WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary sewage systems

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  2. Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters.

  3. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  5. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  6. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  7. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  8. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  9. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  10. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  11. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  12. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  13. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  14. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a) is... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation...

  16. The environmental impact of informal and home productive arrangement in the jewelry and fashion jewelry chain on sanitary sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Luz, Maciel Santos; Fávaro, Déborah Inês Teixeira; Ferreira, Francisco Jorge; da Silva Paganini, Wanderley; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-04-01

    The outsourcing informal home practices adopted in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain can cause toxic substance elimination in the effluents and raise a concern for its environmental impact. This study evaluates if this informal work alters the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs: As, Cd, Cr total and Cr-VI, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in the sewage network. The sanitary sewage samples (n = 540) were collected in 15 manholes during two campaigns in three different areas of Limeira-SP, Brazil (industrial area, with informal work and without known industrial/informal activity). The sewage sludge (n = 12), raw (n = 12), and treated sewage (n = 12) were collected in two wastewater treatment plants (WWT: AS and TATU) operating with different treatment process. The PTE determination was performed by ICP-OES, direct mercury analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Cr-VI, Cu, Ni, and Zn were the only elements above the quantification limit. Four samples exceeded Cu or Zn values permitted to be discharged into sewage system; however, the concentration average was lower than that established by Brazilian legislation. A difference was found between values above and below the 75th percentile for campaign and total organic carbon values (p < 0.015). The AS-treated sewage presented low concentrations of Cu (p < 0.05), Zn (p = 0.02), and Ni (p = 0.01) compared to treated sewage from TATU. In the sludge samples, the Cu means exceeded the limits of the Brazilian legislation (1500 mg kg -1 ) and the Zn results were very close to the limits (2800 mg kg -1 ). The heterogeneity of the results can indicate the sporadic nature of the PTE's sanitary disposal. PTEs used in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain may precipitate on the sludge, where presented high concentrations of Cu and Zn which require controlled destination.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the sewage lagoon system: Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1026), to evaluate the potential impacts of constructing a sanitary waste sewage lagoon system in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed system would replace an existing septic system. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  18. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. O equilíbrio de Nash como uma solução para o conflito entre eficiência e custo na escolha de sistemas de tratamento de esgoto sanitário com o auxílio de um modelo de tomada de decisão The Nash equilibrium as a solution to the conflict between efficiency and cost in the choice of systems for sanitary sewage treatment using a decision making model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bevilacqua Leoneti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escolha de estações de tratamento de esgoto pode, dentre outras coisas, envolver um conflito entre a eficiência e o custo, pois para o menor custo possível esta escolha também deverá satisfazer várias exigências ambientais. Para auxiliar na escolha de uma estação de menor custo, um modelo baseado em técnicas de tomada de decisão foi desenvolvido por Oliveira (2004. Todavia, se não forem levados em consideração os outros critérios envolvidos, a interação entre os tomadores de decisão e suas respectivas estratégias podem fazer com que a escolha do sistema de tratamento não seja a mais adequada. Para estes casos, o equilíbrio de Nash pode oferece uma solução, construída com base na interação entre os jogadores, a qual poderia satisfazer razoavelmente os interesses conflitantes. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi, com base nos dados de saída do modelo de Oliveira (2004, encontrar o equilíbrio de Nash para propor uma solução para o conflito entre a eficiência e o custo nas escolhas do sistema de tratamento de esgoto sanitário. A comparação entre os diferentes resultados alcançados, quando apenas considerado o critério de menor custo ou de maior eficiência, demonstrou que a adoção do equilíbrio de Nash pode ser uma alternativa viável para solucionar o conflito entre a eficiência e o custo nas escolhas das estações de tratamento de esgoto sanitário.The choice of sewage treatment plants may, among others, involve a conflict between efficiency and cost, because for the lowest possible cost, this choice should meet some environmental requirements. To assist in the choice of a treatment system for municipal sanitary sewer, a model based on techniques of decision making was developed by Oliveira (2004. However, if the other criteria involved are not considered, the interaction between decision makers and their strategies can turn the choice of the treatment system into an inadequate one. For these

  20. Wekiva Basin onsite sewage treatment and disposal system study

    OpenAIRE

    Booher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Existing onsite systems and aquifer vulnerability in the Wekiva Basin. Recommendations from the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health. (11 slides)

  1. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  2. ENSURING SANITARY RELIABILITY OF TERRITORIES WHEN USING REMOVABLE SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found out that in most cases the system of removable water disposal is arranged with violations, i.e. cesspools that collect runoffs are either not designed at all — waste water merge into an open trench (ditch, and then water is filtered into the ground, or are designed against the rules (instead of a cesspool the user presupposes a simple hole dug in the ground. The authors witnessed the cases of ingress of wastewater into open waters, near which holiday villages are situated. This fact raises the question on the necessity of solving these problems which will prevent pollution of soil and surface waters, as well as the surrounding areas by sewages to prevent the development of infections and to prevent environmental disaster on a local scale. If you have a small rate of water flow in a summer cottage, it is feasible to design a sump for removal of faecal discharge (human physiological discharge, which are the most dangerous. It is advisable to install in the ground sealed (cumulative capacity, and build headroom on the top in the form of a toilet cabin (detached structure. This will allow completely getting rid of contamination with sewage effluents. The volume of the tank must be calculated individually depending on the water consumption on the site. Periodically it is needed to call out a cesspoolage truck after filling the reservoir, which would be then emptied of faecal material. In the last 20 years in our country a promising trend in removable sanitation began to develop — bio toilets. They became popular in country houses, as well as for persons with disabilities A composting toilet is a portable container, which is very compact and can be installed in any location of a country house. A more costly option, but an environmentally sound and convenient one to use is the construction of local water disposal systems with the use of not only mechanical, but also biological treatment. The choice of a particular scheme of

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  4. Studies for the disposal system of the sewers of Santos and Sao Vicente (Brazil). Measurement of the sewage flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, V.; Ohara, T.; Sanches, W.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the sewage flow rate is a difficult problem in the field of sanitary engineering. A channel cross section calibration at a CHLORINE TREATMENT STATION was performed, in order to simplify the subsequent measurement of sewage flow, at a permanent stream-gauging station. The total count method was chosen because of its advantages over both the current instrument meter and the dilution technique of a radioactive or non-radioactive tracer (rodhamine and fluoresceine); the sewage transport materials might damage the current meter instruments and could also degrade chemical dyes because of the reduction properties of sewage. NH 4 Br labeled with 82 Br was used as radioactive tracer. The irradiated NH 4 Br was dissolved in a sodium thiosulphate solution. In spite of the presence of suspended materials in the sewage and the subsequent delicate operation of pumping out the flowing sewage through a by-pass where the measuring system was installed, accurate and reproducible field measurements were obtained [pt

  5. Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talat, B.; Ahsan-Ullah

    2005-01-01

    The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

  6. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  7. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  8. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  9. Recommendation for sanitary waste water system replacement, 222-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 2607-W6 septic system is not approved by the Washington State Department of Health. The system is over 40 years old and is operating at greater than 200% capacity. Under these conditions the system is subject to imminent failure and is not adequately treating the septic waste. This poses a potential personnel health risk. It is recommended that this system be upgraded by installation of a new drain field similar to the modification of the 2607-W1 system

  10. Greening sanitary systems: and end-user perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of the thesis is to contribute to a transition towards sustainable sanitation and wastewater systems and practices in Western society by developing a social science perspective on sanitation and wastewater management. The empirical core of this study comprises a comparative case

  11. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos

    2018-01-15

    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  12. Prospective technologies and equipment for sanitary hygienic measures for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary hygienic conditions is a prerequisite for good health and performance of crews on extended space missions. There is a rich assortment of associated means, methods and equipment developed and experimentally tested in orbital flights. However, over a one-year period a crew of three uses up about 800 kg of ground-supplied wet wipes and towels for personal needs. The degree of closure of life support systems for long-duration orbital flights should be maximized, particularly for interplanetary missions, which exclude any possibility of re-supply. Washing with regenerated water is the ultimate sanitary hygienic goal. That is why it is so important to design devices for crew bathing during long-term space missions. Investigations showed that regeneration of wash water (WW) using membrane processes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.), unlike sorption, would not require much additional expendables. A two-stage membrane recovery unit eliminated >85% of permeate from real WW with organic and inorganic selectivity of 82 95%. The two-stage WW recovery unit was tested with artificial and real WW containing detergents available for space crews. Investigations into the ways of doing laundry and drying along with which detergents will be the best fit for space flight are also planned. Testing of a technology for water extraction from used textiles using a conventional period of contact of 1 s or more, showed that the humidity of the outgoing air flow neared 100%. Issues related to designing the next generation of space life support systems should consider the benefits of integrating new sanitary hygienic technologies, equipment, and methods.

  13. Considerations in the public acceptance of sewage sludge irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations associated with public acceptance of municipal sewage sludge irradiation systems are discussed including the benefit to society, public information and safeguards. Public acceptance of products is based upon the benefit to society as measured by reduced consumer costs, minimization of public risk and enhancement of the quality of life and the environment. When viewed in this positive light, the sludge irradiator has high potential benefits to the community. If large-scale engineering experiments show that sludge irradiation is more cost-effective than other methods, reduced consumer costs would result. Today many sewage plants do not consistently remove pathogens from sludge; sludge irradiation could be an effective method of pathogen removal and result in avoidance of a major public risk. The sludge irradiator may be able to clean up recreational areas, reduce noxious odours from sewage treatment facilities, and reduce the energy requirements for producing fertilizer and soil conditioners and conserve their mineral content. Plant safeguards must be explained to dispel public concern that the contents of the source can be released to the sludge accidentally. This will be the main issue within the technical sector of the public, and the design, procedural and administrative safeguards of the plant must be fully explained. The primary risk associated with sludge irradiators will be the remote possibility of source leakage into the sludge. The various safeguards in sludge irradiation plants are discussed in detail including the form of the radionuclide, encapsulation, the irradiation chamber, safeguards instrumentation, shielding and thermal safeguards. (Author)

  14. A reliable sewage quality abnormal event monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianling; Winnel, Melissa; Lin, Hao; Panther, Jared; Liu, Chang; O'Halloran, Roger; Wang, Kewen; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

    2017-09-15

    With closing water loop through purified recycled water, wastewater becomes a part of source water, requiring reliable wastewater quality monitoring system (WQMS) to manage wastewater source and mitigate potential health risks. However, the development of reliable WQMS is fatally constrained by severe contamination and biofouling of sensors due to the hostile analytical environment of wastewaters, especially raw sewages, that challenges the limit of existing sensing technologies. In this work, we report a technological solution to enable the development of WQMS for real-time abnormal event detection with high reliability and practicality. A vectored high flow hydrodynamic self-cleaning approach and a dual-sensor self-diagnostic concept are adopted for WQMS to effectively encounter vital sensor failing issues caused by contamination and biofouling and ensure the integrity of sensing data. The performance of the WQMS has been evaluated over a 3-year trial period at different sewage catchment sites across three Australian states. It has demonstrated that the developed WQMS is capable of continuously operating in raw sewage for a prolonged period up to 24 months without maintenance and failure, signifying the high reliability and practicality. The demonstrated WQMS capability to reliably acquire real-time wastewater quality information leaps forward the development of effective wastewater source management system. The reported self-cleaning and self-diagnostic concepts should be applicable to other online water quality monitoring systems, opening a new way to encounter the common reliability and stability issues caused by sensor contamination and biofouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. System simulation for an untreated sewage source heat pump (USSHP) in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Hao, Peng Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C.

  16. Survey of the home sewage disposal systems in northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumeo, Mark A; Newland, Juliet

    2009-09-01

    This article reports on failure rates in onsite sewage treatment systems (STS) that were found as part of a comprehensive seven-county survey that was performed under the auspices of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) during the summer of 2000. The goal was to determine the percentage of onsite, individual home wastewater systems that were "failing." A system was identified as "failing" if, upon inspection, it had observable surfacing of effluent from the treatment system. A certified soil scientist conducted each on-site investigation to ensure consistency in methodology and to provide verification of soil types for each installation. The survey revealed that between 12.7% and 19.7% of the onsite wastewater treatment systems are allowing wastewater to surface as opposed to infiltrate (at the 95% confidence interval). The rate of failure does not vary significantly between aerobic and septic systems or between systems with or without filters.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. The situation of sanitary systems in rural areas in the Miyun catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Xu, A; Duan, S; Zhang, B; Eckstädt, H; Meissner, R

    2012-01-01

    The Miyun Reservoir provides most of Beijing's drinking water. Despite its importance, the Miyun reservoir suffers from decreasing water quality caused by uncontrolled wastewater discharges, inadequate land use and over fertilization, which increase the pressure on soil and water resources. The major pollutants are nitrogen and phosphorus which emanate to some extent from untreated sewage. So far there is little data about the existing wastewater quantity and quality in rural settlements in northern China. This study was conducted in typical villages situated along upstream rivers in the catchment of the Miyun Reservoir. The main objective was to determine the current situation and efficiency of the wastewater treatment system in rural settlements.

  19. Analysis of the concentrations and fate of heavy metals and sewage in municipal sewage treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, A.

    1992-01-01

    The fate of selected substances during sewage treatment was investigated in the Marburg/Cappel sewage plant. The following parameters were measured: Concentrations of the metal ions of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ca and Zn; pH; conductivity; extinctions at 254 and 436 nm; phosphate, chloride and solids concentrations in the sample. Heavy metals (in solution and in bands) were eliminated in the following order: Cr(97%) > Pb(96%) > Cu(84%) > Zn(80%) > Ni(72%) > Cd(61%). Further, the effects of EDTA on the bonded and dissolved metal ions of iron(III), zinc(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) were investigated in a sewage sample. Resolution of bonded metals was observed only in the case of zinc. (orig.) [de

  20. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  1. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  2. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  3. Sewage Solids Irradiator Transportation System (SSITS) cask: preliminary design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakes, R.G.; Kempka, S.N.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Sutherland, S.H.

    1983-02-01

    The preliminary design of the Sewage Solids Irradiator Transportation System (SSITS) Cask is presented in this document. The SSITS cask is to be used for the transport of radioactive cesium chloride and strontium fluoride capsules which are of use in irradiators or as heat sources. The SSITS cask is approximately 1.4 m in diameter, 1.3 m high, weighs roughly 9 t, provides 33 cm of steel shielding, and can dissipate up to 5.2 kW of decay heat. The cask design criteria are identified and a description of the cask design and operation is provided. Detailed analyses of the design were performed to demonstrate licensability of the cask by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Results of the analyses indicate that the preliminary design is in compliance with the pertinent regulatory requirements for licensing of a radioactive material transportation container

  4. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE SYSTEM INFLUENCE ON RECEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pluta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing waste water discharges to the receiver is now one of the most important activities to ensure the protection of surface waters. This is caused mainly by progressive urbanization and increasing impervious surfaces. Discharge of sewage with a large load of pollutants affect the receivers in a negative way. The quality of waste water varies and depends on many factors, but above all, it is closely linked with sewer system applied to the drainage catchment. The article presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of three basic sewer systems: combined, separate and semi-separate. The analysis was performed for a typical urban catchment, using the average concentration of the basic indicators of pollution, which total suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus, COD, BOD5, selected heavy metals are merked. The results concluded that each of these sewer systems characterized by varying environmental impacts depending on the indicator of pollution. The best of today available technical solutions seem to be semi-separate sewer system, using the storage tank with the control in real time (RTC for controlling the flow.

  6. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  7. Signals transmission via RF systems in a sewage treatment plant; Signaluebertragung via Funk im Klaerwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasas, Joerg [Phoenix Contact Electronics GmbH, Bad Pyrmont (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The Niersverband is a municipal utility located at Viersen, Germany. It covers an area that is more or less identical with the catchment area of the Niers river and the Niers canal. There are 23 sewage treatment plants, rainwater retention basins and pumping stations transporting the collected water to the sewage treatment plants. For signal transmission between the stations, a Trusted Wireless system via Profibus-DP is used. (orig.)

  8. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  9. A control system based on field programmable gate array for papermaking sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi Sheng; Xie, Chang; Xiong, Yan Qing; Liu, Zhi Qiang; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    A sewage treatment control system is designed to improve the efficiency of papermaking wastewater treatment system. The automation control system is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), coded with Very-High-Speed Integrate Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), compiled and simulated with Quartus. In order to ensure the stability of the data used in FPGA, the data is collected through temperature sensors, water level sensor and online PH measurement system. The automatic control system is more sensitive, and both the treatment efficiency and processing power are increased. This work provides a new method for sewage treatment control.

  10. Presence of radioactivity in a sewage system: a proposal for radioactivity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradell, Vicente; Ballesteros, Luisa; Ortiz, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Most hospitals use radioisotopes in diagnostics and to a lesser extent in therapy. The liquid residues thus generated are usually subjected to treatment before being discharged into the sewage system. Nevertheless, a certain amount of these residues escape from the treatment system and are poured directly into the sewer. In addition, other radioactive products used for research and industrial purposes may also be disposed of in the same way. The waste waters in many sewage systems can therefore be expected to be radiologically contaminated and the need for at least a basic control system in such situations seems obvious. When designing a procedure to measure radioactivity, certain conditions should be borne in mind: 1) The control program has to be simple and inexpensive; 2) Samples must be taken from the appropriate places; 3) Short life radionuclides will probably be present in significant amounts, so that specific recipes should be prepared; 4) Iodine is also frequently present. Special precautions should be taken to keep it in solution. In recent years, the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain) has carried out a series of tests on the Valencia city sewage system and sewage treatment plant in order to design a permanent program to control radioactive contamination of the city's sewage system. This paper presents a proposal which we believe can provide the answer to this problem. (author)

  11. Environmental Assessment for the centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings

  12. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  13. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  14. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  15. [Sanitary and epidemiological conditions in the Lodz region during the period of the second Polish Republic in the XIX and XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history of European agglomerations in the nineteenth and twentieth century the relation between expanding industry and worsening sanitary and epidemiological conditions was seen. These changes, having great impact on public health, were investigated in the present study. Problems related to sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz first emerged during the Russian occupation of Poland in the XIX century. The Russian Governing Council was not overseeing sanitary conditions of the city, and transferred this responsibility to the industrial bourgeoisie of Lodz. In this situation, uncontrolled development of the industry led to serious deterioration in natural environment and increase of risk for acute and chronic infectious diseases. Improvement of the sanitary situation in Lodz commenced in the period of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939). Sanitary Divisions were created at the Lodz Department of Public Health. Activities in this Department involved, among others, detailed epidemiological examination of potable water, the investigation of manufacturing processes, retail and wholesale groceries, hygienic conditions of public housing. The activity and interventions of Sanitary Divisions contributed substantially to a decrease of incidence of various diseases and improvement of living conditions of the Lodz populations. The improvement of sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz after 1918 was mainly related to the construction of water supply and sewage systems. This led to an approximation of the urban standards of this 500,000 population agglomeration to European standards.

  16. Decreasing the Thermal Load on the Environment with the Help of Thermal Pumps in the Sewage Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovetskii, V. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Cherkina, V. M.; Ivanchuk, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We propose designs for practical use of residual heat of sewage by means of thermal-pump transformation of thermal energy in plants operating on inverse Rankine and Lorentz cycles, as well as a method for sewage heat removal in drainage canals of water removal systems based on the application of double-pipe heat exchangers known as Field tubes.

  17. The conception of municipal sewage treatment systems from an economical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, A.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this work is to show the fundamental decisions that are necessary for planning municipal sewage treatment systems in rural areas and to assess the consequences of the possible alternatives. The analysis shows that the specific costs depend strongly on the chosen technology, the structure of the system and the type of organization. For instance constructed wetlands used on small scales are much more favorable than complex technical sewage plants. Whether a central or decentral structured sewage treatment system is preferable depends on the local topographic conditions. The fact that private and cooperative organizations mostly cause lower costs per capita as public organizations can be explained with the principal-agent-theory of the New Institutional Economics. Further economical and important ecological criteria are discussed in the analysis, too. The conclusions drawn from analysis aim especially to improve the process of planing sewage treatment systems. Especially recommended are the implementation of a professional project management, a complete survey of the given local conditions, the use of modern planning methods, an early participation of the population, the particularly consideration of innovative technologies as well as the development of integrated concepts of water management. (author)

  18. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  19. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  20. The main trends of interaction of sanitary-epidemiological teams in the system of the Russian service of disaster medicine in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichenko, A.I.; Zhuravleva, V.E.; Varenikov, I.I.; Komarova, V.V.; Borisov, B.K.; Pozhidaev, A.E.; Pozhidaeva, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    For improvement of the system of prevention of emergency situations (ES) and for rendering emergency therapeutic-prophylactic and sanitary-epidemiological aid to population in case of ES the paper has determined and proved the first and foremost tasks which are to be settled by joint efforts of the Russian Centre on Disaster Medicine Zashchita and Scientific-practical Center of hygienic expert survey for practical perfection of the efficient forms of interaction of medical-sanitary forces engaged in work in ES. 4 refs

  1. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  2. Relationships between physical forms of cesium or strontium and their behavior in a sewage treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Hatanaka, Takuma; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the release of radionuclides to the environment. Accident-derived radionuclides have been detected in sewage sludge produced in northern east of Japan. We observed the fate of stable Cs and Sr in sewage treatment process in order to know a fate of radionuclide such as "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs, and "9"0Sr in the process. For both of Cs and Sr, their transfer ratios to primary sludge from the influent sewage were similar levels of the ratios to excess activated sludge to the influent sewage. Transfer ratios to dewatered sludge from influent were 20% for Cs and 9.1% for Sr, respectively. Additionally, it was suggested that particulate Cs and Sr which were sorbed by mineral solids could be transferred to the primary sludge in the primary settling tank, then in the following treatment system; aeration tank, Sr sorbed by organic materials such as activated sludge could be transferred to the excessive sludge. (author)

  3. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  4. Guide to the use of pond systems in South Africa for the purification of raw and partially treated sewage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the effluents from the sewage purification systems covered by this report show quite marked seasonal variations. No assurance can be given that the effluents would meet promulgated standards from season to season. The effluent from...

