Maradykovsky" in the Kirov region has been done.

  17. A sanitary cooperation project in Gorontalo province, Indonesia. Methodology to identifying critical areas, possible strengthening and improving of the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Reginato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Following an agreement between UNDP (United Nations Development Program and ANAAO Assomed (Italian Hospital Doctors Association, a team of ANAAO conducted a survey of the health system of the Province of Gorontalo (Sulawesi – Indonesia. The survey was carried out following WHO methodology. This approach provided a comprehensive assessment which cut across WHO’s six technical building blocks of the health system: 1 Service delivery, 2 Health workforce, 3 Health information system, 4 Medical products (drugs etc. vaccines and technologies, 5 Health financing, 6 Leadership and governance. The team visited the hospitals and a significant number of peripheral health structures within the Province.
    Several meetings were conducted with the staff from both local political and institutions, with the aim of identifying critical areas, that would inform the development of a cooperation project to strengthen and improve the local health system.
    At the end of the survey, a workshop was conducted with the Governor of Gorontalo and representatives of
    the local institutions to identify possible areas of cooperation between ANAAO Assomed and the Gorontalo
    Province.
    The initial proposals that were developed concerned short, medium and long term projects, identifying areas
    where immediate actions were required: i Basic organization of a health system (collection of data and their use, budget, economical sector and primary health care: ii Public hygiene and preventive medicine, iii Gynaecology, to help identify at risk pregnancies and reduce the known risk of maternal mortality, iv Surgery, with regards to the re-organization of the surgical sector, training for specialized nurses and basic surgical training at the territorial health posts, v Intensive care units and emergency medicine.

  18. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  19. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen ...

  20. Sanitary Survey Training. The Need-to-Know Material. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne, Ed.

    A sanitary survey is an onsite inspection of a public water system by competent personnel who use a standard form, procedure, and method to survey the effectiveness and maintenance of the system and to determine its ability to provide continuously safe water to the consuming public. This text, developed as an aid to providing instruction on how to…

  1. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  2. Development of Operational Protocols for Electric Barrier Systems on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal: Induction of Passage-Preventing Behaviors in Small Sizes of Silver Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    electrified zone, with the System operating under various output protocols, were simulated in a tank and the responses of captured, wild juvenile silver...parallel, extended above the water surface, and covered the entire cross-sectional area of the tank, thus generating a homogeneous electric field...evaluated in the study on juvenile silver carp. 5 Hz 10 Hz 15 Hz 4.8 ms 8.9 ms 13.8 ms 2.4 ms 4.3 ms 9.8 ms 24 ms 1.6 ms 2.9 ms 6.5 ms 0.4 0.3 0.2

  3. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  4. Reducing pathogens in combined sewer overflows using ozonation or UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondera, Katharina; Klaer, Kassandra; Gebhardt, Jens; Wingender, Jost; Koch, Christoph; Horstkott, Marina; Strathmann, Martin; Jurzik, Lars; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is a major public health concern in densely populated areas since these water bodies are used for drinking water production or recreational purposes. A main source of this contamination originates from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in regions with combined sewer systems. Thus, the treatment of CSO discharges is urgent. In this study, we explored whether ozonation or UV irradiation can efficiently reduce pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in CSOs. Experiments were carried out in parallel settings at the outflow of a stormwater settling tank in the Ruhr area, Germany. The results showed that both techniques reduce most hygienically relevant bacteria, parasites and viruses. Under the conditions tested, ozonation yielded lower outflow values for the majority of the tested parameters.

  5. [Chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil: history, legislation and actions of sanitary surveillance and other regulatory systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley de; Marques, Marlice Aparecida Sípoli

    2009-01-01

    Food safety became a relevant subject due to the increasing search for a better way of life and consciousness of the consumers to stand on one's rights to acquire healthy products. The use of substances in animals destined for human consumption requires from pharmacokinetics to residue depletion studies, with the establishment of limitative values so that do not constitute a risk to health. Beyond the substances used deliberately, others coming from environment contamination or contamination of feeding stuffs consumed by these animals may reach human through the diet. The aims of this paper are to collect and discuss the main federal acts covering chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil, besides those on measures to control veterinary medicinal products and additives for use in animal nutrition. The chronological presentation of the legal basis intends to facilitate the interpretation of the acts inside respective political and economics scenarios. The actions proposed from the different agents involved into the regulatory systems are discussed from the public health point of view.

  6. Survey of sanitary and hygienic conditions of central air conditioning system in public places in Haikou City%海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仁敏; 符振华; 梁启昌; 陈莲玉; 陈彩云

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生状况,对存在的卫生问题提出相应对策.方法 随机抽取正常使用集中空调通风系统的公共场所16家,在每套集中空调通风系统的风管内表面,选择5个代表性采样点使用涂抹法采样,检测风管内表面积尘量、细菌总数和真菌总数,同时采集冷却塔中的冷却水500ml,检测嗜肺军团菌.结果 集中空调通风系统风管内表面的积尘量、细菌总数和真菌总数合格率分别为32.50%、90.00%、55.00%,16份冷却水未检出嗜肺军团菌.结论 海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统风管存在较严重的污染,应定期清洗消毒,加大监测力度.%Objective To understand the sanitary and hygienic conditions of central air-conditioning system in public places of Haikou City and put forward monitoring and management suggestions. Methods The 16 institutions using central air-conditioning systems in public places of Haikou were randomly selected and the samples were collected from the internal surface of ventilation pipes for detection of dust,total bateria and fungi. Meawhile the Legionella pneumophila in the 16 cooling water samples of cooling towner was detected. Resuts The qualitfication rates of dust quantity in the internal surface of the ventilation pipes,the total bacteria and fungi were 32.50%,90.00% aand 55.00%. No Legionella pneumophila was detected. Conclusion The ventilation pipies in the central air-conditioning systems were heavily polluted and contaminatied, therefore clearance and disinfection be regularly conducted. The work of monitoring and supervision should also be carried out.

  7. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  8. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  9. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  10. USEPA CAPSTONE REPORT: CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), sanitary-sewer overflows and stormwater (SW) are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater trea...

  11. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  12. Priority substances in combined sewer overflows: case study of the Paris sewer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Garnaud, S; Rocher, V; Moilleron, R

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to supply data on both priority pollutant (PP) occurrence and concentrations in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). A single rain event was studied on 13 sites within the Paris sewer network. For each sample, a total of 66 substances, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, organotins, volatile organic compounds, chlorobenzenes, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed. Of the 66 compounds analyzed in all, 40 PPs including 12 priority hazardous substances were detected in CSOs. As expected, most metals were present in all samples, reflecting their ubiquitous nature. Chlorobenzenes and most pesticides were never quantified above the limit of quantification, while the majority of the other organic pollutants, except DEHP (median concentration: 22 μg.l(-1)), were found to lie in the μg.l(-1) range. For the particular rain event studied, the pollutant loads discharged by CSOs were evaluated and then compared to pollutant loads conveyed by the Seine River. Under the hydraulic conditions considered and according to the estimations performed, this comparison suggests that CSOs are potentially significant local source of metals, PAHs and DEHP. Depending on the substance, the ratio between the CSO and Seine River loads varied from 0.5 to 26, underscoring the important local impact of CSOs at the scale of this storm for most pollutants.

  13. Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misati, Aaron Gichaba; Ogendi, George; Peletz, Rachel; Khush, Ranjiv; Kumpel, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Information about the quality of rural drinking water sources can be used to manage their safety and mitigate risks to health. Sanitary surveys, which are observational checklists to assess hazards present at water sources, are simpler to conduct than microbial tests. We assessed whether sanitary survey results were associated with measured indicator bacteria levels in rural drinking water sources in Kisii Central, Kenya. Overall, thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels were high: all of the samples from the 20 tested dug wells, almost all (95%) of the samples from the 25 tested springs, and 61% of the samples from the 16 tested rainwater harvesting systems were contaminated with TTC. There were no significant associations between TTC levels and overall sanitary survey scores or their individual components. Contamination by TTC was associated with source type (dug wells and springs were more contaminated than rainwater systems). While sanitary surveys cannot be substituted for microbial water quality results in this context, they could be used to identify potential hazards and contribute to a comprehensive risk management approach. PMID:28178226

  14. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-02

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type.

  15. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  16. Effect of on/off pumping strategy on sewer sediment behvaviour elucidated by high frequecny monitoring at the treatment plan inlte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Alferes, J.; Vezzaro, Luca

    study illustrates how data with high temporal resolution and advanced DQC tools can be used to: (i) detect unexpected shock loads during dry weather due to an on/off pumping strategy, (ii) understand the processes in upstream sewer systems under wet weather, and (iii) take the necessary actions......Recent developments in on-line sensor technology supplying high temporal resolution data and advanced data quality control (DQC) tools ease the task of understanding in-sewer processes, allowing for better integrated management of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The present...... to reduce the shock loads at the WWTP. The results for a selected week show that the on/off pumping strategy creates unnecessary peaks with 50-200% increased flows. This affects the water quality arriving at the WWTP, particularly with respect to the total suspended solids concentrations, which increased...

  17. Damage estimation of sewer pipe using subtitles of CCTV inspection video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kitae; Kim, Byeongcheol; Kim, Taeheon; Seo, Dongwoo

    2017-04-01

    Recent frequent occurrence of urban sinkhole serves as a momentum of the periodic inspection of sewer pipelines. Sewer inspection using a CCTV device needs a lot of time and efforts. Many of previous studies which reduce the laborious tasks are mainly interested in the developments of image processing S/W and exploring H/W. And there has been no attempt to find meaningful information from the existing CCTV images stored by the sewer maintenance manager. This study adopts a cross-correlation based image processing method and extracts sewer inspection device's location data from CCTV images. As a result of the analysis of location-time relation, it show strong correlation between device stand time and the sewer damages. In case of using this method to investigate sewer inspection CCTV images, it will save the investigator's efforts and improve sewer maintenance efficiency and reliability.

  18. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  19. Measurements and Computations of Transients in Pumped Sewer Plastic Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of pressure and flow in a number of pumped plastic sewer mains have been carried out in order to compare the actual observed transients with computations. Primarily the situation following pump run-down has been studied. The investigation covered pipelines with steadily rising length...

  20. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  1. Incorporating Storm Sewer Exfiltration into SWMM: Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the peak flow and volume reduction achieved by exfiltration from a perforated storm sewer in an urban catchment. There are three related objectives: [1] quantify peak flow and volume reduction; [2] demonstrate adaptability to climate change; and [3] evaluate ...

  2. Probabilistic modelling of combined sewer overflow using the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new and alternative method (in the context of urban drainage) for probabilistic hydrodynamical analysis of drainage systems in general and especially prediction of combined sewer overflow. Using a probabilistic shell it is possible to implement both input and parameter...... uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability...

  3. Probabilistic Modelling of Combined Sewer Overflow Using the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new and alternative method (in the context of urban drainage) for probabilistic hydrodynamical analysis of drainage systems in general and especially prediction of combined sewer overflow. Using a probabilistic shell it is possible to implement both input and parameter...... uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability...

  4. Effect of pipe sags on wastewater collection system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, V Firat; Foust, Henry

    2011-04-01

    Sagging of pipelines is a common problem in centralized wastewater collection systems. Wastewater flowing through sags experiences several changes of slope, and the flow through flat and negative slope sections is prone to a significant reduction in mean velocity. The objective of this study is to determine when pipe sags would result in significant velocities below design conditions, which also would increase the risk of a sewer backup. A sagged pipe configuration that could be encountered in sanitary sewer systems was depicted; thereby, analyses on uniform and gradually varied flows were conducted to determine velocity profiles through different segments of the sagged pipeline setup used for the study. The results indicate that there are significant occurrences when either the velocity in the pipe sags goes below minimum, as recommended in the Ten States Standards (Health Research, Inc., 2004) (0.61 m/s [2.0 ft/ sec]), or flow depth rises to pipe diameter (full section flow). Additionally, velocities along a sagged pipe were calculated for temporal flow rates to account for daily and seasonal flow rate changes in a typical wastewater collection system. Results of the temporal flow rate analysis suggest that, for a 200-mm (8-in.) diameter sagged pipe segment with full-section (wet weather) flow, 75% of the mean velocities would be below the minimum velocity recommended as a Ten States Standard.