  5. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying

    2006-11-01

    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  6. Expert System Development on On-line Measurement of Sewage Treatment Based Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun QIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward a solution in which an instrument on-line automatic measurement and expert system process are optimized according to the complexity and great process dynamics of sewage treatment process. Firstly modeling has been set up with configuration sewage treatment process in which the process has been integrated into the computer software environment. Secondly certain number of water quality automatic monitoring instruments and sensor probes are set in the reaction tanks according to the needs of process changes and management. The data information acquired can be displayed and recorded at the real time. A human-machine integration expert system featuring computer automation management is developed for the base by one-off method thus to realize the intelligent and unmanned management. The advantages brought about from it can fill up the inexperience of the on-site management personnel and solve the contradiction between the water quality dynamics and difficulty in the process adjustment.

  7. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  8. Radioactive contamination in the Bologna sewage system due to nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, G.; Bernardi, T.; Tubertini, O.; Bergamini, B.; Marengo, M.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid wastes produced by the city of Bologna and surrounding areas are collected by a sewage system, leading to a depuration plant. At present, the capacity of the sewage system is about 230,000 m 3 per day, half of which is treated by the depurator. The incoming flow is fairly constant throughout the year, except for August when, owing to factory shut-down for holidays, there is a decrease of about 60,000 m 3 per day. The treatment of of liquid waste in the depurator is in four phases : primary decantation, active oxidation, active decantation, and disinfection. After treatment lasting 12-13 hours, clarified liquids are discharged into the Navile canal. This leads to the Reno river and then to the Adriatic sea. Muds produced during decantation are further treated and reduced to ashes (within 24-48 hours) that are then stored. Since the sewage system also collects liquid waste from two nuclear medicine departments (Malpighi and Maggiore hospitals), we decided to measure radioactivity in the liquids both at entrance and at exit from the depurator, and in the muds and ashes produced by treatment

  9. Development and application of a continuous fast microwave pyrolysis system for sewage sludge utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junwen; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Ding, Kuan; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-05-01

    A continuous fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system was designed, fabricated, and tested with sewage sludge. The system is equipped with continuous biomass feeding, mixing of biomass and microwave absorbent, and separated catalyst upgrading. The effect of the sludge pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, and 600 °C) on the products yield, distribution and potentially energy recovery were investigated. The physical, chemical, and energetic properties of the raw sewage sludge and bio-oil, char and gas products obtained were analyzed using elemental analyzer, GC-MS, Micro-GC, SEM and ICP-OES. While the maximum bio-oil yield of 41.39 wt% was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, the optimal pyrolysis temperature for maximum overall energy recovery was 500 °C. The absence of carrier gas in the process may be responsible for the high HHV of gas products. This work could provide technical support for microwave-assisted system scale-up and sewage sludge utilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CO-DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MATURE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PRE-BIOAUGMENTED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Montusiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/methane yields only 5-8% lower as compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, and the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, a comparable value of volatile solids removal was obtained. However, the effects became worse over time, i.e. a lower organics removal efficiency of 16% as well as 9.5–13% decreases of biogas/methane yields were achieved by applying co-digestion for a further period (of the same duration. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate could be recognized as quite efficient in the system that was primarily bioaugmented with the use of Arkea®. However, the beneficial impact of bioaugmentation remained for the limited period of three months after its completion. To sustain the favourable effects a periodical, repeatable bioaugmentation of the co-digestion system is required.

  11. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  12. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  13. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  14. Potential of resource recovery in UASB/trickling filter systems treating domestic sewage in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani-Ribeiro, T; Brandt, E M F; Gutierrez, K G; Díaz, C A; Garcia, G B; Chernicharo, C A L

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to present perspectives for energy (thermal and electric) and nutrient (N and S) recovery in domestic sewage treatment systems comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTF) in developing countries. The resource recovery potential was characterized, taking into account 114 countries and a corresponding population of 968.9 million inhabitants living in the tropical world, which were grouped into three desired ranges in terms of cities' size. For each of these clusters, a technological arrangement flow-sheet was proposed, depending on their technical and economic viability from our best experience. Considering the population living in cities over 100, 000 inhabitants, the potential of energy and nutrient recovery via the sewage treatment scheme would be sufficient to generate electricity for approximately 3.2 million residents, as well as thermal energy for drying purposes that could result in a 24% volume reduction of sludge to be transported and disposed of in landfills. The results show that UASB/SBTF systems can play a very important role in the sanitation and environmental sector towards more sustainable sewage treatment plants.

  15. Using geographical information systems (GIS to examine sanitary implications of rubbish dump locations at human activity centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenos Koku Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate health risks that refuse dump locations have on people. The global positioning systems (GPS were used to take location coordinates of 28 rubbish dump centers and human activity centers (clinics, restaurants, markets etc spread across a university campus in Ghana. The ArcGIS software was used to plot the coordinates and draw a buffer of 50 meters around the rubbish dump locations (RDL to show the closeness between the dump sites and the human activity centers (HAC, and the sanitary implications of the closeness. More than 90% of the HACs fell within the 50 meters buffer zone of the rubbish dump sites. The findings indicated that some sensitive HACs like food joints, laundries etc. were less than 15 meters from rubbish dump sites. The findings confirmed that the location of rubbish dump sites pose serious threat to the health of the human community in the university. The findings of this study can be used to make evidence- based decisions about possible relocation of rubbish dump containers in the university. This study is also an initiative to set the tone for more detailed research work on the health implications of rubbish disposal management on Ghanaians.

  16. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. 141.401 Section 141.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... an evaluation of the applicable components listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (8) of this section... facilities, and controls, (6) Monitoring, reporting, and data verification, (7) System management and...

  17. Sludge digesters - important components of biological sewage treatment systems. Faulbehaelter - wichtige Bausteine der biologischen Abwasserklaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthen, R [Ing.-Buero Perthen, Schwabach (Germany)

    1992-05-01

    Following some general explanations regarding the function of sludge digesters as components of sewage treatment systems, the paper deals with a sludge digester system in Bottrop. It consists of four egg-shaped reactors with a useful content of 15 000 m[sup 3]. The plant is designed for daily digestion of 3 000 m[sup 3] and a period of digestion of 20 days. Briefly described are the design blueprints tendered, special proposals regarding the construction of the shells and for the design of the base or foundation, as well as the actual construction work and special static and design features. (LU).

  18. High energy electron disinfection of sewage wastewater in flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T; Arai, H; Hosono, M; Tokunaga, O; Machi, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kondoh, M; Minemura, T; Nakao, A; Seike, Y [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    The disinfection of effluent municipal wastewaters by high-energy electrons in flow systems was studied using an experimental apparatus which has the maximum treatment capacity of 10.8 m{sup 3}/h. An electron accelerator with an accelerating voltage of 2 MV was used. The electron beam current was controlled to deliver the desired doses ranging from 0.05 to 1 kGy. Treatment times were in the range from 0.0022 to 0.051 s. Preliminary experiments with batch system using Petri dish of 100 ml showed that the effectiveness of electron irradiation on inactivation of coliforms was not influenced significantly by factors such as pH, SS, COD, DO and irradiation temperature. The dose required to produce 99.9% kill in the total population presented in wastewater were markedly affected by the thickness of water exposure to electron irradiation; that is, 0.39, 0.4 and 0.44 kGy for the depth of 5, 6 and 7 mm, respectively. The data obtained after a suitable correction for the doses due to the depth dose distribution showed no deviation from an experimental survival curve. Experiments with flow system indicated no measureable effect of the flow rate of wastewaters on the efficiency of disinfection in the range from 0.5 to 3.5 m/s. (author).

  19. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  20. Mass and energy balance: application to the sanitary sewage treatment with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to temperature of 20 deg C; Balanco de massa e energia: aplicacao ao tratamento de esgotos sanitarios com reatores anaerobicos de manta de lodo (UASB) a temperatura de 20 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Katherine Ivonne Alcocer

    1992-07-01

    A feasibility study of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor use as a sewage treatment plant component for areas with average temperature bellow 20 deg C was performed. The literature on UASB reactor indicates that a 70 % chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal al 20 and 6 to 17 hr hydraulic detention time is possible in sewage treatment plants. This study was developed for a Oruro (Bolivia) district and the plant was designed for a population of up to 10,000 inhabitants. This city presents average temperatures lower than 20 deg C being necessary to heat the sewage if is used the UASB reactor. Based on the performance simulation of mass and energy balances it was found that 84 % COD removal and 92 % total suspended solids removal are possible. The potential average energy production (61 kW due to methane combustion) is less than 10 % of the power consumption for heating, which indicates that the use of the methane may be expensive. The evaluated energy rate to be applied to the sewage for heating is 0.33 kW/m{sup 3} d{sup -1} which is significantly greater than the necessary energy to introduce oxygen in aerobic treatment systems. However total energy demand for aerobic systems must be evaluated for each particular case. (author)

  1. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  2. High strength sewage treatment in a UASB reactor and an integrated UASB-digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Nidal

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of high strength sewage was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-digester system. The one-stage UASB reactor was operated in Palestine at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10h and at ambient air temperature for a period of more than a year in order to asses the system response to the Mediterranean climatic seasonal temperature fluctuation. Afterwards, the one-stage UASB reactor was modified to a UASB-digester system by incorporating a digester operated at 35 degrees C. The achieved removal efficiencies in the one-stage UASB reactor for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD were 54, 71, 34, 23%, and -7%, respectively during the first warm six months of the year, and achieved only 32% removal efficiency for COD total over the following cold six months of the year. The modification of the one-stage UASB reactor to a UASB-digester system had remarkably improved the UASB reactor performance as the UASB-digester achieved removal efficiencies for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD of 72, 74, 74, 62 and 70%. Therefore, the anaerobic treatment of high strength sewage during the hot period in Palestine in a UASB-digester system is very promising.

  3. Effect of semi-permeable cover system on the bacterial diversity during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Mahón, Tatiana; Aranda, Elisabet; Pesciaroli, Chiara; Rodríguez-Calvo, Alfonso; Silva-Castro, Gloria Andrea; González-López, Jesús; Calvo, Concepción

    2018-06-01

    Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant. Sewage sludge composting process was conducted using a semi-permeable Gore-tex cover, in combination with an air-insufflation system. The highest values of enzymatic activities such as dehydrogenase, protease and arylsulphatase were detected in the first 5 days of composting; suggesting that during this period of time a greater degrading activity of organic matter took place. Culturable bacteria identified were in agreement with the bacteria found by massive sequencing technologies. The greatest bacterial diversity was detected between days 15 and 30, with Actinomycetales and Bacillales being the predominant orders at the beginning and end of the process. Bacillus was the most representative genus during all the process. A strong correlation between abiotic factors as total organic content and organic matter and enzymatic activities such as dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activity was found. Bacterial diversity was strongly influenced by the stage of the process, community-structure change was concomitant with a temperature rise, rendering favorable conditions to stimulate microbial activity and facilitate the change in the microbial community linked to the degradation process. Moreover, results obtained confirmed that the use of semipermeable

  4. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  5. The study on the evaluation of the pollution control situation of the sewage systems in the counties and cities of Taiwan by applying the VIKOR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jun-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the pollution control situation of the sewage systems across Taiwan can be divided into the two major sewage systems, namely, industrial area sewage and public community sewage. When the counties and cities of Taiwan cannot effectively control the sewage pollution situation, ecological pollution of the environment and personal health damage would result. Therefore, evaluating the pollution control situation of the sewage systems can help the environmental protection authorities developing strategies for the pollution control of the sewage systems in the future. In this study, the Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method was applied to evaluate the pollution control situation of the sewage systems. The water sample test qualification rate, the emission permit issuance rate, and the staff setting rate of the dedicated wastewater treatment company were used as the pollution control evaluation indexes. According to the results, the use of the VIKOR method to evaluate the pollution control situation of the sewage systems is effective. In cities and counties in Taiwan, public community sewage systems, dedicated to pollution control case, the public community should be actively coached in emission control technology to upgrade sewage capacity, the issuance of discharge permits, and the staff setting rate of the dedicated wastewater treatment, to improve public community sewage pollution control system capabilities. In Taiwan, the industrial area sewage systems, dedicated to pollution control situations, must pay attention to business units in raw materials, spare part inventory, and machine supplier of choice, and we must choose to meet environmental supply chain of green suppliers, which would be effective in reducing effluent produce and improve water sample test qualification rate. The VIKOR value of Yilan County is 1.0000, which is the worst in the pollution control of all the industrial area sewage systems, followed by Taoyuan

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: Using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets.
 Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as

  8. Sewage Treatment Systems of Cruise Ships and The Parameters Affect on Dilution of Effluent at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan ŞAHİN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cruise ships play an inevitable role in tourism sector across the world. Increasing in cruise ship tourism accompanies with significant environmental problems. Due to both size of cruise ships and the amount of passengers and consumables, cruise ships have a great potential for producing considerable amounts of wastes. Various types of wastes are produced in cruise ships depending on the daily consumptions of these wastes. Sewage, which consists mainly the toilet wastes, is the most important problem. Sewage contains various types of heavy metal, chemicals and pathogens that have harmful effects on marine species and ecosystem. Many national and international regulations and conventions are established in order to prevent the harmful effects of wastes. Studies on preventing and minimizing ship-related pollution contribute to both developing new waste management systems and forming new procedures for removing the wastes in both ship and port. In this study, Marine Sanitation Device (MSD and Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT and treatment procedures are investigated. ‘Dilution factor’ obtained by theoretical and experimental studies is explained in detail and variation of dilution factor depending on ship dimensions and velocity is investigated.

  9. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

  10. Design of sewage treatment system by applying fuzzy adaptive PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang-Ping; Li, Hong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    In the sewage treatment system, the dissolved oxygen concentration control, due to its nonlinear, time-varying, large time delay and uncertainty, is difficult to establish the exact mathematical model. While the conventional PID controller only works with good linear not far from its operating point, it is difficult to realize the system control when the operating point far off. In order to solve the above problems, the paper proposed a method which combine fuzzy control with PID methods and designed a fuzzy adaptive PID controller based on S7-300 PLC .It employs fuzzy inference method to achieve the online tuning for PID parameters. The control algorithm by simulation and practical application show that the system has stronger robustness and better adaptability.

  11. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... A design of a pond system for the Eastern Nigerian environment is presented. 1. ... engineering properties ... in terms of the volumetric information, solids ..... MARA, O.D., Design manual for sewage lagoons in the tropics, East.

  13. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand

  14. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of Proposed Code Changes Regarding Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems in Suffolk County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of proposed code changes regarding residential onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) in Suffolk County, New York. Of the approximately 569,000 housing units in Suffolk County, 365,000 are no...

  15. Fluidized bed bio reactor sewage treatment system and wastewater quality at Kudankulam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; George, Thomas; Rajan, P.S.; Kumar, M.; Rajan, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    With the availability of fresh water becoming exiguous in certain coastal belts, it has become imperative to manage water resources in a resourceful and judicious manner. The focus has also shifted to minimum or zero tolerance from existing waste treatment plants so as not to contaminate or pollute the already shrinking drinking water resources. Many of the modern waste treatment approaches are already aiming at zero discharge with a view to conserving the ecological balance and to protect the rich bio diversity, flora and fauna. This paper describes one such domestic sewage treatment system called fluidized bed bio reactor operating in the residential colony and plant site area of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project. Wastewater quality of the resulting effluent water is also discussed. (author)

  16. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Luis Antonio; Campos, Jose Roberto

    1993-01-01

    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process

  17. [Study on subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by different turfgrass for domestic sewage treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Jian-Yu; Lan, Yan; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Hu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Domestic sewage was treated with subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by two different turfgrass, namely, Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud.. The result shows that all the different systems have good removal rates to COD. The concentration of COD decreased to less than 48 mg x L(-1) from 97-357 mg x L(-1) which achieve the second class criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, and there are no prominent difference among different systems. The concentration of NH4(+) -N decreased to less than 0.5 mg x L(-1) from 76.3-125.8 mg x L(-1) which achieve the IV criteria (Groundwater Quality Standard, the effluent concentration of NH4(+) -N in naked system are prominently higher than that in system covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres., and there are no prominent difference compared with system covered by Zoysia japonica Steud.. The concentration of TP in different systems decreased to less than 0.05 mg x L(-1) from 3.70-18.42 mg x L(-1) which achieve the II criteria (rates of TN and nitrate were all not good enough, the probability which achieve the III criteria (Groundwater Quality Standard are less than one third, and the effluent concentration of TN and nitrate in naked system are prominently higher than that in systems covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud..

  18. Effects of sewage water on bio-optical properties and primary production of coastal systems in West Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Waite, A. M.; Markager, S.

    2008-01-01

    . Both systems were significantly nitrogen limited. However, differences in wastewater treatment (primary vs secondary) and sewage dilution (50%) between the two systems caused a greater difference between systems than locally around the outflows. For both systems, water at the outlet had significantly...... lower water transparency caused by a 20% higher absorption by coloured dissolved organic matter. Nutrient concentrations were also elevated, gradually decreasing with distance north (governing current) of the outflows, causing higher abundance of nano-sized phytoplankton, higher content of carotenoid...

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  20. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  1. A study of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems for distributed rural sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Three types of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWIS) were developed to study the efficiency of organic pollutant removal from distributed rural sewage under various conditions. Of the three different layered substrate systems, the one with the greatest amount of decomposed cow dung (5%) and soil (DCDS) showed the highest removal efficiency with respect to total nitrogen (TN), where the others showed no significant difference. The TN removal efficiency was increased with an increasing filling height of DCDS. Compared with the TN removal efficiency of 25% in the system without DCDS, the removal efficiency of the systems in which DCDS filled half and one fourth of the height was increased by 72% and 31%, respectively. Based on seasonal variations in the discharge of the typical rural family, the SWIS were run at three different hydraulic loads of 6.5, 13 and 20 cm/d. These results illustrated that SWIS could perform well at any of the given hydraulic loads. The results of trials using different inlet configurations showed that the effluent concentration of the contaminants in the system operating a multiple-inlet mode was much lower compared with the system operated under single-inlet conditions. The effluent concentration ofa pilot-scale plant achieved the level III criteria specified by the Surface Water Quality Standard at the initial stage.

  2. Development of a fibre-optic sensor system for the continuous monitoring of a sanitary landfill for low-halogenated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Baumann, T.; Gahr, A.; Mueller-Ackermann, E.; Panne, U.; Niessner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a mobile fibre-optic sensor system for monitoring the ground water aquifer in the area of a landfill. Not only are the analytical methods to be developed further; but the system's performance in the field is to be tested as well. As a large part of knowledge on the long-time safety of mineral sealing systems of sanitary landfills derives from damage events, a measuring area was additionally established at the Augsburg-Nord landfill. This measuring area is to permit monitoring of the sealing also during operation and reclamation. Within the measuring area and in the environs of the landfill, both conventional sensors for temperature, conductibility, etc., and the specially developed fibre-optic sensors for on-line in-situ monitoring will be used. (orig.) [de

  3. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  4. Hot sanitary water production with CO_2 heat pumps: Effect of control strategy on system performance and stratification inside the storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammaro, M.; Mauro, A.W.; Montagud, C.; Corberán, J.M.; Mastrullo, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work three different control strategies for the production of sanitary hot water by means of an electric heat pump working with CO_2 are investigated. The heat pump is a prototype, here modelled in the vapour-compression software package IMST-ART. By simulating this model, the performance of the heat pump is correlated to the boundary conditions and is scaled to different sizes, namely 1, 1.5, and 2 times larger than the reference system. After having chosen an application for which the load profile of sanitary hot water during the year is known, these heat pumps are simulated in a TRNSYS16 model where the production of sanitary hot water and the consumption are buffered by the presence of a tank. Key parameter in guaranteeing comfort and good performance of the system is the stratification inside the storage tank. The size of the tank necessary to keep a certain level of comfort at the user is then determined through a parametric analysis for each size of the heat pump. The energetic performance is also evaluated for each system in terms of seasonal performance factor. Then, the results obtained are compared with a different system where the heat pump is equipped with an inverter and the circulation pump follows a different control logic. The size of the tank and the seasonal performance factor are therefore determined in this case too. Moreover, a “night&day” control logic is compared to these first two options to have a baseline of comparison in terms of volume of storage needed to guarantee a same level of comfort and performance. To provide information also on the running costs, a parametric analysis was run varying the type of control, the heat pump and the tank sizes for different load profiles. The results show that the size of the heat pump has a significant effect on the comfort of the user, which usually leads to oversizing of the storage tank when the load profile is unknown. With regard to this, the results obtained for the alternative

  5. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary sewage collection and treatment is a serious environmental problem in Brazilian cities, as well as the destination of solid waste resulting from this process, i.e. the sewage sludge, a substance rich in organic matter and nutrients, which is normally discarded in landfills. The aim of this study was to characterize the sewage sludge generated in four treatment stations in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and check if they meet the legal criteria of the National Environment Council (CONAMA, Resolution No. 375/2006. It also focused on analyzing the perspectives for its agricultural recycling based on the potential demand for main agricultural crops grown in Rio de Janeiro State. Samples from eight sewage sludge lots from four treatment stations located in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. These stations receive and treat only domestic sewage by activated sludge system. For chemical and biological characterization of these lots, representative samples were collected and analyzed according to parameters of CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. In order to analyze the perspectives of agricultural recycling of sewage sludge in Rio de Janeiro State, 10 crops with the largest cultivated area in the state were surveyed and analyzed which of them are apt to receive sewage sludge as fertilizer and/or soil amendment. To determine the potential demand for sewage sludge in agriculture, the area occupied by these crops were multiplied by each fertilizer recommendation considering the sewage sludge as fertilizer. The analyzed sludge presented a high content of nutrients and organic matter and was included in the parameters of heavy metals, pathogenic agents, and bacteriological indicators stipulated by CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. The agricultural panorama of Rio de Janeiro State is favorable for agricultural recycling of sewage sludge since there is a great potential demand for this residue and, among the 10 agricultural crops with the

  6. Field-scale electrolysis/ceramic membrane system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2017-07-05

    The electrolysis process adopting copper electrodes and ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.1-0.2 μm were consisted to a system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities. The system was operated under an HRT of 0.1 hour, voltage of 24 V, and TMP of 0.05 MPa. The system showed average removals of organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, and solids of up to 80%, 52%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Removal of organics and nitrogen dramatically increased in proportion to increment of influent loading. Phosphorus and solids were remarkably eliminated by both electro-coagulation and membrane filtration. The residual particulate constituents could also be removed successfully through membrane process. A system composed of electrolysis process with ceramic membrane would be a compact, reliable, and flexible option for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities.

  7. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  8. Efficiency of an emissions payment system for nitrogen in sewage treatment plants - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmaeus, J Mikael; Ek, Mats; Åmand, Linda; Roth, Susanna; Baresel, Christian; Olshammar, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    An emissions payment system for nitrogen in Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a semi-empirical approach. The system was based on a tariff levied on each unit of nitrogen emitted by STPs, and profitable measures to reduce nitrogen emissions were identified for twenty municipal STPs. This was done through direct involvement with the plant personnel and the results were scaled up to cover all treatment plants larger than 2000 person equivalents in the Swedish tributary areas of the Kattegat and the Baltic Proper. The sum of costs and nitrogen reductions were compared with an assumed command-and-control regulation requiring all STPs to obtain 80% total nitrogen reduction in their effluents. Costs for the latter case were estimated using a database containing standard estimates for reduction costs by six specified measures. For both cases a total reduction target of 3000 tonnes of nitrogen was set. We did not find that the emissions payment system was more efficient in terms of total reduction costs, although some practical and administrative advantages could be identified. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate the performance of policy instruments on a case-by-case basis since the theoretical efficiency is not always reflected in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  10. UV-decontamination of potable and sewage water in the city with population over one million

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The waterworks system in a modern city is a complex challenge. From the one hand, it is necessary to provide high-quality potable water to the residents with observance of all sanitary and hygienic requirements; from the other hand, the sewage water discharged from the city should not affect the environment. Meanwhile, the microbiological safety is the top-priority and crucial parameter for evaluation of any work and any project. In Novosibirsk, solutions have been found for both of them by using the cutting-edge approaches in the decontamination technologies. The UV-decontamination enabled to create a multi-barrier efficient protection when dealing with the potable water treatment and ensure environmentally-friendly decontamination of the sewage water.

  11. A quantitatively effectiveness of hybrid sewerage systems allowing rainwater flow into sewage facilities for disaster prevention of inland flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Shirayanagi, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Yukisada

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, recent low birthrate and aging population have progressively led to a crisis for infrastructure. In particular, the quantity of drainage from homes and factories is remarkably decreasing, along with the decline of economic activity resulting from the overseas move of Japanese companies. As a result, a condition of overcapacity of sewage systems has arisen. On the other hand, the risks of natural disaster, such as damage from local flooding by heavy rain, are rapidly increasing. But ...

  12. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  13. Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dano, Kathleen; Poeter, Eileen; Thyne, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During a period of unusually high spring recharge, the plume migrated between 50 and 100 m within the regolith before infiltrating the fractured bedrock. The chemical signature of the effluent is similar to that required to account for the decline in water quality, suggesting a causative relationship (as estimated from mass-balance models of the surface-water chemistry near the mouth of the basin). The elevated salt content of the effluent during periods of high natural recharge to the infiltration area correlates with elevated salt concentrations in surface and groundwater at the basin scale, suggesting that some of the effluent salt load may be stored in the unsaturated zone during dry periods and flushed during periods of elevated natural recharge.

  14. An assessment study of septic tank based sewage disposal system on quality of underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.A.; Lisa, M.; Boustani, M.; Jaffar, M.; Masud, K.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of septic tank based sewage disposal system made on the basis of quality of underground water is presented. Machrala village is selected as the case study area where an ever-increasing number of septic tanks are posing great health threat to the inhabitants. Both hand pump and tube well water samples are analyzed for toxic trace metals (Mn, Fe, Cd and Co), physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductance, total dissolved salts, Ca, Mg, Cl/sup-/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/) and micro-organism population in terms of total viable count, coliform count, MPN coliform. The metals were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption method using standard procedure. The study shows that the local underground water of the village is being adversely affected by toxic metals and coliform bacteria. In most cases, the latter parameter exceeds 240 counts/ml. Besides, tube well water were found to have higher Pb concentration (0.200 mg/ml) and the overall assessment renders more than 50% of the water samples as unsatisfactory for human consumption. (author)

  15. Assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems in urban environment - simulation, modelling and experimental studies - LUCIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelll-Bergman, S.; Avila, R.; Cruz, I. de la; Xu, S.; Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinene, T.; Rahola, T.; Hosseini, A.; Nielsen, Sven; Sigurgeirsson, M.

    2009-06-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project on assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems and was established to provide more knowledge and suitable tools for emergency preparedness purposes in urban areas. It was known that the design of sewage plants, and their wastewater treatments, is rather similar between the Nordic countries. One sewage plant in each of the five Nordic countries was selected for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases from hospitals into their sewerage systems. Measurements and model predictions of dose assessments to different potentially exposed members of the public were carried out. The results from the dose assessments indicate that in case of routine releases annual doses to the three hypothetical groups of individuals are most likely insignificant. Estimated doses for workers are below 10 μSv/y, for the two studied radionuclides 99mTc and 131I. If uncertainties in the predictions of activity concentrations in sludge are considered, then the probability of obtaining doses above 10 μSv/y may not be insignificant. The models and approaches developed can also be applied in case of accidental releases. A laboratory inter-comparison exercise was also organised to compare analytical results across the laboratories participating in the project, using both 131I, dominating man-made radionuclide in sewage systems due to the medical use. A process oriented model of the biological treatment is also proposed in the report that does not require as much input data as for the LUCIA model. This model is a combination of a simplified well known Activated Sludge Model No.1 (Henze, 1987) and the Kd concept used in the LUCIA model. The simplified model is able to estimate the concentrations and the retention time of the sludge in different parts of the treatment plant, which in turn, can be used as a tool for the dose assessment purpose.filled by the activity. (au)

  16. Assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems in urban environment - simulation, modelling and experimental studies - LUCIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundelll-Bergman, S. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Avila, R.; Cruz, I. de la (Facilia AB, (Sweden)); Xu, S. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, (Sweden)); Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinene, T.; Rahola, T. (STUK (Finland)); Hosseini, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Nielsen, Sven (Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU (Denmark)); Sigurgeirsson, M. (Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland))

    2009-06-15

    This report summarises the findings of a project on assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems and was established to provide more knowledge and suitable tools for emergency preparedness purposes in urban areas. It was known that the design of sewage plants, and their wastewater treatments, is rather similar between the Nordic countries. One sewage plant in each of the five Nordic countries was selected for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases from hospitals into their sewerage systems. Measurements and model predictions of dose assessments to different potentially exposed members of the public were carried out. The results from the dose assessments indicate that in case of routine releases annual doses to the three hypothetical groups of individuals are most likely insignificant. Estimated doses for workers are below 10 muSv/y, for the two studied radionuclides 99mTc and 131I. If uncertainties in the predictions of activity concentrations in sludge are considered, then the probability of obtaining doses above 10 muSv/y may not be insignificant. The models and approaches developed can also be applied in case of accidental releases. A laboratory inter-comparison exercise was also organised to compare analytical results across the laboratories participating in the project, using both 131I, dominating man-made radionuclide in sewage systems due to the medical use. A process oriented model of the biological treatment is also proposed in the report that does not require as much input data as for the LUCIA model. This model is a combination of a simplified well known Activated Sludge Model No.1 (Henze, 1987) and the Kd concept used in the LUCIA model. The simplified model is able to estimate the concentrations and the retention time of the sludge in different parts of the treatment plant, which in turn, can be used as a tool for the dose assessment purpose.filled by the activity. (au)

  17. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    obtained applying SewageLCI 1.0 model reveal that it’s possible to account for many of the variations in emission quantities of chemicals, caused by variations in the chemical fate properties and in the composition of national waste water treatment grids. The results indicate that the total emission...... treatment is emission to surface water recipients, other environmental compartments such as agricultural soil may receive considerable loads of chemicals emitted by the national specific waste water grids. The SewageLCI 1.0 presentation and case study reveal how broad inclusion of chemicals emitted......Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...

  18. Predicting Nitrogen Transport From Individual Sewage Disposal Systems for a Proposed Development in Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.

    2005-12-01

    Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.

  19. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  20. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  1. THE INFLUENCE THE EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOFS ON THE OUTFLOW RAINWATER TO THE SEWAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Mrowiec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In times of rapid urbanization and climate change has drawn more attention to stormwater runoff to sewer systems. The phenomenon of flooding in urban areas have become increasingly common as a result of heavy rains. Sewage systems in such a short time are not able to accept such a large amount of rainwater flowing on the site, which we experience the phenomenon of rainfall flowing down the street in excessive amounts. The problem of such phenomena can be solved by the development of green roof technology. Even in its simplest form that extensive green roof is able to delay outflow, and store in its entirety falling falls on the area. Everything depends on the layers and the size of the roof. The research study presented at two mini green roof, an area of 1.44 m2. Both cases have different layers. One of them has a layer of non-woven filter layer, the substrate and vegetation. The second station is built of layers of drainage, filter layer, a layer of substrate and vegetation. For experimental purposes a rain shower were used for testing, which allows to calibrate the right amount of water at a specified time. In the research of precipitation 10, 15 and 20-minute tested. On the bench number 1 a reduction in the range of 48.9 to 97.5% was achieved. The second experiment stand showed a higher retention capacity ranged from 74.5 to 94.7%. We concluded that the use of extensive green roofs in cities can help reduce storm water runoff from impervious surfaces.

  2. How to globally reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from sewage systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, S. de; Bonardet, P.; Trouve, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and exhaustive measurement of the global greenhouse gas emissions from a given sewage plant must be performed prior to the implementation of any abatement measure. The method presented in this paper takes into consideration both the direct emissions but also the indirect ones generated by the plant activity and identified using a life cycle-type approach. Three examples of projects or realizations are presented in this paper to illustrate the different means of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from a sewage plant in a global way. The first example concerns a project of abatement of the electricity consumption of a plant for sludges and fats digestion and biogas valorization. A 85% global abatement of CO 2 emissions is obtained thanks to the substitution of the aerobic digestion process by an anaerobic one. The second example presents an optimization of the greenhouse gas emissions of the municipal sewage plant of Valenton (Paris region) thanks to a valorization of sludges as fertilizers and fuels and to the recovery of the process heat. The last example concerns the Seine-aval sewage plant which gathers several projects of improvement: setting up of a second biogas turbine, redesign of the heat loop, use of river transport for a significant abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  4. Environmental evaluation of the outdoor radiological risk from a sewage sludge irradiation plant using a consultation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, M.J.; Caporale, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    The consultation system presented will be included in the environmental assessment for a sewage sludge irradiation plant working with 7000.000 Ci of cobalt 60. The system shows over suitable plans the effective dose rate at any point selected by the user or it shows the equal dose zones on a color scheme; in both situations the security recommended upper level of the effective dose is showed. The software, developed in the Borland Delphi 5 visual language, is comprehensible without high nuclear knowledge and perusing it will be easy for the environmental authorities as well as for common people. (author)

  5. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m"2) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  6. [Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

    2009-08-15

    Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT.

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN BIOSOLIDS/SEWAGE SLUDGES - THE INTERFACE BETWEEN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND REGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as so...

  8. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  9. Sewage input reduces the consumption of Rhizophora mangle propagules by crabs in a subtropical mangrove system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frederike Ricarda; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Moens, Tom; da Cunha Lana, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Their carbon accumulation can be influenced through the consumption of nutrient-poor leaves and propagules by herbivore crabs. Anthropogenic nutrient input from sewage contamination is widespread in these often naturally nutrient-limited ecosystems. We hypothesised that sewage-mediated nutrient input to mangrove stands of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil), would alter the nutrient sources available for crabs, e.g. through microphytobenthos increase, and that this would reflect in their feeding behaviour. We predicted that propagules of Rhizophora mangle in contaminated stands would experience lower grazing pressure from their two main local consumers (Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata). We compared herbivory rates on R. mangle propagules in sewage contaminated and uncontaminated mangrove stands. We found that herbivory rates were significantly lower in contaminated than uncontaminated forests, but this pattern could not be clearly attributed to increased nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of drippers in two filtering systems using sewage treatment effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Dalri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three models of drippers using treated sewage effluent, pure and diluted, and two types of filters, screen and disc. The treated sewage effluent used in the experiment was collected from the city’s treatment plant. The experiment included 12 lateral lines with three types of emitters to apply pure (100% and diluted (50% effluent filtered by screen and disc filters. The combination of those factors set the treatments: T1 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a screen filter; T2 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a disc filter; T3 (pure effluent filtered by a screen filter; T4 (pure effluent filtered by a disc filter. The results showed that the flat type emitter is less sensitive to clogging, the disc filter is the most suitable to prevent clogging and the use of pure or diluted sewage effluent increases the drippers’ flow rate coefficient of variation.

  11. Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L; Henderson, Robin

    2014-05-15

    Wetland systems are now well-established unit processes in the treatment of diverse wastewater streams. However, the development of wetland technology for sewage treatment followed an entirely separate trajectory from that for polluted mine waters. In recent years, increased networking has led to recognition of possible synergies which might be obtained by hybridising approaches to achieve co-treatment of otherwise distinct sewage and mine-derived wastewaters. As polluted discharges from abandoned mines often occur in or near the large conurbations to which the former mining activities gave rise, there is ample scope for such co-treatment in many places worldwide. The first full-scale co-treatment wetland anywhere in the world receiving large inflows of both partially-treated sewage (∼100 L s(-)(1)) and mine water (∼300 L s(-1)) was commissioned in Gateshead, England in 2005, and a performance evaluation has now been made. The evaluation is based entirely on routinely-collected water quality data, which the operators gather in fulfillment of their regulatory obligations. The principal parameters of concern in the sewage effluent are suspended solids, BOD5, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphate (P); in the mine water the only parameter of particular concern is total iron (Fe). Aerobic treatment processes are appropriate for removal of BOD5, NH4-N and Fe; for the removal of P, reaction with iron to form ferric phosphate solids is a likely pathway. With these considerations in mind, the treatment wetland was designed as a surface-flow aerobic system. Sample concentration level and daily flow rate date from April 2007 until March 2011 have been analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. This has revealed sustained, high rates of absolute removal of all pollutants from the combined wastewater flow, quantified in terms of differences between influent and effluent loadings (i.e. mass per unit time). In terms of annual mass retention rates, for instance

  12. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  13. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  14. Heat recovery in sewage sludge gasification systems; Waermerueckgewinnung bei Anlagen zur Klaerschlammvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamp, P.; Reichel, A.; Ziegler, F. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Abt. Energieumwandlung und -speicherung, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Using the example of a pilot plant for sewage sludge gasification by the Noell conversion process, the potential for energy optimisation is described. The goals of development are twofold: First, the process stages must be optimized so as to minimize energy consumption and secondly, all options for energy use and energy must be utilized. (orig) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Pilotanlage zur Klaerschlammvergasung nach dem NOELL-Konversionsverfahren sollen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Optimierung beispielhaft aufgezeigt werden. Ziel muss es sein, zum einen die Verfahrensschritte auf einen moeglichst geringen Energiebedarf hin zu optimieren und zum anderen Moeglichkeiten der Waermeverschiebung und -rueckgewinnung soweit wie moeglich auszunutzen. (orig)

  15. Heat recovery in sewage sludge gasification systems; Waermerueckgewinnung bei Anlagen zur Klaerschlammvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamp, P; Reichel, A; Ziegler, F [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Abt. Energieumwandlung und -speicherung, Garching (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Using the example of a pilot plant for sewage sludge gasification by the Noell conversion process, the potential for energy optimisation is described. The goals of development are twofold: First, the process stages must be optimized so as to minimize energy consumption and secondly, all options for energy use and energy must be utilized. (orig) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Pilotanlage zur Klaerschlammvergasung nach dem NOELL-Konversionsverfahren sollen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Optimierung beispielhaft aufgezeigt werden. Ziel muss es sein, zum einen die Verfahrensschritte auf einen moeglichst geringen Energiebedarf hin zu optimieren und zum anderen Moeglichkeiten der Waermeverschiebung und -rueckgewinnung soweit wie moeglich auszunutzen. (orig)

  16. Limit values in special agreements between factories and sewage works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Yrjoe

    1987-01-01

    The operation of sewage works is controlled in Finland by the water and health authorities. These authorities set special quality demands for the effluent from sewage treatment plants into the recipient. Also other wastes from treatment plants, mainly sludges, have special regulations and operational target values. Sewage works have to achieve the aim goals and limit values set. In order to fulfill the regulations, sewage works impose such limit values on factory wastewaters that there will be no problems at the treatment plants. Sewage works can act in two ways: - require the factory to operate in such a way that the limit values are not exceeded, - the factory pays a certain sum of money to the sewage works, which takes care of the whole problem. It can be said in general, that it is not possible to get rid of harmful substances by payment to the sewage works if the substances cause treatment problems or problems in sludge disposal. If the factory produces wastewater that contains a higher organic load, more suspended solids or a higher nutrient load than normal sanitary wastewater, the problem is most often solved by paying an extra fee to the sewage works

  17. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  18. Health, Sanitary and Economic Evaluation of Home-like Systems of Water Treatment (Reverse Osmosis, RO in Qom City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Jafaripour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Osmosis (RO is one of the most useful techniques to improve the elimination of organic and mineral Substances from ground and surface water after primary purification processes such as coagulation, sedimentation and filtration.This System provides the required water quality characteristics to somehow.  However, in selection RO systems civil management decision and general public opinion along with cost and health impact must be considered. This study was done in 2010. Statistical methods have used to gather data about of families who used RO In their private homes and mode of eliminate of the wastewater generated by this process. The results indicated that in the normal operational conditions such as pressure 6- 10 kg / cm2 the, optimum recovery % 30 and flow rate 1lit/min , and water temperature 4- 38C°, an Amount of 14191200 kwh of power energy have been consumed to produce 157680 m3 / year treated water required for 36000 families. This has also generated 367920 m3 / year of wastewater being disposed without any management and environmental considerations. Apart from that more than 198000 of filters have been ejected to the environment. Also regarding health aspects, reducing the hardness and fluoride levels in treated water could be undesirable. It could be concluded that increasing the number of local water distribution points and speeding up the water supplying project from Dez river toQom can decrease the investment on RO system.

  19. Development of the real-time control (RTC) system for Tokyo sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Mizushima, H; Ito, K

    2005-01-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan government has decided to make the maximum possible use of the existing facilities while ensuring safety against inundation and to promote measures also from a software approach by introducing a system capable of minimizing combined sewer overflow, the real-time control system (RTC). A pilot RTC system was installed in August 2002 for the Shinozaki Pumping Station. The RTC system monitors the precipitation volume and the water level in the pipe. Simulations were carried out on the basis of these data. From the results, it was found that with the use of the RTC it is possible to reduce CSO by roughly 50% for small rainfalls with a total precipitation level of 20 mm or less by strong rainwater in the pipe routes at the beginning of the rain. It has also been shown that CSO can be reduced by about 80% through the use of rainfall forecasting.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  1. Premise to implement a grading system to evaluate the sanitary level in food service establishments in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Razzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions.

  2. [Principle directions for the creation and organization of the system of sanitary-epidemiological safety during the preparations for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, V P; Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Aksenova, O I; Ivanov, G E; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T B; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A

    2015-01-01

    The paper generalizes the experience of formation of protection system against biological threats and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare during preparation for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The basic steps for creating this system, since 2007, participation and role of Rospotrebnadzor in this process are shown. The paper deals with such questions as the governmental and administrative structures with federal agencies interaction, development of a regulatory framework governing the safety system of the Olympic Games, development of algorithms of information exchange and management decisions, biological safety in developing infrastructure in Sochi.

  3. Decentralised treatment of concentrated sewage at low temperature in a two-step anaerobic system: two upflow-hybrid septic tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwally, T.A.; Sayed, S.; Groendijk, L.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    The decentralised treatment of concentrated sewage (about 3,600 mgCOD/1) at low temperature was investigated in a two-step anaerobic system: two-anaerobic hybrid (AH) septic tanks (each 0.575 m(3)). The two reactors were placed in a temperature controlled-room and the HRT was 2.5 days for each

  4. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling ... The water samples were collected from sewage water treatment .... to be irrigated, soil conditions and the irrigation system.

  5. Using fecal sterols to assess dynamics of sewage input in sediments along a human-impacted river-estuary system in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ding; Zhang, Kai; Tang, Jianhui; Cui, Xingqian; Sun, Yongge

    2018-05-01

    Sedimentary fecal sterols and other sterol biomarkers, combined with bulk total organic carbon (TOC) and its stable carbon isotope were applied to characterize the sewage contamination across a ca. 280 km transect from the Xiaoqing River to the Laizhou Bay, a typical river-estuary system subjected to extensive anthropogenic stress due to rapid regional urbanization and industrialization in eastern China. Two sampling events were performed in both spring and summer seasons in the Laizhou Bay adjacent to the Xiaoqing River in order to assess the potential seasonal variation. Fecal sterols such as coprostanol and epicoprostanol, which are typical indicators of anthropogenic sewage input, displayed high concentrations of up to 63.2 μg g -1 dry weight (dw) and 13.1 μg g -1 dw, respectively. Results suggested that most of the stations along the Xiaoqing River were severely contaminated by fecal inputs with a decreasing trend from the river to the estuary that was mainly explained by the increasing distance from the diffuse sewage sources and the gradual dilution by sea water. Although there was no significant difference in fecal sterol concentrations between spring and summer in the Laizhou Bay, suggestive of no significant difference in sewage abundance, significantly higher average epicoprostanol/coprostanol and lower coprostanol/epicoprostanol ratios were observed in spring than summer, indicative of different sewage sources (e.g., human vs. non-human). Seasonal discharge and land-runoff, air temperature related to microbial activity differences and different extend of animal manure irrigation during agricultural planting could be additional reasons and need further investigation. Nevertheless, fecal sterol concentrations, distributions and diagnostic ratios should all be taken into consideration to better understand sewage inputs and source dynamics in river-estuary ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  7. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  8. Equipamentos de saneamento e desigualdades no espaço metropolitano do Rio de Janeiro Basic sanitary systems and social inequalities in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Marques

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da distribuição dos investimentos em equipamentos de saneamento básico na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro no período 1975-91. Distribuímos as inversões realizadas pela concessionária estadual, a Cedae, em uma base espacial produzida especialmente para a realização da presente pesquisa. Esta base foi construída utilizando como indicadores sociais informações do Censo demográfico de 1980, único realizado no decorrer do período estudado. As transformações recentes observadas são explicadas a partir das conjunturas sócio-espaciais e políticas da metrópole e do país, assim como da própria forma de organização dos serviços. O trabalho acrescenta importantes argumentos aos debates sobre a reestruturação dos espaços metropolitanos e as políticas públicas urbanas. A distribuição espacial e social dos investimentos observada no período diferiu do padrão vigente até então, mas, embora tenha ocorrido uma substancial democratização na alocação dos recursos públicos, o padrão não foi subvertido.This article deals with the distribution of financial resources allocated to the basic sanitary systems in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area during the 1975-1991 period. The study analyzes the investments allocated by the local utility company, known as Cedae, using a spatial model produced especially for this research. The model was produced using information from the national demographic census of 1980, the only one developed within the study period. The recent changes as observed are explained on the basis of their relationship to the spatial and political contexts in the metropolis and the country, as well as from the organization of the services themselves. The paper adds important arguments to the discussion over the restructuring of metropolitan areas and urban public policies. The spatial and social distribution of resources observed during the period differed from the preexisting pattern

  9. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  10. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  11. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  12. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  13. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  14. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qinglin; Xu, Wenlai; Yan, Zhijiao; Qian, Lei

    2018-04-04

    A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO₃) to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO₃ to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO₃ had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO₃ in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut

  15. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3 to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO3 in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the

  16. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  17. [Effect of different sludge retention time (SRT) on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching continuous plug flow reaction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Fourteen days of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with different sludge retention time (SRT) under the condition of 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount and 4 g x L(-1) of microbial nutritional substance was conducted. During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, DO, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections were investigated in the present study. The results showed that sludge pH were maintained at 5.00, 3.00, 2.90, 2.70, 2.60 and 2.40 from section 1 to section 6 and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.64 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.33 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 72 with SRT 2.5d. In addition, the sludge pH were maintained at 5.10, 4.10, 3.20, 2.90, 2.70 and 2.60, the DO value were 0.43, 1.47, 3.29, 4.76, 5.75 and 5.88 mg x L(-1) from section 1 to section 6, and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.56 x 10(13) to the final 0.20 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 120 with SRT 2 d. The pH value was increased to 3.00 at section 6 at hour 48 h with SRT 1.25 d. The bioleaching system imbalanced in this operation conditions because of the utilization efficiency of microbial nutritional substance by Acidibacillus spp. was decreased. The longer sludge retention time, the easier bioleaching system reached stable. 2 d could be used as the optimum sludge retention time in engineering application. The bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press to the moisture content of dewatered sludge cake under 60%. This study would provide the necessary data to the engineering application on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching.