  5. Monitoring and analysis of combined sewer overflows, Riverside and Evanston, Illinois, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Andrew M.; Hornewer, Nancy J.; Johnson, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected and analyzed flow data in combined sewer systems in Riverside and Evanston, northeastern Illinois, from March 1997 to December 1999. Continuous 2- and 5-minute stage and velocity data were collected during surcharged and nonsurcharged conditions at 12 locations. Mass balances were calculated to determine the volume of water flowing through the tide-gate openings to the Des Plaines River and the North Shore Channel and to determine the volume of water flowing past the sluice gate to the deep tunnel. The sewer systems consist of circular pipes ranging in diameter from 0.83 feet to 10.0 feet, elliptical siphon pipes, ledges, and tide and sluice gates. Pipes were constructed of either brick and mortar or concrete, and ranged from having smooth surfaces to rough, pitted and crumbling surfaces. One pipe was noticeably affected by water infiltration from saturated ground. During data analysis, many assumptions were necessary because of the complexity of the flow data and sewer-system configurations. These assumptions included estimating the volume of water entering an interceptor sewer at the ''Gage Street pipe'' at Riverside, the effect of infiltration on the ''brick pipe'' at Riverside, and the minimum velocity required for the meter to make an accurate velocity determination. Other factors affecting the analysis of flow data included possible non-instrumented sources of inflow, and backwater conditions in some pipes, which could have caused error in the data analysis. Variations of these assumptions potentially could cause appreciable changes to the final massbalance calculations. Mass-balance analysis at Riverside indicated a total inflow volume into chamber 3 of approximately 721,000 cubic feet (ft3) during April 22-26, 1999. Outflow volume to the Des Plaines River at Riverside through the tide gate was approximately 132,000 ft3; outflow volume to the deep tunnel through the

  6. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  7. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose ... Keywords: Day Care Centres, sanitary practices, indoor air quality, children, urban communities ...

  8. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Norman

    2005-01-01

    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  9. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  10. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  11. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  12. Evaluation of Ecotoxicological Risks Related to the Discharge of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) in a Periurban River

    OpenAIRE

    Evens Emmanuel; Yves Perrodin; Ruth Angerville; Christine Bazin

    2013-01-01

    Discharges of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) into periurban rivers present risks for the concerned aquatic ecosystems. In this work, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been developed as management tool to municipalities equipped with CSOs. This methodology comprises a detailed description of the spatio-temporal system involved, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and carrying out bioassays adapted to each compartment of the river receiving CSOs. Once fo...

  13. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  14. 75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... street flooding, recreational contact such as swimming and fishing, drinking contaminated water and... an NPDES permit. Sanitary sewers are part of the treatment works under the Clean Water Act and... alternatives to the bypass, such as the use of auxiliary treatment facilities, retention of untreated wastes...

  15. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J

    2014-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems.

  16. Sulfide and methane production in sewer sediments: Field survey and model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Tugtas, A Evren; Sharma, Keshab R; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Sewer sediment processes have been reported to significantly contribute to overall sulfide and methane production in sewers, at a scale comparable to that of sewer biofilms. The physiochemical and biological characteristics of sewer sediments are heterogeneous; however, the variability of in-sediments sulfide and methane production rates among sewers has not been assessed to date. In this study, five sewer sediment samples were collected from two cities in Australia with different climatic conditions. Batch assays were conducted to determine the rates of sulfate reduction and methane production under different flow velocity (shear stress) conditions as well as under completely mixed conditions. The tests showed substantial and variable sulfate reduction and methane production activities among different sediments. Sulfate reduction and methane production from sewer sediments were confirmed to be areal processes, and were dependent on flow velocity/shear stress. Despite of the varying characteristics and reactions kinetics, the sulfate reduction and methane production processes in all sediments could be well described by a one-dimensional sewer sediment model recently developed based on results obtained from a laboratory sewer sediment reactor. Model simulations indicated that the in-situ contribution of sewer sediment emissions could be estimated without the requirement of measuring the specific sediment characteristics or the sediment depths.

  17. Sewerage Collection Lines, City of Emporia Sanitary Sewer System. The data contains points and lines. Data includes some depth information and manholes. We are in process for GPSing manhole locations., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Collection Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  18. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  19. Field validation of a new low-cost method for determining occurrence and duration of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Gutierrez, O; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2013-10-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events produced in combined sewer systems (CSS) during wet weather conditions are a threat for the receiving water bodies. The large number of CSO structures normally present in a CSS makes that the monitoring of the complete CSO network in a simultaneous way would drastically increase the investment costs. In this paper, a new methodology is presented aiming to characterize the occurrence and duration of CSO events by means of low-cost temperature sensors. Hence, a large number of CSO structures can be simultaneously monitored and the system can be characterized as a whole. The method assumes temperature differences between the overflowing mix of wastewater and stormwater and the sewer gas phase, so the temperature shift produced during a rainfall episode is related to a CSO event occurrence. The method has been tested and validated in La Garriga CSS (Spain) where the temperature at 13 CSO weirs was monitored for a period of 1 year (57 rainfall episodes). For the whole set of CSO events, occurrence and duration were successfully determined in 80% of cases. Advantages, limitations and potential applications of the method are discussed at the end of the paper.

  20. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water......Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient...

  1. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    wastewater and biofilms of sewer networks was studied in detail with emphasis on determination of process kinetics and stoichiometry. In the water phase, sulfide oxidation may be both chemical and biological and the investigations showed that both processes were of significant importance in the sulfur cycle...... transformations. The experiments indicated that biological sulfide oxidation in the water phase and sulfide oxidation by sewer biofilms produce elemental sulfur under the conditions investigated. The stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation was apparently more complex producing both thiosulfate and sulfate......-workers at Aalborg University for more than a decade. In the basic version, the WATS model simulates changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic fractions of different biodegradability under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Evaluation of the model concept has demonstrated that it can be successfully...

  2. Assessing characteristic time and space scales of in-sewer processes by analysis of one year of continuous in-sewer monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoort, R P S; Dirksen, J; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2012-01-01

    Long-term and high-frequency in-sewer monitoring opens up a broad range of possibilities to study (influences on) water quantity and quality variations. Using data from the Eindhoven wastewater system in The Netherlands both dry weather flow and wet weather flow situations have been studied. For approximately 160 dry weather days mean diurnal variations of flow and pollutant concentrations have been derived. For wet weather situations (≈ 40 storm events) peak load factors have been studied. Generally, peak load factors for all considered pollutant parameters are larger than one. Peak load factors for particulate matter are larger than for dissolved constituents. Also, the smallest catchment area consistently shows the largest mean peak factors and vice versa.

  3. South Davis Sewer District Pump Station Hydraulic Capacity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, James W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, South Davis Sewer District (SDSD) determined that possible hydraulic problems existed in their various pump stations operating within their treatment plants. A hydraulic analysis was conducted for the pump stations to diagnose the problems and provide possible alternative solutions. This analysis was conducted by using hydraulic minor loss equations to determine the amount of flow that the pumps were capable of producing and then comparing those results to the required demands in the...

  4. Investigation of sewer exfiltration using integral pumping tests and wastewater indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, Sebastian; Musolff, Andreas; Martienssen, Marion; Krieg, Ronald; Bayer-Raich, Marti; Reinstorf, Frido; Strauch, Gerhard; Schirmer, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Leaky sewers affect urban groundwater by the exfiltration of untreated wastewater. However, the impact of sewer exfiltration on the groundwater is poorly understood. Most studies on sewer exfiltration focus on water exfiltration, but not on the impact on groundwater quality. In this paper we present a new monitoring approach to estimate mass flow rates Mex of different wastewater indicators (WWIs) from leaky sewers by applying integral pumping tests (IPTs). The problem of detecting and assessing heterogeneous concentrations in the vicinity of leaky sewers can be overcome with the IPT approach by the investigation of large groundwater volumes up- and downstream of leaky sewers. The increase in concentrations downstream of a leaky sewer section can be used to calculate Mex with a numerical groundwater model. The new monitoring approach was first applied using four IPT wells in Leipzig (Germany). Over a pumping period of five days we sampled five inorganic WWIs: B , Cl -, K +, NO 3-, NH 4+ and three xenobiotics: bisphenol-a, caffeine and tonalide. The resulting concentration-time series indicated an influence of wastewater at one IPT well downstream of the leaky sewer. We defined ranges of Mex by implementing the uncertainty of chemical analyses. The results showed a Mex of 0-10.9 g m - 1 d - 1 . The combination of Mex with wastewater concentrations from the target sewer yielded an exfiltration rate Qex of 28.0-63.9 L m - 1 d - 1 for the conservative ion Cl -. Most non-conservative WWIs showed reduced mass flow rates in the groundwater downstream of the leaky sewer that indicate a mass depletion during their passage from the sewer to the pumping well. Application of the IPT methodology at other field sites is possible. The IPT monitoring approach provides reliable Mex values that can help to assess the impact of leaky sewers on groundwater.

  5. Innovative framework to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban combined sewer catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, V. M.; Quijano, J. C.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a probabilistic model to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban watersheds. The approach implemented here extends previous studies that rely on the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph concept to include nonconservative constituents. This is implemented with a factor χ that affects the transfer functions and therefore accounts for the loss (gain) of mass associated with the constituent as it travels through the watershed. Using this framework, we developed an analytical solution for the dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in urban networks based on the Streeter and Phelps model. This model breaks down the catchment into a discreet number of possible flow paths through the system, requiring less data and implementation effort than well-established deterministic models. Application of the model to one sewer catchment in the Chicago area with available BOD information proved its ability to predict the BOD concentration observed in the measurements. In addition, comparison of the model with a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of another sewer catchment from the Chicago area showed that the model predicted the BOD concentration as well as the widely accepted SWMM. The developed model proved to be a suitable alternative to simulate the fate and transport of constituents in urban catchments with limited and uncertain input data.

  6. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  7. Contribution of combined sewer overflows to trace contaminant loads in urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrauch, Philip; Matzinger, Andreas; Pawlowsky-Reusing, Erika; Plume, Stephan; von Seggern, Dörthe; Heinzmann, Bernd; Schroeder, Kai; Rouault, Pascale

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the contribution of combined sewer overflows (CSO) to loads and concentrations of trace contaminants in receiving surface water. A simple method to assess the ratio of CSO to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was applied to the urban River Spree in Berlin, Germany. The assessment indicated that annual loads are dominated by CSO for substances with removal in WWTP above approximately 95%. Moreover, it showed that substances with high removal in WWTP can lead to concentration peaks in the river during CSO events. The calculated results could be verified based on eight years of monitoring data from the River Spree, collected between 2000 and 2007. Substances that are well removed in WWTP such as NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were found to occur in significantly increased concentration during CSO, while the concentration of substances that are poorly removable in WWTP such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) decreased in CSO-influenced samples due to dilution effects. The overall results indicate the potential importance of the CSO pathway of well-removable sewage-based trace contaminants to rivers. In particular, high concentrations during CSO events may be relevant for aquatic organisms. Given the results, it is suggested to include well-removable, sewage-based trace contaminants, a substance group often neglected in the past, in future studies on urban rivers in case of combined sewer systems. The presented methodology is suggested for a first assessment, since it is based solely on urban drainage data, which is available in most cities.

  8. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S

    2010-01-01

    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  9. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes.

  10. Unpleasantness and physiological responses in using sanitary napkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Kyong; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of sanitary napkins (SN) on women in hemorrhage treatment during the menstrual phase. Mesh and non-woven napkins were employed, and the effects were studied during the follicular and menstrual phases; mesh SN presented a higher textural surface-roughness. In both phases, the increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly dependent on the application intervals. The low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability significantly increased, while the salivary secretion rate decreased with the use of mesh SN during the follicular phase compared with non-woven SN. In addition, the heart rate during the menstrual phase significantly increased in subjects after the replacement of mesh SN compared with non-woven SN. In cases of wearing the unpleasant mesh SN, electroencephalography (EEG) manifested bilateral enhancements in beta and alpha2 waves in the frontal areas increased arousal level during both phases. From the above findings, napkin use increased physiological loading and wearing napkins with higher textural surface-roughness tended to increase activities of the autonomic nervous system and brain arousal level.

  11. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  12. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  13. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  14. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  15. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Sulfate attack in sewer pipes: Derivation of a concrete corrosion model via two-scale convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Tasnim

    2010-01-01

    We explore the homogenization limit and rigorously derive upscaled equations for a microscopic reaction-diffusion system modeling sulfate corrosion in sewer pipes made of concrete. The system, defined in a periodically-perforated domain, is semi-linear, partially dissipative and weakly coupled via a non-linear ordinary differential equation posed on the solid-water interface at the pore level. Firstly, we show the well-posedness of the microscopic model. We then apply homogenization techniques based on two-scale convergence for an uniformly periodic domain and derive upscaled equations together with explicit formulae for the effective diffusion coefficients and reaction constants. We use a boundary unfolding method to pass to the homogenization limit in the non-linear ordinary differential equation. Finally, besides giving its strong formulation, we also prove that the upscaled two-scale model admits a unique solution.