  18. Lodo de esgoto e sistema radicular da pupunheira Sewage sludge doses and the root system of peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio Armas Vega

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do lodo de esgoto sobre o sistema radicular da pupunheira foram estudados em experimento em campo, em blocos casualizados, instalado em Ubatuba (SP, em julho 2001, na densidade de 5.000 plantas ha-1. As doses de lodo de esgoto fresco (79,7 % de umidade utilizadas foram de 0, 38, 76 e 152 t ha-1, equivalentes a 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no sulco de plantio, adicionando-se 15 g por planta de KCl como fonte de K. A análise do sistema radicular foi efetuada doze meses após, por meio de trado e de trincheiras e com o auxílio de fotos digitais. Detectou-se que o sistema radicular de pupunheiras com um ano de campo estava concentrado nas camadas superficiais (acima de 75 % nos primeiros 20 cm, assim como em distâncias de até 0,5 m da base da planta. O lodo de esgoto modificou positivamente a densidade do solo, alterando também favoravelmente a densidade das raízes. Houve aumento na biomassa radicular proporcional às doses de lodo de esgoto, existindo uma relação direta daquela com a fitomassa aérea. Doses de lodo equivalentes a 200 e 400 kg de N contribuíram para aprofundar o sistema radicular e proporcionaram maior quantidade relativa de raízes finas.The effects of sewage sludge doses on the root system of peach palm were studied in a field experiment, in randomized complete blocks, carried out in Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was set up in July 2001, with a density of 5,000 plants ha-1. The sewage sludge doses (79.7 % water content were 0, 38, 76, and 152 t ha-1, which were equivalent to doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 of N. The treatments were applied in the planting furrow, and every plant was provided with K by a dose of 15 g potassium chloride. The root system was analyzed one year after planting using soil auger and digging of trenches and with the help of digital images. It was concluded that the root system of one-year old peach palm was concentrated in the

  19. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  20. [ECOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AS FERTILIZER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasbieva, M T

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is considered the question of the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants as a result of prolonged use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. There have been calculated coefficients of concentrations of elements and the total pollution index. There was performed the comparison of the data obtained with accepted sanitary-hygienic standards.

  1. The presence of contaminations in sewage sludge - The current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, Krzysztof; Rorat, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata J

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge/biosolids are by-wastes of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. As sources of nutrients (C, N, P) they are widely used in intensive farming where large supplementation of organic matter to maintain fertility and enhance crop yields is needed. However, according to the report of European Commission published in 2010, only 39% of produced sewage sludge is recycled into agriculture in the European Union. This situation occurs mainly due to the fact, that the sewage sludge may contain a dangerous volume of different contaminants. For over decades, a great deal of attention has been focused on total concentration of few heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) regulates the allowable limits of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg and pathogens and allows for recovery of sludge on land under defined sanitary and environmentally sound conditions. In this paper, a review on quality of sewage sludge based on the publications after 2010 has been presented. Nowadays there are several papers focusing on new serious threats to human health and ecosystem occurring in sewage sludge - both chemicals (such as toxic trace elements - Se, Ag, Ti; nanoparticles; polyaromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyl; perfluorinated surfactants, polycyclic musks, siloxanes, pesticides, phenols, sweeteners, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles) and biological traits (Legionella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157:H7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using sewage sludge pyrolytic gas to modify titanium alloy to obtain high-performance anodes in bio-electrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Ying, Kang; Shen, Dongsheng; Huang, Lijie; Ying, Xianbin; Huang, Haoqian; Cheng, Kun; Chen, Jiazheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Chen, Ting; Feng, Huajun

    2017-12-01

    Titanium is under consideration as a potential stable bio-anode because of its high conductivity, suitable mechanical properties, and electrochemical inertness in the operating potential window of bio-electrochemical systems; however, its application is limited by its poor electron-transfer capacity with electroactive bacteria and weak ability to form biofilms on its hydrophobic surface. This study reports an effective and low-cost way to convert a hydrophobic titanium alloy surface into a hydrophilic surface that can be used as a bio-electrode with higher electron-transfer rates. Pyrolytic gas of sewage sludge is used to modify the titanium alloy. The current generation, anodic biofilm formation surface, and hydrophobicity are systematically investigated by comparing bare electrodes with three modified electrodes. Maximum current density (15.80 A/m2), achieved using a modified electrode, is 316-fold higher than that of the bare titanium alloy electrode (0.05 A/m2) and that achieved by titanium alloy electrodes modified by other methods (12.70 A/m2). The pyrolytic gas-modified titanium alloy electrode can be used as a high-performance and scalable bio-anode for bio-electrochemical systems because of its high electron-transfer rates, hydrophilic nature, and ability to achieve high current density.

  3. NORTH PORTAL - SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  4. Intensification of sewage treatment processes from harmful substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Intensive development of power, chemical, oil, machine-building and other industries results in increase of industrial toxic emissions. Local pollutions as a result of emissions of the industrial enterprises in many cases surpass the maximum permissible sanitary norms. E.g. works connected to an oil recovery, have led to pollution of huge territories of the Azerbaijan Republic, including Caspian Sea. Development of scientific bases of optimization of operating practices of industrial sewage treatment will allow to liquidate the harmful impurities. It is necessary for preservation of the environment to increase the clearing and sewage quality degree. During modeling a real process of sewage treatment from polluting impurities we need to build more and more complex models. It demands in return the application of applied mathematics methods for process of clearing of liquids. General theory and technology of sewage treatment, in particular, from heavy metals, radioactive nuclides now are absent. Achievement of an object provides for solution of the following problems: a) Research of laws of influence of various technological and physical and chemical parameters on efficiency of waste treatment from heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; b) Development of the effective reagents, allowing to remove from sewage cations of toxic heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; c) Construction of statistical models of an experimental material on clearing concrete sewage; d) Modeling of searches of optimum modes of sewage treatment processes from heavy metals ions; e) Development of optimum processes of sewage treatment from toxic heavy metals ions. The mentioned above problems are scantily studied both in experimental, and in the theoretical point of view. Expected scientific novelty of the offered project can be made in the following: Technological modes of carrying out of deep clearing processes of real sewage from toxic impurities, in particular from heavy metals ions

  5. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  6. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  7. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitary operations. 416.4 Section 416... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces of... compounds, sanitizing agents, processing aids, and other chemicals used by an establishment must be safe and...

  8. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  9. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. The influence of incorporating leachate on anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Edith Barba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating leachate is one of the most important challenges in designing and operating a sanitary landfill. Anaerobic treatment u- sing a mixture of leachate and domestic sewage represents a suitable treatment option having good potential applicability in developing countries. The influence of adding leachate from a domestic sanitary landfill on the anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage has been evaluated in this paper. Five samples were evaluated for the study: 100% domestic sewage (DS, 100% leachate (L and three leachate mixtures (L with domestic sewage (DS as follows: 10%(L:90%(DS, 20%(L:80%(DS and 30%(L:70%(DS. The samples’ anaerobic biodegradability was monitored for 30 days using methane production accumulation and variation in volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration and composition. A detailed analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD composition was performed at the end of the monitoring period. The results of the study showed that a 10%(L:90%(DS mixture provided the maximum leachate (L domestic sewage (DS combination mixture which could be anaerobically biodegradable with no significantly inhibitory effects. Mixtures using a higher percentage of leachate showed significantly potential inhibition effects on the anaerobic biodegradation of domestic sewage.

  11. Anaerobic pre-treatment of sewage under low temperature (15 [degrees] C) conditions in an integrated UASB-digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.J.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to amend the UASB by the means of incorporating a digester for anaerobic sewage treatment in the Middle East region.

    A literature search of the various parameters that mightaffect the solid liquid separation process by filtration

  12. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  13. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Gracia [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Ainia, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Bioenergía e Higiene Industrial, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Bonmatí, August [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, Belén, E-mail: belen.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  14. Application of subsurface wastewater infiltration system to on-site treatment of domestic sewage under high hydraulic loading rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the hydraulic loading rate (HLR of a subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS used in treating domestic sewage, the intermittent operation mode was employed in the SWIS. The results show that the intermittent operation mode contributes to the improvement of the HLR and the pollutant removal rate. When the wetting-drying ratio (RWD was 1.0, the pollutant removal rate increased by (13.6 ± 0.3% for NH3-N, (20.7 ± 1.1% for TN, (18.6 ± 0.4% for TP, (12.2 ± 0.5% for BOD, (10.1 ± 0.3% for COD, and (36.2 ± 1.2% for SS, compared with pollutant removal rates under the continuous operation mode. The pollutant removal rate declined with the increase of the HLR. The effluent quality met The Reuse of Urban Recycling Water – Water Quality Standard for Scenic Environment Use (GB/T 18921-2002 even when the HLR was as high as 10 cm/d. Hydraulic conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP, the quantity of nitrifying bacteria, and the pollutant removal rate of NH3-N increased with the decrease of the RWD. For the pollutant removal rates of TP, BOD, and COD, there were no significant difference (p < 0.05 under different RWDs. The suggested RWD was 1.0. Relative contribution of the pretreatment and SWIS to the pollutant removal was examined, and more than 80% removal of NH3-N, TN, TP, COD, and BOD occurred in the SWIS.

  15. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  16. Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Environmental Assessment of Sewage Sludge Management – Focusing on Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam

    profiles of the STRB system technology and a mechanical treatment technology, constituting a basis for decision-making in relation to choice of technology. A major part of the project involved performance of fieldwork and laboratory work. Data were collected at three Danish, well-operated STRB systems...... assessment were based on international acknowledged standards and recommendations. An attributional LCA approach was chosen, and the loadings and savings for all impact categories were normalised to people equivalents (PE) (the annual loadings and savings provided by one average person). Three sludge...... gasses CH4 and N2O were larger for mechanical dewatered sludge, the net environmental loadings provided to the impact category Climate Change by this technology (S-CEN) and the STRB system technology (S-STRB and S-SPA) ended up being equally sized (9.010-4 PE), despite of higher biological activity...

  19. Nowcasting of rainfall and of combined sewage flow in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achleitner, Stefan; Fach, Stefan; Einfalt, Thomas; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Nowcasting of rainfall may be used additionally to online rain measurements to optimize the operation of urban drainage systems. Uncertainties quoted for the rain volume are in the range of 5% to 10% mean square error (MSE), where for rain intensities 45% to 75% MSE are noted. For larger forecast periods up to 3 hours, the uncertainties will increase up to some hundred percents. Combined with the growing number of real time control concepts in sewer systems, rainfall forecast is used more and more in urban drainage systems. Therefore it is of interest how the uncertainties influence the final evaluation of a defined objective function. Uncertainty levels associated with the forecast itself are not necessarily transferable to resulting uncertainties in the catchment's flow dynamics. The aim of this paper is to analyse forecasts of rainfall and specific sewer output variables. For this study the combined sewer system of the city of Linz in the northern part of Austria located on the Danube has been selected. The city itself represents a total area of 96 km2 with 39 municipalities connected. It was found that the available weather radar data leads to large deviations in the forecast for precipitation at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes. The same is true for sewer variables such a CSO overflow for small sub-catchments. Although the results improve for larger spatial scales, acceptable levels at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes are not reached.

  20. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  1. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems.

  2. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  3. Sanitary survey of the drinking water supply of Kombinati suburb-Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angjeli, V; Reme, B; Leno, L; Bukli, R; Bushati, G

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological pollution of drinking water is a major health problem in the suburbs of the Albanian capital. Intermittent supply and contamination, resulting in several gastrointestinal manifestations, are the main concerns for the population and health workers. The risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases is high. Pollution originates from contamination of drinking water with domestic sewage. This research investigated the drinking water cycle from its natural source to the consumer, analysing samples and verifying pollution levels in the microbiological and chemical setting. The most important pollution sources were found in the distribution network, due to cross-contamination with sewers and illegal connections. The second pollution source was found around the extraction wells. This is related to abusive constructions within the sanitary zone around the wells and maybe the highly sewage-contaminated river water which feeds the aquifer.

  4. Decentralised treatment of concentrated sewage at low temperature in a two-step anaerobic system: two upflow-hybrid septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Sayed, S; Groendijk, L; van Lier, J; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

    2003-01-01

    The decentralised treatment of concentrated sewage (about 3,600 mgCOD/l) at low temperature was investigated in a two-step anaerobic system: two-anaerobic hybrid (AH) septic tanks (each 0.575 m3). The two reactors were placed in a temperature controlled-room and the HRT was 2.5 days for each reactor. The system was fed with concentrated domestic sewage, mainly black water from about 40 toilets flushed with only 4 litre of water and a limited amount of grey water. The system showed high removal efficiency for the different COD fractions. Mean removal efficiencies in the two-step AH-septic tank at 5 days HRT and 13 degrees C were 94, 98, 74 and 78% for total COD, suspended COD, colloidal COD and dissolved COD respectively. The results of short run experiments indicated that the presence of reticulated polyurethane foam (RPF) media in the AH-septic tank improved the removal of suspended COD by 22%. The first AH-septic tank was full of sludge after 4 months of operation due to the high removal of particulate COD and the limited hydrolysis at low temperature conditions. Therefore, a simple mathematical model was developed based on ADM1 (the IWA model in 2002). Based on the experimental results and the mathematical model, only a one-step AH septic tank is required. An HRT of 5.5-7.5 days is needed for that one-step AH septic tank to treat concentrated sewage at a low temperature of 13 degrees C. Such a system can provide a total COD removal as high as 87% and will be full of sludge after a period of more than a year.

  5. Detailed test plan on co-disposal of deminumum levels of LLRW and sanitary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, E.S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of this investigation are: (1) to study the attenuation mechanisms for radionuclides (LLRW) in simulated sanitary landfills with and without leachate recycle; and (2) to determine the complexation potential of ligands (viz., sulfides, humic substances) present in the leachate during different stages of landfill stabilization. Since the major emphasis of this research is on containment and isolation of LLRW within a sanitary landfill the following key elements have been incorporated into the design of the simulated pilot-scale sanitary landfills: (1) containment of LLRW within the landfills by placing the municipal refuse and LLRW in polymeric membrane-lined cells (30-mil, HDA, Gundline liner, Gundle, TX) with a leachate collection system; (2) enhancement of stabilization by leachate recycle; and (3) recovery of the gas produced from the sanitary landfills. The proposed research program addresses the fate of LLRW in municipal sanitary landfills thereby, establishing a data base to predict radionuclide pathways in sanitary landfills and to aid in assessing the environmental impacts of codisposal of LLRW within sanitary landfills. The outcome of this study may also serve to alleviate the current concern of unnecessary filling of limited space in existing licensed shallow-land burial sites. 4 figures, 1 table

  6. High speed municipal sewage treatment in microbial fuel cell integrated with anaerobic membrane filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Oa, S W

    2014-01-01

    A cylindrical two chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) integrated with an anaerobic membrane filter was designed and constructed to evaluate bioelectricity generation and removal efficiency of organic substrate (glucose or domestic wastewater) depending on organic loading rates (OLRs). The MFC was continuously operated with OLRs 3.75, 5.0, 6.25, and 9.38 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m(3)·d) using glucose as a substrate, and the cathode chamber was maintained at 5-7 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. The optimal OLR was found to be 6.25 kgCOD/(m(3)·d) (hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.9 h), and the corresponding voltage and power density averaged during the operation were 0.15 V and 13.6 mW/m(3). With OLR 6.25 kgCOD/(m(3)·d) using domestic wastewater as a substrate, the voltage and power reached to 0.13 V and 91 mW/m(3) in the air cathode system. Even though a relatively short HRT of 1.9 h was applied, stable effluent could be obtained by the membrane filtration system and the following air purging. In addition, the short HRT would provide economic benefit in terms of reduction of construction and operating costs compared with a conventional aerobic treatment process.

  7. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov

    2017-01-01

    The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...

  8. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  9. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  10. Bacterial Pathogens and Community Composition in Advanced Sewage Treatment Systems Revealed by Metagenomics Analysis Based on High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Kailong; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Weigang; Tan, Yunfei; Liu, Bo; Tang, Junying

    2015-01-01

    This study used 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to investigate bacterial pathogens and their potential virulence in a sewage treatment plant (STP) applying both conventional and advanced treatment processes. Pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing consistently demonstrated that Arcobacter genus occupied over 43.42% of total abundance of potential pathogens in the STP. At species level, potential pathogens Arcobacter butzleri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia dominated in raw sewage, which was also confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Illumina sequencing also revealed prevalence of various types of pathogenicity islands and virulence proteins in the STP. Most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors were eliminated in the STP, and the removal efficiency mainly depended on oxidation ditch. Compared with sand filtration, magnetic resin seemed to have higher removals in most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors. However, presence of the residual A. butzleri in the final effluent still deserves more concerns. The findings indicate that sewage acts as an important source of environmental pathogens, but STPs can effectively control their spread in the environment. Joint use of the high-throughput sequencing technologies is considered a reliable method for deep and comprehensive overview of environmental bacterial virulence. PMID:25938416

  11. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  12. Problems of sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Volkov, N.N.; Grachev, M.I.; Korostin, A.S.; Prostakishin, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The planning and carrying out sanitary-hygienic arrangements in emergency situation are based on scientific-research, organizing-methodical and practical trends of activities including: the necessity of taking into consideration the risk of sanitary-hygienic complications as a result of emergency situation; elaboration of criteria and classification of hazards potential danger of industrial plants and territories; the establishment of system of providing sanitary-hygienic measures in emergency situation; working out prophylactic measures for prevention, localization and liquidation of sanitary-hygienic after-effects of emergency situation; development of the system of control and express-analysis of hazardous factors; elaboration of rating-methodical base and arrangements aimed at protection of health and life of people. 5 refs

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  15. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  16. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  17. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  18. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  19. Sludge, garbage may fuel California sewage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieger, R B

    1977-01-01

    The combustion and pyrolysis of sewage sludge and refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in multiple-hearth furnaces were recommended as a means of generating energy to power the Central Contra Costa Sanitary District's 30 mgd wastewater treatment plant using an off-gas from the pyrolysis process. In a full-scale test, a furnace in Concord, once used for sewage sludge incineration, was operated under O/sub 2/-starved conditions by limiting air addition through the burners and air nozzles, resulting in partial combustion. Using temperature as the controlled variable, the process was regulated to form a fuel gas through composition of the organic feed matter. Just enough fuel gas was combusted to evaporate moisture in the feed solids and furnish heat for the decomposition process. During most of the testing the afterburner was maintained at a temperature > 1400/sup 0/F with pyrolysis gas. At this temperature, automatic ignition of the gas occurred. When the gas generated dropped to a low heat of combustion because of high feed moisture content, the afterburner burner was used to ignite the gas. Some test observations are discussed. Preparation of the solid waste for processing by the use of shredders, air classifiers, and magnetic separators is described.

  20. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  1. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-01-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  2. Construção do Sistema Brasileiro de Vigilância Sanitária: argumentos para debate Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marismary Horsth De Seta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a construção do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, um arranjo voltado à regulação e redução dos riscos sanitários decorrentes do consumo de produtos, da prestação de serviços de saúde e do ambiente no Brasil. Consideraram-se aspectos históricos, políticos, fiscais e a conjuntura atual para cotejar seu desenvolvimento com o do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde, que tem recebido intensa cooperação internacional. O cotejamento se baseou na trajetória de seus sistemas nacionais e respectivos serviços federais, bem como nos critérios para descentralização. A análise teve como categoria central a coordenação federativa e se baseou no referencial do federalismo e das relações intergovernamentais. O contexto institucional da saúde e da vigilância sanitária apresenta forte competição política, instabilidade no projeto e provável redução da capacidade de coordenação federativa após o Pacto pela Saúde. O Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, em razão da sua natureza de bem público e da alta externalidade de seu campo de ação, requer coordenação federativa para incremento da cooperação regional e local e também pela heterogeneidade estrutural dos municípios brasileiros.This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context

  3. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  4. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  5. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: lixiaowei419@163.com; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ{sup 15}N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  6. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, P.H.M.; Poggiani, F.; Laclau, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha - '1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  7. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  8. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  9. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Chaban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Sloviansk resort, was the editor of a local newspaper. V.T. Skrylnikov is an author of many works on balneotherapy.

  10. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  11. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  12. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Forms 2004-130 and 2005-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  14. The existing state of sewage sludge containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)

  15. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  16. Dimensioning of activation systems using submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plants; Bemessung von Membranbelebungsanlagen beim Einsatz zur Reinigung kommunaler Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohle, P.; Dorgeloh, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    Dimensioning of conventional activation systems in Germany as a rule relies on instruction sheet A131 of the Abwassertechnische Vereinigung or follows the Hochschulgruppen approach (HSG). They contain recommendations as to the size of the nitrification and denitrification zones, the amount of oxygen supplied and sludge production, and the size of the final sedimentation tank. For the use of sludge activation techniques by means of submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plant there so far do not exist any clues to dimensioning that make allowance for the modified boundary conditions. The present paper analyses instruction sheet A131 for its suitability as a basis in the dimensioning of sludge activation systems with submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plant. Then the dimensioning instructions are modified to suit the changed boundary conditions, and recommendations for the dimensioning of activation systems with submerged membranes on the basis of extensive studies carried out at the Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ISA of Aachen Technical University RWTH are given. (orig.) [German] Die Bemessung konventioneller Belebungsverfahren erfolgt in Deutschland i.d.R. auf der Grundlage des Arbeitsblatts A 131 der Abwassertechnischen Vereinigung bzw. nach dem Hochschulgruppenansatz (HSG). Sie enthalten Empfehlungen bezueglich der Dimensionierung von Nitrifikations- und Denitrifikationszone, Sauerstoffversorgung, Schlammproduktion und Nachklaerbecken. Fuer den Einsatz von Membranbelebungsanlagen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen existieren bislang keine Bemessungshinweise, die den veraenderten Randbedingungen Rechnung tragen. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert das Arbeitsblatt A 131 in Hinsicht auf die Moeglichkeit zur Anwendung fuer die Bemessung von Membranbelebungsanlagen beim Einsatz zur kommunalen Abwasserreinigung. Im Weiteren erfolgt die Modifikation der Bemessungshinweise hinsichtlich der geaenderten Randbedingungen und die Angabe von

  17. [Sanitary education of workers of bakeries and pastry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'shchikov, M I; Nemets, M G; Novikova, O V; Gavrilenko, E V; Osipova, E M; Osinova, T I

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents experience with sanitary education of workers from food industrial enterprises. The study revealed a number of disadvantages of the methodological aspect of sanitary education of these workers. A sanitary education programme has been worked out for workers engaged in food and food processing industries (production of bread, baked goods, and confectionery) and approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department), Ministry of Health of Russia on March 1999.

  18. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  19. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35... is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph... comply with bottled water quality standards (§ 165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a...

  20. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in microbiological composition of soils and soil contamination with drug-resistant bacteria caused by the use of sewage sludge in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk-Mazanek, Ewa; Pasonl, Lukasz; Kepa, Urszula

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the use of sewage sludge in nature on biological soil parameters. The study was conducted is field experiment environment (small beds). The sandy soil was fertilized with sewage sludge dried naturally (in heaps) and in solar drying facilities. The fertilization was based on the doses of sewage sludge and manure with the amounts of 10, 20, 30 and 40 Mg/ha. The experiment duration was 3 years. The sanitary status of the soils fertilized with the sludge and manure was evaluated (coliform index, Clostridium perfrinens). Furthermore, the content of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated, with determination of its resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  2. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  3. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  4. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  5. The BAYER BIOCOLUMN, a sewage treatment system. Performance and operation compared with conventional systems; BIOCOLUMNA BAYER un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales. Comparacion de resultados y funcionamiento con sistemas convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.; Lobet Francoise, E.; Planas Giral, J. M.

    1999-06-01

    The Bayer Biocolumn is a new generation activated sludge sewage treatment system that not only ensures the technological efficiency of the process while occupying a minimum amount of space, but also addresses safety and environment protection issues. This article describes the system`s technique and explains its applications and advantages such as small space requirements, high energy efficiency (>3 kg O{sub 2}/kWh for a 15 m head), absence of noise and odours and low operating and maintenance costs. Performance results are given for the first biocolumn installed in Spain (Galicia). In conclusion, the biocolumn is compared to conventional activated sludge treatment systems. (Author) 2 refs.

  6. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  7. Cs-137 for irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1973, the Geiselbullach sewage treatment works have been continuously operating their first system for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge. Within the framework of a German-American agreement, nine Cs-137 sources with a total activity of 56.000 Ci have been made available to the works free of charge in 1983, in order to test in practice and to demonstrate the applicability of these radiation sources in comparison to the Co-60 sources exclusively used up to then. This first study on the applicability of Cs-137 as a radiation source for sewage sludge treatment revealed no findings or effects speaking against Cs-137 as a radiation source for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  8. Disinfection of sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the liquids in the agriculture or its disposal like sea nutrient

  9. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  10. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  11. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    sanitary protection of water and related industries on the basis of the research the author came to the conclusion that the development of the Ukrainian legislation on health protection of water resources in the twentieth century has reflected all the deep transformation in our country: the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic 1918 new attitude to water and other natural resources, as enshrined in the USSR the priority of social forms of ownership of water resources, based on which was built the system of government in this area with strict planning principle and the cost of administrative-command nature of power. After independence, the Ukrainian state was able to synthesize the design achievements of the historical development and lay the foundation of modern laws on sanitary protection of water resources in the context of globalization.

  12. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  13. Enantioselective degradation of Bromocyclene in sewage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, K [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). FG Siedlungswasser- und Abfallwirtschaft/Inst. fuer Umweltanalytik

    2004-09-15

    Bromocyclene has been utilised as insecticide against ectoparasites, however the production in Germany was stopped around 1995. Until that time it was used in pet care as well as in sheep farming. Due to its high bioaccumulation it was detected not only in sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, but also in fresh water fish. Enatioselective determination at that time was used to obtain results on the biodegradation of Bromocyclene in fish. Considering the long time period since the phase out of Bromocyclene it was surprising it was easily identified in sludge samples from 2002.

  14. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  15. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  16. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Hot water supply system; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Kyuto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oze, H. [Toyo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    G-5 and 6 measure and investigate actual state of use of hot water supply systems in dormitories used by persons living alone without their families and by unmarried persons to collect fundamental data. G-5 considers how hot water is used, by making a questionnaire survey on the subject houses, and identifies the consumption trend of heat, water and hot water in the hot water supply systems as a whole. G-6 selected eleven houses from among the houses discussed in the previous report to identify the trend of use of hot water by each house. Also, quantity of hot water used in every day of the week is estimated. G-7 discusses methods for estimating water temperatures at faucets of water pipes from the water sources. This is intended to raise the accuracy of tap water temperature conversion coefficient by districts used for calculating estimated heat quantity as a parameter 'hot water supply energy consumption coefficient' to evaluate energy saving performance of a hot water supply facility. G-8 performs numerical simulations changing different parameters in the hot water supply piping system by using a heat loss calculation model for the existing household hot water supply piping. It executes evaluation on energy conservation performance of each model. G-9 estimates efficiency of instantaneous household gas hot water supply devices, not only on thermal efficiency of devices during steady state combustion, but also on non-steady state such as start-up, and discusses methods to derive actual efficiency by using calculations. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  19. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R T [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  20. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  1. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  2. Implication of two in-stream processes in the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage system into a temporary river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Picot, Bernadette; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage treatment plants into an intermittent Mediterranean river, during a low-flow period. Many pollutants stored in the riverbed during the low-flow period can be transferred to the downstream environments during flood events. The study focused on two processes that affect the fate and the transport of nutrients, a physical process (retention in the riverbed sediments) and a biological process (denitrification). A spatial campaign was carried out during a low-flow period to characterize the nutrient contents of both water and sediments in the Vène River. The results showed high nutrient concentrations in the water column downstream of the treated wastewater disposal (up to 13,315 μg N/L for ammonium and 2,901 μg P/L for total phosphorus). Nutrient concentrations decreased rapidly downstream of the disposal whereas nutrient contents in the sediments increased (up to 1,898 and 784 μg/g for total phosphorus and Kjeldahl nitrogen, respectively). According to an in situ experiment using sediment boxes placed in the riverbed for 85 days, we estimated that the proportion of nutrients trapped in the sediments represents 25% (respectively 10%) of phosphorus (respectively nitrogen) loads lost from the water column. In parallel, laboratory tests indicated that denitrification occurred in the Vène River, and we estimated that denitrification likely coupled to nitrification processes during the 85 days of the experiment was significantly involved in the removal of nitrogen loads (up to 38%) from the water column and was greater than accumulation processes.

  3. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  4. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model

  5. Material balance of two sewage sludge incineration systems; Methods and results - disposal of solid residues. Stoffflussanalyse bei zwei Klaerschlammverbrennungsanlagen; Methodik und Ergebnisse - Entsorgung der festen Rueckstaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staeubli, B. (Abt. Abfallwirtschaft des Amtes fuer Gewaesserschutz und Wasserbau des Kantons Zuerich (Switzerland)); Keller, C. (Elektrowatt Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-02-01

    Material balances were analyzed in two Swiss sewage sludge combustion plants. The methodology is described. Aspects of the standards set for waste management in Switzerland are described. The two incinerations are described. The volumes and compositions of the sewage sludges and all gaseous, liquid, and solid products are gone into. The possibilities of recycling and dumping of combustion products are reviewed in consideration of the volumes and compositions of combustion products. The text is supplemented by tables and flowsheets. (orig.)

  6. The Brookside Farm Wetland Ecosystem Treatment (WET System: A Low-Energy Methodology for Sewage Purification, Biomass Production (Yield, Flood Resilience and Biodiversity Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from domestic developments, farms and agro-industrial processing can be sources of pollution in the environment; current wastewater management methods are usually machine-based, and thus energy consuming. When Permaculture Principles are used in the creation of water purification and harvesting systems, there can be multiple environmental and economic benefits. In the context of energy descent, it may be considered desirable to treat wastewater using minimal energy. The constructed wetland design presented here is a low-entropy system in which wastewater is harvested and transformed into lush and productive wetland, eliminating the requirement for non-renewable energy in water purification, and also maximising benefits: biodiversity, flood resilience and yield. In permaculture design, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in sewage are viewed as valuable nutrients, resources to be harvested by a constructed wetland ecosystem and converted into useful yield. Similarly, rainwater runoff is not viewed as a problem which can cause flooding, but as a potential resource to be harvested to provide a yield. This paper presents a case study, with both water quality and productivity data, from Brookside Farm UK, where the use of Permaculture Design Principles has created a combined wastewater management and purification system, accepting all site water.

  7. modeling of evaporation modeling of evaporation losses in sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ffective treatment of wastes derived from households' septic systems. Data generated ... incineration and co-incineration of sludge, facilitate handling for ... environment [3]. Drying beds ..... management of sewage sludge derived from various.

  8. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni ... forest's act as filtering systems by trapping ... mangrove filtration will be useful in ..... enough to make decisions such as closure of.

  9. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  10. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...

  11. Dewaterability of five sewage sludges in Guangzhou conditioned with Fenton's reagent/lime and pilot-scale experiments using ultrahigh pressure filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jialin; Huang, Shaosong; Dai, Yongkang; Li, Lei; Sun, Shuiyu

    2015-11-01

    Sludge conditioning with Fenton's reagent and lime is a valid method for sludge dewatering. This study investigated the influence of different organic matter content sludge on sludge dewatering and discussed the main mechanism of sludge conditioning by combined Fenton's reagent and lime. The results indicated that the specific resistance to filterability (SRF) of sludge was reduced efficiently by approximately 90%, when conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime. Through single factor experiments, the optimal conditioning combinations were found. In addition, the relationship between VSS% and consumption of the reagents was detected. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the SRF and filtrate TOC values had a significant correlation with VSS% of sludge (including raw and conditioned). The main mechanism of sludge dewatering was also investigated. Firstly, it revealed that the dewaterability of sludge was closely correlated to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bound water contents. Secondly, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stated that sludge particles were to be smaller and thinner after conditioning. And this structure could easily form outflow channels for releasing free water. Additionally, with the ultrahigh pressure filtration system, the water content of sludge cake conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime could be reduced to below 50%. Moreover, the economic assessment shows that Fenton's reagent and lime combined with ultrahigh pressure filtration system can be an economical and viable technology for sewage sludge dewatering. Finally, three types of sludge were classified: (1) Fast to dewater; (2) Moderately fast to dewater; (3) Slow to dewater sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of multi-metal toxicity on the performance of sewage treatment system during the festival of colors (Holi) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Bhatia, Akanksha; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Muntajir; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb) toxicity on the performance of 18 MLD activated sludge process-based sewage treatment plant (STP) during celebration of Holi (festival of colors in India). The composite sampling (n = 32) was carried out during the entire study period. The findings show a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency (20%) of activated sludge system, after receiving the heavy metals laden wastewater. A significant reduction of 40% and 60% were observed in MLVSS/MLSS ratio and specific oxygen uptake rate, which eventually led to a substantial decrease in biomass growth yield (from 0.54 to 0.17). The toxic effect of metals ions was also observed on protozoan population. Out of the 12 mixed liquor species recorded, only two ciliates species of Vorticella and Epistylis exhibited the greater tolerance against heavy metals toxicity. Furthermore, activated sludge shows the highest metal adsorption affinity for Cu, followed by Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd (Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd). Finally, this study proves the robustness of activated sludge system against the sudden increase in heavy metal toxicity since it recovered the earlier good quality performance within 5 days.

  13. Analysis of glycerin waste in A-Area sanitary treatment facility material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    TNX has a large supply of 55 gallon drums containing pure glycerin and glycerin with additives. The glycerin drums were procured to simulate the glass stream in a pilot-scale melter process at TNX. Since the glycerin was not used for this process, TNX is looking at disposing the material in a sanitary waste treatment facility onsite. The effect of adding the contents of the drums to sewage bacteria was tested. A drum of pure glycerin and a drum of glycerin mixed with lithium chloride were tested. The test consisted of mixing sanitary sludge material with the glycerin material. The purpose of the test was to determine if the glycerin impacted the aerobic bacterial population. The bacterial densities were determined by taking samples from the sludge/glycerin mixtures and using aerobic plate count methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) levels were measured before and after testing. The results indicate that the cell density of the aerobic bacteria increased with the addition of glycerin and the glycerin mixture and the TOC removal rate was different for all tests. Disposal of glycerin in the wastewater treatment facilities should pose no problems. Additional testing and analysis of the mixed samples should be done before its disposal in a waste water treatment facility

  14. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  15. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  16. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  17. Sewage treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  18. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    estuaries, Goa, India are described in this chapter. Raw sewage disposal into the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries has been a common practice in the history of the estuaries. With increasing population, the amount of sewage dumped in the estuary has also...

  19. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)).

  20. Florence Nightingale and the India sanitary reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-09-01

    After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale persisted in researching the health conditions of British troops throughout the Empire. Undaunted by geographic limitations, she surveyed and publicized data that documented the mismanagement of living conditions and health care among the occupational forces on the Indian continent. Nightingale proposed widespread changes in the reporting of military health status and biostatistics, in sanitary engineering, and in self-care activities. With dogged persistence, she continued to gather follow-up data to measure the changing health status of soldiers in a land she never saw.

  1. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  2. Infectious bacterial pathogens, parasites and pathological correlations of sewage pollution as an important threat to farmed fishes in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Abdelsalam, Mohamed; Mahdy, Olfat A; El Miniawy, Hala M F; Ahmed, Zakia A M; Osman, Ahmed H; Mohamed, Hussein M H; Khattab, A M; Zaki Ewiss, M A

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources. In the present study, the impact of the sewage pollution in some fish farms at El-Fayyum, Port Said and El-Dakahlia governorates in Egypt was carried out. Water and fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus) samples were collected from private fish farms of such localities. Bacteriological and chemical examination of water samples revealed the existence of coliforms and many other bacterial species of significant human health hazards. The chemical parameters of water showed a marked deviation from normal levels while examination of fish flesh specimens indicated contamination with Streptococcus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., and Salmonella in all examined localities. Other bacterial isolates of human health importance (Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia and Enterococcos durans) were identified. The parasitological examination revealed the presence of encysted metacercariae (EMC); Diplostomatidae, Prohemistomatidae and Heterphyidae. Moreover, two protozoan parasites (Mxyoboulus tilapiae and Ichthyophthirius multifilis) were also recorded. The histopathological examination revealed mild tissue reaction in case of bacterial infection and severe pathological lesions in different organs in case of EMC infection. Lamellar hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration in branchial tissue was common findings. In skeletal muscles, atrophy of muscle fibres, myolysis and myophagia were detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated system technologies for water and sewage works. Information system technologies for rainwater drainage. Jogesuido sogo system gijutsu. Kou joho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, T; Nakada, M; Kondo, S [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    The present report introduces the technological trend of rainwater drainage information system mainly with radar rain gauges. The information network must be strengthened as measures against the urban flood from the rainwater drainage. A radar rain gauge-based combination is needed of synthetic and organic processing technologies covering the traveling prediction of rainfall, data communication and rainwater drainage/flooding prediction. The correction method and data communication/display technology are explained for the measurement with radar rain gauges. In both correlation function method and rainfall area pursuit method, the traveling of rainfall is predicted by utilizing the radar information for the sewerage system. For the drainage analysis, it is necessary to quantitatively estimate the rainwater drained into both main and branch sewerage lines. It is made by preparing a rainwater drainage model. The quantitative estimation of rainwater drained into the branch sewerage lines calls for a revised Road Research Laboratory guidance by the Ministry of Construction. Supplemented with knowledge by veteran operators, the displayed image of pump operation support system is simulated for its verification. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  4. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary...

  5. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  6. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  7. Contamination of a municipal sewage system with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) with precipitation. Phase 1 (1990-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Reissinger, M.; Horstmann, M.; Kaune, A.; Buresch, H.; Hutzinger, O.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to estimate and assess the contamination of a municipal sewerage with PCDD/F through precipitation. Potential sources such as the rainwash of rooves and roads were examined directly. The last stages in the sewage transport are waters or water purification plants. Primary sludge, the most important accumulating compartment for PCDD/F, was also examined. (BBR) [de

  8. [To the 90th anniversary of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service Formation in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, E N; Podunova, L G

    2012-01-01

    State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training of the Ministry of Health Care and Social Development Foundation of Russian Sanitary Epidemiologic Service dates back to September, 15, 1922, when a Decree on Sanitary Institutions of the Republic was signed. Afterwards the institutions of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service were improved: foundation of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1933-1951), approval of new concept of the Service and intensification of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1951-1991), foundation of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service, centralization of management and financing of the Service, formation of Sanitary Epidemiologic Legislation (1991-2004), further restructurization of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service in accordance with administrative changes in Russia (2004 until now).

  9. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the behaviour of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeman, W.; Guenthert, W.

    1976-01-01

    Since summer, 1975 the Institute of Water Quality Management and Sanitary Engineering of The Tehnical University Munich has been performing tests on the alterations of the quality and the behaviour of sewage sludge caused by gamma-irradiation at the Geiselbullach treatment facilities. The tests comprise studies of the thickening ability in laboratory scale thickeners (V=30 l) and the determination of the specific resistance to filtration of untreated, pasteurised and irradiated sludges. The concentration of the supernatent liquor is characterised by the measurement of BOD 5 and COD. Test results of the dewaterability of the different sludges in filter presses and the amount of coagulants necessary for sludge conditioning are presented. (author)

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  11. 7 CFR 1955.116 - Requirements for sale of property not meeting decent, safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flooring and floor joists in kitchen and bathroom. —Drill new well to provide for an adequate and potable... adequate, safe and operable * system. * Insert heating, plumbing, electrical and/or sewage disposal, etc...

  12. Integrated model of biopurification system for home sewage. A proposal for peri-urban communities from south center of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Pierart, Izaul; Chiang Rojas, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of world population and its impacts has led to search new sources of water supply. Wastewater constitutes an additional source to satisfy the demand of this resource. Diverse researchers have designed alternatives for improve its processing and promote its utilization. This study examines some alternatives of bio-purification and proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid system that combines the use of a bio filter with artificial wetlands. The model designed contributes to improve water resources management and has educational, landscape and environmental benefits for peri-urban communities. Besides constitutes an alternative to promote more efficiently natural resources management at the local level.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-D4 Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 1607-D4 Septic System was a septic tank and tile field that received sanitary sewage from the 115-D/DR Gas Recirculation Facility. This septic system operated from 1944 to 1968. Decommissioning took place in 1985 and 1986 when all above-grade features were demolished and the tank backfilled. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  14. Disinfection of municipal sewage sludges in installation equipped with electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Kosmal, W.; Kalisz, L.; Kazmierczuk, M.

    1995-01-01

    Growing awareness of environment pollution hazards causes more and more stringent waste disposal regulations in many countries which stimulate searching for new methods of waste disposal, the best of which is recycling them after suitable treatment. Sludges from municipal sewage treatment plants contain organic and inorganic components valuable as soil fertilizer, so if disinfected they can be beneficially recycled in agriculture instead of being burdensome waste. Investigations performed in many countries showed that irradiation with a suitable dose of gamma or electron beam radiation makes sewage sludges sanitary safe and usable as soil fertilizer immediately after treatment. This paper describes some results of investigations performed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Environmental Protection in Warsaw on the influence of 10 MeV electron beam on bacteria, parasites and parasite eggs present in sewage sludges from different municipal sewage treatment plants in Poland. Basic design parameters of the industrial installation elaborated on the basis of those experiments are presented. (Author)

  15. Studies on affecting factors and mechanism of treating decentralized domestic sewage by a novel anti-clogging soil infiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiping; Nie, Junying; Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The effects of bore diameter and particle size of polyurethane (PU) foam on soil wastewater infiltration system as well as its anti-clogging mechanism were investigated in this study. Different types of PU were used to determine the effect of bore diameter and particle size on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The results revealed that bore diameter showed little effects and the optimal size of PU should be not less than 10 mm. The formation of strong hydrophilic group on the outer layer of hydrophobic PU foam was fixed with active ingredient Al2O3, leading to good anti-clogging effect. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint profiles and cluster analysis showed that the microbial community in the bottom was different from that in other places of the normal column, while it in the top has obvious differences from that in other places of the clogging column. Furthermore, the dominant microbial species of the normal column was Betaproteobacteria while Alphaproteobacteria in the clogging column.