  18. Flood Grouting for Infiltration Reduction on Private Side Sewers (WERF Report INFR5R11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sewers in Seattle’s Broadview neighborhood, built in the 1950s, experience significant inflow and infiltration. Intense wet weather events have resulted in sewer overflows into private residences and the environment and previous work indicates that the majority of this excess...

  19. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, H.S.; Lens, P.N.L.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bester, K.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.; Vollertsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria,

  20. Flood Grouting for Infiltration Reduction on Private Side Sewers (WERF Report INFR5R11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sewers in Seattle’s Broadview neighborhood, built in the 1950s, experience significant inflow and infiltration. Intense wet weather events have resulted in sewer overflows into private residences and the environment and previous work indicates that the majority of this excess...

  1. [Score method evaluation of the sanitary condition of the University Hospital in Bydgoszcz and personnel education in 2007 - 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Korzycka-Wilińska, Wanda; Popow, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008 introduced by the Management Board of the hospital in the year 2007 resulted in change of the methods used by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic condition. The inspection protocol used by HICT was modified as part of the Quality Management System. It was supplemented by the score sheet which made the inspection results more objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the results of the supervision over the sanitary and epidemiologic condition of the hospital as well as personnel training carried out in the years 2007-2010 by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) of Szpital Uniwersytecki nr 2 im. dr. J.Biziela (J.Biziel University Hospital no. 2). 407 inspection protocols issued in the years 2007-2010 were analysed. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicators and personnel education indicators were calculated based on the analysed data. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicator for the entire hospital in the years 2008-2010 amounted to over 91.50% and only in the year 2007 it was 89.33%. While the personnel education indicator for the entire hospital increased from 90.35% in 2007 to 93.75% in 2010. the assessment of hospital units performed on the basis of the new protocol of the sanitary/hygienic condition has been proven in practice, i.e. insufficient personnel education as regards hospital hygiene is efficiently detected by HICT at individual workstations and the Management Board of the hospital is notified on the ongoing basis on the results of supervision provided by HICT.

  2. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  4. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  5. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  6. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.

  7. Simulation of sulfide buildup in wastewater and atmosphere of sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Yongsiri, C; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2005-01-01

    A model concept for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks is presented. The model concept is an extension to--and a further development of--the WATS model (Wastewater Aerobic-anaerobic Transformations in Sewers), which has been developed by Hvitved-Jacobsen and co-workers at Aalborg University. In addition to the sulfur cycle, the WATS model simulates changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon fractions of different biodegradability. The sulfur cycle was introduced via six processes: 1. sulfide production taking place in the biofilm covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted biofilm; 3. chemical and biological sulfide oxidation in the water phase; 4. sulfide precipitation with metals present in the wastewater; 5. emission of hydrogen sulfide to the sewer atmosphere and 6. adsorption and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on the moist sewer walls where concrete corrosion may take place.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  9. Modelling the impacts of Combined Sewer Overflows on the river Seine water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Stéphanie; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Servais, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas; Poulin, Michel; Blanc, Stéphanie; Chabanel, Matthieu; Paffoni, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    To achieve the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), the Seine basin Water Authority has constructed a number of prospective scenarios forecasting the impact of planned investments in water quality. Paris and its suburbs were given special attention because of their impact on the river Seine. Paris sewer system and overflow control is of major concern in future management plans. The composition and fate of the urban effluents have been characterized through numerous in situ samplings, laboratory experiments and modelling studies. The PROSE model was especially designed to simulate the impact on the river of both permanent dry-weather effluents and of highly transient Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). It was also used to represent the impact of Paris at large spatial and temporal scales. In addition to immediate effects on oxygen levels, heavy particulate organic matter loads that settle downstream of the outlets contribute to permanent oxygen consumption. Until the late 90s, the 50 km long reach of the Seine inside Paris was permanently affected by high oxygen consumption accounting for 112% of the flux upstream of the city. 20% of this demand resulted from CSO. However, the oxygenation of the system is strong due to high phytoplankton activity. As expected, the model results predict a reduction of both permanent dry-weather effluents and CSOs in the future that will greatly improve the oxygen levels (concentrations higher than 7.3 mgO(2) L(-1), 90% of the time instead of 4.0 mgO(2) L(-1) in the late 90s). The main conclusion is that, given the spatial and temporal extent of the impact of many CSOs, water quality models should take into account the CSOs in order to be reliable.

  10. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  11. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2015-11-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit with some uncertainty. It was concluded that the model could be applied for the purpose in mind.

  12. Evaluation of Sulfide Control by Air-Injection in Sewer Force Mains: Field and Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan T. García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological processes consume dissolved oxygen (DO in urban wastewater during transportation along sewer systems. Anaerobic conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L are easily reached, leading to sulfide (S2− generation. Release of free sulfide, hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S, from the liquid to the gaseous phase, causes odor, corrosion of pipes and supposes a risk for health of people working in sewers. These issues get worse in force mains, due to inability to take oxygen from the gaseous phase of pipe. Air injection is a suggested practice to control H2S emission in force mains. That technique aims to keep aerobic conditions in wastewater in order to avoid sulfide generation and favor a decrease of Biochemical Organic Demand (BOD. However, several force mains with air injection are not achieving their goals due to a limited oxygen transfer. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen in urban wastewater are presented in an existing force main with air injection during the summer of 2014 in the southeast of Spain. A laboratory scale model is constructed to quantify two-phase flow conditions in pipe due to air injection for different incoming flows rates of water and air. Particularly, for the case of plug flow, also known as elongated bubble flow. Velocity field measurement of water phase in laboratory allows estimating turbulent diffusivity of oxygen in the water, Em, and inter-phase mass transfer coefficient KL(T. In the laboratory, flow and air depth, bubble length, water velocity field, pressure inside force main and water and airflow rates are determined experimentally. These variables are used to assess DO in water phase of force main by comparison with those obtained from field measurements. This work allows assessing air injection efficiency in wastewater, and, therefore, to predict DO in wastewater in force mains.

  13. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  14. Study on the Natural Soil Properties Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as Compacted Soil Liner for Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reviews and extends an understanding of a study on potential suitability of the natural soil in Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as a compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill. Since the demand for landfill system becomes obvious so that concerning construction and operation of landfills are increasing. A number of studies have been conducted for the liner system of landfill. Hence, study is required to choose the suitable type of material as liner barrier for the landfill system in term to achieve optimum long term performance. The sanitary landfill plays an important role in the framework of solid waste disposal. The compacted soil liner is a part of a liner structure for landfill to restrict leachate migration from facility into the environment. So that, if the landfill system is not well manage it will contaminate the soil and ground water, thus presenting a risk to human and environmental health. This study, natural soil will be taken from Endau Rompin National Park (PETA, Johor as soil sample for testing. Natural soil is an economy material as a liner system, and it does not decay easily from time to time. So it is an ideal material as a sanitary landfill liner system. In short, the purpose of this study is to compile and organize available information on the use of laboratory testing, as well as providing some guidance on the use of natural soil as barrier layer of landfill and also it suitability of physical and chemical properties natural soil as barrier layer of landfill. Based on the laboratory testing were conducted, found that soil sample taken form Endau Rompin National Park (PETA is suitable as compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill.

  15. The Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms in the Corroding Concrete Sewer Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Kappler, Ulrike; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L

    2017-01-01

    Concrete corrosion is one of the most significant problems affecting valuable sewer infrastructure on a global scale. This problem occurs in the aerobic zone of the sewer, where a layer of surface corrosion develops on the exposed concrete and the surface pH is typically lowered from around 11-10 (pristine concrete) to pH 2-4. Acidophilic microorganisms become established as biofilms within the concrete corrosion layer and enhance the loss of concrete mass. Until recently, the acidophilic community was considered to comprise relatively few species of microorganisms, however, the biodiversity of the corrosion community is now recognized as being extensive and varying from different sewer environmental conditions. The diversity of acidophiles in the corrosion communities includes chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs. The activity of these microorganisms is strongly affected by H2S levels in the sewer gas phase, although CO2, organic matter, and iron in the corrosion layer influence this acidic ecosystem. This paper briefly presents the conditions within the sewer that lead to the development of concrete corrosion in that environment. The review focuses on the acidophilic microorganisms detected in sewer corrosion environments, and then summarizes their proposed functions and physiology, especially in relation to the corrosion process. To our knowledge, this is the first review of acidophilic corrosion microbial communities, in which, the ecology and the environmental conditions (when available) are considered. Ecological studies of sewer corrosion are limited, however, where possible, we summarize the important metabolic functions of the different acidophilic species detected in sewer concrete corrosion layers. It is evident that microbial functions in the acidic sewer corrosion environment can be linked to those occurring in the analogous acidic environments of acid mine drainage and bioleaching.

  16. Stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure alter sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pennino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P shift in response to differences in stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure. We compared a restored stream with 3 unrestored streams draining urban development and stormwater management over a 3 year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm d−1 compared with two urban unrestored streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm d−1 draining higher impervious surface cover. Peak runoff in the restored stream was more similar to a less developed stream draining extensive stormwater management (13.2 ± 1.9 mm d−1. Interestingly, the restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads at relatively lower streamflow than the 2 more urban streams, which exported most of their loads at higher and less frequent streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha−1 yr−1, total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha−1 yr−1, and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 g ha−1 yr−1 were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban unrestored streams (p < 0.05 and similar to the stream draining stormwater management. Although stream restoration appeared to potentially influence hydrology to some degree, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow, similar to the unrestored streams. Longitudinal synoptic surveys of water and nitrate isotopes along all 4 watersheds suggested the importance of urban groundwater contamination from leaky piped

  17. Sediment Transport Model For Storm Sewer Networks Towards The Operational Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. RÁTKY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport in sewer networks can be critical in economical and safety point of view. To improve the operation of the sewer networks we are presenting a model, which is capable of numerical simulations of the sediment transport in storm water network. The developed model is calculating the change of the particle distribution of the sediment fractions including the effects of settling and mixing up processes. The results of the model calculations in a simplified network are also presented. We are also planning to apply the developed sediment transport module by coupling to a hydrodynamic simulation for practical tasks supporting the design and operation of sewers networks.

  18. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  19. Management of Leadchate from Army Sanitary Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    C0ONTAINNENT X x X X X COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE TREATMENTxx -PROCESSES A GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS x x x GROUNDWATER RENOVATION TECHNOLOGIES x x x x 28 5 LEACHATE...Horace R. Collins Director Ohio Div. of Geol. Survey Servicio Geologico de P.R. Fountain Square, Bldg. B Dept. de Recursos Naturales Columbus, OH

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF SANITARY NORMS AND RULES EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SAFETY FOUNTAINS OF UKRAINE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov MB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main points of sanitary norms and rules of operation of fountains operating in recirculation mode (water recycling and their water supply from water bodies or water supply systems (flow mode, developed on the basis of standards of operation of swimming pools. Based on a proposal formulated standards specifications applicable to the disinfection system and water purification fountains operating in recirculation mode, implemented in the form of technology based on the bactericidal properties of silver ions and copper. The presented approach to biosecurity fountains found support from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and has been the basis of input sanitary norms and regulations will come into effect in 2013.

  1. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  2. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  3. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  4. The challenge of rendering sanitary surveillance actions operational in health promotion and in the Family Health locus

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele O'Dwyer; Maria de Fátima Lobato Tavares; Marismary Horst De Seta; Ana Silvia Gesteira

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes an articulation between the Family Health and the Sanitary Surveillance fields of action. It reflects on how essential concepts and guidelines of the Brazilian public health system (SUS), such as integrality, social control and health promotion, can be integrated into the practice of health professionals. Family Health is both a strategy for taking on a new practice and a field leading to comprehensiveness and health promotion, in addition to being conducive to community...