  16. FY 1999 achievement report on the supporting project to form energy/environmental technology verification project - International joint verification research project. Research on the waste-fueled power system using gases emitted from the sanitary landfill in Samarkand city; 1999 nendo Samarkand shi ni okeru umetate gas wo riyoshita gomi hatsuden system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In Samarkand city, Uzbekistan, solid waste materials are treated in the sanitary landfill. However, requests were made from the Minister of Communal Services for the construction of power system as a part of the effective waste utilization and the study of the integrated waste collection system enabling the construction of a power system. There is only one waste dumping site in Samarkand city. That started to be used in the beginning of the 1970s. That was planned to be closed in 2000, but is now planned to used till 2005. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce the volume of waste. The incineration of waste is the most suitable for it. In the study of a power system by using waste effectively, it is important to efficiently recover the methane gas emitted from the waste dumping site, to study the adoption of the repowering system using the combustion gas of methane gas for increasing the generated output of waste-fueled power generation facilities, and to heighten the low power generation efficiency. This study includes the survey of the waste discharge amount/composition/heating value, collection of the data on waste collection, and sampling/analysis of gases emitted from the dumping site. The paper reported on the proposals. (NEDO)

  17. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kostarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rospotrebnadzor in Perm region are known to be founded on September 15, 1922, when a Decree by Russian People's Commissars Council "On the Republic's sanitary bodies" was issued. A sanitary-hygienic faculty of Perm Medical Institute was set up in 1931 and it gave grounds for preparing qualified sanitary inspectors for state sanitary authorities. We described basic tasks which were tackled by sanitary inspectors during the Great Patriotic War and just after it. Rospotrebnadzor activities are proved to make for substantial improvements of sanitary-epidemiologic situation in the region. Currently more than 95 % of population are provided with drinking water which fully corresponds to the sanitary legislation requirements. We note constant improvements in catering objects quality and we also see that a quantity of food samples taken at such objects which don't correspond to hygienic standards remains stably low. A share of working places deviating from hygienic standards as per noise, vibration, and illumination, has reduced. Medical examinations are now available to 97.9 % of workers functioning under hazardous (dangerous working conditions. The lowest occupa-tional morbidity level over the last few years was registered in Perm region in 2016. The Service was among the first in the country to transfer to result-oriented budgeting and risk-oriented surveillance model. Organizational structure is constantly being developed; new legal, economic and organizational

  18. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food borne illness has been a global challenge and it persisted as a ... an absence of sanitary facilities for waste management was major cause. ... inspection on the establishments to promote and ensure proper hygiene and ...

  19. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  20. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  1. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  2. Assessment of the use of selected chemical and microbiological constituents as indicators of wastewater in curtain drains from home sewage-treatment systems in Medina County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    Many home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) in Ohio use curtain or perimeter drains to depress the level of the subsurface water in and around the systems. These drains could possibly intercept partially untreated wastewater and release potential pathogens to ground-water and surface-water bodies. The quality of water in curtain drains from two different HSTS designs in Medina County, Ohio, was investigated using several methods. Six evaporation-transpiration-absorption (ETA) and five leach-line (LL) systems were investigated by determining nutrient concentrations, chloride/bromide ratios (Cl/Br), Escherichia coli (E. coli ) concentrations, coliphage genotyping, and genetic fingerprinting of E. coli. Water samples were collected at 11 sites and included samples from curtain drains, septic tanks, and residential water wells. Nitrate concentrations in the curtain drains ranged from 0.03 to 3.53 mg/L (milligrams per liter), as N. Concentrations of chloride in 10 of the 11 curtain drains ranged from 5.5 to 21 mg/L; the chloride concentration in the eleventh curtain drain was 340 mg/L. Bromide concentrations in 11 curtain drains ranged from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L. Cl/Br ratios ranged from 86 to 2,000. F-specific coliphage were not found in any curtain-drain samples. Concentrations of E. coli in the curtain drains ranged from 1 to 760 colonies per 100 milliliters. The curtain-drain water-quality data were evaluated to determine whether HSTS-derived water was present in the curtain drains. Nutrient concentrations were too low to be of use in the determination. The Cl/Br ratios appear promising. Coliphage was not detected in the curtain drains, so genotyping could not be attempted. E. coli concentrations in the curtain drains were all less than those from the corresponding HSTS; only one sample exceeded the Ohio secondary-contact water-quality standard. The genetic fingerprinting data were inconclusive because multiple links between unrelated sites were found. Although the

  3. Mobility and availability of PAH in soil-sewage sludges systems; Mobilite et disponibilite des HAP dans des systemes terre-boue de station d'epuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryselbout, C

    2002-07-15

    This work deals with the increase of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) induced by the supply of organic matter to a soil in the framework of the agricultural valorization of organic wastes. The sharing of PAH with the organic matter of a model of soil and sewage sludge mixture has been studied first, using extractions and adsorption kinetics (Kd methanol). Then, the evolution of the PAH availability in a sludge-earth mixture has ben studied over a period of 185 days. Finally, the plants PAH availability in the presence of residual sludge has been studied at the laboratory and in-situ. Results show that Kd methanol and PAH extractability in a earth-sludge mixture are proportional to the total organic carbon ratio and to the incubation time. The presence of sludges leads to the immobilization of a smaller amount of PAH. The PAH availability from a sludge-earth mixture is limited by the presence of sludge and cations, such as mercuric mercury. It seems that the organic matter of sludges is more washable than the one of the soil leading to an increased risk of migration of micro-pollutants in the environment. The agricultural valorization of organic wastes, as it is already implemented in France, does not indicate any direct effect on the mobility and availability of PAH in soils. However, a long-term effect on water and soil quality is to be feared. The limitation of PAH fluxes towards agricultural areas would be a societal answer. (J.S.)

  4. Mobility and availability of PAH in soil-sewage sludges systems; Mobilite et disponibilite des HAP dans des systemes terre-boue de station d'epuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryselbout, C.

    2002-07-15

    This work deals with the increase of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) induced by the supply of organic matter to a soil in the framework of the agricultural valorization of organic wastes. The sharing of PAH with the organic matter of a model of soil and sewage sludge mixture has been studied first, using extractions and adsorption kinetics (Kd methanol). Then, the evolution of the PAH availability in a sludge-earth mixture has ben studied over a period of 185 days. Finally, the plants PAH availability in the presence of residual sludge has been studied at the laboratory and in-situ. Results show that Kd methanol and PAH extractability in a earth-sludge mixture are proportional to the total organic carbon ratio and to the incubation time. The presence of sludges leads to the immobilization of a smaller amount of PAH. The PAH availability from a sludge-earth mixture is limited by the presence of sludge and cations, such as mercuric mercury. It seems that the organic matter of sludges is more washable than the one of the soil leading to an increased risk of migration of micro-pollutants in the environment. The agricultural valorization of organic wastes, as it is already implemented in France, does not indicate any direct effect on the mobility and availability of PAH in soils. However, a long-term effect on water and soil quality is to be feared. The limitation of PAH fluxes towards agricultural areas would be a societal answer. (J.S.)

  5. Increasing the Environmental Sustainability of Sewage Treatment by Mitigating Pollutant Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The current centralized systems for sewage treatment are highly efficient with respect to the removal of COD and nutrients and the production of an effluent that can be discharged on surface water. However, from an environmental point of view the sewage treatment process is still far from being

  6. Handbook supplement to the Alberta private sewage treatment and disposal regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This manual was prepared to assist in the selection and installation of private sewage treatment and disposal systems which are best suited to location, water and soil conditions in a safe and efficient manner. The manual covers piping, frost protection, pumps, septic tanks and sewage holding tanks, soil tests and water softeners, disposal fields, treatment mounds, open discharge, and lagoons.

  7. An evaluation of the use of gamma radiation in sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhote, P.A.; Clouston, J.G.; Ford, G.W.K.; Gregory, J.N.

    1974-12-01

    Literature evaluating the potential use of gamma radiation for the treatment of sewage is critically reviewed. It is concluded that irradiation treatment cannot contribute significantly to the improvement of conventional processes for sewage water recovery. Irradiation methods at present have no cost or technical advantage, and no proven biological advantage over known treatment systems. (author)

  8. 75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., 4 dispose of wastes to an on-site septic system, 21 dispose to a holding tank and 62 dispose to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Thus all vessel sewage will be either discharge into State approved and regulated septic tanks or holding tanks for transport to a sewage treatment plant. Online maps are...

  9. 加热原油的太阳能-污水源热泵系统的开发%Development on solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system for crude oil heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱剑峰; 王强

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the situations of crude oil heating and oily water utilization were analyzed.The development situation of solar heat pump at home and abroad was introduced.It was put forward that the solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system could be used to reuse oily water for crude oil heating.The composition of the system and five kinds of operation mode were analyzed.The mathematical model was also established.It provided some references for the application of solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system.%分析了油田用热现状和含油污水利用现状,详述了太阳能热泵在国内外的发展现状.在此基础上,提出应用太阳能-污水源热泵系统回收含油污水余热来加热原油,进而分析了该系统的组成及五种运行模式,建立了系统的数学模型,为太阳能-污水源热泵系统的应用提供参考.

  10. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Salimi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Afsane Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Resul...

  12. Comprehensive disposal organic sewage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zuohuan

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, the constituents of sewage have been becoming complicated, and the treating effect of ordinary methods on standard sewage treatment have decreased evidently. Effective application of radiation in the disposal of sewage with some examples is presented, especially the better effect when radiation combined with ordinary methods. (author)

  13. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de

  14. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  15. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

  16. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  17. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  18. Organization of setting-up sanitary pass-control regime and sanitary treatment of injured persons in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, A.S.; Klochkov, V.N.; Yatsenko, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of sanitary pass-control regime is to prevent propagation of radioactive contamination outside the area of emergency-rescue works and guarantee of sanitary treatment of all persons having radioactive contamination. The paper has studied the questions of organization of sanitary pass-control regime, arrangement of sanitary treatment of the injured persons and rendering first aid in case of radioactive contamination of wounds. 5 refs

  19. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  20. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  1. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  2. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  3. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  4. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  5. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision......-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology among multiple alternatives. This study aims at developing a generic multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainability assessment of the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. A generic criteria system including both hard and soft criteria...... in economic, environmental, social and technological aspects was developed for sustainability assessment. The improved analytic hierarchy process method, namely Best-Worst method, was employed to determine the weights of the criteria and the relative priorities of the technologies with respect to the soft...

  6. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  7. Borehole drilling for sewage disposal at Asuka Station, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizawa,Kenji; Takahashi,Akiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    A borehole for sewage disposal was drilled at Asuka Station (71°31′34″S, 24°08′17″E, 930m a. s. l.) in January 1987. The borehole, 400mm in diameter and 27.5m in depth, was drilled 50m distant from the main hut using a steam drilling system. The drilling speed was 4m/h between the snow surface and 20m depth. The total amount of kerosene used for melting snow and steam generation was 110/. Sewage stored in the tank was directed to the borehole through a heated pipe. The cumulative amount of se...

  8. Fate of stable strontium in the sewage treatment process as an analog for radiostrontium released by nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Ito, Ayumi; Umita, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 76% of the Sr entering the plant was discharged to receiving water. • 21% of the Sr flowing through the plant was transferred to the sewage sludge. •Almost all of the Sr in the sewage sludge was concentrated in incinerated sewage sludge ash. • Activated sludge had a lower sorption capacity for Sr than metals such as Cd. -- Abstract: Radionuclides were widely released into the environment due to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these radionuclides have flowed into municipal sewage treatment plants through sewer systems. We have observed the fate of stable Sr in the sewage treatment process as a means to predict the fate of radiostrontium. Concentrations of stable Sr were determined in sewage influent, effluent, dewatered sludge, and incinerated sewage sludge ash collected from a sewage treatment plant once a month from July to December 2011. In the mass balance of Sr in the sewage treatment plant, 76% of the Sr entering the plant was discharged to the receiving water on average. Additionally, 14% of the Sr flowing through the plant was transferred to the sewage sludge and then concentrated in the sludge ash without being released to the atmosphere. We also investigated Sr sorption by activated sludge in a batch experiment. Measurements at 3 and 6 h after the contact showed Sr was sorbed in the activated sludge; however, the measurements indicated Sr desorption from activated sludge occurred 48 h after the contact

  9. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  10. Sewage characterisation as a tool for the application of anaerobic treatment in Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nidal; Amarneh, Mohammad Naser; Al-Sa'ed, Rashed; Zeeman, Grietje; Gijzen, Huub; Lettinga, Gatze

    2003-01-01

    Sewage characteristics can be used to select or modify treatment processes. - Adequate knowledge on sewage characteristics is a prerequisite for selection and sizing of anaerobic treatment technologies, i.e. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems. Composite sewage samples were collected from three locations in Ramallah/Al-Bireh district and analysed for several chemical and physical parameters, including samples fractionation into soluble, colloidal and suspended. The results revealed that the sewage in the study area is of very high strength. This is attributed to low water consumption, industrial discharges and people's habits resulting in a high specific COD production [gCOD per capita per day (gCOD/c.d)]. Simple model calculations revealed that the process conditions in a one stage UASB reactor should be modified to overcome the sewage high solids content and low temperature during wintertime

  11. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  12. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.

  13. Metal accumulation and crop yield for a variety of edible crops grown in diverse soil media amended with sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J; Blessin, C W; Inglett, G E; Kwolek, W F

    1981-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the best uses for sewage sludge, by amending soil materials ranging in scope from distributed materials such as coal mine gob and sanitary landfill to fully productive agricultural soils. The following aspects were studied: physical characteristics of the soils as a result of their amendment with sludge; yields for a broad variety of crop species; nutritional quality of selected crops; metal uptake and accumulation in crop tissues; and translocation of metals from soil medium to tissues. Harvested crops with the highest metal contents were derived from landfill and coal mine gob treatments, and the lowest were associated with loam, clay, and agriculturally productive topsoils.

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  15. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  18. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Sewage and Genotype 1 in Acute Hepatitis Cases, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Daniela; Manor, Yossi; Gozlan, Yael; Schwartz, Eli; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging infectious agent in developed countries. HEV genotypes 1 (G1) and 3 (G3) have been identified in environmental and clinical samples in Europe. In Israel, the overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was found to be 10.6%; however, reports of HEV infection are scarce. In this study, the presence of HEV in Israel was investigated using 169 sewage samples from 32 treatment facilities and 49 samples from acute hepatitis patients, all collected between 2013 and 2015. Fourteen sewage samples, from Haifa (11/18 samples), Tel Aviv (2/29 samples), and Beer Sheva (1/17 samples), regions with good sanitary conditions and middle-high socioeconomic populations, were HEV positive. Among the patient samples, 6.1% (3/49) were HEV positive, all returning travelers from India. Genotype analysis revealed G1 HEV in patients and G3 HEV sequences in sewage. Evidence that HEV could be establishing itself in our region may justify more active surveillance to monitor its spread. PMID:27246446

  1. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  2. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study's objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State's recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN

  4. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Air conditioning systems for various facilities; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Kakushu shisetsu kucho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, K. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    B-49 reported the outline of an artificial weather room composed of one inner room and two outer rooms, and its temperature change and temperature profiles during air conditioning. The room is scheduled to be used for evaluation of air conditioning systems, thermal performance evaluation of building materials and study on ventilation efficiency. B-50 reported the seasonal measurement results on thermal environment, and cooling and heating use patterns of living rooms and common spaces of 4 welfare homes for aged persons, and showed that room temperature difference in winter should be considered. Measurement data on facilities with floor heating were required. B-51 reported the experiment and numerical analysis results on thermal environment, draft sensation, condensation and radiation effect of patient bedrooms by using a full-scale 4-bed room model with a specific outlet developed for patient bedroom air conditioning. B-52 reported the outline of an air conditioning system for vegetable factories, and its performance evaluation result during cooling. The effect of blackout curtains and local air conditioning was reported. B-53 reported the comparison study result on air conditioning for animal breeding rooms by full-scale model experiment and numerical analysis. The line outlet + hanging wall + rack back exhaust system was most favorable from the viewpoint of temperature profile and prevention of pollutants from diffusion. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  6. 农村污水处理太阳能光伏独立供电系统研究及工程示范%Research and Engineering Demonstration of Solar Energy Standalone Power Generation System on Rural Sewage Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守中; 张统; 张琪

    2017-01-01

    分析了农村污水处理太阳能独立供电的可行性和常见的光伏供电模式,并结合示范工程的设计及运行,探讨了农村污水处理太阳能光伏供电的设计参数和运行管护经验.%In this paper,the feasibility of solar energy independent power supply in rural sewage treatment,as well as the common pattern of the photovoltaic power generation were analyzed.Through the demonstration projects,the design parameters and the management experience of the solar energy standalone power generation system were systematically analyzed and summarized.

  7. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  8. Let a sewage plant running smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Jin, Xiao-Man; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Out-dated technical equipment, occlusive information communication, inadequate sanitation, low management level and some irrational distribution structures in the existing sewage plants bring about lower sewage treatment efficiency and poorer water quality, thereby permanently harming human health and severely damaging the environment. With the rapid development of scientific-technological progress and the vigorous support of the entire international community, the existing sewage plants call for more and more intelligent operation and management in the future. This review for the first time proposes the novel concept of the “smart” sewage plant, and gives a through interpretation of its special functions and attributes. We envision that the future smart sewage plant will became an “ambient intelligence” in all aspects in the sewage plants.

  9. Socioeconomic constraints on the technological choices in rural sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Fan, Liangcong; Ying, Zechun; Xu, Qingshan; Luo, Weidong; Ge, Ying; Scott, Steffanie; Chang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovation is one of the potential engines to mitigate environmental pollution. However, the implementation of new technologies sometimes fails owing to socioeconomic constraints from different stakeholders. Thus, it is essential to analyze constraints of environmental technologies in order to build a pathway for their implementation. In this study, taking three technologies on rural sewage treatment in Hangzhou, China as a case study, i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WTP), constructed wetland (CW), and biogas system, we analyzed how socioeconomic constraints affect the technological choices. Results showed that socioeconomic constraints play a key role through changing the relative opportunity cost of inputs from government as compared to that of residents to deliver the public good-sewage treatment-under different economic levels. Economic level determines the technological choice, and the preferred sewage treatment technologies change from biogas system to CW and further to WTP along with the increase of economic level. Mismatch of technological choice and economic level results in failures of rural sewage treatment, e.g., the CW only work well in moderately developed regions in Hangzhou. This finding expands the environmental Kuznets law by introducing the coproduction theory into analysis (i.e., inputs from both government and residents are essential for the delivery of public goods and services such as good environmental quality). A match between technology and socioeconomic conditions is essential to the environmental governance.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055 and 2004-006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  11. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  12. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  13. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01).

  14. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  15. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  16. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. 20.2003... Disposal § 20.2003 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. (a) A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) The material is...

  17. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  18. Ways to an energy autonomous sewage plant; Wege zur energieautarken Klaeranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Reiner [Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Forsten und Verbraucherschutz Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany). Referat Kommunalabwasser

    2009-07-01

    Apart from the energy saving, the extensive utilization of energy sources in the waste water is of substantial significance according to the reduction of energy supply of a sewage plant. Projects in Rheinland-Pfalz (Federal Republic of Germany) have the goal to develop sewage plants in the next years to energy autonomous sewage plants. Energy autonomy only can be achieved by a consequent energy saving and complete utilization of energy sources. In addition, the utilization of waste heat in the drainage system, in the final clarification, with the blast air as well as plant spreading considerations according to the utilisation of energy belong to the utilization of sources of energy.

  19. Suitability of Using Duckweed as Feed and Treated Sewage as Water Source in Tilapia Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Shafail, S A; Nasrl, F A; EI-Gohary, F.A. A. [Water Pollution Control Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Cijzen, H J; Steen, N P [Environmental Resources Department, UNESCO-IHE Institute, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Use of treated effluent and duckweed biomass from a pilot-scale UASB-duckweed ponds system treating domestic sewage was evaluated in rearing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutritional value of duckweed as sole feed was compared with wheat bran. Two sources of water were used for each feed trial, treated-sewage and freshwater. The experiment was conducted in parallel with a conventional settled sewage-fed fishpond. Results of growth performance demonstrated that, in case of freshwater ponds specific growth rate (SGR) of tilapia fed on fresh duckweed was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the SGR in wheat bran fed pond. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two feeding regimes in treated sewage fed ponds. The SGR of tilapia reared in the treated sewage-wheat bran-fed pond (TWP) was significant higher (p <0.01) than the SGR in the freshwater-wheat bran-fed pond (FWP). On the other hand, due to the early spawning in the treated sewage-duckweed fed pond (TOP) SGR of tilapia in the latter was significantly lower (p <0.05) than the SGR in the freshwater-duckweed-fed pond (FDP). The results of net fish yield were 11.8, 8.9, 9.6 and 6.4 ton/ha/y in TDP, TWP, FDP and FWP, respectively. negative net yield (-0.16 ton/ha/y) was observed in the settled sewage- fed pond (SSP) due to high mortality.

  20. Suitability of Using Duckweed as Feed and Treated Sewage as Water Source in Tilapia Aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Shafail, S.A.; Nasrl, F.A.; EI-Gohary, F.A. A.; Cijzen, H.J.; Steen, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    Use of treated effluent and duckweed biomass from a pilot-scale UASB-duckweed ponds system treating domestic sewage was evaluated in rearing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutritional value of duckweed as sole feed was compared with wheat bran. Two sources of water were used for each feed trial, treated-sewage and freshwater. The experiment was conducted in parallel with a conventional settled sewage-fed fishpond. Results of growth performance demonstrated that, in case of freshwater ponds specific growth rate (SGR) of tilapia fed on fresh duckweed was significantly (p 0.05) was observed between the two feeding regimes in treated sewage fed ponds. The SGR of tilapia reared in the treated sewage-wheat bran-fed pond (TWP) was significant higher (p <0.01) than the SGR in the freshwater-wheat bran-fed pond (FWP). On the other hand, due to the early spawning in the treated sewage-duckweed fed pond (TOP) SGR of tilapia in the latter was significantly lower (p <0.05) than the SGR in the freshwater-duckweed-fed pond (FDP). The results of net fish yield were 11.8, 8.9, 9.6 and 6.4 ton/ha/y in TDP, TWP, FDP and FWP, respectively. negative net yield (-0.16 ton/ha/y) was observed in the settled sewage- fed pond (SSP) due to high mortality

  1. Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-15

    A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  3. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  4. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  5. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Realization of sanitary requirements concerning standardization of rare radioactive gas effluents at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, G.G.; Panchenko, S.V.; Chudajkin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of ways for practical realization of main sanitary requirements concerning environment and population protection under NPP operation. The idea of the requirements is reduced to not increasing permissible limits for radiation doses, minimum irradiation of population and decrease of unjustified irradiation of personnel. The given problem may be fully solved only in case of studying real chacteristics of operating reactors, taking into account statistic nature of effluents of inert radioactive gases (IRG). Methods of developing a system of working and reference standards of IRG effluents at NPPs are suggested. The considered approach may be realized in practice as the All-Union state on branch standards

  7. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  8. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  9. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local Commune Administration as a Regulator of the Local Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Services Market

    OpenAIRE

    Małysko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...