  5. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  6. Gamma and beta logging of underground sewer and process lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.J.; Martz, D.E.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    The GammaSnake can be useful for locating uranium mill tailings used as backfill for sewer lines or storm drains where the lines can be readily accessed from a cleanout access port or other opening. The time required to determine if contamination is present using the GammaSnake method is considerably less than when using the delta gamma or drilling methods. There is, also, less potential hazard to the equipment operators when using the GammaSnake method. The GammaSnake method is generally limited to a distance of 100 feet or less. Used with the MAC-51B line locator, the GammaSnake method can provide useful information without extensive drilling or surveying. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Critical velocity of floatables in combined sewer overflow (CSO) chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigana, J; Lefebvre, G; Marche, C

    2001-01-01

    Although the efficiency of underflow baffles has never been clearly proven, these underflow baffles have gained in popularity over the last few years as a viable means to intercept floatables in Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). These pilot scale essays, performed in a 17.0 metres basin at various flowrates, show that a critical horizontal velocity (V(CR)) may develop in the overflow chamber. Whenever this critical velocity is exceeded, floatables that would normally rise to the surface are kept within the flow and never intercepted, thus rendering the underflow baffle ineffective. The equation relating the critical horizontal velocity to the vertical velocity is found to be: V(CR) = 16 w R(H) 1/6.

  8. Comparison of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and principal component analysis/DFT as forecasting tools for absorbance time series received by UV-visible probes installed in urban sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas-Nossa, Leonardo; Torres, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce a forecasting method for UV-Vis spectrometry time series that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and to compare the results obtained with those obtained by using DFT. Three time series for three different study sites were used: (i) Salitre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Bogotá; (ii) Gibraltar pumping station in Bogotá; and (iii) San Fernando WWTP in Itagüí (in the south part of Medellín). Each of these time series had an equal number of samples (1051). In general terms, the results obtained are hardly generalizable, as they seem to be highly dependent on specific water system dynamics; however, some trends can be outlined: (i) for UV range, DFT and PCA/DFT forecasting accuracy were almost the same; (ii) for visible range, the PCA/DFT forecasting procedure proposed gives systematically lower forecasting errors and variability than those obtained with the DFT procedure; and (iii) for short forecasting times the PCA/DFT procedure proposed is more suitable than the DFT procedure, according to processing times obtained.

  9. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... A design of a pond system for the Eastern Nigerian environment is presented. 1. ... matter in a waste regardless of the biological assimilability of ... accumulation is small and desludging is required ... to ground water recharge and to septic tank .... COOPER, R.C., Photosynthetic bacteria in waste treatment,.

  10. A framework for optimal reliability-based storm sewer network design in flat areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haghighi, Ali; Samani, Hossein Mohammad Vali; Moussavi, Ali

    .... The model offers numerous design alternatives with various levels of reliability. The model was successfully applied to the Kianpars storm sewer network, a flat district of the city of Ahvaz in Iran...

  11. Sewerage Collection Lines, Sewer Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Collection Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Sewer Lines'. Data by this...

  12. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Sewer Treatment Plant, Published in 2008, City of Elizabeth City.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Sewer Treatment Plant'. Data by...

  13. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the ch

  14. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies) to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes.

  15. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties; Reglamento de Proteccion Sanitaria contra Radiaciones Ionizantes aspectos novedosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-07-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  16. Taguchi versus Full Factorial Design to Determine the Influence of Process Parameters on the Impact Forces Produced by Water Jets Used in Sewer Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, N.; Banica, M.

    2016-11-01

    The regular cleaning of the materials deposed in sewer networks is realized, especially with equipment that uses high pressure water jets. The functioning of this equipment is dependent on certain process parameters that can vary, causing variations of the impact forces. The impact force directly affects the cleaning of sewer systems. In order to determine the influence of the process parameters on the impact forces produced by water jets the method of research used is the experiment. The research methods used is that Taguchi design and full factorial design. For the experimental determination of the impact forces a stand for generating water jets and a device for measuring the forces of impact are used. The processing of data is carried out using the Software Minitab 17.

  17. Biodegradability of organic matter associated with sewer sediments during first flush.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakrabani, R.; Vollertsen, J.; Ashley, R.M.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2009-01-01

    The high pollution load in wastewater at the beginning of a rain event is commonly known to originate from the erosion of sewer sediments due to the increased flow rate under storm weather conditions. It is essential to characterize the biodegradability of organic matter during a storm event in order to quantify the effect it can have further downstream to the receiving water via discharges from Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). The approach is to characterize the pollutograph during first flush...

  18. Real-time Control of sewer pumps by using ControlNEXT to smooth inflow at Waste Water Treatment Plant Garmerwolde

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; van Nooijen, Ronald; Kooij, Kees; Postma, Bokke

    2016-04-01

    The Garmerwolde waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in the Groningen area of the Netherlands, receives waste water from a large area. That waste water is collected from many sewer systems and transported to the WWTP through pressurized pipes. The supply of waste water to the WWTP is relatively low and very irregular during dry-weather conditions, resulting in a random pattern of flows. This irregularity is the effect of the local control of the pumps, where the pumps are individually operated as an on/off control based on the water levels in the connected sewer system. The influent may change from zero to high values in a few minutes. The treatment processes at the WWTP are negatively influenced by this irregularity, which ends in high costs for energy and use of chemicals. The ControlNEXT central control system is used to control the 5 largest pump stations, such that the total inflow at the WWTP becomes much smoother. This results in a reduction of operational costs of about 10%. The control algorithm determines whether the actual condition is dry or wet, based on real-time radar precipitation images and the rainfall forecast product HiRLAM. All actual data is also collected and validated, like water levels, pump operations and pump availability. This data management is done using Delft-FEWS. If the situation is identified as "wet", the sewer systems are emptied as far as possible to create maximum storage. If the situation is "dry" (and of course there is a dead band between dry and wet), the pumps are operated such that the total inflow into the WWTP is smoothed. This is done with a Greedy algorithm, developed by Delft University of Technology. The algorithm makes a plan for the next 24 hours (as the daily inflow has a typical daily pattern) and generally stores some water volume in the sewer systems during the day to be able to continue operations during the night. The pumps are controlled with a time step of 5 minutes, where ControlNEXT manages the

  19. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Treatment plants included in sanitary sewer layer above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  20. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  1. Safety assessment of sanitary pads with a polymeric foam absorbent core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, Kara E; Hochwalt, Anne E

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary pads for menstrual hygiene have a layered design consisting of a fluid permeable surface (topsheet), an absorbent core, and an impermeable backing with adhesive. Most sanitary pads employ cellulose-based cores. This describes the safety evaluation of a menstrual pad with an emollient-treated topsheet and a novel polymeric foam core. A quantitative risk assessment was performed, which included: (1) toxicological evaluation of the raw material components; (2) quantitative exposure assessments of pad constituents, accounting for the fluid handling properties of the product and pertinent conditions of use; and (3) risk characterization for exposure to raw materials (e.g., potential for skin irritation, contact sensitization, or systemic effects, if relevant) and to the physical article itself (potential effects on skin friction, etc.). No significant risk of adverse effects was found. Five years of post-market surveillance substantiates that the product is well-tolerated (1 health complaint reported per 2 million products shipped to market) and surpasses women's expectations for menstrual protection and overall comfort and dryness. This report illustrates how the classical risk assessment paradigm, informed by the impact of product design, functionality and pertinent use conditions, allowed the systematic safety evaluation of a personal hygiene product with a novel, non-cellulosic absorbent foam core technology.

  2. Modernizing sewers and wastewater systems with new technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    After continuous problems and challenges with dead fish and oxygen depletion in the waters, Denmark initiated an action plan for Danish waters to reduce pollution in the late 1980s. The action plan puts focus on stricter criteria for wastewater treatment plants. Over the years, the plan has been...... Danish technologies is one of the main contributions to this success. However, education of staff, improved legislation and good cooperation between several stakeholders played an important role as well....

  3. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  4. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  5. SURVEY ON SANITARY CONDITIONS OF THE VENTILATION SYSTEM OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN THE STAR HOTELS IN A DISTRICT OF HANGZHOU%杭州市某区星级宾馆集中空调通风系统卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 王峥; 胡薇薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution of central air conditioning and ventilation systems in star hotels in a district of Hangzhou so as to provide the scientific basis for health management. Methods Field sampling and detection methods were used to do hygiene investigation of central air conditioning system in summer and autumn each year of three to five - star hotels in the district. Results The indoor air of the star - hotel rooms in the district was detected. The exceeded rate of average total number of bacteria was 5. 6% ; the exceeded rate of average carbon dioxide was SO. 8% ; the exceeded rate of total number of bacteria in the central air - conditioned air supply was 58. 5% , the exceeded rate of total number of fungal was 27. 7%. The average detection rates of legionella pneumophila in cooling water and condensate water of central air conditioning system were 42.2% and 26.7% respectively. Conclusion The pass rates of the important indicators of the sanitary quality of the air conditioning and ventilation systems of the star - hotel in the district are low. The detection rates of legionella pneumophila are high, so risks of infection spreading exist.%目的 了解杭州市某区星级宾馆集中空调通风系统污染状况,为卫生管理提供科学依据.方法 采用现场采样和检测方法,于2008-2011年每年夏秋季对某区三至五星级宾馆集中空调通风系统进行卫生学调查.结果 该区星级宾馆房间室内空气中细菌总数平均超标率为5.6%,二氧化碳平均超标率到50.8%;集中空调送风中细菌总数平均超标率达到58.5%,真菌总数超标率也达到27.7%.该区星级宾馆集中空调系统冷却水和冷凝水中嗜肺军团杆菌平均检出率分别为42.2%和26.7%.结论 该区星级宾馆空调通风系统卫生质量重要指标合格率偏低,嗜肺军团杆菌检出率较高,存在传播感染的风险.

  6. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation; Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. [Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, R. [Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  7. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation. Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. (Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain)); Lopez, R. (Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  8. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  9. TSS concentration in sewers estimated from turbidity measurements by means of linear regression accounting for uncertainties in both variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand-Krajewski, J L

    2004-01-01

    In order to replace traditional sampling and analysis techniques, turbidimeters can be used to estimate TSS concentration in sewers, by means of sensor and site specific empirical equations established by linear regression of on-site turbidity Tvalues with TSS concentrations C measured in corresponding samples. As the ordinary least-squares method is not able to account for measurement uncertainties in both T and C variables, an appropriate regression method is used to solve this difficulty and to evaluate correctly the uncertainty in TSS concentrations estimated from measured turbidity. The regression method is described, including detailed calculations of variances and covariance in the regression parameters. An example of application is given for a calibrated turbidimeter used in a combined sewer system, with data collected during three dry weather days. In order to show how the established regression could be used, an independent 24 hours long dry weather turbidity data series recorded at 2 min time interval is used, transformed into estimated TSS concentrations, and compared to TSS concentrations measured in samples. The comparison appears as satisfactory and suggests that turbidity measurements could replace traditional samples. Further developments, including wet weather periods and other types of sensors, are suggested.

  10. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  11. Isotopic tracing of clear water sources in an urban sewer: A combined water and dissolved sulfate stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; France-Lanord, C; Guilmette, C; Poix, S; Mustin, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of stable isotopes of both water (deltaD and deltaOH(2)O18) and dissolved sulfate (delta(34)S and deltaOSO(4)18) for determining the origin and the amount of clear waters entering an urban sewer. The dynamics of various hydrological processes that commonly occur within the sewer system such as groundwater infiltration, rainwater percolation, or stormwater release from retention basins, can be readily described using water isotope ratios. In particular, stable water isotopes indicate that the relative volumes of infiltrated groundwater and sewage remain approximately constant and independent of wastewater flow rate during the day, thus demonstrating that the usual quantification of parasitic discharge from minimal nocturnal flow measurements can lead to completely erroneous results. The isotopic signature of dissolved sulfate can also provide valuable information about the nature of water inputs to the sewage flow, but could not be used in our case to quantify the infiltrating water. Indeed, even though the microbial activity had a limited effect on the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate at the sampling sites investigated, the dissolved sulfate concentration in sewage was regulated by the formation of barite and calcium-phosphate mineral species. Sulfate originating from urine was also detected as a source using the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate, which suggests that deltaOSO(4)18 might find use as a urine tracer.

  12. 广州市三~五星级酒店集中空调通风系统卫生状况调查%Investigation on sanitary conditions of central air ventilation system in 3~5 stars hotels of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 江思力; 王伟鸿; 杨轶戬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the sanitary condition of central air ventilation system in 3 ~5 stars hotels of Guangzhou and put forward to improvement suggestions. Method Selectively check 22 hotels in Guangzhou. Detect the dust, total number of bacterial and fungi, ? hemolytic streptococcus on the inner surface of air duct; the inhalable particles (PM10) , total number of bacterial and fungi, ?-hemolytic streptococcus of supply air; the legionella pneumophila in cooling water, condensate water and hot shower water; and the serotypes. Results The qualified rates of dust, bacterial number and ?- hemolytic streptococcus on the inner surface of air duct of central air conditioning were all 100. 00% , and the qualified rate of fungi number was 94. 45%. The qualified rates of PM10, bacterial and fungi number of supply air were 79.42% , 72. 55% and 88. 24% , respectively, and the qualified rate of ?- hemolytic streptococcus was 100. 00%. The qualified rates of legionella pneumophila in cooling water, condensed water and hot shower wate were 76. 82% , 98.51% and 80.77% , respectively. The differences among the three qualified rates had statistical significance (P =0. 000) . The serotypes were mainly LP1 type. Conclusions The sanitary condition of 3 ~5 stars hotels in Guangzhou had been gradually improved, but there was still some degree of pollution. We should pay attention to the daily ventilation, cleaning and disinfection, and the relevant authorities should strengthen supervision and monitoring.%目的 调查分析广州市三~五星级酒店集中空调通风系统卫生现状并提出改进意见.方法 抽检广州市三~五星级酒店22家,检测空调送风管道内表面积尘量、细菌总数、真菌总数、β-溶血性链球菌;空调送风中可吸入颗粒物(PM10)、细菌总数、真菌总数、β-溶血性链球菌以及冷却水、冷凝水、沐浴热水检测嗜肺军团菌及血清分型.结果 集中空调风管内表面的积尘量

  13. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  14. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  15. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  16. Assessment of pollutants and gaseous emissions in sewer network in NCT of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswale, P; Rao, N N; Karthik, M; Dhodapkar, R; Patkar, G; Nandy, T

    2012-04-01

    The NCT of Delhi in India handles domestic sewage through a long sewerage networks. The network is into eight divisions. The aim of the present study is to arrive at a correlation between sewage quality and gas emissions in the sewer network of various divisions. This will aid in forewarning the sewer workers about the safety precautions. The health effects due to toxic sewer gases exposure and assessment of hazardous conditions and hazard potential are discussed. The study areas were broadly classified as residential, commercial, industrial and mix (combination of residential & commercial) for comparison. Sewage samples were collected from 1020 sites and analyzed for 10 different physicochemical parameters. The analytical data revealed wide variation in the chemical composition of sewage flowing at various sewerage network sites. Based on comparison with the regulatory standard for discharge in sewers, 89 sites with higher values of BOD and sulphate were marked as critical sites. Subsequently, the concentrations of CH4 and H2S in sewer emissions were determined for the 89 critical sites through onsite monitoring. Samples from 22 sites had significantly higher concentration of CH4 than the LEL and those from 40 sites showed concentrations higher than the LFL. On the other hand, samples from 38 locations showed significantly high H2S concentration, more than permissible limit of 10 ppm. The sewer workers in North East, North West and West region of the metropolis were exposed to hazards from excessive CH4 and H2S emissions, whereas those under South and South West regions were more vulnerable to H2S related risks. The sewer network under North, Central and South poses relatively less hazard with regard to gaseous emissions.

  17. Treatment of combined sewer overflows using ferrate (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rohan; Ray, Ajay K; Sharma, Virender K; Nakhla, George

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted on the treatment of combined sewer overflows using ferrate (VI) [Fe (VI)]. At a Fe (VI) dose of 0.24 mg/L, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total biochemical oxygen demand (TBOD5), soluble biochemical oxygen demand (SBOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and soluble TN removal efficiencies of 71, 75, 69, 68, 72, 83, 64, 38, and 36%, respectively, were achieved. Kinetic studies revealed that a contact time of only 15 minutes is sufficient to achieve secondary effluent criteria. An innovative technique of using primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge as a source for the in situ synthesis of ferrate was developed. A comparative study of treatment efficiencies achieved by Fe (VI) generated from different sources was done. At 0.1 mg/L dose of Fe (VI) synthesized from PS, TCOD, SCOD, TSS, VSS, TP, and TN removal efficiencies of 60, 62, 63, 67, 30, and 25%, respectively, were achieved.

  18. Chemical pretreatment of combined sewer overflows for improved UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J; Farnood, R; Seto, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand chemical pre-treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) for subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Approximately 200 jar tests were completed. Alum (Al2(S04)3·12H2O) resulted in a higher UV light transmission (UVT), and equivalent total suspended solids (TSS) removal, than ferric chloride (FeCl3). An alum dose of 20 mg/L increased the UVT of the raw CSO from 30 to 60% after settling. The addition of 100 mg/L of alum maximized UVT reaching approximately 85%. Flocculation did not increase UVT. However, it did improve the removal of TSS. Cationic polymers worked quickly compared with metal coagulants, but only reached a UVT of 60%. A high positive charge density on the polymer improved the removal of turbidity when compared with low charge, but did not affect UVT. If the goal is to maximise UVT, a very high alum dose may be preferred. If the goal is to minimize coagulant dose with moderate UV performance, cationic polymer at approximately 3 mg/L is recommended.

  19. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  20. Predicting Air-Water Geysers and Their Implications on Reducing Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2014-12-01

    An air-water geyser in a closed conduit system is characterized by an explosive jetting of a mixture of air and water through drop-shafts. In this study, three scenarios of geysers are numerically simulated using a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The three tested scenarios are comprised of a drop shaft that is closed at its bottom and partially or fully open at the top. Initially, the lower section of the drop shaft is filled with pressurized air, the middle section with stagnant water and the upper section with air at atmospheric pressure. The pressure and volume of the pressurized air, and hence the stored energy, is different for all three test cases. The volume of the stagnant water and the air at atmospheric pressure are kept constant in the tests. The numerical simulations aim to identify the correlation between dimensionless energy stored in the pressurized air pocket and dimensionless maximum pressure reached at the outlet. This dimensionless correlation could be used to determine the energy threshold that does not produce air-water geyser, which in turn could be used in the design of combined sewer systems for minimizing geysers.

  1. Macroscopic corrosion front computations of sulfate attack in sewer pipes based on a micro-macro reaction-diffusion model

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupecký, Vladimír; Kruschwitz, Jens; Muntean, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-scale reaction diffusion system able to capture the corrosion of concrete with sulfates. Our aim here is to define and compute two macroscopic corrosion indicators: typical pH drop and gypsum profiles. Mathematically, the system is coupled, endowed with micro-macro transmission conditions, and posed on two different spatially-separated scales: one microscopic (pore scale) and one macroscopic (sewer pipe scale). We use a logarithmic expression to compute values of pH from the volume averaged concentration of sulfuric acid which is obtained by resolving numerically the two-scale system (microscopic equations with direct feedback with the macroscopic diffusion of one of the reactants). Furthermore, we also evaluate the content of the main sulfatation reaction (corrosion) product---the gypsum---and point out numerically a persistent kink in gypsum's concentration profile. Finally, we illustrate numerically the position of the free boundary separating corroded from not-yet-corroded regions.

  2. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  3. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sanitary facilities. Applications for waivers of the location requirements of § 75.1712-6 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  4. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  5. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  6. Sewage flow optimization algorithm for large-scale urban sewer networks based on network community division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui CEN; Yugeng XI

    2008-01-01

    By considering the flow control of urban sewer networks to minimize the electricity consumption of pumping stations.a decomposition-coordination strategy for energy savings based on network community division is developed in this paper. A mathematical model characterizing the smady-state flow of urball sewer networks is first constructed,consisting of a set of algebraic equations with the structure transportation capacities captured as constraints.Since the sewer networks have no apparent natural hierarchical structure in general.it is very difficult to identify the clustered groups.A fast network division approach through calculating the betweenness of each edge is successfully applied to identify the groups and a sewer network with arbitrary configuration could be then decomposed into subnetworks.By integrating the coupling constraints of the subnetworks.the original problem is separated into N optimization subproblems in accordance with the network decomposition.Each subproblem is solved locally and the solutions to the subproblems are coordinated to form an appropriate global solution.Finally,an application to a specified large-scale sewer network is also investigated to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration of Sanitary Landfill Leachate for Removals of Colour and Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad S.M.Ameen; Abdullrahim Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Razman Salim; Azmi Aris; Aznah Nor Anuar

    2013-01-01

    In this research,the treatability of solids from sanitary landfill leachate by microfiltration membrane was investigated and the fouling of the membrane was carefully studied.Continuous microfiltration process was carried out for 21 h in experimental system involved coagulation with Moringa oleifera followed by filtration using submerged hollow fibre microfiltration membrane (MFM).Coagulation with M.Oleifera,air diffusers and back flush technique were used for preventing or alleviating fouling of the membrane.The hollow fibre MFM showed high removals of 98%,91% and 99% for turbidity,colour and total suspended solids respectively.It was obtained at the beginning of the filtration.However,quality of the filtrate rapidly declined during the filtration process.Fouling was found to proceed according to the classical cake filtration model.Coagulation with M.Oleifera as well asthe back-flush technique could not fully restore the deterioration occurred to the membrane.

  8. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  9. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the different sewer deposits in the ‘Le Marais’ catchment (Paris, France): stocks, distributions and origins

    OpenAIRE

    Rocher, Vincent; Azimi, Sam; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The knowledge of the pollution stored in combined sewers is of prime importance in terms of management of wet weather flow pollution since sewer deposits play a significant role as source of pollution in combined sewer overflows. This work, which focused on the hydrocarbon (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) and metallic (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) pollution fixed to the different kinds of sewer deposits (gross bed sediment wGBSx, organic layer wOLx and biofilm), was per...

  10. Evaluation of ecotoxicological risks related to the Discharge of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) in a periurban River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerville, Ruth; Perrodin, Yves; Bazin, Christine; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-06-28

    Discharges of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) into periurban rivers present risks for the concerned aquatic ecosystems. In this work, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been developed as management tool to municipalities equipped with CSOs. This methodology comprises a detailed description of the spatio-temporal system involved, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and carrying out bioassays adapted to each compartment of the river receiving CSOs. Once formulated, this methodology was applied to a river flowing through the outskirts of the city of Lyon in France. The results obtained for the scenario studied showed a moderate risk for organisms of the water column and a major risk for organisms of the benthic and hyporheic zones of the river. The methodology enabled identifying the critical points of the spatio-temporal systems studied, and then making proposals for improving the management of CSOs.

  11. Evaluation of Ecotoxicological Risks Related to the Discharge of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs in a Periurban River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evens Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharges of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs into periurban rivers present risks for the concerned aquatic ecosystems. In this work, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been developed as management tool to municipalities equipped with CSOs. This methodology comprises a detailed description of the spatio-temporal system involved, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and carrying out bioassays adapted to each compartment of the river receiving CSOs. Once formulated, this methodology was applied to a river flowing through the outskirts of the city of Lyon in France. The results obtained for the scenario studied showed a moderate risk for organisms of the water column and a major risk for organisms of the benthic and hyporheic zones of the river. The methodology enabled identifying the critical points of the spatio-temporal systems studied, and then making proposals for improving the management of CSOs.

  12. Management of combined sewer overflows based on observations from the urbanized Liguori catchment of Cosenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, P; Carbone, M; Garofalo, G; Sansalone, J J

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines an urbanized catchment in Cosenza, Italy where an off-line basin intercepting CSOs was studied to illustrate reduction in CSO discharges to the Crati River. While the hydrologic transport of pollutant mass is never known a-priori and can be flow-limited, the volumetric requirements of the basin were modeled based on the classic assumption that wet weather flows transport urban and sewer loads in a mass-limited (first-flush) delivery. The volumetric capacity of the basin was varied from 10 to 50 m(3)/ha. Operational basin control was simulated with historical datasets from the Liguori catchment, event-based loading data, and continuous simulation modelling with SWMM. Utilizing data from the catchment, the SWMM simulations were conducted considering the storage basin with or without sedimentation treatment. Results illustrate the potential benefits of the off-line operation for the system with respect to the volume and mass reduction of CSOs into the Crati River. Results demonstrate the importance of particle size distribution (PSD) as an index of basin efficiency, coupled with analysis of the hydrodynamic response of the basin. The basin model attenuated influent PSDs, separating the coarser fraction of the PSD, and reduced the load of influent particulate matter (PM).

  13. Relationships between rainfall and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, A.; Talbot, G.; Lavallée, B.