  11. Treating urban sewage using constructed wetlands; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante humedales contruidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [ETS Camins, Canals i Ports. UPC. Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, A. [Biologa. Barcelona. (Spain); Junqueras, X. [Biologo. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Constructed wetlands are a low-cost alternative for treating sewage from small urbanized areas. The ``Can Massaguer`` children`s holiday home has a 230 m``2 subsurface flow wetland for secondary treatment of the sewage generated by 130 people. The system comprises two porous substrate beds with macrophytes (ditch reed, Phragmites australis) and entry and exit units. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating wastewaters from small built-up areas. (Author)

  12. Environmental Pollution: Sanitary Engineering and Industrial Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    and closed ecological systems which may prove beneficial to ongoing research and operations for controlling environmental pollution . Corporate Author-Monitoring Agency, Subject, Title and Personal Author are provided. (Author)

  13. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil; Radiacao ultravioleta e alternativa viavel para desinfeccao de efluentes de sistemas de tratamento aerobio e anaerobio no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Luis Antonio; Campos, Jose Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1993-09-01

    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process. The document is enclosed in a supplement of this volume. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  15. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  16. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: The Case of Mexican Avocados

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Nishita

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects on demand, supply, imports, and prices of partial easing of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers to trade in the U.S. market in the case of Mexican avocados. The SPS Agreement plays a role in the avocado market studied here through its implications for negotiations between countries that have not utilized the formal channels of the WTO for resolving disputes. A quarantine in place from 1914 until very recently banned entry of Mexican avocados into the...

  17. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  18. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  20. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  1. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Di Maria, Francesco; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m 3 . The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed

  2. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto E-mail: umberto.desideri@unipg.it; Di Maria, Francesco E-mail: fdm@unipg.it; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-07-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m{sup 3}. The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed.

  3. 2607-W6 sanitary drainfield replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1994-05-01

    The septic 2607-W6 which supports the 222-S complex is operating at 200% capacity. The septic tank has been inspected and found to be sound. Test hole excavations of the existing drainfield indicate that it is disposing of the current waste water effluent load as opposed to treating it. The system is over 40 years old and has not been approved by the Washington State Department of Health. Under the existing operating conditions it is subject to imminent failure. No additional tie-ins or increases in personnel are allowed which will increase the flow to the 2607-W6 system

  4. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  5. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  6. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  7. Data report: an assessment of the occurrence of human viruses in Long Island aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1977-12-01

    A virus survey was conducted in Nassau and Suffolk Counties under the auspices of the federally-funded ''208'' program from June 1976 to June 1977. The survey involved the concentration, enumeration, and identification of human enteroviruses from selected aquatic systems on Long Island including embayments, lakes, creeks, public drinking water supplies, groundwater influenced by wastewater recharge, sanitary landfills, and stormwater recharge basins; and the effluents from secondary and tertiary sewage treatment plants. Enteroviruses were isolated from all systems studied except the public water supply wells. As expected, viruses were most often encountered in the chlorinated effluents of sewage treatment plants. On two separate occasions, wild type Poliovirus was isolated from one of these plants. The limited sampling conducted at each site (1 per month) obviated any extensive interpretation of the data for the purpose of identifying the precise hazard posed by enteric viruses in Long Island waters. Among tentative conclusions were: support for the continued study of recharge of groundwater aquifers via the application of properly treated domestic wastewater to recharge basins; caution regarding placement of private septic systems in saturated zones near surface water bodies; the discharge of sewage effluents into embayments; and the identification of those areas requiring further virological study.

  8. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  9. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  10. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  11. Environmental considerations on the FBC combustion of dry sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Helena; Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents results of on-going research on the incineration of pre-dried granular sewage sludges using a FBC system. Co-combustion is compared with mono-combustion of sludges leads to minor emissions and higher retention of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the bottom ashes, when compared to co-combustion with coal. The leachability of the sludge is reduced through combustion, as none of the metals, Cd, Cr, Ca Ni, Ph, Zn, Co and Mn were leached from the bottom ashes. These findings may contribute to an improvement in the incineration of sewage sludges and to the development of applications for the ashes in civil engineering activities.

  12. Ensured waste disposal without thermal treatment of sewage sludge?; Entsorgungssicherheit ohne thermische Klaerschlammbehandlung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melsa, A.K. [Niersverband, Viersen (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Technical Rule on Domestic Waste Management (TASi) specifies that from 2005, sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry matter must no longer be dumped. This means that sewage sludge combustion will be the only means of disposal, apart from using sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The author's employer ('Niersverband' utility) was among the first to develop a future-oriented sewage sludge disposal strategy, and a drying plant was construct which is to reduce the weight and volume of sewage sludge in order to obtain a fuel of high calorific value. Further, a contract was closed for combustion of sewage sludge as fuel in a combustion system. [German] Unter Beruecksichtigung der TASi, die verlangt, dass spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 Klaerschlaemme mit einem hoeheren organischen Feststoffgehalt als 5% nicht mehr abgelagert werden duerfen, verbleibt uns neben der stofflichen Verwertung in der Landwirtschaft als massgeblicher Entsorgungsweg die Verbrennung, und zwar nicht - und das ist zu unterstreichen - um die Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm zu beseitigen, sondern um den Klaerschlamm zu entsorgen. Eine betriebssichere Klaerschlammverbrennung stellt dabei die hoechste erreichbare Stufe der Entsorgungssicherheit dar. Der Niersverband hat sich fruehzeitig mit der Aufstellung einer zukunftsfaehigen Klaerschlammentsorgungsstrategie befasst und eine Trocknungsanlage geplant, die eine weitgehende Gewichts- und Volumenreduktion des Klaerschlamms sowie die Erzeugung eines heizwertreichen Brennstoffs gewaehrleistet und damit die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten deutlich verbessert. Des weiteren wurde ein erster Vertrag zur energetischen Klaerschlammverwertung in einer Verbrennungsanlage abgeschlossen. (orig.)

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  15. Physical-chemicals parameters and microbiological indicators in sewage treatment of Ciudad Real; Parametros fisicoquimicos e indicadores microbiologicos en la depuracion de aguas residuales de Ciudad Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Solanilla, E.; Ubeda Iranzo, J.F.; Perez Bencecry, C. [E.U.I. Tecnica Agricola. Ciudad Real. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this work is to find out the possible relationship between some physico-chemical (pH, conductivity dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, DBO, DQO) and sanitary microbiological parameters (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococcus , coliphages) in a sewage treatment. It was carried out in a waste water treatment plant with an activated sludges process of conventional design. The most significative effects that primary treatment and the biological treatment on the parameters analyzed were stablished. On the other hand, effective chlorine doses and contact time were determined for a possible reuse of the treated water. (Author) 16 refs.

  16. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  17. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    that they are very sensitive to the sewage. Copepods, Lucifer and decapod larvae (20-30% concentration.) were moderately tolerant. Acetes, medusae, ctenophores and mysids were the most resistant groups (42-49% concentration)....

  18. phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    repeated increase daily or weekly application of sewage ... fertilizers, herbicides, germicides and decomposition and burning of fossil fuels. ... However, organic and inorganic pollutants greatly ... green vegetables for the in-situ or ex-situ.

  19. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  20. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Corresponding ... Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, Phytoextraction, Heavy metals. ..... Wastewater-irrigated Areas of Titagarh,.

  1. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  2. Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L; Dila, Deborah K; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2015-02-24

    Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. The gut microbiota serves important functions in healthy humans. Numerous projects aim to define a healthy gut microbiome and its association with health states. However

  3. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  5. Dried sewage sludge as a raw material for utilization and disposal; Klaerschlammtrocknung als Ausgangspunkt fuer Verwertung und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofacker, K. [Mannesmann Demag AG, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany). Vertriebsabteilung; Mattes, R.R. [Mannesmann Demag AG, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany). Produktbereich Schlammbehandlung

    1998-01-01

    Whereas so far, more than 50 per cent of municipal sewage sludge was disposed of as wet sludge at landfills or used in farming or revegetation, the demands of the technical code on municipal waste, `TASi`, are now biting, whose transition period will expire in 2005. One of the aims defined in TASi is to safeguard disposal without further increasing the organic pollutant burden of sanitary landfills. By subjecting sewage sludge to thermal drying, the operators of sewage treatment plants, who are the ones obliged by law to take care of disposal, open up a broad range of possibilities for making use of the material and avoiding environmental pollution. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Waehrend kommunaler Klaerschlamm bisher zu ueber 50% in nasser Form auf Deponien entsorgt, in der Landwirtschaft und der Rekultivierung verwertet wurde, so greifen in Deutschland jetzt bereits die Anforderungen der TASi (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall), deren Uebergangsfrist im Jahre 2005 ablaeuft. Zu deren vorgegebenen Zielen gehoert die Entsorgungssicherheit, ohne die Deponien weiter mit organischen Stoffen zu belasten. Der Weg ueber die thermische Trocknung erschliesst dem entsorgungspflichtigen Klaeranlagenbetreiber ein breites Spektrum von Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten mit wirtschaftlichen und die Umwelt nicht belastenden Pfaden. (orig.)

  6. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  7. Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaidy Suianny Rocha de Moura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Moura E.S.R., Abrantes M.R., Mendes C.G., Oliveira A.R.M, Souza E.S. & Silva J.B.A. [Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses.] Perfil higiênico-sanitário e perigos microbiológicos em abatedouros públicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:203-208, 2015. Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: jeanberg@ufersa.edu.br The aim of this study was to evaluate hygienic and sanitary conditions of municipal slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Norte. Through a check list, hygienic conditions of establishments and handlers were observed and the percentage of compliance was rated excellent (≥ 80%, good (60 to 79.9%, regular (40 to 59.9% and poor (<40%, according to official standards established by Brazilian legislation. Ten water samples were collected to analyze total and thermotolerant coliforms; and 200 swab samples, including 150 from the utensils, equipment, handlers, and cattle carcasses were investigated for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria, and 50 from the environment for Listeria sp. research. It was noted, through the check list, the existence of various inadequate parameters when compared to those established, and required by law. According to the percentage of compliance found in abattoirs during the assessment visits, no slaughterhouse was rated as excellent, only one was considered good, one was classified as regular and three were considered poor. As for the microbiological analyzes, the presence of coliforms was confirmed in water from two slaughterhouses. High bacteria counts were found in swabs from tools, handlers, and cattle carcasses, and the presence of Listeria sp. was observed in three slaughterhouses. Therefore, the precarious sanitary conditions of the municipal slaughterhouses studied in Rio Grande do Norte represent a risk to

  8. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  9. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay) or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane). They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also ...

  10. Quality prediction of a leached produced in a sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto; Garcia R, Francisco Fernando; Rivera Mesa, Carolina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed with the purpose of predicting the concentration of pollutants in the leached produced by the biological degradation of the solid wastes disposed in sanitary landfills. The model consists in a kinetic equation of first level, able to describe the degradation of the organic matter being the solid residuals. This model was calibrated using the results obtained from six laboratory scale lysimeters operated under different conditions. The model predicted the concentration of the pollutants in the leached with an accuracy of 94%

  11. Desempenho de sistema de tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário com recirculação do efluente Performance of a sanitary landfill leachate treatment system with effluent recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Lavina Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de um sistema de tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário, em escala piloto, formado por três lagoas em série (L1, L2 e L3 seguidas por um filtro de pedras (FP. Foram estudadas três condições operacionais, verificando-se o efeito da recirculação do efluente da L3 para a L1: 0, 50 e 100% da vazão. O sistema absorveu bem as flutuações de cargas, apresentando remoções superiores a 80% para DBO F, 70% para DQO T e 98% para nitrogênio amoniacal. Na lagoa L2 houve nitrificação parcial, com acúmulo de nitritos. Ocorreu presença marcante do gênero Chlamydomonas nas lagoas L2 e L3 fotossintéticas. Observou-se diminuição da toxicidade do lixiviado, com reduções superiores a 95% na saída do sistema. A melhor eficiência de remoção para as três condições operacionais estudadas foi obtida com 100% de recirculação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a landfill leachate treatment system, at pilot scale, formed by three in series ponds (L1, L2, and L3 followed by a rock filter. Three operational conditions were studied, assessing the effluent recirculation effect from L3 to L1: 0, 50 and 100% of the flow rate. The system assimilated well the load fluctuations, showing removal efficiencies over 80% for BOD F, 70% for COD T and 98% for ammonia. In the L2 pond there was partial nitrification with nitrite accumulation. It was observed an outstanding presence of the Chlamydomonas gender in photosynthetic ponds L2 and L3. A reduction of the toxicity from the landfill leachate was observed, with reduction of over 95% in the system output. The better removal efficiency for the three studied operational conditions was obtained for 100% of recirculation.

  12. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  13. Sanitary quality of the rivers in the Communities of Manguinhos´ Territory, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Berendonk Handam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation actions are rare in the communities of Manguinhos, so evaluation of the sanitary conditions of the river waters and the peridomestic soils of the communities allows the diagnosis of the risk of contamination. This study evaluated coliform levels (total coliforms and Escherichia coli by the filter membrane method, and parasitological (by adapted Lutz and Baermann-Moraes methods in the waters and soils of the Faria-Timbó, Jacaré and Canal do Cunha Rivers that pass through the communities of the Territory of Manguinhos, RJ, according to the standards established in Brazilian legislation. In all points of the rivers, the water was unfit, with an average level of Escherichia coli 3,800 times higher than that standardized in CONAMA Resolution No. 274/2000. Larvae, helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts were observed. Soil samples were also unfit, with mean total coliform level 77,000 times higher than that considered acceptable by SMAC Resolution 468/2010. The Escherichia coli average level was 53,000 times higher than that permitted by the legislation. However, helminths eggs were found in only one soil sample. It was concluded that the lack of sanitation in this locality results in the high coliform and parasitological levels of the river waters and in the peridomestic soils, and that immediate modifications are needed to the Brazilian environmental paradigm, which uses its water bodies as sewage disposal ditches.

  14. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  15. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  16. Chemical investigation of sewage effluents of Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, A.; Chandio, S.N.; Khushawar, M.Y.; Laghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples of sewage effluents were collected from sewage collection points located at Latifabad units 9-11, Husainabad and Qasimabad sewage pumping stations. The sewage is pumped towards Southern Sewage treatment plant (SSTP) or is used for agricultural purposes. The water samples from SSTP were also collected and analyzed for pH, conducively, salinity, alkalinity, chlorides, hardness, total, volatile and fixed residues, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorous contents. Variation in the results between sewage water and effluents were noted. (author)

  17. Disposal of sewage sludge. Rotary kiln plants and energetic utilization of sewage sludge; Klaerschlammentsorgung. Drehrohranlagen in der Trocknung und energetischen Nutzung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, Franz [Visser und Smit Hanab GmbH, Kaarst (Germany). Rotary Kilns

    2013-03-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on rotary kiln plants in the disposal of sewage sludge. The examples give an insight into the systems engineering for the thermal treatment of sewage sludge, for the minimization or full thermal utilization. The examples show that there exists any specific solution. The process selection depends on the legal requirements and the framework conditions in dependence from the site and infrastructure. Generally, the following statements are valid: (a) The co-combustion is cheaper than every mono-combustion; (b) The costs for the transport of wet sludge often are more favourable than the costs of drying; (c) Plants for low capacities are specifically expensive. The following criteria become more important: (a) energy costs, recycling of energy; (b) recycling of phosphorus from sewage sludge; (c) Reduction of the input of heavy metals in order to comply with the fertilizer ordinance.

  18. Minimization of costs and fees in municipal sewage disposal. Legal bases, scope for action and reports of experience. PC information system AquaArgument; Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung. Rechtliche Grundlagen, Handlungsspielraeume und Erfahrungsberichte. PC-Informationssystem AquaArgument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Knust, M. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Wittenberg, D. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Rehr-Zimmermann, M. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Hueting, R. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Vogel, H.J. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    One of the many tasks of local government is to make provision for sewage disposal. In many towns, necessary investments, the installation of further technical systems, and reconstructions entail a rise in sewage disposal fees. These measures, whose justification can hardly be denied for ecological reasons, and the resulting cost are more and more the object of long-term economic analysis and broad public debate. The brochure points out possibilities for minimizing the costs of, and fees for, municipal sewage disposal. Of course it is up to each municipal administration to decide in favour of or against their implementation (orig.). [Deutsch] Eine von vielen Aufgaben in der Kommune ist die Sicherstellung der Abwasserentsorgung. Die notwendigen Investitionen, technischen Erweiterungen und Rekonstruktionen fuehren vielerorts zu steigenden Abwassergebuehren. Die aus oekologischen Gesichtspunkten kaum in Abrede gestellten Massnahmen und die daraus resultierenden Kosten unterliegen in ihrer Entwicklung immer mehr einer langfristig orientierten wirtschaftlichen Betrachtung und einer damit verbundenen breiten oeffentlichen Diskussion. In dieser Broschuere werden einige Hinweise und Moeglichkeiten zur Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung aufgezeigt, deren Umsetzung selbstverstaendlich der Entscheidung der einzelnen Kommune unterliegt. (orig./SR)

  19. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  20. THE CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN GNIEWINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Karolina Milik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP serving rural areas are suggested for agricultural or natural usage. Before, however, sewage sludge is subjected to the several pre-treatments, which involve stabilization, hygienisation and pre-composting. These methods decrease mainly the amount of organic substances and presence of microorganisms, but hardly affects concentrations of heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. The addition of sewage sludge to soils could affect potential availability of heavy metals. Trace elements are distributed in the soil in various forms: solid phases, free ions in soil solution, soluble organic-mineral complexes, or adsorbed on colloidal particles. In the study the concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn, Al, As, Se, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ga, Li, Mo, Sr, Mg, K, Ru, Tl, V, U was tested in sewage sludge obtained from (WWTP serving rural areas (PE< 9 000. In each case, the tested sewage sludge was meeting the criteria of stabilization and was used for agriculture and land reclamation purpose. All the samples were collected in 2016 and were subjected to microwave mineralization in a closed system in aqua regia. The total amound of macro and microelements were determined with a ICP-OES. It was found that the total concentrations of trace metals in all of sewage sludge are the same than Polish regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. The trace elements (cadmium: 1,16 mg·kg-1/d.m. in polish sewage sludge, respectively, much higher than those in the other countries. As a most prevalent copper and zinc were observed (111,28 mg·kg-1/d.m. and 282,94 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The concentrations of copper in polish sewage sludge are much lower (49-130 mg·kg-1/d.m. than european sewage sludge (522-562 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The two out of tested heavy metals (beryllium, bismuth

  1. Optimization of municipal pressure pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiandong; Cheng, Jilin; Gong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Accelerated urbanization places extraordinary demands on sewer networks; thus optimization research to improve the design of these systems has practical significance. In this article, a subsystem nonlinear programming model is developed to optimize pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design. The subsystem model is expanded into a large-scale complex nonlinear programming system model to find the minimum total annual cost of the pumping station and network of all pipe segments. A comparative analysis is conducted using the sewage network in Taizhou City, China, as an example. The proposed method demonstrated that significant cost savings could have been realized if the studied system had been optimized using the techniques described in this article. Therefore, the method has practical value for optimizing urban sewage projects and provides a reference for theoretical research on optimization of urban drainage pumping station layouts.

  2. Preparation of sewage treatment material PVFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling YANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal operating condition of the sewage treatment material PVFM(polyvinyl formal, the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method are adopted. Single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments are conducted to study the factors including the amount of raw materials, reaction time and reaction temperature influencing the preparation of the material PVFM. The material is characterized by SEM. The properties of the material are explored through the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment. The results show that when PVA mass concentration is 9% (50 mL, cellulose content is 0.4 g, sulfuric acid content is 6 mL, formaldehyde content is 6 mL, SDS content is 0.4 g, carbonate calcium content is 0.8 g, reaction temperature is 30 ℃, the dripping time of sulfuric acid is 9 minutes, the dripping time of formaldehyde is 4 minutes, and the curing time is 8 hours, the material has good physical and chemical property, and the results of the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment show that PVFM has good removal effects on both COD and NH4+-N in simulated sewage. The sewage treatment material PVFM with good properties can be obtained by the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method.

  3. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Using sewerage system to generate electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of the sanitary engineering has paralleled and contributed to the growth of the city. Without an adequate supply of safe water, the great city could not exist and life in it would be both unpleasant and dangerous unless human and other waste were promptly removed. The concentration of population in relatively small areas has made the task of sanitary engineer more complex. The cities, towns and villages are being polluted ground water and surface water. Industries also demand more and better water from all available sources. The rivers receive ever-increasing amount of sewage and industrial wastes and thus resulting more attention to the water treatment, stream pollution and complicated phenomena of self-purification. In many developing countries there is no such treatment plants for the sewerage water. Rivers receive large amount of polluted water and resulting many diseases. Thus self-purification and treatment plants playa vital role in sanitation. The other benefit is now introducing as Generating electricity from Sewerage System. (author)

  5. Sewage disposal using anaerobic membrane reactor. Kenkiseimaku reactor ni yoru gesui shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y. (Dic-Degremont Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Discussions were given on a small-scale sewage disposal of about bod 200 mg/l, for which no many examples of use have been hitherto available, using a system combining an anaerobic reactor and membrane modules. Experiments had been carried out from 1988 through 1990 as a part of the Aqua-Renaissance Project. The test equipment wza installed in the premises of the Chigasaki Coastal Research Facilities operated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which used sewage flowing from the adjoining sewage treatment plant for the southern area of the Fujisawa City. The test facility consisted of a system comprising a pretreatment facility, SS decomposing reactor, fluid-bed reactor, separation membrane modules, nitrogen removing facility and micro-organism activity measurement. The test facility was constucted assuming a treatment of 10 m{sup 3} a day. The system was divided into a composite system, A system and B system to operate the system in simplified flows. As a result of comparing the composite system, A system and B system, it was found that B system can deal with wider range of disposal for a small-scale sewage treatment of about 1000 m{sup 3} a day. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  8. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  9. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  10. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 200 kilowatt from the sewage system. Waste water energy heats up a swimming bath of Bochum; 200 Kilowatt aus der Kanalisation. Abwasserwaerme heizt Bochumer Schwimmbad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genath, Bernd

    2011-05-15

    A section of the underground sewerage system in Bochum had to be renewed. In cooperation with the City of Bochum and the Emschergenossenschaft, the public utility Bochum used the opportunity in order to install one of the largest waste water-heat recovery systems for the local Nordwest bath, an indoor swimming pool. At the end of the last year the builders and operators presented the technology.

  12. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land disposal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In the Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as a biomass or waste. For purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations definition of the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of flue gas parameters (as for the installation of waste disposal. For purposes of settlement of the share of energy from renewable sources we use the definition of Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with five representatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analysis includes a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that the sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to “traditional” biomass.

  13. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  14. Analysis of briquetting process of sewage sludge with coal to combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosturkiewicz Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be achieved by several thermal technologies, but before those processes sewage sludge requires special pretreatment. The paper presents the investigation of the sewage sludge with coal briquettes as a fuel for combustion process. Research is conducted at Department of Manufacturing Systems and Department of Thermal Engineering and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology to develop a technology of briquette preparation. The obtained results showed possibility of briquetting of municipal sewage sludge with coal in roll presses, equipped with asymmetric thickening gravity feed system. The following properties were determined for the obtained briquettes: density, drop strength and compressive strength. Based on physical and chemical analysis of prepared briquettes it was confirmed that briquettes have good fuel properties to combustion process. Thermal behaviour of studied sewage sludge and prepared mixture was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. For the thermo gravimetric analysis (TG the samples were heated in an alumina crucible from an ambient temperature up to 1000 °C at a constant rates: 10 °C/min, 40 °C/min and 100 °C/min in a 40 ml/min flow of air.

  15. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R

    2017-02-01

    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  16. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

  17. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  18. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, A.; Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.

    2010-01-01

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  19. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  20. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  1. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  2. Continuous COD measurement in sewage receipts at sewage treatment plants; Kontinuierliche CSB-Messung im Klaeranlagenzulauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik/Wasserwirtschaft (ATD TD ISA 6), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Neural networks are a new instrument in process automation. Contrary to conventional methods, they can dispense with theoretical models. This independence from mathematical models is one of their most important advantages. The article describes how typical sewage parameters can be measured on-line by means of neural networks. On-line measurement of parameters of pollution, for instance COD in sewage, permits new automatic control strategies for the operation of a sewage treatment plant, aiming at the reduction of pollutant freights with simultaneous minimization of operating cost. (orig./SR)

  3. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is designed when tested in accordance...

  4. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  5. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  6. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  7. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Jamilah Karim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Hasan Sham; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli

    2012-01-01

    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  9. Duckweed as a low-cost soft sewage treatment system; La lenteja de agua como sistema blando de depuracion de aguas residuales de bajo coste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Amador, A.J.; Coolado Lara, R.

    1998-06-01

    Different aquatic plants systems have been examined to be used in several stages of wastewater treatment process. The high growth rate, easy harvesting, high nutritional value and easy drying make duck weeds an interesting option. Some general characteristics of the treatment process (Suspended Solids, BOD, and nutrients removal), a typical treatment process unit, aspects of the geographical distributions of the family (Lemna sp), design criteria and efficiency and principal constraints are described. (Author) 22 refs.

  10. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonirritating cleansing agent shall be provided for use at each shower. (2) Sanitary flush toilet facilities. (i..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for...

  11. On the possibility of removing of transition metal ions from sewage using polymeric complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, S.M.; Abilov, Zh.A.; Musabekov, K.V.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of using of complexation in the system polyethylene-imine transition metal ions (Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ )-surface active substance for removing of metal ions from solution and sewage has been investigated. It is shown, that pH of medium, hydro-fugitive of system and ratio between component of the triply complex effect on purification of solution. (author)

  12. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  13. Efficiency of sewage treatment with septic tanks followed by constructed wetlands with different support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to assess the efficiency of a sewage treatment plant comprised of three compartmentalized septic tanks installed in series followed by three parallel wetlands and seeded with species Typha sp. with subsurface flow, filled with support material of natural gravel, gravel # 2 and washed gravel, respectively. The station treats sewage generated at Unity University for Science and Technology, State University of Goiás – UnUCET/UEG. A total of 20 sewage samples were collected in order to evaluate treatment efficiency from November to December 2010 and March to April 2011. The points of analysis were at the input of the first tank (raw sewage, the output of the third septic tank and the outputs of each of the three wetlands. The total removal efficiencies were: 65.40% for chemical oxygen demand; 79.01% for biochemical oxygen demand; 59.79% for total solids; 87.12% for the total suspended solids; 92.00% for total coliforms; 95.71% for E. coli and 82.54% for turbidity. The system was effective for the treatment of sewage, within the current legislative parameters for pH, turbidity, total solids and biochemical oxygen demand. No significant difference was observed between the three different means of support, suggesting that gravel, natural gravel and washed gravel may potentially be used to fill wetlands.

  14. Electron ray facilities for the pasteurization of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, D.; Hofmann, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Growing industrialization and the simultaneous increase in population density demand broad preventive measures in the area of waste water and sewage sludges. Electron irradiation is becoming an important tool for disinfection in this field. The AEG-Telefunken sludge pasteurization process works in continuous operation with homogenized sludge at electron energies between 1,0 to 1,5 MeV and a radiation dosage of 4 kJ/kg. The system offers the capabilities for an effective and costadvantageous disinfection of waste sludges of differing consistencies and origins and their harmless reuse as fertilizer in agriculture. (orig.) [de

  15. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  16. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  17. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  18. Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita C. Bragança de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira T.C.B., Curci V.C.L.M, Alves A.J.S., Morelli F.C.G., Buso D.S. & Queiroz L.H. [Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State.] Características higiênicas e sanitárias em propriedades produtoras de leite de assentamento da Região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:321- 326, 2015. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana, 793, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brasil. E-mail: lhqueiroz@fmva.unesp.br In order to check the hygienic and sanitary conditions of milk-producing farms from a settlement located at the northwestern region of São Paulo State, 62 of the resident families (246 people were interviewed by using a questionnaire which addressed since issues concerning to general infrastructure until animal health management. The results showed that: in all the farms water comes from wells and the sewage is disposed in septic tanks; the burning of domestic waste is a common practice in 90.3% of the farms; the average dairy herd cattle is 30.6 and the purchase of new animals is done from other farms within the same settlement; in all properties veterinary care is provided by ITESP’s (Land Institute of São Paulo State technicians and mastitis was the main disease of the herds occurring in 59,7% of the farms. Milk is collected in buckets or drums that are daily cleaned and stored in communal tanks distributed by the settlement. Alizarol is the only test performed every day. 100% of the farmers vaccinate their animals against foot and mouse disease and brucellosis, according to Official vaccination program. 62.9% of the interviewed owners do not eliminate correctly the carcasses. This study shows that properties needs infrastructure improvements, training of settlers to implementing measures of general and health

  19. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.

  20. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  1. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  2. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  3. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  4. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  5. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  6. Tomatoes from the sewage treatment works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In Stendsund a sewage cleaning method was developed in which waste water is subjected to a special treatment in order to regain nutrients which would otherwise aggravate the pollution of the Baltic Sea and to use them as fertilizer and food for food plants and fish. Structure and mode of operation of the method are described. (BWI) [de

  7. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Frid, Chris L. J.

    2009-11-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three times a year (i.e. March, August and December). This study provides a description of the changes in the macrobenthos and physical environment in the initial '3 years' (i.e. 1999 - 2001). During the period of sewage sludge disposal there were indications of an impact on the macrobenthic community with a high total abundance of individuals ( N) and high total number of species ( S) at the stations located in the centre of the disposal ground. During the immediate post-disposal phase the site continued to show a localised increased of individuals and species in the disposal area. Over time the communities showed signs of successional changes when the reduction of organic matter source was eliminated from the natural system. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a clear gradient of change in the community composition between impacted and control stations. While most benthic studies assess re-colonisation and succession stages of macrobenthos by using manipulative field experiments, this study provides an in situ long-term assessment in the offshore environment. This study contributes with information on: i) initial colonization and succession of macrobenthic communities over a large scale and real world data; ii) macrobenthic data into existing successional models and iii) resilience of benthic communities following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal. This information has the potential to contribute to an effective management of the marine communities in the North Sea.

  10. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SEWAGE INCOMING TO AND DISCHARGED FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN KOLBUSZOWA DOLNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  11. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  12. Stability and activity of anaerobic sludge from UASB reactors treating sewage in subtropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Cuevas, C.M.; Trupiano, A.P.; Guerra, R.G.; Gonzalez, S.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The production of small amounts of well-stabilized biological sludge is one of the main advantages of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors over aerobic wastewater treatment systems. In this work, sludge produced in three pilot-scale UASB reactors used to treat sewage under subtropical

  13. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  14. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  15. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  16. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  17. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  18. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  19. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  20. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  1. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  2. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...

  3. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi.

  4. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  5. ALGAE PROLIFERATION ON SUBSTRATES IMMERSED IN BIOLOGICALLY TREATED SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due fast biomass production, high affinity for N and P and possibilities to CO2 sequestration microalgae are currently in the spotlight, especially in renewable energy technologies sector. The majority of studies focus their attention on microalgae cultivation with respect to biomass production. Fuel produced from algal biomass can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional fossil fuels and be a remedy for a rising energy crisis and global warming induced by air pollution. Some authors opt for possibilities of using sewage as a nutrient medium in algae cultivation. Other scientists go one step further and present concepts to introduce microalgal systems as an integral part of wastewater treatment plants. High costs of different microalgal harvesting methods caused introduction of the idea of algae immobilization in a form of periphyton on artificial substrates. In the present study the attention has focused on possibilities of using waste materials as substrates to proliferation of periphyton in biologically treated sewage that contained certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  6. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini; Daniele Goi

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a s...

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  8. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  9. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  10. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  11. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  12. Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Tilekar, Bipin N; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2003-11-01

    Considering feco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of the infection was assessed among sewage workers. On the basis of the close contact with sewage, the participants (n = 147) were divided into sewage workers (n = 92) and others (n = 55); none used personal protective equipment (eg, coveralls, boots, gloves) Age-matched individuals from lower socioeconomic status and without any exposure to sewage were used as controls. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P 5 years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take top priority for protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.

  13. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  14. Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Shanyun; Cao, Shenbin; Miao, Yuanyuan; Jia, Fangxu; Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox is a promising and feasible technology to make sewage treatment energy-neutral or energy-positive. Good retention of anammox bacteria is the premise of achieving sewage treatment via anammox. Therefore the anammox metabolism and its factors were critically reviewed so as to form biofilm/granules for retaining anammox bacteria. A stable supply of nitrite for anammox bacteria is a real bottleneck for applying anammox in sewage treatment. Nitritation and partial-denitrification are two promising methods of offering nitrite. As such, the strategies for achieving nitritation in sewage treatment were summarized by reviewing the factors affecting nitrite oxidation bacteria growth. Meanwhile, the methods of achieving partial-denitrification have been developed through understanding the microorganisms related with nitrite accumulation and their factors. Furthermore, two cases of applying anammox in the mainstream sewage treatment plants were documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is it More Sustainable to Treat Sewage or Dump it in the Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly argued that sustainable sewage management requires a shift from the conventional linear, end-of-pipe approach to more adaptive, iterative sanitation solutions, but that the inertia in the existing system hinders such a shift. This case-study analyzes reasons as to why jurisdictions may chose to discharge untreated sewage to the ocean rather than to follow the resource-recovery trend argued for in the academic literature. Our study is based on an analysis of the reasoning behind "Plan Director 2006-2020" in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which includes extending the central sewer system to over five million people living in underserviced areas and conveying the sewage to a central discharge station. Our study suggests that the decision to discharge untreated sewage into the ocean via Rio de la Plata rests on four firmly rooted perceptions: 1. Centralized sewer systems are better than distributed systems, irrespective of scale, 2. Sewage treatment generates sludge and sludge management incurs considerable risks and costs, not least in densely populated areas where access to land is limited, 3. The benefits of resource recovery are overrated and the costs are underestimated and last but not least, 4. The ocean has an enormous self-purifying capacity. Each of these four perceptions is discussed in light of the literature, with a focus on the scientific knowledge that is used to frame risks and benefits related to the two policy options (discharging at sea vis-à-vis resource recovery) in particular inferred causal links, and how uncertainty is handled.

  16. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 2. COUNTIES: BROWARD, CALHOUN, CHARLOTTE, CITRUS, CLAY, COLLIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  17. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  18. Examination of sewage sludge for specific organic pollutants and their effect on the agriculture usage of sewage sludge; Untersuchung von Klaerschlamm auf ausgewaehlte Schadstoffe und ihr Verhalten bei der landwirtschaftlichen Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, E.; Bischoff, W.A.; Kaupenjohann, M.; Bundschuh, R.; Koehler, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kleiner, M.; Schraitle, T.

    2001-12-01

    In this research report, 50 different kinds of sewage sludges appropriate for the utilization in agriculture were tested for the organic pollutants that are not regulated in the official sewage sludge directive: organo tin compounds, mineral oil hydrocarbons, the tensides LAS and nonylphenol, as well as chlorinated paraffins. The analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons was performed using the gaschromatografic method, which is based on DIN-proposal H 53. The analysis data was evaluated according to the size of the waste water treatment plant, its degree of usage to full capacity, the employed cleaning and sewage treatment methods and the industrial discharges. Investigations of sewer slime were conducted in the duct systems of two selected waste water treatment plants and tested for organo tin compounds. The dependence from domestic as well as from certain industrial and commercial sources was examined. In the second part of this research project, organo tin compounds and mineral oil hydrocarbons were tested in field trials and laboratory column experiments for the effects of the distribution of sewage sludge into agriculture. For the column experiments, ground soil samples were taken from two selected areas with muddy and sandy ground. The samples were then compounded with wet sludge and exposed to rain under strictly defined conditions. At the same time, the selected areas were exposed to the maximum amount of sewage sludge permitted and then planted with carrots. After a vegetation period, the carrots were harvested, adsorption bodies (SIA-system-method) were brought into the soil before the sewage sludge fertilization was examined, and several soil samples were taken and analysed for the selected parameters. In these examinations, a minor shift of organo tin compounds from the sewage sludge deeper into the ground can be detected and a shift of mineral oil hydrocarbons cannot be detected. (orig.)

  19. The role of industrial-sanitary laboratory of medical aid station of Federal administration in prophylaxis of emergency situations at the plants of nuclear-energy complex and liquidation of their after-effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    On the example of several radiation accidents the author summarized the personal practical experience in organization of work in industrial-sanitary laboratories based at the nuclear energy plants of nuclear-energy complex, in respect of prophylaxis of emergency radiation situations and liquidation of their after-effects. It is pointed out that successful activity in rendering emergency medical aid in emergency situations, caused by radiation accidents, is possible only subject to close contact of science, practical medical care and sanitary service which should become a part of the uniform public health system. 4 refs

  20. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (131I, 99mTc e 99Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are 131 I and 99m Tc. The radionuclide 99m Tc decays to 99 Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10 5 years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the 131 I and 99 Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10 5 Bq/year of 99 Tc e 7.12 x 10 12 Bq/year of 131 I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10 -6 mSv for 131 I and 2.87 x 10 -14 mSv for 99 Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10 -1 mSv/year for 131 I and 10 -10 mSv/year for 99 Tc, and fish consumption is the main responsible for the dose. An analysis by gamma

  2. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  4. Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant; Kombineret brugsvands- og rumvarmepumpe med CO{sub 2} som koelemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen Poulsen, C. [Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    This project report describes the implementation of the Danish project called 'Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant'. In the course of the project, a combined heat pump has been developed for heating sanitary hot water and producing domestic space heating. The project shows that CO2 has excellent properties in systems where a high temperature is desired on the gas cooler side and that it is possible to combine the production of sanitary hot water with the production of domestic space heating. During the project, a number of system solutions have been analysed and at the end of the project a prototype was built. It was tested in the laboratory according to a current Dutch standard for heat pumps for sanitary hot water. The prototype was constructed without the space heat part which solely has been analysed according to calculations. The reason is that there currently are no applicable European standards for the testing of combined systems and as the total efficiency of the system mainly depends on the temperature out of the gas cooler it was decided not to spend resources on the construction of the combined system in the prototype version of the unit. Instead, a number of proposals have been submitted to how the system with a space heat section could be constructed. The main components used in the prototype (compressor, exchangers, valve, control and tank) are all partly commercially available and therefore focus has been on the system construction. During the project, a number of CFD calculations have been carried out on the gas cooler in the hot water tank and the results show how important it is that the gas cooler is designed and placed correctly. The laboratory tests carried out on the unit show that the COP of the heat pump plant in connection with sanitary hot water tapping (according to Dutch standard) is 1.4 1.5 which is not immediately satisfactory. But when it is considered that the unit is a

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  6. Evaluation of irradiated sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin C, A.

    1994-01-01

    The residual muds are produced by a separation process in the black waters treatment constituted by a solid phase whose origin is the accumulation of pollutant matter that has been extended to the water for anthropogenic and/or natural activities. The present work has the purpose to carry out a technical evaluation for the irradiation process of residual muds for their possible application like alternative of treatment and final disposal. The results obtained for the Evaluation of the irradiation of residual muds are bounded with the federative entities in the study, on the number of treatment plants of residual waters by diverse methods, discharge types, system location, residual muds production and muds treatment, uses and final disposal. The results show in the several entities,a great variety and versatility of industrial branches with diverse systems for treatment of waters and scarceness in the systems for residual muds treatment. (Author)

  7. Thermal disposal of sewage sludge: Status and trends; Stand und Entwicklung der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Wiebusch, B. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1997-04-01

    In West Germany, 2.5 - 2.75 million t/a of dehydrated sewage sludge from municipal sewage systems must be managed every year. About 30% of this volume is used in agriculture, 14% is combusted,and 56% is dumped. Medium-term forecasts envisage a further increase of the sewage sludge volume to about 3 million t/a for East Germany and West Germany together. According to the specifications of the TA Siedlungsabfall (Technical Guide for Management of Domestic Waste), dumping of untreated sewage sludge will be prohibited from 2005 at the latest. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den alten Bundeslaendern sind derzeit 2,5-2,75 Mio. t/a Klaerschlammtrockensubstanz (TS) aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung zu entsorgen, von denen z.Zt. ca. 30% landwirtschaftlich verwertet, ca. 14% verbrannt und 56% auf Deponien abgelagert werden. Die mittelfristigen Erwartungen gehen von einem weiteren Anstieg der Klaerschlamm-Mengen aus, so dass in den alten und neuen Bundeslaendern mit mehr als 3 Mio. t/a Klaerschlammtrockensubstanz (TS) zu rechnen ist, die einer Entsorgung zugefuehrt werden muessen (Quelle: H. Kaiser Unternehmensberatung Tuebingen 1996). Aufgrund der Anforderungen der TA Siedlungsabfall wird spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 eine direkte Ablagerung von unbehandelten Klaerschlaemmen auf Deponien wegen des zu hohen organischen Anteils nicht mehr zulaessig sein. (orig.)

  8. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  10. The Territorial Dimension of Sewage Networks: the Case of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Thiago Monteiro; Barcellos, Christovam

    2018-02-01

    The urban suburbs of Brazilian cities have grown without an adequate sanitation infrastructure. Different social groups try to overcome these shortcomings seeking local sanitation alternatives at individual or community levels, contrasting with the universal model of sewage networks. This study was developed in the suburban neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to analyze the installation process of the sewage system under a territorial approach. Data facilitated the construction of territorial schemes related to conflicts during the implementation of sewage networks in this neighborhood, where middle class groups and favela residents coexist with environmental preservation areas, beaches and commercial activities. This work revealed the need for contextualized sanitation information made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and state sewage collection company, which conceal these conflicts or the representation of residents about their sanitation problems. Overlapping territorial managing functions should be considered as one of the factors responsible for the conflicts identified in the neighborhood. Further studies are suggested as methodological complementation and data update.

  11. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Bioremediation of domestic sewage: the case of green septic tank in arid rural communities of Alagoas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira Netto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deficit regarding the coverage of collection and treatment of sewage requires systems that combine proper disposal of wastewater and low construction and operating costs. In this context the bioremediation through the green septic tank, sustainable social and low cost technology, presents itself as a viable alternative especially for rural municipalities. This objective social technology contribute to confronting the domestic sewage problem and its consequences for public health and the environment; It is alternative for allocation of domestic sewage, as well as allowing the cultivation of some fruit species. Through partnership with the project Renas-Ser engaged in the management of surface and underground water bodies, three green septic tanks were constructed and are in the initial phase of operation in arid rural communities of Alagoas, contemplating the proper conditioning of domestic sewage. The first results of reduction in organic matter are very encouraging, with a view to removing approximately 38% of COD on the first support layer. The next phase is to define the others parameters to monitor and verify the approval of users of the technology.

  13. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Wu, Fang-Kun; Niu, Ming-Jie; Zou, Ke-Hua

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index system to odor evaluation

  14. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  15. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  16. An integrated evaluation of molecular marker indices and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) to measure sewage input in a subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, César C.; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Barbosa-Cintra, Scheyla C.T.; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L.; Souza, Fernanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Babitonga Bay is a South Atlantic estuary with significant ecological function; it is part of the last remaining areas of mangrove communities in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of the faecal sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments and to perform an integrated evaluation of several molecular marker indices to assess the sewage contamination status in the study area. The highest observed concentrations of faecal sterols (coprostanol + epicoprostanol) and LABs were 6.65 μg g −1 and 413.3 ng g −1 , respectively. Several faecal sterol indices were calculated and correlated with coprostanol levels; these analyses showed that the index limits presented in the current literature could underestimate the sewage contamination in this study area. For the overall estuarine system, a low sewage impact may be assumed based on the low total mass inventories calculated for coprostanol (between 1.4% and 4.8%). - Highlights: • Sewage contamination in a South Atlantic estuary was confirmed by molecular markers. • Faecal sterol indices were established as indicators of sewage contamination. • Estimates of the total mass inventory of coprostanol and LABs are presented. • Faecal sterols are preferable to LABs for the evaluation of sewage inputs in this study area. - Faecal sterols index limits has been established to a subtropical environment as way to ensure reliability for a more precise assessment of sewage contamination

  17. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  18. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.