    2015-04-01

    Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) has been recognized as a major environmental issue in many countries. In Canada, the proposed reinforcement of the CSO frequency regulations will result in new constraints on municipal development. Municipalities will have to demonstrate that new developments do not increase CSO frequency above a reference level based on historical CSO records. Governmental agencies will also have to define a framework to assess the impact of new developments on CSO frequency and the efficiency of the various proposed measures to maintain CSO frequency at its historic level. In such a context, it is important to correctly assess the average number of days with CSO and to define relationships between CSO frequency and rainfall characteristics. This paper investigates such relationships using available CSO and rainfall datasets for Quebec. CSO records for 4285 overflow structures (OS) were analyzed. A simple model based on rainfall thresholds was developed to forecast the occurrence of CSO on a given day based on daily rainfall values. The estimated probability of days with CSO have been used to estimate the rainfall threshold value at each OS by imposing that the probability of exceeding this rainfall value for a given day be equal to the estimated probability of days with CSO. The forecast skill of this model was assessed for 3437 OS using contingency tables. The statistical significance of the forecast skill could be assessed for 64.2% of these OS. The threshold model has demonstrated significant forecast skill for 91.3% of these OS confirming that for most OS a simple threshold model can be used to assess the occurrence of CSO.

  14. Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Nesaian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developed

  15. The role of iron in sulfide induced corrosion of sewer concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Wightman, Elaine; Donose, Bogdan C; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg

    2014-02-01

    The sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete sewer is a widespread and expensive problem for water utilities worldwide. Fundamental knowledge of the initiation and propagation of sewer corrosion, especially the interactions between chemical reactions and physical structure changes, is still largely unknown. Advanced mineral analytical techniques were applied to identify the distribution of corrosion products and the micro-cracking that developed along the corrosion boundary. It was found that sewer concrete corrosion caused by reactions with sulfuric acid progressed uniformly in the cement of concrete. In contrast to conventional knowledge, iron rust rather than gypsum and ettringite was likely the factor responsible for cracking ahead of the corrosion front. The analysis also allowed quantitative determination of the major corrosion products, i.e., gypsum and ettringite, with the latter found closer to the corrosion front. The conceptual model based on these findings clearly demonstrated the complex interactions among different chemical reactions, diffusion, and micro-structure changes.

  16. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas.

  17. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  18. [Sanitary and nutritional control of the Catania school catering service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Elena; Allegra, Antonio Dino; Cannizzaro, Virginia; Fardella, Maristella; La Carrubba, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary and nutritional control of meals distributed by school catering services is one of the institutional duties of the Food Hygiene and Nutrition Services (Servizi Igiene Alimenti e Nutrizione - SIAN) of the Local Health Units. In order to carry out this activity properly it is necessary to ask oneself beforehand what the main outcome of control activities should be. The answer to this question can only be that "proper nutrition is essential for healthy growth". Starting from this assumption, control activities performed along the entire chain of the scholastic catering service, starting from the final dish served at school up to the primary producer, were reviewed. The review was carried out by a team of multiprofessionals which included a physician, a prevention technician, a dietician, a biologist, an agronomist and a veterinarian. Preliminary results are extremely positive and show that the multidisciplinary integration of roles entrusted to the coordinators of SIAN is crucial to obtaining the best results.

  19. Sanitary Sewage Treatment with Jet Inner-loop Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Qin-xue; Chen Zhi-qiang; Lu Bing-nan; Wen Yan

    2004-01-01

    A jet inncr-loop bioreactor (JIBR) was used to treat synthetic sanitary sewage with low, medium and high COD load. The experimental resuhs show that it could meet discharge standard at 20-30 min of HRT (hydraulic retention time) for low COD concentration and 60-120 min of HRT for medium and high COD concentration. The maximal COD volume loading and COD sludye loading of 27kg·m-3·d-1 and 5 kg/d per kg MLSS were achieved respectively, that were 10-20 times higher than those of traditional wastewater treatment processes. The BOD5 removal efficiency was more than 90 % and NH1-N more than 85 %. The study on the activity showed that the oxygen consumption rate of the activated times higher than that of the SBR(Sequencing Batch Reactor)and thc dominant bacteria in jet inner-loop bioreactor was Pseudomonas species.

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  1. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change.

  2. Combined sewer overflows to surface waters detected by the anthropogenic marker caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Poiger, Thomas; Müller, Markus D; Buser, Hans-Rudolf

    2006-07-01

    Continuous progress in wastewater treatment technology and the growing number of households connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have generally resulted in decreased environmental loading of many pollutants. Nonetheless, further reduction of pollutant inputs is required to improve the quality of surface waters in densely populated areas. In this context, the relative contribution of combined sewer overflows as sources of wastewater-derived contaminants has attracted more and more attention, but the quantitative importance of these overflows has barely been investigated. In this study, caffeine was successfully used as a chemical marker to estimate the fraction of sewer overflows in the catchment area of lake Greifensee, Switzerland. Caffeine is a ubiquitous compound in raw, domestic wastewater with typical per capita loads of approximately 16 mg person(-1) d(-1). In WWTPs of the Greifensee region, caffeine is largely eliminated (>99%), resulting in much smaller loads of combined sewer overflows were the most likely source of caffeine. Using a mass balance approach, it was possible to determine the fraction of wastewater (in dry weather equivalents) discharged untreated to the receiving streams (up to 10%, annual mean, approximately 2-3%). The concept of caffeine as a marker for combined sewer overflows was then applied to estimate phosphorus inputs to Greifensee with untreated and treated wastewater (approximately 1.5 and 2.0 t P y(-1), respectively), which corresponded well with P inputs determined in a separate study based on hydraulic considerations. For compounds with high elimination in WWTPs such as phosphorus (96-98% in the Greifensee area), inputs from combined sewer overflows are thus of similar magnitude as inputs from treated wastewater. The study demonstrated that caffeine is a suitable marker for untreated wastewater (from combined sewer overflows, direct discharges, etc.), but its sensitivity depends on regional conditions and decreases

  3. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  4. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  5. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  6. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    -spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order......) and total inorganic sulfide, which have all been reported as the main constituents of foul sewer gas. Samples of wastewater and biofilm for the experiments were obtained from two locations that differed significantly with respect to the occurrence of VSCs. One location represented an odor hot...

  7. Combined Sewer Overflow pretreatment with chemical coagulation and a particle settler for improved peracetic acid disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Bonnerup, Arne; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (HydroSeparator®) and additi......Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (Hydro...

  8. Shape Measurement of a Sewer Pipe Using a Mobile Robot with Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuhito Kawasue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile robot equipped with two lasers and a CCD camera for pipe inspection is proposed. Circular laser streaks that appeared on the inner surface of the pipe reveal the shape of the pipe. The 3D shape of a sewer pipe can be reconstructed considering the movement of the mobile robot along the pipe. Since the tilt of the mobile robot with respect to the axis of the pipe appears as the deformation between two circular streaks, the shape of a sewer pipe can be measured accurately, regardless of the tilt of the robot.

  9. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  10. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  11. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak...... and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark....... The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...

  12. [The population's insurance protection as a mechanism responsible for provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarushin, S V

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a principal scheme of insurance protection organization due to the negative human influences of environmental factors and industrial risks as one of the most effective mechanisms responsible for controlling sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being and human health. It also considers how a voluntary medical collective insurance program and a civil responsibility insurance one are being implemented due to unforeseen damages done to the population's health and how the quality and safety of goods (work, services) are controlled. Organizational, methodic, and normative legal approaches are proposed to developing the population's insurance protection system.

  13. Hydraulic Modeling and Evolutionary Optimization for Enhanced Real-Time Decision Support of Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A. R.; Ostfeld, A.

    2011-12-01

    Real-time mitigation of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) requires evaluation of multiple operational strategies during rapidly changing rainfall events. Simulation models for hydraulically complex systems can effectively provide decision support for short time intervals when coupled with efficient optimization. This work seeks to reduce CSOs for a test case roughly based on the North Branch of the Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP), which is operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). The North Branch tunnel flows to a junction with the main TARP system. The Chicago combined sewer system alleviates potential CSOs by directing high interceptor flows through sluice gates and dropshafts to a deep tunnel. Decision variables to control CSOs consist of sluice gate positions that control water flow to the tunnel as well as a treatment plant pumping rate that lowers interceptor water levels. A physics-based numerical model is used to simulate the hydraulic effects of changes in the decision variables. The numerical model is step-wise steady and conserves water mass and momentum at each time step by iterating through a series of look-up tables. The look-up tables are constructed offline to avoid extensive real-time calculations, and describe conduit storage and water elevations as a function of flow. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to minimize CSOs at each time interval within a moving horizon framework. Decision variables are coded at 15-minute increments and GA solutions are two hours in duration. At each 15-minute interval, the algorithm identifies a good solution for a two-hour rainfall forecast. Three GA modifications help reduce optimization time. The first adjustment reduces the search alphabet by eliminating sluice gate positions that do not influence overflow volume. The second GA retains knowledge of the best decision at the previous interval by shifting the genes in the best previous sequence to initialize search at

  14. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

    2010-10-01

    Since Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+), within the river just after the spills.

  15. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrés-Doménech

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Water Framework Directive (WFD was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain. First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+, within the river just after the spills.

  16. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrés-Doménech

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, the urban system and the receiving one must be jointly analysed to evaluate their impact. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact in a river system in Torrelavega (Spain. First, an urban model is developed to characterise statistically the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess the river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to the hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (the biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and the total ammonium, NH4+, in the river just after the spills.

  17. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1, respectiv

  18. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper;

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...

  19. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch...

  20. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    prevailing in sewers and were operated over 14 months. Abiotic transformation (e.g., hydrolysis) was also evaluated using mineral water and sorption to suspended solids and biofilms were additionally assessed. Overall, two sets of experiments were performed and used for model calibration and model validation...

  1. Analyzing hydrocarbons in sewer to help in PAH source apportionment in sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Regier, Annette; Faure, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    A multi-molecular approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source apportionment in sewage sludge was tested. Three simple catchment areas with corresponding wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were chosen. Sewage sludges of these WWTPs chronically exceeded the French guide values for PAHs. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified in sediments or wastewater suspended particulate matter sampled in different locations of the sewer as well as in sewage sludge. Various molecular indices including PAH ratios were calculated. The results showed that the ratios calculated from sewage sludge analyses provided a rather unspecific hydrocarbon fingerprint where combustion input appear as the main PAH sources. The complexity of the inputs as well as degradation occurring during wastewater treatment prevent any detailed diagnosis. Coupled to the analyses of samples collected in the sewer, the multi-molecular approach becomes more efficient especially for the identification of specific petroleum inputs such as fuel or used lubricating oils which can be important PAH sources. Indeed, the sampling in the sewer allows a spatial screening of the hydrocarbon inputs and facilitates the PAH source apportionment by avoiding the dilution of specific inputs with the whole wastewater inputs and by limiting the degradation of the molecular fingerprint that could occur during transfer and treatment in the WWTP. Then, the combination of PAH ratios and aliphatic distribution analyses is a very valuable approach that can help in sewer and WWTP management.

  2. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  3. Reliability of adaptive multivariate software sensors for sewer water quality monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a multivariate approach, based on Principal Component Analysis PCA), as software sensor for fault detection and reconstruction of missing measurements in on-line monitoring of sewer water quality. The analysis was carried out on a 16-months dataset of five...

  4. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

  5. Microbiologically Induced Corrosion of Concrete and Protective Coatings in Gravity Sewers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marjorie Valix; Diyana Zamri; Hiro Mineyama; Wai Hung Cheung; Jeffrey Shi; Heri Bustamante

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion of concrete (MICC) and its protective coatings has a high eco-nomic impact on sewer maintenance and rehabilitation. A better understanding of the micro-organisms and the bio- genie acids that are generated in the sewer is essential in controlling the corrosion of concrete pipes and protective coatings. The role of succession of micro-organisms growth in the corrosion of concrete and protective coatings was evaluated in this study. Examination of various sewer pipe materials exhibiting various extents of degradation, including concrete, cement based and epoxy based coating revealed the presence of both organic and biogenic sulphuric acids. This reflects the activity of fungi and the thiobacilli strains. Organism growth and metabolism were strongly related to the substrate pH. Fungi were found to grow and metabolise organic acids at pH from 2.0-8.0. Whilst the thiobacilli strains grew and generated sulohuric acids at oH below 3.0. The successive growth of the organisms provides an impgrtant bearing in deyeloping improved strateegies.to better manage sewers.

  6. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1, respectiv

  7. Determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-jacobsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    A method for determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation by dissolved oxygen (DO) in wastewater is presented. The method was particularly developed to investigate chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks at low DO concentrations. The method is based...

  8. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Alani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes.

  9. Combined sewer overflows in urban areas - interpreting and comparing European CSO monitoring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.L.F.; Langeveld, J.G.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the initiation of environmental legislation, monitoring campaigns have been done to estimate the characteristic pollutant concentrations of combined sewer overflow water. Such local campaigns are expensive due to the large number of events which should ideally be followed. This study focused o

  10. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore a project for studying resistance levels in sewer rats was undertaken in an urban area of a municipality in southern Zealand from where surface rats had been tested during the foregoing years. Rats resistant to difenacoum represented the highest level of resistance in the municipality. Rats were...

  11. A novel and simple treatment for control of sulfide induced sewer concrete corrosion using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    Improved technologies are currently required for mitigating microbially induced concrete corrosion caused by the oxidation of sulfide to sulfuric acid in sewer systems. This study presents a novel strategy for reducing H2S oxidation on concrete surfaces that accommodate an active corrosion biofilm. The strategy aims to reduce biological oxidation of sulfide through treating the corrosion biofilm with free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2). Two concrete coupons with active corrosion activity and surface pH of 3.8 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.2 were sprayed with nitrite. For both coupons, the H2S uptake rates were reduced by 84%-92% 15 days after the nitrite spray. No obvious recovery of the H2S uptake rate was observed during the entire experimental period (up to 12 months after the spray), indicating the long-term effectiveness of the FNA treatment in controlling the activity of the corrosion-causing biofilms. Live/Dead staining tests on the microorganisms on the concrete coupon surfaces demonstrated that viable bacterial cells decreased by > 80% 39 h after the nitrite spray, suggesting that biofilm cells were killed by the treatment. Examination of a corrosion layer within a suspended solution, containing the corrosion-causing biofilms, indicated that biological activity (ATP level and ratio of viable bacterial cells) was severely decreased by the treatment, confirming the bactericidal effect of FNA on the microorganisms in the biofilms. While field trials are still required to verify its effectiveness, it has been demonstrated here that the FNA spray is potentially a very cheap and effective strategy to reduce sewer corrosion.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of climate change on a combined sewer overflow and its receiving water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Eustache Gooré; Monette, Frédéric; Gachon, Philippe; Gaspéri, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Projections from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the southern part of the province of Québec, Canada, suggest an increase in extreme precipitation events for the 2050 horizon (2041-2070). The main goal of this study consisted in a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of the 20 % increase in rainfall intensity that led, in the summer of 2013, to overflows in the "Rolland-Therrien" combined sewer system in the city of Longueuil, Canada. The PCSWMM 2013 model was used to assess the sensitivity of this overflow under current (2013) and future (2050) climate conditions. The simulated quantitative variables (peak flow, Q(CSO), and volume discharged, VD) served as the basis for deriving ecotoxicological risk indices and event fluxes (EFs) transported to the St. Lawrence (SL) River. Results highlighted 15 to 500% increases in VD and 13 to 148% increases in Q(CSO) by 2050 (compared to 2013), based on eight rainfall events measured from May to October. These results show that (i) the relationships between precipitation and combined sewer overflow variables are not linear and (ii) the design criteria for current hydraulic infrastructure must be revised to account for the impact of climate change (CC) arising from changes in precipitation regimes. EFs discharged into the SL River will be 2.24 times larger in the future than they are now (2013) due to large VDs resulting from CC. This will, in turn, lead to excessive inputs of total suspended solids (TSSs) and tracers for numerous urban pollutants (organic matter and nutrients, metals) into the receiving water body. Ecotoxicological risk indices will increase by more than 100% by 2050 compared to 2013. Given that substantial VDs are at play, and although CC scenarios have many sources of uncertainty, strategies to adapt this drainage network to the effects of CC will have to be developed.

  13. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Moortel, Annelies; Du Laing, Gijs; De Pauw, Niels; Tack, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes ...

  14. Climate change impacts on the duration and frequency of combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, C.; Mailhot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSO) occur when large rainwater inflow from heavy precipitation exceeds the capacity of urban combined sewage systems. Many American and European cities with old sewage systems see their water quality significantly deteriorate during such events. In the long term, changes in the rainfall regime due to climate change may lead to more severe and more frequent CSO episodes and thus compel cities to review their global water management. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how climate change will impact CSO frequency and duration. Data from rain gauges located nearby 30 overflow outfalls, in southern Quebec, Canada, were used to identify rain events leading to overflows, using CSO monitored data from May to October during the period 2007-2009. For each site, occurrence and duration of CSO events were recorded and linked to a rainfall event. Many rain events features can be used to predict CSO events, such as total depth, duration, average intensity and peak intensity. Results based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis show that CSO occurrence is best predicted by total rainfall. A methodology is proposed to calculate the CSO probability of occurrence and duration for each site of interest using rainfall series as input data. Monte Carlo method is then used to estimate CSO frequency. To evaluate the climate change impact on CSO, these relationships are used with simulated data from the Canadian Regional Climate Model to compare the distribution of annual number of CSO events over the 1960-1990 period and the 2070-2100 period.

  15. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e differenziazioni giuridiche: il caso dei trattamenti sanitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Anello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e trattamenti sanitari - 3. Alcune problematiche del cd. testamento biologico in una prospettiva interculturale - 4. Conclusioni.

  16. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  17. APPROACH TO "FURTHER-REASONABLE-PROGRESS" TO ATTAIN WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed managers in urban areas in the US are pursuing optimum strategies or plans for managing wastewater treatment plants, stormwater systems, sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) and combined sewer overflows (CSO). Often these strategies are based on an iterative process or a "fur...

  18. Benjarong Sanitary Ware: Design and development for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchai Sama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has three primary aims: 1 to study the traditional knowledge of Benjarong in Samut Sakhon Province; 2 to study designs and the production process of Benjarong sanitary ware in Samut Sakhon Province; 3 to develop Benjarong sanitary ware for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as Samut Sakhon Province. Data was gathered by document study, survey, participant and non-participant observation, structured and non-structured interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that Benjarong sanitary products have been inherited from generation to generation in Samut Sakhon Province and continue to provide local jobs. Benjarong sanitary ware production uses a high budget because of the high price of colour inks, gold and electricity, so there are problems securing adequate funding. There are also problems with the management process and a lack of expert craftsmen to write and design modern patterns in harmony with contemporary art and Thai social identity. Moreover, many Thai people do not realize the value of cultural heritage and Benjarong inheritance is at risk. Benjarong sanitary ware can reflect local knowledge and traditional handicrafts. The researchers propose patterns for three types of Benjarong sanitary ware: washbasins, wall tiles and soap ledges. Development of these products will increase functionality and aesthetics, whilst maintaining Thai heritage.

  19. Sulfide emissions in sewer networks: focus on liquid to gas mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    H2S emission dynamics in sewers are conditioned by the mass transfer coefficient at the interface. This work aims at measuring the variation of the mass transfer coefficient with the hydraulic characteristics, with the objective of estimating H2S emission in gravity pipes, and collecting data to establish models independent of the system geometry. The ratio between the H2S and O2 mass transfer coefficient was assessed in an 8 L mixed reactor under different experimental conditions. Then, oxygen mass transfer measurements were performed in a 10 m long gravity pipe. The following ranges of experimental conditions were investigated: velocity flow [0-0.61 m.s(-1)], Reynolds number [0-23,333]. The hydrodynamic parameters at the liquid/gas interface were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the laboratory-scale reactor, the O2 mass transfer coefficient was found to depend on the stirring rate (rph) as follows: KL,O2 = 0.016 + 0.025 N(3.85). A KL,H2S/KL,O2 ratio of 0.64 ± 0.24 was found, in accordance with previously published data. CFD results helped in refining this correlation: the mass transfer coefficient depends on the local interface velocity ui (m.h(-1)): KL,O2 = 0.016 + 1.02 × 10(-5) ui(3.85) In the gravity pipe device, KL,O2 also exponentially increased with the mean flow velocity. These trends were found to be consistent with the increasing level of turbulence.

  20. Cost-effective solutions for water quality improvement in the Dommel River supported by sewer-WWTP-river integrated modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Lorenzo; Langeveld, Jeroen; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Arjen F; de Jonge, Jarno; de Klein, Jeroen; Flameling, Tony; Nopens, Ingmar; van Zanten, Oscar; Weijers, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Within the project, both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied with a monitoring campaign in the urban wastewater system (wastewater treatment plant and sewers) and in the receiving surface water system. An integrated model, which proved to be a powerful tool to analyse the interactions within the integrated urban wastewater system, was first used to evaluate measures in the urban wastewater system using the existing infrastructure and new real-time control strategies. As the latter resulted to be beneficial but not sufficient, this paper investigated the use of additional infrastructural measures to improve the system cost-effectively and have it meet the Directive's goals. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of uncertainty in the main model assumptions and model parameters on the performance robustness of the selected set of measures. Apart from some extreme worst-case scenarios, the proposed set of measures turned out to be sufficiently robust. Due to the substantial savings obtained with the results of this project, the pay-back time of the whole monitoring and modelling work proved to be less than 5 months. This illustrates the power of mathematical modelling for decision support in the context of complex urban water systems.

  1. Scanned Hardcopy Maps, All Engineering hanging files: sewer, water, construction plans, and subdivisions, Published in 2008, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Scanned Hardcopy Maps dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described as 'All Engineering hanging files: sewer,...

  2. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  3. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  4. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  5. Riduzione del tabagismo nei futuri operatori sanitari: alcune proposte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aporti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione della prevalenza di fumatori negli studenti di medicina e di infermieristica al fine di migliorarne le competenze e i comportamenti in tema di tabagismo, in vista anche del loro futuro ruolo nelle Aziende Sanitarie1.

    Materiali e metodi: nell’ambito della Facoltà di Medicina dell’Università di Bologna è stato condotto uno studio sugli aspetti motivazionali e comportamentali delle abitudini al fumo nei giovani iscritti al primo anno di Medicina e di Infermieristica negli AA 1999-2000 e 2002-2003. L’indagine è stata svolta somministrando questionari anonimi agli studenti in aula. Si è ottenuta così una percentuale di rispondenti pari all’ 87 e al 90% della popolazione studentesca iscritta. Risultati: la prevalenza di fumatori cronici o occasionali è andata incrementandosi negli ultimi due anni del 7% tra gli studenti di infermieristica e dell’8,8% tra quelli di medicina, sino a raggiungere rispettivamente il 42,4% e il 25,7%. Nel 2002 il 13,5% dei fumatori ha dichiarato di contemplare la possibilità di smettere entro la fine del corso di studi. Nonostante la giovane età, il 10% di loro erano recidivi da tentativi di disassuefazione falliti.

    Conclusioni: evidente il trend di aumento dell’abitudine al fumo nelle categorie considerate e la difficoltà, a volte notevole, di evitare ricadute nel tabagismo in assenza di adeguato sostegno. Da questi dati è emersa la necessità di impegnarsi per garantire agli studenti sia una più specifica preparazione (si è previsto nel curriculum studi un modulo elective sul tabagismo che una possibilità di disassuefazione precoce, grazie a un canale preferenziale presso il centro per la Disassuefazione dal Fumo di Tabacco dell’ Azienda S. Orsola Malpighi (ove operano docenti del modulo.

  6. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  7. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to the receiver during rain events. The possible impact of untreated wastewater emitted to the receiver is also presented. Apart from the pollution of the receiver, mainly by organic and nutrient substances, the microbiological contamination which is dangerous for people using the river as a recreation area and for animals that use a water receiver as a source of drinking water, should be taken into particular attention.

  8. [Hygiene policy plan at the beginning of the Meiji era: focusing on "the magazine of the Sanitary Bureau of the Home Ministry"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    "The Sanitary Bureau of the Home Ministry Magazine," in which Sensai Nagayo served as the Director of the Sanitary Bureau of the Home Ministry also took part, provide valuable historical materials regarding the Sanitary Bureau at the beginning of the Meiji era. This paper reports on the hygiene policy plan at that time by using this magazine. That is, the plan considered the facts about the regional society when executing it, though it was based on the hygiene system assumed to be an ideal "Isei". In that case, it involved not only the police but also the doctors and pharmacists as practitioners who practiced hygienic clerical work, and it aimed at bringing the functions of the hygienic clerical work to the local populace. However, neither the doctors nor pharmacists came to play a role when cholera was prevalent in 1877. Rather, at that time, the police practiced the hygienic clerical work, and the police came to be parts of the hygienic policy thereafter, as indispensable practitioners.

  9. Bacterial diversity impacts as a result of combined sewer overflow in a polluted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Calderon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. At the current study, three sites were sampled one week apart during a dry period and a wet period, where indication of a combined sewage overflow event could be detected. 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing from these three sites collectively yielded over 1000 species of bacteria belonging to twenty-two classes. Based on these data, it is hypothesized that differences identified in the microbiome on wet versus dry days are as a result of combined sewage overflow, street runoff, and additional fluctuations in the creek’s environment associated with rain. It was found that after a combined sewer overflows event, the levels of Gamma Proteobacteria increased while the levels of Actinobacteria decreased. However, levels of bacteria stayed relatively unchanged at a site further away from combined sewer overflows discharge. Species found in Newtown Creek include pelagic, marine, human and animal pathogens, hydrocarbonoclastic, and other environmental microbes.

  10. Arc Based Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for optimal design of gravitational sewer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moeini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, constrained and unconstrained versions of a new formulation of Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOA named Arc Based Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ABACOA are augmented with the Tree Growing Algorithm (TGA and used for the optimal layout and pipe size design of gravitational sewer networks. The main advantages offered by the proposed ABACOA formulation are proper definition of heuristic information, a useful component of the ant-based algorithms, and proper trade-off between the two conflicting search attributes of exploration and exploitation. In both the formulations, the TGA is used to incrementally construct feasible tree-like layouts out of the base layout. In the first formulation, unconstrained version of ABACOA is used to determine the nodal cover depths of sewer pipes while in the second formulation, a constrained version of ABACOA is used to determine the nodal cover depths of sewer pipes which satisfy the pipe slopes constraint. Three different methods of cut determination are also proposed to complete the construction of a tree-like network containing all base layout pipes, here. The proposed formulations are used to solve three test examples of different scales and the results are presented and compared with other available results in the literature. Comparison of the results shows that best results are obtained using the third cutting method in both the formulations. In addition, the results indicate the ability of the proposed methods and in particular the constrained version of ABACOA equipped with TGA to solve sewer networks design optimization problem. To be specific, the constrained version of ABACOA has been able to produce results 0.1%, 1% and 2.1% cheaper than those obtained by the unconstrained version of ABACOA for the first, second and the third test examples, respectively.

  11. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2017-07-17

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of combined sewer overflows on a periurban stream ecosystem: Methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Breil, P.; Lafont, M.; Vivier, A.; Namour, P.; Schmitt, L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Here we develop from a long term field experiment an assessment method of interstitial fauna resilience to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) effect. We address the case of small water courses for which the ratio of CSOs to natural flow can be 1 to much more. Biotic material was collected in the benthic and hyporheic layers. Biotic material focussed mainly on oligocheates species whose diversity, species category and abundance are resumed into metrics, called functional t...

  13. Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes.

  14. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office.

  15. Sanitary maintenance of indoor environment. Sports shisetsu no kuki chowa ni atatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H. (Japan Federation of Health and Sports, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-05

    This paper describes the trends in the recent fitness club facilities, their institutions as health improving facilities, and their facility management. The recent trend in opening new fitness clubs is characterized by noticeable decrease in new openings of small-scale clubs, and a single club is getting larger in size and fuller in menu line-up. The nationwide distribution of fitness clubs shows concentration in big cities like Tokyo and Osaka. Gymnastic devices, swimming pool, and athletic studios account for overwhelmingly highly in the kinds of facilities. Particularly, warm-water swimming pools have become indispensable, receiving high evaluation as an exercise safe and effective for middle to high aged people in terms of exercise physiology. Important considerations on joining a club are easiness in access, pleasant atmosphere, and high selectivity and cleanliness in facilities. Discontents include poor ventilation, and disagreeable temperature and humidity control. A medical expense deduction system for fitness club utilization based on physicians' prescriptions was inaugurated in 1992. Problems are in improving the quality of sanitary aspects, including air conditioning and air and water filtration in the facilities. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented.

  17. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  18. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem.

  19. 24 CFR 902.23 - Physical condition standards for public housing-decent, safe, and sanitary housing in good repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... housing must have no evidence of infestation by rats, mice, or other vermin, or of garbage and debris. The... tank back-ups, sewer hazards, excess accumulations of trash, vermin or rodent infestation or...

  20. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  1. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    According to the Regulation for food products of animal origin (Europa Parlamentets og Rådets Forordning (EF) Nr. 854), microbiological classification of production areas for live bivalve mollusks etc.3 and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on a so-called ‘sanitary surveys......’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice...... the past 10 years (2007-2016). Within this data set, 99.2 % of a total of 908 samples contain E. coli A level (survey of Løgstør Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  2. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  3. Succession of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in Sewer Systems† ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O32−). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  4. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  5. [Actual sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic aspects of a dietitian's activities in stationary medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimoval, M G; Elizarova, E V; Petrenko, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the relevance of the main areas of dietitians' training to sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic issues of organization of clinical nutrition in stationary medical institutions (MIs) at training and refresher courses on dietetics. The attention is focused on the new legislative, policy and regulatory instruments, sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements, providing high quality, safety and efficacy of nutritional therapy in MIs. The role of dietitian in the organization of clinical nutrition is highlighted. There were set out rights and responsibilities of a dietitian as a representative of MI under inspections by Rospotrebnadzor bodies; the demands, put forward by these bodies to the tested object, and actions, taken by them.

  6. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  7. Sedimentology, stratigraphy and chronology of a decantation tank in the sewer network of Orléans (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jérémy; Thibault, Alexandre; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Le Milbeau, Claude; DiGiovanni, Christian; Sabatier, Pierre; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Ardito, Luigi; Morio, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Current debates on the status of the Anthropocene convey geologists and palaeoenvironmentalists toward new spatial and temporal targets. One of the most emblematic socio-ecosystem of the Anthropocene is urban areas in which the dynamics of materials are mainly controlled by human activities. This brings unprecedented elemental, molecular and isotopic concentrations and distributions that lead Norra (2009) to propose a new geological sphere: the Astysphere. Here we propose that sediments accumulated in sewer networks can provide original, integrated, and multi-thematic archives for the recent history of cities by considering urban systems as any catchment where materials are produced, transported and sedimented. The study site is a decantation tank that collects stormwater and wastewater from the north of Orléans city, upstream wastewater plants in Orléans. Sediments accumulated since 1942 over 17 m depth and were never cleaned out until 2015. Two sedimentary cores of 70 (A) and 250 cm long (B) were collected before clean out and then a third of 150 cm (C) after. Sediments are organized into layers constituted by sands and gravels alternating with silts and organic layers. Sharp contacts between those layers indicate evenemential sedimentation, as expected in sewer networks. We formulate the hypothesis that organic/mineral alternations result from a seasonal dynamic. 7Be presence in topmost sample from core A confirms it was deposited within the last 6 months. In core C, only the upper half core, mostly mineral, displays significant 7Be levels whereas 7Be is absent from the lower half, which is mostly organic. This would confirm that our hypothesis of a seasonal alternation, with organic facies deposited during spring- summer and mineral facies deposited during fall-winter. 30 14C dates measured on cores A and B by postbomb method are logically distributed with depth, the most ancient (beginning of the eighties) being recorder at 2.5m depth. This study shows that

  8. Application of a fully-integrated groundwater-surface water flow model in municipal asset management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. K.; Unger, A.; Jones, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Access to affordable potable water is critical in the development and maintenance of urban centres. Given that water is a public good in Canada, all funds related to operation and maintenance of the drinking water and wastewater networks must come from consumers. An asset management system can be put in place by municipalities to more efficiently manage their water and wastewater distribution system to ensure proper use of these funds. The system works at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels, thus ensuring optimal scheduling of operation and maintenance activities, as well as prediction of future water demand scenarios. At the operational level, a fully integrated model is used to simulate the groundwater-surface water interaction of the Laurel Creek Watershed, of which 80% is urbanized by the City of Waterloo. Canadian municipalities typically lose 13% of their potable water through leaks in watermains and sanitary sewers, and sanitary sewers often generate substantial inflows from fractures in pipe walls. The City of Waterloo sanitary sewers carry an additional 10,000 cubic meters of water to wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, watermain and sanitary sewers present a significant impact on the groundwater-surface water interaction, as well as the affordability of the drinking water and wastewater networks as a whole. To determine areas of concern within the network, the integrated groundwater-surface water model also simulates flow through the City of Waterloo's watermain and sanitary sewer networks. The final model will be used to assess the interaction between measured losses of water from the City of Waterloo's watermain system, infiltration into the sanitary sewer system adjacent to the watermains, and the response of the groundwater system to deteriorated sanitary sewers or to pipes that have been recently renovated. This will ultimately contribute to the City of Waterloo's municipal asset management plan.

  9. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  10. [The activity of the State Sanitary Inspectorate after implementation of the act of January, 23 2009 "Amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaś, Dariusz; Skórczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The restructuring of the State Sanitary Inspectorate was determined by the need to adjust the existing system to the new structure- and task-oriented standards introduced by the administrative reforms at the provincial level. This brought about a lot of changes in the way State County Sanitary Inspectors operate. For first few months after the enforcement of the Act of January 23.2009 amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level (Journal of Laws, No. 92, item. 753, 2009) brought about a lot of ambiguities and expectations. Such unresolved issues are typical for the initial or transition period after implementation of a new law. The approach to the operation of the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level depicted in the article lays the emphasis on the challenges in the legal and task-oriented domain that arose after coming into force of the aforementioned amendment. By way of conclusion, the authors of the article briefly summaries the practical outcomes of the transformations undergone by the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level.

  11. Wastewater Management in Tropical Monsoon Climates:Sanitary and Ecological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi,Juni; Giri,Rabindra Raj

    2012-01-01

    Since Thai people have traditionally used Thai-style toilets, wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand, is characterized by its water quality referred to as greywater without feces contamination. The water tends to be easily decomposed by microorganisms in sewers under hot and stagnant conditions. The contamination with night soil affected microbial fauna and flora of activated sludge formed in sewage works, as being suggested by simulated laboratory experiments. Nitrification was also promoted by the...

  12. Reducing combined sewer overflows by using outlet controls for Green Stormwater Infrastructure: Case study in Richmond, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William C.; Sample, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a major problem in many cities. This paper assesses two Low Impact Development (LID) Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) alternatives applied within a 7.05 ha catchment of the Shockoe Creek tributary of the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The LID alternatives were the "Green-Free" (typical free discharge underdrains) and the "Green-Control" (underdrains with flow controlled outlets). These alternatives were compared to two non-LID alternatives: "Existing" (existing conditions) and "Gray" (tunnel storage). A normal year scenario with average rainfall depths and intensities was compared to a scenario with anticipated higher intensity rainfall due to climate change (CC). In the normal year, the Green-Control alternative performed substantially better than both the Green-Free and the Gray alternatives in terms of volume control. However it experienced slightly more CSO events than Grey. The relative performance of both green alternatives improved with the CC climate year, indicating that GSI is more resilient than gray infrastructure. In particular, Green-Control exhibited much better performance. While the gray infrastructure solution reduced CSOs to the fewest number of occurrences, the smallest overflow volumes, lowest peak flows and the most resilient system was obtained by the Green-Control alternative. Since CSO volume is strongly related to the negative ecological impacts from overflows, and CSO occurrences are not, GSI provides a more sustainable solution than gray. These results find that hydraulic control of discharges should be the preferred option when considering GSI in CSO mitigation.

  13. Sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence seen from battered women perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sánchez Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative study whose objective is to know battered women perception regarding sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence in Madrid Community. The results were validated by a triangulation process. Women identified sanitary assistance with those given when there exist physical injuries. However, if we keep questioning about it, they do express to look for something else from the professionals who attended them, although they are not able to say it before them.Somatizations that ill-treatment produces are treated by sanitary professionals without attending to the cause that caused them, and, when it is identified ill-treatment as the cause, rarely sanitary professionals send them to psychologies or psychiatrics. However, this is not identified as a bad practice, because women establish a very defined and rigid function for each professional, where, as they understand, Primary Care doctor will not be required to worry about psychic health and wellbeing of people who attend to their offices.We think, therefore, that it would be recommended that Madrid Community should create a specific health program to attend these women in order to guarantee, this way, a proper attention to people who may be in this situation as well as a minimum quality on the attention they received.

  14. 75 FR 22713 - Implementation of Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... sickened dogs, involved corn gluten used in dog food. The corn gluten was determined to have been... ranging up to 28,000 parts per million. A Class I recall was issued for the dog food and other food for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 RIN 0910-AG52 Implementation of Sanitary Food...

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  16. Food Safety and Plant Health in Ghana - Analysis of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Tay, J.G.; Koomen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana is a signatory of the WTO agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures. This international agreement sets out a framework for food safety as well as plant health. While food safety is important for both national as well as international trade, phytosanitary compliance can especially

  17. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. PMID:25477940

  18. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.